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Chapter 1- Understanding Organizational Behaviour

Chapter 1

Introduction
Behaviour in an organziation has become a special subject. It is the knowledge
of human behaviour at work. Human behaviour in organization is determined by
the requirements of the formal organization and partly by the personal systems
of the individuals forming the organization. The behaviour that emerges from
this interaction defines the field of organizational behaviour.
The study of organizational behaviour has certain basic assumptions, which are
listed below:
Assumptions
an industrial enterprise is an organization of people
these people must be motivated to work effectively
the goals of the employee and employer may not necessarily
concide
the policies and procedures adopted may influence people in the
directions not always foreseen by the policy makers

"Organizational behaviour (frequently abbreviated as OB) is a field of study that


investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on
behaviour within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge
toward improving an organization's effectiveness."
"Organizational behaviour is the study and application of knowledge about how
people act within an organization. It is a human tool for human benefit. It
applies broadly to the behaviour of people in all types of organizations such as
business, government, schools, etc. It helps people, structure, technology, and
external environment blend together into an effective operative system"
According to Fred Luthans, "Organizational behaviour is understanding,
predicting and controlling human behaviour at work."
"Organizational behaviour is concerned with the study of the behaviour,
attitudes and performance of workers in an organziational setting, the
organization's and informal group's effect on the worker's perceptions, feelings
and actions, the environment's effect on the organization and its human
resources and goals, and the effect of the workers on the organization and its
effectiveness"

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Chapter 1- Understanding Organizational Behaviour

Origins of Organizational Behavior


Organizational Behavior is a unique combination of different disciplines. The
predominate areas are psychology, sociology, social psychology, anthropology,
political science, and economics.
Psychology is the science that seeks of measure, explain and sometimes
change the behaviour and other animals, Psychologists concern themselves with
studying and attempting to understand individual behavior. Many of the theories
dealing with personality, attitude, learning, motivation, and stress have been
applied in Organizational Behavior to understand work-related phenomena such
as job satisfaction, commitment, absenteeism, turnover, and worker well-being.
Sociologists, studying the structure and function of small groups within a
society have contributed greatly to a more complete understanding of behavior
within organizations. Specifically, sociologists have made their greatest
contribution to OB through their study of group behaviour in organizations,
particularly formal and complex organisations. Some of the areas within OB that
received valuables input from sociologists include group up dynamic,
organizational technology, bureaucracy, communications, power, conflicts, and
intergroup behavior.
Social psychology is an area within psychology, but blends concepts from both
psychology and sociology. It focuses on the influence of people on one another.
One of the major areas receiving considerable investigation from social
psychologists has been change --- how to implement it and how to reduce
barriers to its acceptance.
Anthropology is a science of man. Anthropologists study societies to learn
about human beings and their activities. Their work on cultures and
environment, for instance, has helped us understand differences in fundamental
values, attitudes, and behavior between people in different countries and within
different organizations.
The contributions of political scientists are significant to the understanding of
behaviour in organizations. Political scientists study the individuals and groups
within a political environment. Specific topics of concern here include structuring
of conflict, allocation of power, and how people manipulate power for individual
self-interest.
Economics has assisted students of Organizational Behavior in understanding
how competition for scarce resources both within and between organizations
leads these organizations to increase their commitment to efficiency and
productivity.
Tutorial Activity
Define OB?
What are the contributing disciplines to OB?

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Features of Organizational Behaviour


Organizational Behavior is the study and use of information relating to the
behaviour of the people at work. Organizational behavior concentrates on the
following:
Individual
Individual employees are the focal points of an organisation. They work in the
organisation to satisfy their needs, egos and experience. Each employee has its
own physical, psychological and social needs for which he uses his own traits
and experiences. There may be a number of psycho-social and economic factors
human behavior at work. The study, research and use of these factors help
management to mould and modify the behavior of employees for achieving
organisational objectives through increasing their efficiency and effectiveness.
Group
Individual behaviour and group behaviour are distinctively observed in an
organisation. Group performance is more effective than individual performance.
This synergy is observed in-group behaviour. The group is a separate entity that
needs to be studied and researched. It is an accepted fact that a group sets
goals, behaves, thinks and acts. Groups have synergy and synthesis as
compared to the energy and mentality of an individual. If group power is
channelised towards goal achievement, it can put in an outstanding
performance.
Structure
The structural relations are instrumental in the behaviour of employees at work.
The structured relationship is the basis of formalised policies, procedures,
organisational culture, hierarchical authority and responsibilities. The structure
of the organisation is not always formal. Many time's informal organisations
have more fruitful effects on the effectiveness and efficiency of the organisation.
The organisational objectives are reduced to different goals of structural points
for their prompt achievement. Structural behaviour of individuals and groups
have their own identity and entity.
Technology
Technology results in better work, because it incorporates technical skills, which
encompass the ability to apply specialised knowledge. When people develop
their technical skills, they get satisfaction at work. Interpersonal roles,
informational roles and managerial functions are improved with the use of
technology. Consequently, human skill as well as conceptual skills are
developed.
Environment
The environment has its own behaviour, which influences the people's behaviour
at work. Government policies, social systems, religious beliefs, family and
economic conditions national philosophies, employees'psychology and other
factors inside and outside the organisation have a mutual influence on each
other's behaviour. Environment factors influence work behaviour, us of authority
and responsibility, relationships, the perceptual framework of employees and
other related factors of behaviour.

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Chapter 1- Understanding Organizational Behaviour


Models of Organizational Behavior
Keith Davis recognizes four different models of OB. These models show
evolution of the thinking and behaviour on the part of management and
managers alike. The four major models or frameworks that organizations
operate out of:
Autocratic - The basis of this model is power with a managerial orientation of
authority. The employees in turn are oriented towards obedience and
dependence on the boss. The employee need that is met is subsistence. The
performance result is minimal.
Custodial - The basis of this model is economic resources with a managerial
orientation of money. The employees in turn are oriented towards security and
benefits and dependence on the organization. The employee need that is met is
security. The performance result is passive cooperation.
Supportive - The basis of this model is leadership with a managerial orientation
of support. The employees in turn are oriented towards job performance and
participation. The employee need that is met is status and recognition. The
performance result is awakened drives.
Collegial - The basis of this model is partnership with a managerial orientation
of teamwork. The employees in turn are oriented towards responsible behavior
and self-discipline. The employee need that is met is self-actualization. The
performance result is moderate enthusiasm.
Although there are four separate models, almost no organization operates
exclusively in one. There will usually be a predominate one, with one or more
areas over-lapping in the other models.
Autocratic Custodial Supportive Collegial
Model depends Economic
Power Leadership Partnership
on resources
Managerial
Authority Money Support Teamwork
orientation
Employee
Obedience Security Job Responsiblity
orientation
Employee
Dependence on Dependence on
psychological Participation Self-discipline
boss organization
result
Employees Self-
Subsistemce Maintenance Higher-order
needs met actualization
Performance Passive Awakened Moderate
Minimum
result cooperation drives enthusiasm

Tutorial Activity
Explain the features of OB?
What are the different models of OB?

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