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Professeur Belkacem OULD BOUAMAMA LAGIS UMR FRE 3303 Tl : (33) 03 28 76 73 97 - Fax : (33) 03 20 33 71 89 E mail : belkacem.ouldbouamama@polytech-lille.

fr Bureau B117 Site perso: http://sfsd.polytech-lille.net/BelkacemOuldBouamama

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS

Prof. Belkacem OULD BOUAMAMA


http//sfsd.polytechlille.net/BelkacemOuldBouamama

cole Polytechnique de Lille (Poltech lille)


Laboratoire d'Automatique, Gnie Informatique et Signal (LAGIS - UMR CNRS 8021)
----------------------------------------------------------

ml : Belkacem.ouldbouamama@polytech-lille.fr Tel: (33) (0) 3 28 76 73 87 , mobile : (33) (0) 6 60 12 30 20 Fax: (33) (0) 3 20 33 71 89 Bureau FO14 PolytechLille

PLAN

Introduction : place de la surveillance dans un systme de supervision

Synthse des mthodes de surveillance Analyse structurelle et graphe biparti Redondance dinformations pour la surveillance Synthse dobservateurs pour la surveillance Les bond graphs pour la surveillance Conception dun systme des supervision. Application un processus rel Conclusions et Bibliographie

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /2

Bibliography
FDI and FTC :
Blanke, M., Kinnaert, M., Lunze, J. and Staroswiecki, M. (Eds)(2003) Diagnosis and Fault-Tolerant Control, Berlin:Springer-Verlag. "Automatique et statistiques pour le diagnostic". T1 et 2 sous la direction de Bernard Dubuisson, Collection IC2 Edition Hermes, 204 pages, Paris 2001. A.K. Samantaray and B. Ould Bouamama "Model-based Process Supervision. A Bond Graph Approach" . Springer Verlag, Series: Advances in Industrial Control, 490 p. ISBN: 978-1-84800-158-9, Berlin 2008.

Bond Graph FDI based


B. Ould Bouamama, M. Staroswiecki and A.K. Samantaray. Software for Supervision System Design In Process Engineering Industry . 6th IFAC, SAFEPROCESS, , pp. 691-695.Beijing, China. K. Medjaher, A.K. Samantary, B. Ould Bouamama and M. Staroswiecki "Supervision of an industrial steam generator. Part II: On line implementation", Control Engineering Practice, CEP, Vol 14/1 pp 85-96, 2006. B. Ould Bouamama, K. Medjaher, A.K. Samantary et M. Staroswiecki. "Supervision of an industrial steam generator. Part I: Bond graph modelling". Control Engineering Practice, CEP, Vol 14/1 pp 71-83, 2006. a, 29-1 sept. 2006 B. Ould Bouamama., M. Staroswiecki et Litwak R. "Automatique et statistiques pour le diagnostic". sous la direction de Bernard Dubuisson, chap.. 6 : "Surveillance d'un gnrateur de vapeur". pp. 168-199, Collection IC2 Edition Hermes, 204 pages, Paris 2001.

PhD Thesis, several lectures Doownload at http://sfsd.polytech-lille.net/BelkacemOuldBouamama


Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Prof. Belkacem Ould

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /3

SUPERVISION DANS LINDUSTRIE


Supervision ?
Technique industrielle de suivi et de pilotage informatique de procds de fabrication automatiss. La supervision concerne l'acquisition de donnes (mesures, alarmes, retour d'tat de fonctionnement) et des paramtres de commande des processus gnralement confis des automates programmables

Logiciel de supervision:
Interface oprateur prsente sous la forme d'un synoptique.

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Prof. Belkacem Ould

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /4

Exemple : Logiciel de supervision dune station d'puration

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Prof. Belkacem Ould

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /5

Pourquoi Superviser ?
contrler la disponibilit des services/fonctions contrler lutilisation des ressources vrifier quelles sont suffisantes (dynamique) dtecter et localiser des dfauts diagnostic des pannes prvenir les pannes/dfauts/dbordements (pannes latentes) prvoir les volutions Suivi des varaibales

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Prof. Belkacem Ould

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /6

Fonctions de la supervision
GESTION
ERP : Enterprise Resource planning : planification des ressources de
l'entreprise

intgration des diffrentes fonctions de l'entreprise dans un systme informatique centralis configur selon le mode client-serveur.

MRP : Manufacturing Resource Planning : planification des


capacits de production

Systme de planification qui dtermine les besoins en composants partir des demandes en produits finis et des approvisionnements existants

PRODUCTION
SCADA : Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition PC & PLC Process Control/ Programmable Logic Controller
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Prof. Belkacem Ould

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /7

Supervision et Monitoring
Monitoring
Suivi de paramtres Scurit (diagnostic) locale

Rguler
Control des paramtres

Supervision
Centralise le monitoring local et le contrle Deux parties dun scAda
hardware (collecte de donnes) Software (contrle, surveillance, affichage etc..)
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Prof. Belkacem Ould

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

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Cahier des charges dun superviseur


Accder aux informations : ( lecture et criture ) Visualiser, agir, enregistrer, archiver, grer la suret etc..

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Prof. Belkacem Ould

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /9

Logiciels de supervision
Wonderware
Leader dans le domaine de la supervision et du SCADA, notamment au travers du logiciel InTouch,

INTouch Logiciel de supervision de rfrence. Bibliothque extensible


contenant de base +500 symboles graphiques prts lemploi.

PANORAMA :
IHM ergonomique, module de traitement des alarmes et des vnements, un module d'exploitation des historiques.

WinCC Systme de supervision dot de fonctions chelonnables, pour la


surveillance de processus automatiss, offre une fonctionnalit SCADA complte sous Windows DSPACE MATLAB-Simulink
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Prof. Belkacem Ould

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /10

Caractristiques dun SCADA


Simplicit, convivialit Solveurs Traitements graphiques Conduite Traitement des alarmes Archivage Programmation Sret de fonctionnement Performances/Prix :
Prix : matriel + systme d exploitation, logiciel, mise jour, assistance, documentation
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Prof. Belkacem Ould

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

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Sous ensembles dun SCADA


Le systme SCADA comprend 3 sous-ensembles fonctionnels:
Commande

Surveillance
Supervision

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Prof. Belkacem Ould

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

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1. INTRODUCTION
Objectifs et Definitions

INTRODUCTION : Quelques dfinitions


Processus industriel
Assemblage fonctionnel de composants technologiques associs les uns aux autres de faon former une entit unique accomplissant ou pouvant accomplir une activit clairement dfinie.

Architecture du systme
Modle orient composant qui dcrit directement le processus industriel comme un rseau des composants industriels.

P&ID (Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams )


Plans des Instruments Dtaills ou diagrammes d'acheminement et d'instrumentation. Utilis pour une description visuelle de l'architecture du processus (utilise norme ISO).

Fonctionnement normal
Comportement appartenant un ensemble de comportements nominaux pour lesquels le systme a t conu.

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

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INTRODUCTION : Quelques dfinitions


Dfaillance
Modification suffisante et permanente des caractristiques physiques d'un composant pour qu'une fonction requise ne puisse plus tre assure dans les conditions fixes.
Dfaillances naissantes Ayant un caractre passager Constantes Evoluant dans le temps Catastrophique

Faute (ou dfaut)


Dviation d'une variable observe ou d'un paramtre calcul par rapport sa valeur fixe dans les caractristiques attendues du processus lui-mme, des capteurs, des actionneurs ou de tout autre quipement.
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /15

INTRODUCTION : Quelques dfinitions


Une panne
Interruption permanente de la capacit du systme raliser sa fonction requise.

Types de dfauts
Dfaut contrleur u Dfaut actionneur Cm Dfaut physique

Dfaut capteur

m
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Capteur de position
Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

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INTRODUCTION : Quelques dfinitions


Dfauts capteur.
cart entre la valeur relle de la grandeur et sa mesure.

Dfauts d'actionneurs.
Incohrence entre les commandes et la sortie (la pompe dlivre un dbit incohrent avec sa caractristique hydraulique).

Dfauts du processus physique.


Dfaillances dues des modifications de la structure (fuite, rupture d'un organe,...) ou des paramtres du modle (encrassement d'un tube d'un four, bouchage dun tube, ..)

Dfauts du systme (ou de l'algorithme) de commande.


Ils se caractrisent par un cart entre la valeur relle de la sortie du contrleur (selon l'algorithme implment) et sa mesure

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /17

INTRODUCTION : Quelques dfinitions


Symptmes
Traductions d'un changement d'un comportement d'une variable dtecte par comparaison des valeurs de rfrence.

Contraintes
Limitations imposes par la nature (lois physiques) ou l'oprateur.

Rsidu ou indicateur de faute


exprime l'incohrence entre les informations disponibles et les informations thoriques fournies par un modle

Erreur
Ecart entre une valeur mesure ou estime d'une variable et la vraie valeur spcifie par un capteur talon ou juge (par un modle) thoriquement correcte.

Spcifications (cahier des charges)


Objectifs que doit atteindre le systme de surveillance
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

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INTRODUCTION : Historique
Depuis 1840: Apparition de lautomatique
Tches : amliorer la qualit des produits finis, la scurit et le rendement des units en implantant des commandes performantes

Depuis 1980, nouveau challenge : Supervision


Rles : Fournir l'oprateur humain une assistance dans ses tches urgentes de gestion des situations d'alarmes pour l'augmentation de la fiabilit, de la disponibilit et de la sret de fonctionnement du processus.

Apparition de lautomatisation intgre


Commande des systmes de production et sret de fonctionnement, maintenance, gestion technique, diagnostic de fonctionnement
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

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INTRODUCTION : Automatisation intgre


Niveau 3 Niveau 2 Supervision
Aide la conduite planification, diagnostic interface homme machine

Monitoring Regulation Instrumentation

Suivi de ltat du processus Visualisation Commande logique, rgulation Optimisation Choix et implmentation des capteurs et actionneurs

Niveau 1 Niveau 0

Dcisions Entre

Observations Sortie

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

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What is a supervision : two levels FDI FTC?


Supervision :
Set of tools and methods used to operate an industrial process in normal situation as well as in the presence of failures.

Activities concerned with the supervision :


Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) in the diagnosis level, and the Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) through necessary reconfiguration, whenever possible, in the fault accommodation level. SUPERVISION

FDI : How to detect and to isolate a faults ?


Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

FTC : How to continue to control a process ?


Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /21

Exemple
Quelle est lorigine de la dfaillance ? Que dois je faire ?

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Prof. Belkacem Ould

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /22

Relation entre FDI et FTC Perf=F(Y1,Y2)


Y2 REGION DANGEREUSE PERFORMANCES INACCEPTABLES PERFORMANCES DGRADES Fault PERFORMANCES REQUISES Reconfiguration

REGION DANGEREUSE

PERFORMANCES INACCEPTABLES Y1
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /23

Objective of the supervision


Something goes wrong... Equipment failure Process drift Human error Everything is OK but changing... Alarms appear Even minor problems can rapidly escalate Long reaction time before decision

Optimisation of the operations

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /24

REGION DANGEREUSE

PERFORMANCES DGRADES

SUPERVISION in INDUSTRY
Maintenance
Set points

FTC Level Technical Fault accommodation specification Reconfiguration


Control signals

DIAGNOSTIC

List of faults

Observations

Control SENSORS

INPUT (I)
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

OUTPUT (O)
Chap.1 /25

supervision Graphical User Interface

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /26

FDI Purpose
Objectives : given I/O pai (u,y), find the fault f . It will be done in 3 steps : DETECTION
detect malfunctions in real time, as soon and as surely as possible : decides whether the fault has occured or not

ISOLATION
find their root cause, by isolating the system component(s) whose operation mode is not nominal : find in which component the fault has occured

DIAGNOSIS
diagnose the fault by identifying some fault model : determines the kind and severity of the fault

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /27

Medical interpretation of FDI system


Examen clinique
Chap.1 /28 Chap.1 /29 Chap.1 /30

37

NON

OUI

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

FT (Fault Tolerance)
Analysis of fault tolerance : The system is runing under faulty mode
Since the system is faulty, is it still able to achieve its objective(s) ?

Design of fault tolerance :


The goal is to propose a system (hardware architecture and sofware which will allow, if possible, to achieve a given objective not only in normal operation, but also in given fault situations.

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Control and Fault Tolerant Control


Control algorithms :
implement the solution of control problems : according to the way the system objectives are expressed

FTC algorithms
implements the solution of control problems : controls the faulty system the system objectives have to be achieved, in spite of the occurence of a pre-specified set of faults

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Diagnostic

10

Control Problem
Traditional control : two kinds of objectives
control of the system , estimation of its variables

Problematic : Given
a set U of a control law (open open loop, closed loop, continuous or discrete variables, linear or non-linear a set of control objective(s) O, set of uncertain constraints C(), (dynamic models)

The solution is completely defined by the triple <O,C(), U >

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /31

FTC problem
FTC Controls the faulty system: 2 cases
1) fault adaptation, fault accomodation, controller reconfiguration
change the control law without changing the system

2) system reconfiguration
change both the control and the system :

The difference with Control problem System constraints may change.

Admissible control laws may change.


Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /32

Passive and active fault tolerance


Passive fault tolerance
control law unchanged when faults occur

Active fault tolerance


specific solution for normal and faulty mode

Normal mode Control law solves < O, Cn(n), Un > Faulty mode Control law also solves < O, Cf(f), Uf > fF
ROBUST TO FAULTS

<O,Cn(n),Un > and < O, Cf(f), Uf > f F


Knowledge about Cf(f) and Uf must be available . FDI layer must give information.

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /33

11

Fault accommodation and System reconfiguration

FDI system
Fault
Provide estimation of Cf(f) Uf of the fault impact solve < O, Cf(f), Uf >

Fault
Provide estimation of f(f), Uf of the fault impact

Fault
FDI cannot provide any estimate of the fault impact solve < O, Cr(r), Ur >

solve < O, f(f), Uf >

Fault accommodation
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

System reconfiguration
Chap.1 /34

Fault accommodation

FDI

Controller parameters

Ref.

Controller

Process

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /35

Fault Reconfiguration
Reconfiguration
New control configuration Yref

FDI

Nominal Controller
Yref

Process

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /36

CONTROL

New Controller

u'

Supervision

Supervision

Fault Accomodation

Y Y

12

HOW TO DESIGN SUPERVISION SYSTEMS ?

DIAGNOSTIC METHODS (2/2)


ALGORITMES
base de modles

Sans modles

Identification

Observateurs

Redondance dinformation

Redondance analytique
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Redondance matrielle
Chap.1 /38

Model-based FDI
MODEL OF THE NORMAL OPERATION
ALARM GENERATION

Process actual operation

S E N SO R S

RESIDUAL GENERATOR

ALARM INTERPRETAION

Detection
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Isolation

Identification
Chap.1 /39

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

13

Diagnostic par identification et observateurs


y
U

+ y

Residu

Modle

y
U

+ y

Residu

Observateur

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /40

No model based
Only experimental data are exploited ? Methods : statistical learning, data analysis, pattern recognition, neuronal networks, etc. Problems need historical data in normal and in abnormal situations, every fault mode represented ??? generalisation capability ??

? ?

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /41

METHODES SANS MODELES


Mthodes de reconnaissances de formes
Dtermination dun certain nombre de classes (apprentissage) A chaque classe est associ un mode de fonctionnement (normal, dfaillant) Chaque donne prleve est affecte lune de ces classes : determination du mode de fonctionnement

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /42

14

METHODES QUALITATIVES
Utilise la connaissance intuitive du monde :
appliquer des modles de pense humaine pour des systmes physiques Exemple : Quand le dbit augmente, la temprature doit diminuer)

L'avantage principal des mthodes qualitatives:


possibilit de n'utiliser que le modle qualitatif: aucun besoin de grandeurs numriques des paramtres ni de connaissances profondes sur la structure du systme.

Inconvnients
Les dfaillances des capteurs ne sont pas dtectes. Il n'est pas ais de dterminer les valeurs limites infrieures et suprieures de dviation. D'autre part un problme combinatoire peut apparatre lors des procdures d'infrences pour les systmes complexes.

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /43

PROBLEMATIC IN FDI THEORY

Tches dun systme de surveillance : FDI

Fonctionnement normal

Dtection
Modle

+
Alarmes

cahier des charges

DECISION Composant dfectueux

Localisation

Type de panne DIAGNOSTIC


Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Identification

Chap.1 /45

15

Steps in FDI system (1/4)


1. Dtection
Opration logique : On dclare le systme est dfaillant ou non dfaillant Les critres
Non dtection ou dtection trop tardive Consquences catastrophique sur le process Fausses alarmes Arrts inutiles de lunit de production. Plus de confiance de loprateur

Test dhypothses : La dtection se ramne un test dhypothses


H0 : hypothse de fonctionnement normal (Domaine de dcision D0) H1 : hypothse de fonctionnement dfaillant (Domaine D1) Dx : Domaine de non dcision

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /46

Steps in FDI system (2/4)


Problematic
Given R=[r1, .rn] fault indicators Two distributions are known p(Z/H0) and p(Z/H1) One of two hypotheses, H0 or H1 is true

What to do ?
Verify if each ri (i=1,..n) belongs to p(Z/H0) and p(Z/H1) 4 possibilits

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /47

Steps in FDI system (3/4)


Pfa False alarm
ri est dclar appartenir H1 (dfaillant) alors quil appartient H0

P(ri /H0).P(H0)

Pnd

P(ri /H1).P(H1)

i : choisi pour assurer un bon compromis : Probabilit H1 min. Probabilit de Pnd min.

Pfa
i < probabilit de fausse alarme limite fixe.

-i

D0

Dx

D1

+ i
Chap.1 /48

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

16

Steps in FDI system (4/4)


2. Localisation
Etre capable de localiser le ou les lments dfaillants Les critres
Non isolabilit Consquences catastrophique sur le process Fausses isolabilit Arrts inutiles de lunit (ou de lquipement) dfaillant. Plus de confiance de loprateur de maintenance

Identification (diagnostic)
Lorsque la faute est localise, il faut alors identifier les causes prcises de cette anomalie. On fait alors appel des signatures rpertories par les experts et valides aprs expertise et rparation des dysfonctionnements.

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /49

Specifications

Objectives

Which parameters must be supervized ? What are the non acceptable values ?

Specifications

false alarm

Performances

missed detection detection delay

Constraints

Available data other (cost, complexity, memory, ...)

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /50

I. Systems and faults

17

System (1)
A system is a set of interconnected components

COMPS = {comp1, comp2, comp3, comp4, comp5}


x e y z comp3 comp4 comp5 f

comp1 comp2

b c d

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /52

System (2)
A system is a set of interconnected components

COMPS = {input valve, tank, output pipe, level sensor}

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /53

System (3)
SM is the set of all those constraints x=ab y =b e z=cd e=xy f f = z ( y)

comp1 comp2 y

x comp4 comp5

b c d

z comp3

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /54

18

System (4)
SM is the set of all those constraints
Input valve

Tank Output pipe Level sensor

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /55

Constraints ?
When non faulty, each component achieves some function of interest
because it exploits some physical principle(s) which are expressed by some relationship(s) between the time evolution of some system variables.

Relationships are called constraints, Time evolution of a variable is its trajectory.

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /56

Normal situation ?
Normal operation is the simultaneous occurrence of two situations :
1) components really behave as the designer expects 2) interactions between the system and its environment are compatible with the system's objectives.

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /57

19

Internal and external faults


1) components behave as the designer expects IF NOT : INTERNAL FAULT
constraints applied to the variables are the nominal ones OK(comp) is true

2) interactions between the system and its environment are compatible with the system's objectives
IF NOT : EXTERNAL FAULT
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /58

Examples of internal faults (1)


y b OK(comp2) is false
a x e y z comp3 comp4 comp5 f

comp1 comp2

b c d

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /59

Examples of internal faults (2)


Actuator fault : input valve is blocked open
Process fault : the tank is leaking

Sensor fault : noise has improper statistical characteristics

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /60

20

Examples of external faults (1)

comp1 comp2 y

x e comp4 z comp5 f a=2

b c d

comp3

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /61

Examples of external faults (2)

Control algorithm objective :

cannot be achieved for too large output flows

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /62

Diagnosis algorithm

SD is now ...

OK(comp1) x = a b OK(comp2) y = b OK(comp3) z = c d OK(comp4) e = x y OK(comp5) f = z ( y)

OK(input valve) OK(tank) OK(output pipe) OK(level sensor)


Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /63

21

Conflict
Definition (conflict or NOGOOD)
NG is a conflict NG COMPS and SD {OK(X)X NG} OBS is not consistent

NG1

NG2

NG1

NG2

NG3

NG3

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /64

Problems

1) For some given S COMPS, how to check the consistency of SD {OK(X)X S} OBS

2) How to find the collection of the NOGOODS

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /65

How to check the consistency


Compare actual system and nominal system

Actual system
OBS (controls, measurements)

Nominal system model


Properties that OBS should satisfy / values that OBS should have

TEST

Detection

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /66

22

Two means to check consistency


Analytical Redundancy
properties that OBS should satisfy if actual system healthy properties that are satisfied by the nominal system trajectories check whether they are true or not

Observers
values that OBS should have if actual system healthy simulate / reconstruct the nominal system trajectories check whether they coincide with actual system trajectories

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap1: Introduction

Chap.1 /67

23

29/09/2010

Chap.2 ANALYTICAL REDUNDANCY

Surveillance des systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /1

Representation

Model of the healthy system


p x0 d
u(t) x(t) PROCESS

m
y(t) Capteurs

Model of the faulty system


p x0 d
u(t) PROCESS

p
x(t)

s
y(t)

Capteurs
Chap.2 /2

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

State space representation


Linear case Disturbances Faults

Nonlinear case

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /3

29/09/2010

General principle
Analytic model
measurement equations or state and measurement equations Off-line
Elimination of unknown variables technqiques

On-line
Computation of ARRs (actual system)

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /4

Analytical redundancy :How to generate ARRS ? What is ARR ?


Given

The ARR express the difference between information provided by the actual system and that delivered by its normal operation model.

What is Residual ?

u y

r
Chap.2 /5

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Hardware and analytical redundancy


F1

Hardware redundancy
Sensors Detection Isolation

S1 or S2 S2
S3 S 2 S1

F2

Analytical redundancy
?

Monitorability analysis
F1 S1 Leakage Valve R F2

r1 r2
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

1 0

1 1

1 0

1 1

0 1
Chap.2 /6

Supervision des Systmes Industriels

6 Chap2: Redondance analytique

29/09/2010

Simplest redundancy : hardware redundancy


Hardware redundancy uses only measurement equations (therefore it can detect only sensor faults)

Example : duplex redundancy

Model :
y1 = x y2 = x

Static ARR : y1 - y2 = 0

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /7

Duplex redundancy

r
Seuil max Fn. normal Seuil mini
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Alarme

t
Chap.2 /8

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Triplex redundancy

r1 t t r3 t
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

r1 = m1f - m2 f Residuals r2 = m1f m3f r3 = m2f m3f

r2

Chap.2 /9

29/09/2010

Fault detection : three steps


Sensors acquisition
y1 +

Residual generation

Residual evaluation
yes

r = y1 - y2 =0 ?

y2

no

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /10

Fault detection
yes

y1 y2

Residual Generatio n

=0 ?

no

y1 - y2 = 0 is a necessary condition for the existence of some x such that y1 = x y2 = x


it is a compatibility condition for this system to have a solution
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /11

Fault detection
y1 - y2 0 y1 = x and y2 = x cannot be true simultaneously * {y1, y2} is a conflict (a nogood) * one sensor at least is faulty

y1 - y2 = 0

it is not impossible that both sensors are healthy (but it is not certain)

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /12

29/09/2010

Fault detection
it is not impossible (but it is not certain) that both sensors are healthy

y1 - y2 = 0

Why is it so ???

because there might be non detectable faults


Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /13

Redundancy with Non detectable faults


Given fault model Computation form y1 = x + f 1 y2 = x + f 2
Evaluation form

r = y 1 - y 2 = f1 - f2

r = 0 when there is a combination of faults f1 and f2 such that : f1 - f2 = 0 example : common mode failures

non detectable faults


Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /14

Redundancy with uncertainties


yes is never true
y1 y2 r Residual Generation =0 ?

no is always true
because y1 = x + 1 y2 = x + 2 r = y1 - y2 = 1 - 2

we need a model of the uncertainties


Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /15

29/09/2010

Redundancy with uncertainties

Assume we know 1 [a1, b1], 2 [a2, b2], then we know 1 - 2 [a12, b12]

is r within the interval [a12, b12] ?

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /16

Hardware redundancy with uncertainties yes


y1 computation y2 is r within the interval [a12, b12] ? no The value of r may be the result of : no fault and uncertainty r r=0?

yes
y1 computation y2 r r=0? No The value of r cannot be the result of only uncertainties
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /17

Redundancy with noises


Yes y1 y2 Residual Generatio n r =0 ?

No

because y1 = x + 1 y2 = x + 2

r = y1 - y2 = 1 - 2

Assume we know P(1) and P(2), then we know P(1 - 2)


Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /18

29/09/2010

Redundancy with noises


is r distributed according to P(1 - 2) ??? P(1 - 2) d(1 - 2)

we need a Statistical decision theory

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /19

When the system is faulty ?


Given a system

The system works in normal regime (hypothesis H0) means :


y is produced according law C and x is produced according law f and is produced according law of probability P

The system works in failure mode hypothesis H1) means :


y is not produced according law C, or x is not produced according law f, or is not produced according law of probability P
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /20

Estimation
value of x ???

y1 r y2

yes
=0? no

x = y1 or x = y2 or x = 1/2 (y1 + y2) or x = p y1 + (1 - p) y2

different versions of the estimation service

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /21

29/09/2010

Estimation
y1 r y2 =0? value of x ??? yes

no
x = y1 or x = y2 different versions of the estimation service which sensor is faulty ? : cannot be decided unless fault isolation exists
Chap.2 /22

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

How to isolate the fault ?


triplex redundancy y1 = x y2 = x y3 = x two residuals r1 = y1 - y2 = 0 r2 = y2 - y3 = 0

Remarks * any linear combination of residuals is a residual (r3 = y2 - y3)

The set {r1, r2} is a residual basis in the following sense :

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /23

Fault isolation (fault model)


Triplex redundancy y1 = x + f1 x = y1 - f1 y2 = x + f2 x = y2 - f2 y3 = x + f3 x = y3 - f3

y1 - f1 = y2 - f2 y2 - f2 = y3 - f3

r1 = y1 - y2 = f1 - f2 r2 = y2 - y3 = f2 - f3

Computation form

Evaluation form

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /24

29/09/2010

Fault isolation
r1 = y1 - y2 = f1 - f2 r2 = y2 - y3 = f2 - f3 f1 1 0 f2 1 1 f3 0 1

r1 r2

structured residuals
En rponse une dfaillance donne, certaines composantes (spcifiques cette dfaillance) du vecteur de rsidus sont nulles. En rponse une dfaillance donne, le vecteur de rsidus reste dans une direction spcifie, propre cette dfaillance.

directional residuals
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /25

Fault isolation
Structured Residuals
r1 = y1 - y2 = f1 - f2 r2 = y2 - y3 = f2 - f3

Signature fault
f1 r1 r2 1 0 f2 1 1 f3 0 1

Directional residuals

f2

r2 f1 f3 r1
Chap.2 /26

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Conclusion about hardware redundancy


detect sensor faults (if detectable) isolate sensor faults (if enough redundancy) needs noise models for statistical decision needs uncertainty models for set theoretic based decision powerful approach but multiplies weight and costs limited to sensor faults

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /27

29/09/2010

Static Analytical redundancy

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /28

RRAs
Dfinition
Une RRA est une relation dduite du modle mathmatique du systme surveiller, entre des variables dont les valeurs numriques sont disponibles partir de linstrumentation (commande, consignes, mesures).
Le modle gnral peut scrire : F(u,x,x0, y, ) Lvolution de x suit une trajectoire qui dpend de x0 et u Les RRAs liminent x pour obtenir : g(u, y, )

Problmatique : comment gnrer ces RRAs


Redondance statique Redondance dynamique
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /29

Systme linaire
Soit donne
x(t+1) = A x(t) + B u(t) + Fx d(t) + Ex (t) y(t) = C x(t) + D u(t) + Fy d(t) + Ey (t)
F : fault, E : uncertainties

Redondance statique
Soit m>n : Alors, il existe (en permutant ventuellement les lignes) une dcomposition de C sous la forme

telle que C1 est inversible et alors y(t) lquation de mesure scrit :


Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /30

10

29/09/2010

Lquation de mesure devient :

X est calcul alors partir de y1,

et limin en le remplaant dans Y2 : on obtient les RRAs en substituant x dans y2

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /31

Forme de calcul et dvaluation du rsidu

Une autre approche pour liminer linconnu x consiste trouver une matrice W orthogonale C/ (WC=0) (Chow 84). En multipliant lquation de mesure gauche par W :

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /32

Dans ces conditions :


1. le systme de lquation de mesure est surdtermin par rapport x : on a m n relations de redondance analytique, car la matrice W possde m n lignes linairement indpendantes (formant une base du noyau de C).

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /33

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Espace de parit statique


Soit lquation de mesure donne par :

Colonnes de C : sous espace vectoriel de dimension R(C) :


On note CR(C)

Soit le sous espace suplmentaire CR(C) not W mR(C)

W m-R(C) est dit Esapce de Parit On a : CR(C) W m-R(C)=Rm vectoriels)


Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

( somme desapce
Chap.2 /34

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Projection dans lespace de parit


En projetant lquation de mesure dans lespace de parit (en multipliant les deux membres de lquation de mesure y(k) par W) sachant que WC=0, on obtient :

RRA et rsidu : en absence de dfaillances et de perturbations (d(k)=f(k)=0)

Comme W est de rang m-R(C) alors les m-R(C), rsidus sont linairement indpendants
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /35

Formes du vecteur de parit

Forme de calcul

Forme dvaluation

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /36

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Redondance physique
Example : triplex redundancy
y1 = x + f1 y2 = x + f2 y3 = x + f3 x = y1 - f1 x = y2 - f2 x = y3 - f3 y 1 - f1 = y 2 - f2 y 2 - f2 = y 3 - f3

r1 = y1 - y2 = f1 - f2 r2 = y2 - y3 = f2 - f3

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /37

Redondance physique
Cest un cas particulier de la redondance statique
Exemple (systme triplex)

Espace de parit de dimension 2. Une base W peut tre choisie WC=0


(2 vecteurs hortogonaux C). Parmi toutes les solutions choisissons :

Projetant lquation de mesure dans lespace de parit

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /38

Rsidus directionnels
r(k) peut sexprimer comme suit :

Lespace de parit est un espace de dimension 2. Le vecteur des rsidus se dplacera suivant une direction specifique chacune des pannes r1 f2 f1 r2
Chap.2 /39

f3
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

13

29/09/2010

Redondance statique
Il y a redondance statique si on peut trouver
un ensemble de vecteurs W orthogonaux C. WC = 0

Les vecteurs lignes de W dfinissent l'espace de parit statique :


En projetant l'quation de la mesure dans l'espace de parit, on obtient : RRA statique : W.Y = W.C.X = 0 Dans la ralit : Y = C.X + e + d

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /40

EXEMPLE
Espace de parit statique
y1 u x1 x2 y3 y2 y2

Pour liminer x, on cherche W tel que : Wy = WCx = 0

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /41

Les rsidus sont : Comme dim(W)=1x3, alors W = (a b c)


Tous les vecteurs de la forme : W= [a WC 0 -a] annule

Alors on trouve :

On retrouve la redondance matrielle :

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /42

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29/09/2010

A bit more complex Analytical redundancy (dynamic)

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /43

Analytical redundancy (dynamic)


State space model Continuous time Discrete time

If there exists W such that WC = 0 then static redundancy relations can be found

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /44

Dynamical Analytical redundancy (continuous)

Drivation de y

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /45

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Dynamic Analytical redundancy (Discrete)

Drivation de y

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /46

Analytical redundancy (dynamic)

If there exists W such that then

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /47

Analytical redundancy (general)

Drivation de y

Observability matrix OBS(A, C, p)


Drivation de y

Toeplitz matrix T(A, B, C, D, p)

Drivation de y(n)

etc.

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /48

16

29/09/2010

Expressions of dynamical ARRs

If there exists W such that

ARRs are : Rows of W are a basis of Ker(OBS), define the parity space Parity space dimension is number of sensors

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /49

Analytical redundancy (general)


Redundancy relations in time / symbolic domains Laplace transform

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /50

Fault detection

Computation form

Evaluation form = 0 when no fault 0 when fault is present

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /51

17

29/09/2010

RESUME REDONDANCE DYNAMIQUE


Soit donn le systme
(1)

A linstant K+1 En utilisant (1) on a Alors:

(2) (3)

(4)

En gnralisant lordre p

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /52

Consquence du thorme de Cayley-Hamilton


Il existe p tel que le rang de OBS(A,C,p) soit infrieur au nombre de lignes donc on peut trouver une matrice W telle que :

W.OBS(A,C,p) = 0 L'espace supplmentaire OBS, dfini par W, est appel "espace de parit". En projetant l'quation (3) dans cet espace, on obtient : Cette relation est appele : "relation de redondance analytique dynamique". Le rsidu est :

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /53

Application numrique

Drive jusqu lordre deux

Calcul de W : drive ordre 1 :


D

D CB
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /54

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29/09/2010

Trouvons alors 2 vecteurs W linairement indpendants

On fixe arbitrairement 2 inconnues


W3 est une combinaison linaire de W1 et W2

Expressions des rsidus

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /55

Si r=0, on retrouve le modle initial

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /56

Rsidus dordre 2
Les matrices OBS et T seront :

On obtient aprs calcul


Rsidu dordre 2 Rsidu dordre 1 obtenu avant

Analyse
A lordre deux on obtient des rsidus sensibles uniquement Y2 Si on augmente lordre, on obtient les mmes RRAs dcales dans le temps (filtres)
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /57

19

29/09/2010

Conclusions
detects any fault (if detectable) isolates any fault (if enough redundancy) estimates the unknown variable with several estimation versions needs noise models for statistical decision needs uncertainty models for set theoretic based decision
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap2: Redondance analytique

Chap.2 /58

20

CHAP3: Structural Analysis

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /1

PLAN
Structural analysis
Motivations Structural description Structural properties Matching Causal interpretation of matchings Subystems characterization System decomposition Conclusion

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /2

Motivations
Complex systems :
hundreds of variables and equations

Many different configurations Many different kinds of models


(qualitative, quantitative, static, dynamic, rules, look-up tables, )

Description of physical plants as interconnected subsystems Analytic models not available The structural description of a system expresses only the links between the variables and the constraints
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /3

Directed graph representation

Edge represents between variables:

mutual

influence

Directed graph representation

Means : the time evolution of the derivative depends to the time evolution of x2

x1 u x2
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /4

Digraph: Digraph: definitions


The digraph ? [Blanke and al. 2003]
Graph whose set of vertices corresponds to the set of inputs ui, output yj and state variables xk and edges are defined as :
An edge exists from vertex xk (respectively from vertex ul ) to vertex xj if and only if the state variable xk (respectively the input variable ul ) really occurs in the function F (i.e. vertex ui ) in the function An edge exists from vertex xk to vertex yj if and only if the state variable xk really occurs in the function g

Physical means
Digraph is a structural abstraction of the behaviour model where
Edge represents mutual influence between variables : The time evolution of the derivative xi depends to the time evolution of xk
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /5

Structured matrices

Digraphs do not represent constraints

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /6

Structural description
Behaviour model of a system : a pair (C, Z)
Z = {z1, z2,...zN } is a set of variables and parameters, C = {c1, c2,...cM } is a set of constraints

variables
quantitative, qualitative, fuzzy

Constraints
algebraic and differential equations, difference equations, rules, etc.

time
continuous, discrete

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /7

Bipartite Graph
C +
M Fs
SENSOR

Fc
CORRECTOR

Fp
PROCESS

X Y

C : set of constraints Z : set of variables


U, subset of control variables Y, subset of measured variables X, subset of unknown variables K={Y}U{U}
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Structure = binary relation S : C x Z {0, 1} (fi, zj) S(fi, zj)


Chap.3 /8

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Bipartite graph
A graph is bipartite if its vertices can be partitioned into two disjoint subsets C and A such that each edge connects a vertex from F to one from V.
Bi-partite graph : links between variables and constraints

C
c1

Z
A
z1

ci cn

zi zm

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /9

Definition
The strutural model of the system (C,Z) is a bipartite graphe (C,Z,A) ,
Where A is a set of edges defined as follows

(ci , zj) A if the variable appears in the constraints ci Example : c1 : U-Ri=0, c2:y=i Z={i,u}

I c1
C2 u
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /10

Example
L R

uR ue

uL

uC

um

K=known variables

X=Unknown variables

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /11

Example : bipartite graph


C
c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 c6 c7

Z
um ue uL uC uR i z1 z2

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /12

Incidence matrix
Variables Z UnKnown variables F/Z uR c1 uL uC i z1 z2 Known variables um ue

1 0 0 0 1 0 0

0 1 0 0 1 0 0

0 0 1 1 1 0 1

1 1 1 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 1

0 0 0 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 1 0 0

Constraints

c2 c3 c4 c5 c6 c7

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SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /13

Definitions
Dfinition 1.
On appelle structure du systme le graphe bi-parti G(C, Z, A) o A est un ensemble darcs tels que :

(c, z) C Z, a = (c, z) A la variable z apparat dans la contrainte c Dfinition 2.


On appelle structure dune contrainte c le sous-ensemble des variables Z(c) telles que : z Z(c), (c, z) A

Dfinition 3.
On appelle sous-systme tout couple ( , Z( )) o est un sous ensemble de C et Z( ) = c Z(c).

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Chap.3 /14

Example
A subsystem is a pair ( , Z( )) where is a subset of C and Z( ) = c , Z(c). Subsystem (R,L)

C/Z uR c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 c6 c7

uL

uC

z1

z2

um

ue

C/Z uR c1 c2

uL

1 0 0 0 1 0 0

0 1 0 0 1 0 0

0 0 1 1 1 0 1

1 1 1 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 1

0 0 0 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 1 0 0

1 0

0 1

1 1

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SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /15

BiBi-partite graph representation

c1

x1

c2 c3

x2

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SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /16

Standard form
c5 c4 c1
z2 z1 x1 x2

c2 c3
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

u y
Chap.3 /17

Incidence matrix
c5
C/Z z1 c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 z2 x1 x2 u y

z2 z1 x1 x2

c4
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 1

1 1 1 1 0

1 1 0 0 1

c1

c2 c3

u y
Chap.3 /18

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Differential and algebraic equations


Are used three kinds of equations:
Differential Algebraic Measure

Used variables are

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Chap.3 /19

Example
Tank Input valve Output pipe Level sensor 1 Level sensor 2 c1: dx(t)/dt - qi(t) + qo(t) = 0 c2: qi(t) - au(t) = 0 c3: q0(t) - kv(x(t)) = 0 c4: y1(t) - x(t) = 0 c5: y2(t) - x(t) = 0

Output flow sensor c6: y3(t) - qo (t) = 0 Control algorithm c7: u(t) = 1 if lmin y1(t) lmax u(t) = 0 else c8: z=dx/dt
SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Differential constraint
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Chap.3 /20

Incidence matrix and bipartite graph


c1: dx(t)/dt - qi(t) - qo(t) = 0 c2: qi(t) - au(t) = 0 c3: q0(t) - kv(x(t)) = 0 c4: y1(t) - x(t) = 0 c5: y2(t) - x(t) = 0 c6: y3(t) - qo (t) = 0 c7: u(t) = 1 if lmin x(t) lmax u(t) = 0 else
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Z x(t)) qi(t) qo(t) u(t) y1(t) y2(t) y3(t) C8 c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 c6 c7


Chap.3 /21

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

State space model and digraph

Tank

y1 u x y2 y3
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /22

Bipartite graph of the state space model


State space model

g1

g2

g3

y1

y2

y3

Standard form of the state space model

d/dt

g1

g2

g3

y1

y2

y3
Chap.3 /23

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Caractrisation
La condition dexistence dune RRA est lie la caractrisation des sous systmes Un sous systme :
Il est associ lensemble des contraintes Ci quil fait intervenir : cest un couple (Ci, ,Q(Ci) dans lequel Q(Ci) est lensemble des variables contraintes par Ci

Q(Ci) est dcompos en deux parties


Qc(Ci): correspond aux variables connues Qx(Ci): correspond aux variables inconnues

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Chap.3 /24

Exemple : Un sous systme : cest un couple (Ci, ,Q(Ci) dans lequel Q(Ci) est lensemble des variables contraintes par Ci.
QX (Ci) Q(Ci) QC (Ci)

Unknown variables Fi(i=1-8) C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 Tank Valve Pipe LI1 LI2 FI LC Dif. Cons. x qi qo Z=x

Known variables u y1 y2 y3

1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1

1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
Chap.3 /25

Ci

Q(Ci)

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SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

TYPES DE SOUS SYSTEMES


Les contraintes dcrivant le comportement du sous systme
Dcrites par la relation : Fi(Qc(Ci),Qx(Ci))=0

TYPES DE SOUS SYSTEMES


Le nbre de solutions pour Qx(Ci) qui peuvent tre obtenues partir de Qc(Ci) caractrise chaque sous systme . On distingue :

Un systme sous dtermin Juste dtermin Sur dtermin


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Chap.3 /26

Sytme sous dtermin ?


(C, Q(C)) est sous-dtermin si,
pour toute valeur de Qc(C), l'ensemble des valeurs de Qx(C) vrifiant les contraintes C est de cardinal suprieur un. : card(C)<card(Qx(C)) Causes :
Il n y a pas assez dquations pour dterminer x La non unicit des solutions : les variables Qx(C) ne peuvent pas tre calcules partir des valeurs connues des variables Qc(C) et des contraintes C. Consquence d'une modlisation insuffisante du systme, ou de la non observabilit de certaines variables.

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Chap.3 /27

Systme juste et surdtermin


(C, Q(C)) est juste dtermin si :
card(C)=card(Qx(C))
Les variables inconnues Qx(C) peuvent tre calcules de faon unique partir des variables connues Qc(C) et des contraintes C.

(C, Q(C)) est surdtermin si :


card(C)>card(Qx(C)) Causes
Les variables Qx(C) peuvent tre calcules de diffrentes faons partir des variables connues Qc(C) et des contraintes C chaque sous-ensemble Ci C fournit un moyen diffrent de calculer Qx(C)). Puisque les rsultats de ces diffrents calculs doivent tre identiques (il s'agit des mmes variables physiques), l'criture des relations d'galit constitue l'ensemble des relations de redondance analytique cherch
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /28

Example (1/2)
y1
R u Z={X} U {K} X={u, i}, K={y1,} C1: u-Ri=0 C2: y1-u=0

i
Sous-systme : C1(i,u)=0

u C1(i,u)=0

y1 0

(C1, Q(C1)) est sous-dtermin si, pour toute valeur de QC(C1), l'ensemble des valeurs de Qx(C1) vrifiant les contraintes C1 est de cardinal suprieur un. (C1, Q(C1)) est sous-dtermin

1 1

1 0

C2(y1,U)=0

Card(C1)=1<Card(Qx (C1)=2.

(C2, Q(C2)) est juste dtermin : Card(C2)=1=Card(Qx (C2) (C, Q(C)) est sous dtermin: Card(C)=2=Card(Qx (C)=2
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Chap.3 /29

Example (2/2)
y1
R i u

y2

Z=XUK X={u, i}, K={y1, y2,} C1: U-Ri=0 C2: y1-u=0 C3: y2-i=0

u C1(i,,u)=0 C2(y1,u)=0 C3(i,y2)=0

y1 0 1 0

y2 0 0 1
(C, Q(C)) est sur dtermin: Card(C)=3>Card(Qx (C)=2

1 1 0

1 0 1

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Chap.3 /30

10

Example : Incidence matrix


y2 y1
R i u x={u, i} K={} C1: U-Ri=0 x={u, i} K={y1} C1: U-Ri=0 C2: y1 U=0 x={u, i} K={y1 ,y2,} C1: U-Ri=0 C2: y1 U=0 C3: y2-U=0

C/Z C1(i,u)=0 C2(y1,u)=0 C3(u,y2)=0

y1 0 1 0

y2 0 0 1

1 1 1

1 0 0

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Chap.3 /31

Canonical decomposition
Any system can be uniquely decomposed into
Over-constrained Just-constrained Under-constrained

subsystems

Only the over-constrained subsystem is monitorable

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Chap.3 /32

Redundancy : introductive example


C/Z f1 f2

y1 1 0

y2

X-{x} 0 0

f1 (y1, x) = 0 f2 (y2, x) = 0

0 1

1 1

Subsystem {f1, f2} overdetermines the unknown variable x x can be computed via two different ways (if f1 and f2 are invertible w.r.t. x) The two results have to be identical
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /33

11

Redundancy : introductive example


(1) System model f1 (y1, x) = 0 f2 (y2, x) = 0

(2) Computation of x

x = f1-1 (y1) x = f2-1 (y2)

(3) Consistency condition (ARR) f1-1 (y1) - f2-1 (y2) = 0 => r = f1-1 (y1) - f2-1 (y2)

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SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /34

Structural properties

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SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /35

Structural analysis
Systems which have the same structural model are structurally equivalent Structural properties ?
They are properties of the system structure, they are shared by all structurally equivalent systems

Example :
systems which only differ by the value of their parameters structural properties are independent of the values of the system parameters (true almost everywhere in the system parametric space).
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /36

12

Structural properties are properties of the structural graph


Example Matrix is invertible :

Observable subsystem Controllable subsystem Monitorable subsystem Reconfigurable subsystem etc.

Structural condition : no null row (column) Necessary, but not sufficient

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SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /37

Conclusions
Actual properties are only potential when structural properties are satisfied. They can certainly not be true when structural properties are not satisfied. Structural properties are properties which hold for actual systems almost everywhere in the space of their independent parameters.

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SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /38

4) Matching

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Chap.3 /39

13

Dfinitions
Soit a un arc (f, x) AX.
f est appel projection de a sur CX (resp. x est appel projection de a sur X). On note : f = PC(a) et x = PX(a) les deux projections de larc a.

Considrons le graphe G(Cx, X, Ax), restriction du graphe structurel du systme l'ensemble des sommets appartenant Cx (pour les contraintes) et X (pour les variables), et o Ax reprsente l'ensemble des arcs qui relient Cx X.

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Chap.3 /40

Dfinitions
Soit a AX, on note X(a) l'extrmit de a dans X et CX(a) l'extrmit de a dans CX. L'arc a peut s'crire : a = (Cx(a), X(a))
a X(a) X Cx(a) C(x)

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Chap.3 /41

Dfinition : un couplage
G(Cx, X, A) is a matching on G(Cx, X, Ax) if and only if
1) A Ax 2) a1, a2 A a1 a2 Cx(a1) Cx(a2) X(a1) X(a2) a1 X(a1) X X(a2) X a2 Cx(a2) C(x) Cx(a1) C(x)

Interpretation
A matching is a set of pairs (fi,xi) s.t. the variable xi can be computed by solving the constraint fi, under the hypothesis that all other variables are known
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Chap.3 /42

14

e1, e2 M e1 e2 c(e1) c(e2) z(e1) z(e2)

A matching M is a subset of E such that

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SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /43

Examples and means


A mathing is
A subset of edges such that any two edges have non common node (neither in C nor in Z) Differents matchins can be defined on a bi-partite graph
C1(i,,u)=0 C2(y1,u)=0 C3(u,y2)=0

Different matchings i u
C1

C1

i u

C1

i u

C2

C2

C2

y1
C3

y1
C3

y1
C3

y2

y2

y2
Chap.3 /44

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Matching on a bibi-partite graph


Concept of matching in a bipartite graph
is a causal affectation which associates some system variables with the system constraints from wich they can be calculated .

Two situations of matchings


The variables cannot be matched : they cannot be calculated The variables can be matched in several ways : they can be calculated by different possibilities : there are redunduncaies : this case important for FDI

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Chap.3 /45

15

Maximal matching
A maximal matching on G(Cx, X, Ax) is a matching G(Cx, X, A) s.t.:
A' A, A' A G(Cx, X, A') is not a mtaching.

What is it ?
A maximal matching is a matching such that no edge can be added without violating the no common node property C1

i u

This matching is not maximal (C2,y1) can be added

C1

i u

C2

C2

y1
C3

y1
This matching is maximal : Any matching can be added

y2

C3

y2
Chap.3 /46

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SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Complete matching
A matching is complete w.r.t to C (set of constraints ) respectively to Z (set of variables) if :
z Z, c C such that (c,z) : complete w.r.t. C c C, z Z such that (c,z) : complete w.r.t. Z
C1(i,,u)=0 C2(y1,u)=0 C3(u,y2)=0 This matching is complete w.r.t. to C

C1

i u

C2

y1
C3
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

y2
SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /47

Matching and the incidence matrix 1/2


Select at most one "1" in each row and in each column Each selected "1" represents an edge of the matching No other edge should contain the same variable : it is the only one in the row No other edge should contain the same constraint : it is the only one in the column.

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Chap.3 /48

16

Matching and the incidence matrix 2/2


C1

i
C/Z u i

y1 0 1 0

y2y2 0 0 1

u
C2

C1(u,i)=0 C2(y1,u)=0 C3(u,y2)=0

1 1 1

1 0 0

y1
C3 C1

y2 i

C/Z

y1 0 1 0

y2y2 0 0 1
Chap.3 /49

u
C2

C1(u,i)=0 C2(y1,u)=0 C3(u,y2)=0

1 1 1

1 0 0

y1
C3
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

y2

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Oriented graph associated with a matching


Causal and acausal constraint
u-Ri=0 : acausal constraint have not a direction. The variables have the same status: the graph is non oriented u=Ri : causal constraint : i is known, u is calculated. Here the matching is chosen. The matched constraint is associated with one mathed variable and with some non matched one C: u-Ri=0 u i C 0
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

i Non matched constraint

Matched constraint C

u
Chap.3 /50

Oriented graph associated with a matching


Matched constraints
the output is computed : the inputs are supposed to be known. The edges adjacents to a matched constraints are oriented x2 1
1

x2 x1

C/Z

x
1

x3

x1

x3 1 x
1

C1 C2 C3 C4

1 x x x
1

c1
x

x x

x x x

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Chap.3 /51

17

Oriented graph associated with a matching


Non-matched constraints
all the edges adjacent to a non-matched constraint are inputs. The relation C is redundant. All variables are inputs x2 1 x3 1
1 1 1

C/Z C1

x1

x2 x1 x3

C2 C3

c1
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

C4

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /52

Alternated chain
What is alternated chains ?
A path between two nodes (variables or constraints) alternates always successively variables and constraints nodes : this path is said alternated chain

Lenth of alternated chain ?


Number of constraints accrosed along the path

Reachability
A variable x1 is reachable from variable x2 if there exists an alternated chain from x1 to x2

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Chap.3 /53

u
C1
y

qo
C2

V
C3 C4

qo y

z y

C3 C2
V z

C1
u qo Zero

Zero edge

C4
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Pr

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /54

18

u
C1

C/Z C1 C2

q0

qo
C2

1 1 0 0

0 1 1 1

1 0 0 1

0 0 1 0

1 0 0 0

V
C3 C4

C3 C4

z y

Matching complete w.r.t to Z but impcompltet w.r.t. to C

C1 is redundant
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /55

Causal interpretation of matchings


Causal graph ?
The oriented bipartite graph which results from a causality assignment is named Causal graph

Algebraic constraints
At least one variable can be matched in a given constraint Non invertible algebraic constraints Consider C(x1,x2)=0

C/Z
x2

x1

x2

C/Z
x2

x1

x2

x1

x1

x 1

Possible matching
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Impossible matching
SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /56

Differential constraints
Differential constraints can always be represented under the form : x2(t) = dx1 (t) / dt. Derivative and integral causality
Derivative causality

Integral causality

Initial conditions must be known

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Chap.3 /57

19

Loops
Definitions
In the oriented graph, loops are a special subset of constraints, which have to be solved simultaneously, because the output signals of some constraints in the loop are the inputs are some others in the same loop : the number of matched variables is equal to the number of constraints (length of the loop).

Algebraic loop
C/Z x1 x2

x2

C3 C1

x1 V

C2 C2

qo

C1 C2

11 1

1 1 1
SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Chap.3 /58

Differential loop
u

C1
V
R

u z q0

C2
V

C4

qo

Interpretation
V, z, q0 = 3 unknowns c1 , c2 , c4= 3 constraints there is one single (a finite number of) solution(s).
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /59

Differential loop
How to broke the loop
Adding a sensor A matching without any differential loop is called a causal matching

C3 C1
u z q0

C2
V

C4

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Chap.3 /60

20

JustJust-constrained subsystem
The system is just-constrained if :
1) There is a causal matching which is complete w.r.t. all the unknown variables and all the constraints. 2) The unknown variables can be expressed as functions of the known variables. 3) The subsystem is observable

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Chap.3 /61

Example justjust-constrained system

All unknown variables matched

y C/Z z=dV/dt
All constraints are matched

V 0 1 1 1 1

qi

qo
1

y
0 0 1 0

C3 C1
qi q0 z
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

C1 C2 C3 C4

1 0 0

1
0 0 0

C2
V

C4

1
0 0

1 1

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /62

Structural observability
Under derivative causality, the system is structurally observable if and only if :
1. All the unknown variables are reachable from the known ones (measure) 2. the over constrained and just-constrained subsystems are causal (no differential loop) 3. the under-constrained subsystems is empty

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Chap.3 /63

21

OverOver-constrained system
The system is over-constrained if
There is a causal matching which is complete w.r.t. all the unknown variables but not w.r.t. all the constraints. The unknown variables can be expressed (in several ways) as functions of the known variables. The subsystem is observable and redundant

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /64

Example OverOver-constrained system

All unknown variables matched

Redundancy

C/Z z=dV/dt V C1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0

qi 1 0 0 0 1 1

qo
1 1 1 0 0 0

y
0 0 1 0 0

u
0 0 0 0 1

y
C1 is not matched

C5 C1
qi q0 z
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

C3 C2
V

C2 C3 C4 C5

C4

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /65

What is happened in integral causality?

X :All unknown variables matched

C/Z y u
C : All constraintsare matched

V(0)

V 0 1 1 1 0

qi 1 0 0 1 1

qo
1 1 1 0 0

y
0 0 1 0

u
0 0 0 1

C1 C2 C3 C5

1 1
0 0 0

C3 C5
qi q0 V(0)
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

C1 C2
V

The system is now just-determined : the matching is complete w.r.t to X and C.


SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /66

22

UnderUnder-constrained system
The system is under-constrained if
There is no causal matching which is complete w.r.t. the unknown variables. Some unknown variables cant be expressed as functions of the known variables. The subsystem is not observable, and not monitorable.

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /67

Example underunder-constrained system

The system is not observable u There is a differential loop

C/Z z=dV/dt V C1 C2 1 0 0 1 1 1 0

qi 1 0 0 1 1

qo 1 1
1 0 0

u
0 0 0 1

C5 C1
qi q0 z
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

C2
V

C4

C4 C5

1 1
0

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /68

Structural monitorability
The conditions for a fault to be monitoable are :
1. the subsustem is observable 2. the fault belongs to the structurally observable over constrained part of the subsystemm to be monitored

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /69

23

Canonical decomposition
Known variables Unknown variables

Over-constrained subsystem

Just-constrained subsystem Under-constrained subsystem


Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /70

FDI / FTC Analysis


Known variables Unknown variables

reconfiguration possibilities

Over-constrained subsystem : observable, monitorable, fault tolerant Just-constrained subsystem : observable

Under-constrained subsystem : non-observable

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /71

Conclusions (1/3)
Structural analysis based on bipartite graphs is easy to understand, easy to apply, Shows the components, Allows to :
identify the monitorable part of the system, i.e. the subset of the system components whose faults can be detected and isolated,

relation

between

constraints

and

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /72

24

Conclusions (2/3)
Advantages
Easy to implement and suited for complex systems Allows to determine the FDI/FTC possibilities No a priori knowledge of the model equations is necessary

Lack
Structural analysis produces only structural properties

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /73

Conclusiosn (3/3) :What :What we can do with structural analysis ?

can the system be observed ?


can all the system variables be computed from the knowledge of the sensors outputs can the system be controlled ?

can the system be monitored ?


can the malfunction of the system components be detected and isolated

can the system be reconfigured ?


can the system achieve some objective in spite of the malfunction of some components

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.3: Structural Analysis

Chap.3 /74

25

29/09/2010

CHAP4 Observer-based approaches

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /1

Introduction
Principe des mthodes FDI par observateur
Reconstruction de la sortie du procd partir des observations issues des capteurs puis comparer cette estimation la valeur relle de cette sortie En fonction dee la nature du systme on a:
Cas dterministe : lestimation laide des observateurs Cas stochastique : filtre de Kalman

Un observateur ?
Reconstructeur qui a pour but partir des variables mesures de permettre une estimation du vecteur dtat

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /2

What is observer ?
Given
u Process x C y

How to reconstruct based on output error

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /3

29/09/2010

Simulation of the observer

A-KC

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /4

Observer and process


PROCESS

B
+

B
+ +

K
+

OBSERVER

C
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /5

Convergence (1/2)
Convergence conditions

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /6

29/09/2010

Convergence (2/2)
Erreur destimation

sannule exponentiellement si (Aest (A-KC) asymptotiquement stable i.e. valeurs propres (modes) sont partie relles ngatives : Comment ? : Bien choisir K
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /7

Remarques
Conclusion
Lerreur de reconstruction nest pas nulle: car les CI de lobservateur est choisi arbitrairement et celui du systme inconnu Comment annuler lerreur : On ne peut agit que sur K : choisir alors K pour stabiliser la matrice A-KC assurant la convergence vers zro de lerreur Techniques utilises : Placement de ples permet de fixer la vitesse de convergence en ajustant les coefficient de K (voir sur Matlab les instructions place et acker)

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /8 Chap4 /8

Ide du diagnostic par observateur


Impossible de gnrer lerreur destimation : car tat rel nexiste pas (car non mesur) Lerreur de reconstruction de la sortie y peut tre calcule car on suppose quelle est mesure Schma de principe :

Process

Observateur
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

C o m p a r e

Residual

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /9

29/09/2010

Comment gnrater les rsidus ?


1. Par simulation

y
+

process

A-KC +

Capteur

Rsidu

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /10

Calcul du rsidu en Z

Rsidu
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /11

Calcul du rsidu en p
L

(1)

(2)
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /12

29/09/2010

Calcul du rsidu en p
(1)-(2) : Rsidu

Aprs quelques simplifications

Lemme dinversion de matrice :

Rsidu
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /13

convergence de lobservateur et sensibilit du rsidu aux bruits

Analyse de r(p)
1. Lerreur de reconstruction de la sortie dpend de lerreur destimation des CI 2. Dilemme convergence de sensibilit du rsidu aux bruits lobservateur et

Choisir le gain K de faon que lerreur converge rapidement (en imposant des valeurs propres de la matrice trs faible) Mais si K augmente trop, le rsidu sensible aux bruits alatoires
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /14

Exemple
Cas simple monovariable

Convergence de lerreur
Conditions de Stabilit

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /15

29/09/2010

Simulation

SIMULATION

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /16

Exemple 2
Soit le systme dont seul la sortie est mesure

1.

On reconstruit ltat du systme x par une estimation

2. Comment ? : on va corriger cet estimation par ladjonction de lerreur sur la mesure destimation sur la mesure par lquation

2. quation dynamique de lerreur destimation

3. Convergence de cette erreur Trouver une matrice K telq ue A-KC soit stable (racines dans le cercle unit
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /17

Exemple 2/3
Expression des rsidus r(z)

Application numrique
Choix de K pour assurer la convergence

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /18

29/09/2010

EXEMPLE ( 3/3)
1. Dead Beat Observer ( rponse pile)
2 ples lorigine

En remplaant A et B par leur valeurs :

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /19

Observateur
Observateur quelconque
On impose une dynamique au systme boucl.

Puis on dtermine alors le gain K de lobservateur permettant dassurer cette dynamique

Ayant fix K, on peut calculer les rsidus

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /20

Suite exemple
Expressions des rsidus

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /21

29/09/2010

Observateur de Luenberger Gnralis


Soit donn le systme :

(1)

X(t) : tat, u(t) : entre d(t) : dfauts e(t) : perturbations ou bruits

1. On veut estimer la sortie y(t)


On utilise alors un observateur de gain K
(2)

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /22

Erreurs destimation
2. Equations dynamiques des erreurs destimation

(1)- (2)

3. Transforme de Laplace de lerreur de sortie

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /23

Remarque sur le rsidu


1. Le rsidu est sensible aux dfauts d(p), aux perturbations et bruits e(p), mais aussi aux CI. Lobservation converge vers 0 pour t, on peut ngliger les transitoires dues aux CI. 2. si d=0, e=0, prcdemment. on obtient lexpression obtenue

3. Le gain K de lobservateur influe de faon semblable sur d et e : Alors il est difficile de gnrer un rsidu sensible aux dfauts dtecter mais insensible aux perturbations 4. Lanalyse des matrices G permet de savoir si les composants de d sont isolables des autres
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /24

29/09/2010

Diffrentes influences sur le rsidu


1. Influence du bruit sur le rsidu
Soit e(t) un bruit ralisation dune variable alatoire Esp(e(t)=0
Observateur

Trouvons le rsidu en frquentiel r(p)


En utilisant les quations ci-dessus on obtient les expressions des erreurs de reconstruction (en posant Ey=1 D=0 Frquentiel

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /25

Influence du bruit sur le rsidu


Ngligeons dabord linfluence des CI

Etude de linfluence du point de vue frquentiel de e sur r(p)

Rduction du bruit e(j) sur r(j) : chercher un gain de rglage K, en plaant la pulsation de coupure du filtre tel que linfluence du bruit soit rduite
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /26

Calcul du seuil dalarmes du rsidu


Soit donnes les hypotheses statistiques du bruit :

Examinons lestimateur

Si valeur moyenne du bruit du bruit e est nulle il en est de mme pour lestimateur.
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /27

29/09/2010

Calcul du seuil dalarmes du rsidu


Equation de propagation de la variance

Application erreur destimation

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /28

Calcul des seuils dalarme du rsidu


Calcul en rgime stationnaire des seuils dalarme
Dterminer un seuil dans la procdure de dcision de la prsence de fautes en fonction de la variance de y au del duquel le rsidu pourra tre considr nul (il y a rellement alarme)

Dtermination de la variance du rsidu

K V0

ALARME Seuil NORMAL 0 t

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /29

2. Influence dune erreur de modlisation


Problmatique
En pratique existence toujours dune erreur de modlisation Observateur construit partir du modle alors la sortie reconstruite est sensible aux erreurs de modlisation Le diagnostic se base sur lcart entre sortie reconstruite et relle
Difficile de sparer erreurs dues la modlisation et celles dues aux fautes

But
Construire un observateur sensible aux dfauts et peu sensible aux erreurs de modlisation
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /30

10

29/09/2010

Dveloppement
Modle dtat incertain : On se limite une erreur sur A Traduit lapparition dune perturbation A sur le systme

Estimation de ltat cal sur A


Reprsente un observateur cal sur le systme nominal Cet observateur doit alors dtecter, au travers de lerreur de reconstruction de la sortie, la perturbation du systme A
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /31

Hypothses sur erreur


Hypothses sur lerreur
Borne c..d. lgre imprcision du modle sur les coefficients

Problme rsoudre : gnrer des rsidus


1. peu sensibles A 2. avec un maximum de sensibilit vis--vis des fautes

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /32

Influence des incertitudes paramtriques


1. Influence des variations A sur les rsidus
Erreurs destimation (des quations prcdentes ) :

Lerreur de reconstruction est sensible aux imprcisions A et ltat x(t) (qui nest pas limine ici)

Domaine frquentiel

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /33

11

29/09/2010

Influence de lentre et de A
Influence de lentre u sur le rsidu
Pour CI=0, et en remplaant x(p) par son expression on a :

Ainsi le rsidu dpend de u et de A


On exploite cette proprit pour distinguer sur le rsidu les influences des dfauts et des incertitudes

Comment ? :
Comme A est inconnu, on exprime lerreur de construction en fonction de ce quon lui applique u pour max (A ) On va alors chercher une majoration de lerreur de construction si u est borne : (on calcule le seuil pour max A )

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /34

Dcision
Schma de dcision

U (borne) 1. 2.

Majorant de lerreur de construction (du rsidu)

Si la valeur du rsidu est en de du seuil : alors diagnostic rserv car lerreur est peut tre due aux incertitudes Au-del de ce seuil lamplitude du rsidu tmoigne de la prsence dune faute distincts des erreurs du modle

ALARME

NORMAL 0 t
SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Chap.4 /35

Observateurs entres inconnues


Problmatique
Modles o la sortie des actionneurs nest pas mesures Lvaluation des RRAs ncessite la connaissance des mesures et des entres Alors : on utilise observateurs entres inconnues (UIO : Unknown Input Observers)

Principe
Soit un systme avec des entres connues u(t) et entres inconnues

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /36

12

29/09/2010

Observateur entre inconnue


Soit le systme entre inconnue

Considrons alors lobservateur :

Lerreur de reconstruction sera alors :

et sa drive
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /37

En drivant puis en remplaant x(t) et z(t) on aura:

Posons : P = I+EC

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /38

Lerreur de reconstruction de ltat du UIO

Lentre tant inconnue on tente davoir :

Cette reconstruction tend alors asymptotiquement vers zro ssi:

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /39

13

29/09/2010

Procdure de calcul du UIO


Calcul de linverse gnralise de CF Dduire P, puis G On fixe les ples de N, on dduit K puis N On calcule L

Lentre inconnue nintervient pas dans lexpression du rsidu.

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /40

Estimation de lentre inconnue


Lquation du systme initial :

Si (CF)-1 existe, on aura

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /41

Different UIO schemes


SOS : Simplified Observer Scheme Only one UIO Allows to detect faults. No isolation possibilities DOS : Dedicated Observer Scheme Bank of UIO Each observer is sensitive to one fault (diagonal structure)

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /42

14

29/09/2010

D.O.S w.r.t. actuators


u Actuators System y Sensors

umu

u1 UIO 1
: :

e1

UIO mu Diagonal structure w.r.t. actuator faults


Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

emu

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /43

D.O.S w.r.t. sensors


u Actuators System y Sensors y1 UIO 1
: :

ymy

e1

UIO mu

emu

Diagonal structure w.r.t. sensors faults


Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /44

G.O.S w.r.t. actuators


u Actuators System Sensors y

umu

u1 UIO 1
: :

e1

UIO mu

emu

Each residual is affected by all faults except for one actuator fault
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /45

15

29/09/2010

G.O.S w.r.t. sensors


u Actuators System y Sensors y1 UIO 1
: :

ymy

e1

UIO mu

emu

Each residual is affected by all faults except for one sensor fault
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /46

Identification based approach

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /47

Identification based approach Input SYSTEM Output

Identification

White Box

Black Box

Grey Box

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /48

16

29/09/2010

Identification-based Residual
Off line u y u On line y ^ +

SYSTEM

SYSTEM

MODEL

REF

MODEL

r(t) -

t < t1

t > t1

REF

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

SUPERVISION DES SYSTEMES INDUSTRIELS. Chap.4: Diagnostic laide dobservateurs

Chap.4 /49

17

Chapitre 5

BOND GRAPH FOR SUPERVISION DESIGN

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/1

PLAN
1) Motivations et positionnement

2) Problmatique des mthodes base de modles 3) Bond graph et le diagnostic 4) Conception dun systme de supervision 5) Outil logiciel pour la conception de systmes de supervision 6) Application a un gnrateur de vapeur
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Chap.5/2

Contexte
Rsultats de recherche depuis 12 ans B. Ould Bouamama and A.K. Samantaray. "Model-based Process Supervision. A Bond Graph Approach" . Springer Verlag, To be published on 2007, Berlin.
Thoma J.U. et B. Ould Bouamama. "Modeling and Simulation in Thermal and Chemical Engineering". A Bond Graph Approach. Springer Verlag, 219 pages, Berlin 2000. More : Web : http://sfsd.polytech-lille.net/BelkacemOuldBouamama

Applications
Projet Europens (CHEM, damadics) supervision de procds chimiques et ptrochimiques, raffinerie de sucre , .. Projet nationaux : EDF Filtrage dalarmes Projet rgional : supervision de procds non stationnaires

Outils logiciels dvelopps


Model Builder FDIPAD Gnration de modles et dindicateurs de fautes formels partir des PIDs Analyse de la surveillabilit : placement de capteurs Gnration de S-function ou code C pour la simulation

La supervision aujourdhui dans lindustrie

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/3

Integrated design for supervision


Optimal sensor placement
Diagnosability results New sensor architecture P&ID Process technical specifications ARRs

Diagnosability analysis

Generate a dynamic and formal models

Generate a dynamic and formal ARRS

Sensors
Data from sensors
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Online implementation
Chap.5/4

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Model based in the supervision platform. Chem Project example


TB3.4: Diagnosis using causal graph (IFP)

Causal graph

TB5.4: Fault diagnosis and alarm management using causal graphs

Measures

Models

Recovery decision

DATA MANAGER DTM

Recovery decision

P&ID

TB5.1: Model builder for FDI design (LAIL)

Residuals Models

Measures

Residuals, Monitorability analysis, Dynamic model,

TB7.2 : Reconfigurati on

TB5.2, TB3.2: Temporal Band Sequences (Thalles)

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/5

2) Problmatique des mthodes base de modles

Approche bond graph

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Model based approach : Issues


MODELLING
Modelling step is most important in FDI design obtaining the model is a difficult task The constraints are not deduced in a systematic way It is not trivial in the real systems to write the model under a "beautiful" form x=f(x,u,).

RESIDUAL GENERATION
Eliminate the unknowns : analytic redundancy approach
Existing methodology : parity space for linear, elimination theory (constraints under polynomial forms)

Variables to be considered : all quantities constrained by the system components (process, actuators, sensors, algorithms)

How to generate directly from the process ARRs and models : Bond graph tool well suited because of its causal and structural properties.

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/7

Bond graph and diagnostic


BOND GRAPH FOR MODELLING (1961)
Control (1990)

Diagnostic

Qualitative Approach (1993)

Quantitative approach (1995)

Monoenergy Bond Graph

Multienergy bond graph


Closed loop Sensor, process and actuator faults Implementation
Chap.5/8 8\93

Open loop Linear model Sensor and actuator faults


Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

DEFINITION, REPRESENTATION
DEFINITION

REPRESENTATION e f

Mechanical power :

P = e.f

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/9

Notion de causalits
Symbol Se Sf e f e f e f
1

Definition

Name Source of effort Source of flow

e f e f R

Resistance Capacitance

C I

Inertance
2

TF :1/m GY :r
2 1

Transformer

Gyrator

0
2

Common effort junction Common flow junction


Chap.5/10

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

POWER VARIABLES FOR SEVERAL DOMAINS


DOMAIN Electrical Mechanical
(translation)

EFFORT (e)
VOLTAGE

FLOW (f)
CURRENT

u [V]
FORCE

i [A]
VELOCITY

F [N]
TORQUE

v [m/s]
ANGULAR VELOCITY

Mechanical
(rotation)

[Nm]
PRESSURE

[rad/s]
VOLUME FLOW

Hydraulic Chemical Thermal Economic


Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

P [pa]
CHEM. POTENTIAL MOLAR FLOW

[J/mole]
TEMPERATURE ENTROPY FLOW

T [K]
UNIT PRICE FLOW OF ORDERS

Pu [$/unit]

f c [unit/period]

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/11

Causal path and causality


i iC C UC E F iC C UC

Derivative causality

C
UC iC

Integral causality

C
UC iC

Se:E
i

Sf: i

UC

iC

Se:E
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Se:E
Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

UC

Chap.5/12

Dualised sensors
RL circuit
R L

Bond graph model in derivative causality with dualised sensor


I
A

Se: u

SSf

Se

Bond graph model in integral causality


I Df Se Se

I SSf Df

R R
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Chap.5/13

Systme sous dtermin et surdtermin

I SSf Df

I SSf Df

Se

SSe De

Se
?

R Pas de conflit de causalit, Systme sur-dtermin

R Conflit de causalit, Systme sous-Dtermin

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/14

BG example (1/2)

On-Off

T1
PI

T2
Vo QO
Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Chap.5/15

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

BG example (2/2)
USER PI u1 De1 On-off De2 u3

C:C1
2

R:R1
4 3

C:C1
6

R:R1
8 7

MSf1
Pump

0
Tank1

1
Valve1

0
Tank2

1
Valve 2

Se1

On-Off

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/16

Specialized software for Bond graph modelling

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/17

3) Bond graph and diagnostic : determinsit and robust case

QO
Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

PI

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

18

Outflow to consumer

T1

T2
Vo

Hydraulic academic example


MSf
LI

f1
PI FI

f2

e2 f3
Ps=0

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/19

Bond graph model


C C De:P De:P
2 1 3 4

R R

Df:F
Environnement
Chap.5/20

MSf MSf

0 0

1 1

Se Se

s J0 J1 C R mP mF

Z
e2 f2 e4 f4 MSf Se De Df X

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

ARRs generation matching and incidence matrix


Z=XK X
f2 e2 f4 e4 MSf 1 0 0 0 0 0

K
Se 0 1 0 0 0 0 De 0 0 0 0 1 0 Df 0 0 0 0 0 1

J0 J1

1 0 1 1 0 0 0

0 1 1 0
1 1

1 0 0 1 0 1 1

0 1 0
1

RRA1 RRA2

C R mP mF

0 0

Causal matching w.r.t all unknown variables but not w.r.t all the constraints
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Chap.5/21

Oriented graph associated with a matching


De

mP

e2 MSf

f2

MSf

J0

RRA1

Df

mF

f4

De

mP

e2 Se

Se

J1 R

RRA2

Df
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

mF

f4

e4
Chap.5/22

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

ARRS generation : BiBi-partite graph and BG approach

BiBi-partite graph

Bond graph

1) Unknown variables elimination order in the oriented graph

1) Covering causal path in the BG which is a particular matching according to the affected causality

2) Initial step for ARR generation : difficult to fix

2) From Energy 23 conservation law \93 from 0 or 1 junction


The goal is to study all the causal paths relating the considered junction to the sources and the sensors

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/23

ARRS generation using BG approach (1/2)

A) Bond graph model in integral causality


C De:P
2 1 3 4

Df:F
Environnement
Chap.5/24

MSf

0 0

1 1

Se

24\93

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

ARRS generation using BG approach (2/2)


Bond graph model in derivative causality detectors are dualised
2 1 3

De*:P
4

Df*:F
Environnement
Chap.5/25 Chap.5/27 27\83

MSf

0 0

1 1

Se

1- MSf 2-C-2-De 3-Df

3- De 5-Se 4-R-4-Df
25\93

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

FDI robuste using BG

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Les approches qui existent pour le FDI robuste


FDI Approches qualitatives
Espace paramtrique - Observations dexperts - Mesures de capteurs - Donnes statistiques
- Rseaux de neurones flous

Approches quantitatives
Espace paramtrique - Composants matriels - Phnomnes physiques
- Espace de parit

- Approche probabiliste
- J. L. De Miguel & al (2005) - K. Hising-Chia & al (2004) - A. P. Rothstein & al (2005)

- Observateurs - Filtrage
- O. Adrot & al (1999) - Z. Han & al (2002) - D. Henry & al (2005) - A. Johansson & al. (2006)) - M. Basseville & al (1998)

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Quelques commentaires
Mthodes qualitatives
Lutilisation du flou ne rgle pas le problme des observations situes aux frontires de plusieurs classes. Lapproche probabiliste suppose connue la probabilit a priori doccurrence de chaque classe de fonctionnement.

Mthodes quantitatives
Lespace de parit et les observateurs sont bien adapts au diagnostic des dfauts capteurs et actionneurs. Lapproche de filtrage suppose que les incertitudes et les dfauts ninterviennent pas la mme frquence. Les incertitudes paramtriques ne sont pas affiches explicitement par le modle (en gnral dtat) RRAs incertaines non gnres automatiquement
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Chap.5/28 28\83

Approche propose et contribution


Outil utilis:
Modles Bond Graphs sous forme LFT [B. Ould Bouamama 2002] et [G. Dauphin-Tanguy & al 1999 ]

Performances recherches
Robustesse aux fausses alarmes Amlioration et contrle des performances vis--vis des non dtections et des retards dans les dtections des dfauts

Contribution
Gnration automatique des RRAs robustes et des seuils adaptatifs de fonctionnement normal Dfinition dindices de sensibilit aux incertitudes paramtriques Dfinition dindices de dtectabilit des dfauts
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Chap.5/29 29\83

Intrt des BGs pour le diagnostic robuste ?


Approche intgre :
Une seule reprsentation : systme physique, modle BG incertain, RRAs robuste

Reprsentation de tous les types dincertitudes. Les incertitudes paramtriques sont structures, donc plus faciles quantifier. Visualisation explicite des incertitudes paramtriques sur le modle Lintroduction des incertitudes naffecte pas la causalit et les proprits structurelles des lments sur le modle nominal. La partie incertaine du modle est parfaitement spare de sa partie nominale.
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Chap.5/30 30\83

10

Modlisation LFT
Reprsentation LFT Fonction de transfert Reprsentation LFT Reprsentation dtat

u w H(S)

y z

u w M

y z

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Chap.5/31 31\83

Modlisation LFT des lments BG (1/2)


Systme Physique Modle bloc diagramme Modle mathmatique

fR

eR

fR fR

eR eR

fR

Rn

eRn R

eR
+

einc

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/32 32\83

Modlisation LFT des lments BG (2/2)


- R MSe*:wR einc eR fR R: 1R eRn De*:zR eRn eRn 0 f =f 1 Rn R:Rn - R fR wR eR zR

fRn fR R eR

Rn

eRn R

eR
+

einc

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/33 33\83

11

Mise en oeuvre sur exemple


R:Rn
9 6

R:R
5 2 4

MSe:wR
R L

Se: u
Se: u
8
i
A

Df: i
3

I:L
7 10

I:Ln
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Chap.5/34 34\83

Analyse structurelle (1/2)


Systme propre et observable
[C. Sueur & al 1989]

Systme surdtermin
Proposition : Sur un modle bond graph destin la surveillance (mis en causalit drive), le systme sera sous-dtermin si en dualisant les dtecteurs, les lments dynamiques ne peuvent pas tre mis en causalit drive.

Remarque: Llment lorigine du conflit de causalit sur un systme observable sous dtermin, peut tre mis en causalit intgrale lorsque les conditions initiales sont connues. Le systme devient ainsi sur-dtermin.

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/35 35\83

5.2 Gnration de RRAs robustes

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

12

Approche BG dterministe pour la gnration des RRAs (1/1)


R:R
2

Se: u

1- Se SSf:i i Df: SSf- 2-R-2

1
3

SSf- 3- L- 3

I:L

Se: u

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/37 37\83

Gnration de RRAs robustes (1/2)


R:Rn
9 6

1- Se
5 2

MSe:wR 5- MSe:wR
1

Se: u
3

4 7

7- MSe:wL SSf - 2- 9- Rn - 9- 2 SSf - 3 - 10- Ln- 10- 3

MSe:wL
8

10

I:Ln
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Chap.5/38 38\83

Gnration de RRAs robustes (2/2)


R:Rn
9 6

MSe:wR
5 1 2

Se: u
3

4 7

MSe:wL
8

10

I:Ln
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Chap.5/39 39\83

13

Algorithme de gnration de RRAs robustes


Vrification des proprits structurelles sur le modle BG nominal Le modle BG en causalit drive avec capteurs dualiss est mis sous forme LFT; Les variables inconnues sont limines en parcourant les chemins causaux entre les lments BG et les dtecteurs; Les RRAs sont gnres au niveau des jonctions 0 et 1, o toutes les variables associes sont connues; Les RRAs gnres sont constitues de deux parties parfaitement spares
r : la partie nominale qui reprsente le rsidu a : la partie incertaine utilise pour calculer les seuils.

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/40 40\83

5. 3 Analyse de sensibilit

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Analyse de sensibilit des rsidus (1/8) Indice de sensibilit normalis


value lnergie apporte au rsidu par lincertitude sur chaque paramtre en la comparant lnergie totale apporte par toutes les incertitudes paramtriques.

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/42 42\83

14

Analyse de sensibilit des rsidus (2/8)


Indice de sensibilit Indice de sensibilit normalis

i : Incertitude sur le ime paramtre i {R, C, I, RS, TF, GY} i: ime entre module correspondant Incertitude sur le ime paramtre
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Chap.5/43 43\83

Analyse de sensibilit des rsidus (3/8)


R:Rn
9 6

MSe:wR
5 1 2

Se: u
3

4 7

MSe:wL
8

10

I:Ln
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Chap.5/44 44\83

Analyse de sensibilit des rsidus (4/8)


Indice de dtectabilit de dfauts Types de dfauts
Dfaut paramtrique: Dviation anormale de lun des paramtres du modle de sa valeur nominale (not Yj: % de la valeur nominale du paramtre j) Dfaut structurel: Dfaut qui engendre un changement dans la structure du systme, donc dans la structure du modle (not Ys).

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/45 45\83

15

Analyse de sensibilit des rsidus (5/8)


Dfinition: Lindice de dtectabilit de dfaut DI est la diffrence entre leffort (ou flux) apport par les dfauts en valeur absolue et celui apport par lensemble des incertitudes en valeur absolue.

Proposition: Condition de dtectabilit de dfauts

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/46 46\83

Analyse de sensibilit des rsidus (6/8)


Hypothse : Leffort (ou le flux) apport aux rsidus par loccurrence simultane de plusieurs dfauts (en valeur absolue) est suprieur leffort (ou le flux) apport aux rsidus par loccurrence dun seul dfaut (en valeur absolue). Taux Dtectable dun dfaut paramtrique

Valeur dtectable dun dfaut structurel


Chap.5/47 47\83

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Analyse de sensibilit des rsidus (7/8)


R:Rn
9 6

MSe:wR 1R
5 1

Se: u Se: Ys
3

4 7

MSe:w1L L
8

10

I:Ln
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Chap.5/48 48\83

16

Analyse de sensibilit des rsidus (8/8)


R:Rn
9 6

MSe:wR
5 1

Se: u Se: Ys
3

4 7

MSe:wL
8

10

I:Ln
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Chap.5/49 49\83

Implmentation Informatique

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Implmentation Informatique (1/7)


Outil utilis: Symbols2000
Interface FDIPad Fentre expression Dfinition des variables internes comme variables globales Cration de boites outils rutilisables pour les systmes incertains Cration de boites outils rutilisables pour les systmes incertains partir de celles dj existantes en dterministe

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/51 51\83

17

Implmentation Informatique (2/7)


R L

Se: u

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/52 52\83

Implmentation Informatique (4/7)

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/53 53\83

Implmentation Informatique (5/7)

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/54 54\83

18

Implmentation Informatique (6/7)

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/55 55\83

Implmentation Informatique (7/7)

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/56 56\83

Applications

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

19

Application au systme lectromcanique


[M. A. Djeziri & al. 2007] IEEE ASME Transaction on Mecatronics

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Description du systme lectromcanique


Charge Rducteur Moteur

Moteur

Charge

Dead Zone zone morte area

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/59 59\83

Cahier des charges


Objectif: Dterminer la valeur dtectable du dfaut (variation
du jeu au niveau du rducteur) Simulation du cas extrme o les incertitudes se compensent Montrer linfluence dune incertitude de modlisation ( zone morte initiale de 0.2 rad) Introduire un dfaut (variation progressive de lamplitude du jeu), jusqu ce que les indices de dtectabilit deviennent positifs

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/60 60\83

20

Caractristiques du jeu

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/61 61\83

Modle bond graph nominal du systme

R: fm
Mse:d
3 1 2 5 8 9

R: fs
Mse:ds
11 10 12

Df2

Se:U

1
4 6 7

TF ..

1
13

N0

Df1

I:Jm

C: 1/K

I: Js

Moteur

Charge

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/62 62\83

Modle LFT du systme

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/63 63\83

21

Gnration de RRAs robustes


Les rsidus et les seuils

Entres modules correspondantes aux incertitudes paramtriques

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/64 64\83

Identification des paramtres

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/65 65\83

Identification des paramtres

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/66 66\83

22

Simulation

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Rsidus en fonctionnement normal sans dfauts et sans incertitudes

Indice de dtectabilit de r1

Indice de dtectabilit de r2

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/68 68\83

Influence dune incertitude de modlisation sur les rsidus : fonctionnement normal

Indice de dtectabilit de r1

Indice de dtectabilit de r2

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/69 69\83

23

Introduction dun dfaut progressif Yj0 (1/3)

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/70 70\83

Introduction dun dfaut progressif Yj0 (2/3)

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/71 71\83

Introduction dun dfaut progressif Yj0 (3/3)


x 10
-4

10

Yj0 (rad)

Valeurs non dtectables du dfaut

0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

Temps (s)
0.4 0.2

Instant o le rsidu r2 Commence dtecter le dfaut

DIr2

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8

-1 0

10

12

14

16

18

20

Temps (s) Chap.5/72 72\83

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

24

2. Implmentation temps rel

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Scenario dexprimentation
Implmentation en ligne de lalgorithme de gnration des rsidus et des seuils Gnration des rsidus en fonctionnement normal Introduction manuelle du dfaut sur le systme en fonctionnement.

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/74 74\83

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/75 75\83

25

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/76 76\83

propre\ propre\DemoJEF.wmv

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Diagnostic robuste
R:Rn
9 6

MSe:wR
5 1 2

Se: u
3

4 7

MSe:wL
8

10

I:Ln
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Chap.5/78

26

Algorithme de gnration de RRAs robustes


Vrification des proprits structurelles sur le modle BG nominal Le modle BG en causalit drive avec capteurs dualiss est mis sous forme LFT; Les variables inconnues sont limines en parcourant les chemins causaux entre les lments BG et les dtecteurs; Les RRAs sont gnres au niveau des jonctions 0 et 1, o toutes les variables associes sont connues; Les RRAs gnres sont constitues de deux parties parfaitement spares
r : la partie nominale qui reprsente le rsidu a : la partie incertaine utilise pour calculer les seuils.

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/79 79\83

Thermofluid process
u1

LC PI

FI

u2

TC

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/80

Generalized causal path for thermodynamic systems


It is a causal path that can follow power links or informational links, or both.

De:P

0h

De:T

Rc

0t

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Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

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27

Bond graph model


De*:u1 0 LC 0 De:L

u1
De:P Df

De:T

De*:u2

u2

TC
Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Chap.5/82

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Monitoring of controlled system and material redundancy


Material redundancy Thermofluid Process
Fictive sensor : control signal Level sensor 1

De*:u1

LC

u1

De:L

De*:P

Pressure sensor

0 C

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

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Type of detected faults


Sensor faults (De, Df, Dw) Actuator faults (MSf, MSe) Controller faults (Information system) Process faults (from 0 and 1 junction equations)

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

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Iformation system

28

Process fault
1. Leakage fault
E N V I R O N N E M E N T

r0h Hydraulic leakage fault


E N V I R O N N E M E N T

0h

r0t Thermal insulation fault

C
T

0t

P
E N V I R.

2. Blockage fault

Rc

E N V I R.

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

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CONCEPTION DUN SYSTEME DE SUPERVISION

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

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86

CADRE PROJET CHEM


DEVELOPPER et IMPLEMENTER UN SYSTEME SOUS FORME MODULAIRE : Bas sur les outils de
Statistique, thorie des systmes, IA pour FDI,..

Pour:
Amliorer la scurit, Qualit des produits, Fiabilit des oprations, et Rduction des pertes conomiques dues au fautes

Appliqu aux
Systmes chimiques, ptrochimiques, Raffinage

O: process pilotes

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

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Cahier des charges


Concevoir un outil logiciel pour gnrer sous forme symbolique
Les modles dynamiques Les RRAs La surveillabilit

Pour :
Nimporte quel processus thermofluides

Intgrable dans un systme de supervision


Modles et RRAs sous forme XML

Convivial pour les oprateurs


Introduction dicne mtiers (approche fonctionnelle)
Chap.5/88

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Main activity
XML format
Technical specifications

P&IDiagram

S O F T W A R

Formal residuals

Monitorability analysis

Formal dynamic model

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/89

HOW TO BUILD ARCHITECTURAL MODEL ?

Select process plant item

Interconnect process plant item

Check architectural consistency

Generic data base


PID

PID

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Graphical User Interface (1/2)

Data base

Architectural model

Behavioral model

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GENERIC DATA BASE

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Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/92

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS AND MONITORABILITY ANALYSIS

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DEMONSTRATIONS

Analyse de la surveillabilit structurelle et gnration automatique de RRAs

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Vue gnrale

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APPLICATION A UN GENERATEUR DE VAPEUR

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32

Supervision GUI

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General Informations (1/2


Prsentation
The test plant is designed to be a scale-model of a power station. It is located at the University of Lille, in the laboratory of Automatic Control and Computers for Industry (LAIL, unit CNRS UMR 8021

Constitution
The installation is mainly constituted of four subsystems:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. a receiver with the feed water supply system, a boiler heated by a 60kW thermal resistor, a steam flow system, a complex condenser coupled with a heat exchanger Process delay system

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/98

General Informations (2/2)


Production mode : the pilot process produces steam in a continuous mode. Power 60 kW. Nominal regime: 180C Max., 10 bars. Produced steam flow: 85 kg/h.

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

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33

STEAM GENERATOR P & I DIAGRAM


CONDENSER HEAT-EXCHANGER
TIR 25 FIR 24

P3
TC 5

User

Environment

TIR 27

P4

FIR 23 ZC 1 TIR 22 TR 17 PR 13

TIR 26

Cooling water
LIR 19 LIR 18

TIR 21

PR 12

V2

STEAM FLOW

Aero-refrigerator
PIR 16 PC 2

V6

PR 14 PR 38

STORAGE TANK

LC 2

V1
PR 15 FIR 10 TR 29

V3
TIR 2 TIR 20

PR 27

PR 11

PR 31

LG 3

V4
LC 1

LIR 8

V11

LIR 9

TR 6

V5

Condensate

BOILER
LG 1 PIR 7 PC 1 Q 4

V8 V9

FEED WATER
P1

FIR 3

60kW

TR 5

Thermal resistor
V10

P2

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/100

General Informations
Number of sensors 28
10 Pressure sensors 12 Temperature sensors 5 Level sensors 4 Flow sensors 1 Power sensor

Number of actuators 8
1 Pump (switching level control in the boiler) 1 Thermal resistor (switching pressure control in the boiler) 1 Valve (Continuous pressure control in the condenser) 1 Valve (Continuous valve position) 3 discharge valves (switching level control in the condenser) 1 Three way-valve (continuous cooling water temperature control )

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/101

General Informations
Number of equipment units
1 storage tank of 0.4 m3 4 Pumps 1 Boiler of 0.175 m3 5 controlled valves 1 Controlled three-way-valve 1 Condenser coupled with an exchanger 1 Aero-refrigerator 1 Thermal resistor of 60 KW 1 PC-based digital control system 1 process delay system
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Chap.5/102

Process delay system

LIR 1

LG 2

TR 38

34

General Informations
Failure scenarios
Plant faults
Water leak in the boiler by opening valve V11 Thermal insulation fault taking off the calorifuge sheet Pressure leak in the steam flow system by opening valve V3 Water leak in the storage tank by opening valve V10 Steam pipe blocked out by closing the manual valve V13

Actuator faults
Any valve can be blocked open or closed Pump fault by switching off the power supply The actuator control signals can be modified Failure Discharge valves leak by opening valve V8 et V9

Sensor abrupt faults


Any sensor can be temporary disconnected The sensor signals can be modified

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/103

General Informations
Reconfigurability
Degraded mode: one or two discharge valves in running Use of one or two controlled valves in the steam flow system The long loop of the heat-exchanger in fault mode: degraded mode, only the short loop is in running mode Feeding pumps are redundant Sensor system can be reconfigured

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/104

General Informations
The process can be used by anyone Automation System:
Conventional instrumentation
The used technology is the 4-20 mA

Control system
Two types of digital controllers are used: On-off and PI Controlled parameters:
Boiler pressure, boiler level, condenser level, condenser pressure, Steam flow valve position and Cooling water temperature.

Interface to this control system.


supervision software " Panorama "

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

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Chap.5/105

35

WORD BOND GRAPH OF THE INSTALLATION


Voltage source
Condenser-Heat exchanger

Thermal resistor

Cooling circuit

Boiler

Steam expansion

Condenser

Discharge valves

106\93

Feed water circuit


Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Receiver
Chap.5/106

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Modelling hypothesis
For the feeding circuit the liquid is incompressible. In the steam boiler, water and steam are in thermodynamic equilibrium, This is justified by the fact that we have a good homogenous mixture of the emulsion water-steam. The mixture is at uniform pressure, which means that we neglect surface tension of the steam bubbles. The boiler has a thermal capacity and is subject to heat losses towards the environment All variables are described by lumped parameters.

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

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Chap.5/107

MODELLING and SIMULATION


Numerical using Matlab Simuling Software

Formal model generation using symbols software

108\93

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RRAs GENERATION

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109

Exemple dapplication de gnration automatique de RRAs

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Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

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Exemple dapplication de gnration automatique de RRAs (suite) Contraintes:

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37

Exemple dapplication de gnration automatique de RRAs (suite) Elimination des variables inconnues:

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/112

Exemple dapplication de gnration automatique de RRAs (suite)


RRA1:

RRA2:

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

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Chap.5/113

Exemple dapplication de gnration automatique de RRAs (suite)


RRA3:

RRA4:

RRA5:

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

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Chap.5/114

38

Exemple dapplication de gnration automatique de RRAs (suite)


RRA6:

RRA7:

RRA8:

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

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Chap.5/115

Exemple dapplication de gnration automatique de RRAs (suite)


Matrice des signatures des fautes

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/116

Supervision du GV (Schma de supervision)


GENERATEUR DE VAPEUR ACTIONNEURS COMMANDE CAPTEURS

RRA, MATRICE DES SIGNATURES DES FAUTES

EVALUATION DES RRA, RESIDUS, PROCEDURE DE DECISION

MODELE BG
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

LISTE DES FAUTES

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

ACCOMMODATION DES FAUTES, RECOFIGURATION


Chap.5/117

39

Modles bond graph des composants


Le rservoir

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/118

Le systme dalimentation en eau

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/119 119\93

La chaudire

HGV ( ) =hv ( P GV ) X +hL ( P GV ) 1 X hGV = M GV V v = GV =v ( P ) X +v ( P ) ( ) L GV 1 X GV M GV v GV

120\93

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Le systme de dtente de la vapeur

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Chap.5/121

Condenseur changeur

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Validation du modle

123\93

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Chap.5/123

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Validation du modle

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Gnration automatique des RRAs

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Gnration automatique des RRAs

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42

Gnration automatique des RRAs

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Gnration automatique des RRAs

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Chap.5/128

Matrice de surveillabilit

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43

Implementation : Panorama CCOM Interface


PROCESS
3. Data acquisition 4

Panorama Supervision
SUPERVISION SYSTEM Controls Residuals Faults

FCTINTPP

Archives

Mistral Alarms

TCP/IP COMMUNICATI ON SYSTEM

Data Server
2

CCOM Server
1

CCOM C++/java/G2 Interface

CCOM Client TBxx

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

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Chap.5/130

(Panorama: Editeur de synoptiques)

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Supervision du GV (Panorama: Rgulation)

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Chap.5/132

44

Supervision du GV (Panorama: Dfinition des variables)

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Chap.5/133

Supervision du GV (Panorama: Dfinition des alarmes

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Chap.5/134

Supervision du GV (Panorama: Acquisition de donnes

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45

Supervision du GV (Panorama: Evaluation des rsidus

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Chap.5/136

Dcision
Simple test

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

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Chap.5/137

Dcision (suite)
Two-sided CuSum

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/138

46

Dcision (suite)
Application de CuSum

Simple test

Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

Chap.5/139

CONCLUSIONS
The interest of the presented approach :
consists in the use of only one representation (bond graph modelling) for ARRs and dynamics models generation in symbolic format. the industrial designer can easily (because of integration of the functional tool as interface with the human operator) build the thermofluid dynamic model and ARRs Propose to the user a sensor placement to satisfy a given technical specification To add a new component in the data base in a generic way

What are the limits in model based supervision ?


The performances depend on the accuracy of the model Processes are no stationary : the models change

There is not the method for supervision but integration of tools is needed Real time applications are not yet used in industry : maintenance of implemented algorithms is difficult.
Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design
Chap.5/140

APPENDIX
The presented research is detailled in two papers (published in CEP journal) given in this appendix

1.

2.

B. Ould Bouamama, K. Medjaher, A.K. Samantary et M. Staroswiecki. "Supervision of an industrial steam generator. Part I: Bond graph modelling". Control Engineering Practice, CEP, Vol 14/1 pp 71-83, 2005. K. Medjaher, A.K. Samantary, B. Ould Bouamama et M. Staroswiecki "Supervision of an industrial steam generator. Part II: On line implementation", Control Engineering Practice, CEP, Vol 14/1 pp 85-96, 2005.
Supervision des Systmes Industriels Chap5: Bond Graphs for Supervision design

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141

47