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Appendix A The Historical Evolution of Organizational Behavior

MULTIPLE HOI E Early Practices 1. The roots of organizational behavior can be found in: a. prehistoric times. b. the twelfth century. c. the sixteenth or seventeenth century. d. the eighteenth or nineteenth century. (d !hallenging p. "#$% &. 'hich of the following was not important in shaping the boundaries of ()* a. +dam ,mith b. -enry .ord c. !harles )abbage d. /obert (wen (c Easy p. "#$% 0. The Wealth of Nations was written by: a. +dam ,mith. b. !harles )abbage. c. /obert (wen. d. .rederic1 -erzberg. (a Easy p. "2$% $. The Wealth of Nations included an argument in favor of: a. redistribution of capital. b. division of labor. c. education. d. participative management. (b 3oderate p. "#$% ". 'hich industry did +dam ,mith use for his examples* a. automobile b. steam engine c. pin manufacturing d. airline (c 3oderate p. "#$% The development of 55555 during the &2th century was stimulated by the economic advantages of wor1 specialization cited by +dam ,mith. a. assembly6line production processes b. flexible manufacturing c. mass customization d. cell manufacturing (a 3oderate p. "#$% 7. !harles )abbage included a list of advantages of division of labor in his On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures. This list included all of the following except: 4. 1#7

a. it reduces the time needed for learning a 8ob. b. it increases wor1er satisfaction. c. it allows for the attainment of high s1ill levels. d. it reduces the waste of material during the learning stage. (b 3oderate p. "#$% 9. 55555 expanded on the virtues of division of labor articulated by +dam ,mith. a. /obert (wen b. Elton 3ayo c. !harles )abbage d. .rederic1 Taylor (c Easy p. "#$% #. 55555 was a 'elsh entrepreneur who bought his first factory in 179#: at the age of eighteen. a. +dam ,mith b. !harles )abbage c. /obert (wen d. .rederic1 Taylor (c 3oderate p. "#"% 12. 5555 chided factory owners for treating their e;uipment better than their employees. a. +dam ,mith b. !harles )abbage c. /obert (wen d. .rederic1 Taylor (c 3oderate p. "#"% 11. /obert (wen argued for: a. regulated hours of wor1. b. public education. c. business involvement in community pro8ects. d. all of the above (d !hallenging p. "#"% The !lassical Era 1&. The classical era covered the period from about 55555to 55555. a. 1922 19"2 b. 1#22 mid 1#02s c. 1#$2 1#7" d. 1#"2 present (b !hallenging p. "#"%


+ll of the following were writers during the <!lassical Era= except: a. 3ax 'eber. b. -enri .ayol. c. 3ary Par1er .ollett. 1#9

d. +dam ,mith. (d 3oderate p. "#"% 1$. Today: >P, drivers are following principles laid down by: a. +dam ,mith. b. .rederic1 Taylor. c. /obert (wen. d. !harles )abbage. (b 3oderate p. "#"% 1". .rederic1 Taylor was a(n% 55555 at 3idvale and )ethlehem ,teel !ompanies. a. accountant b. shift supervisor c. mechanical engineer d. first6line supervisor (c !hallenging p. "#"% 14. 'hich of the following was not included in Taylor?s four principles of management* a. @evelop a science for each element of an individual?s wor1. b. ,cientifically select and then train: teach: and develop the wor1er. c. Aay down the law to wor1ers to ma1e sure that all wor1 is done as you instruct. d. @ivide wor1 and responsibility almost e;ually between management and wor1ers. (c 3oderate pp. "#"6"#4% 17. 'ho wrote The Principles of ,cientific 3anagement* a. +dam ,mith b. .rederic1 Taylor c. /obert (wen d. !harles )abbage (b 3oderate p. "#"% 19. The early acceptance of 55555 techni;ues by >.,. manufacturing companies gave them a comparative advantage over foreign firms. a. division of labor b. administrative theory c. scientific management d. coordinating (c !hallenging p. "#7% 1#. .ayol proposed that managers perform all of the following except: a. planning. b. organizing. c. coordinating. d. motivating. (d 3oderate p. "#7% &2. 55555 stated 1$ principles of management. a. 3ax 'eber b. -enri .ayol c. 3ary Par1er .ollett 1##

d. +dam ,mith (b 3oderate p. "#7% &1. 'hich of the following is not true about the wor1 of 3ax 'eber* a. -e loo1ed at management and organizational behavior from a structural perspective. b. -e viewed the ideal organization as a bureaucracy. c. -e did not believe in division of wor1. d. -e viewed esprit de corps as important. (c 3oderate p. "#9% &&. 'hich of the following did not forget human beings are the central core of every organization* a. .rederic1 Taylor b. -enri .ayol c. 3ax 'eber d. !hester )arnard (d Easy p. "#9% &0. 55555 felt that organizations should be based on a group ethic rather than individualism. a. 3ary Par1er .ollett b. 3ax 'eber c. -enri .ayol d. .rederic1 Taylor (a 3oderate p. "#9% &$. 'hich of the following was not a part of 'eber?s ideal bureaucracy* a. career orientation b. hire relatives c. authority hierarchy d. formal rules and regulations (b 3oderate p. "#9% &". 'ho wrote The .unctions of the Executive: expressing his views of organizations as social systems that re;uire human cooperation* a. .rederic1 Taylor b. -enri .ayol c. 3ax 'eber d. !hester )arnard (d 3oderate p. "##%

The )ehavioral Era &4. 55555 created the field of industrial psychology with the publication of his text Psychology and Industrial Efficiency. a. 3ax 'eber b. -ugo 3unsterberg c. -enri .ayol d. .rederic1 Taylor &22

(b !hallenging p. "##% &7. The 55555 was passed in 1#0" and recognized unions as the authorized representatives of wor1ers. a. 'arren !ommission b. !ivil /ights +ct c. 'agner +ct d. -awthorne +ct (c 3oderate p. "##% &9. The 55555 were performed at 'estern Electric !ompany facilities by Elton 3ayo. a. welfare studies b. !arnegie ,tudies c. -awthorne ,tudies d. 8ob core dimensions studies (c 3oderate p. 422% &#. The essence of the human relations movement was the belief that the 1ey to higher productivity in organizations was: a. increasing employee satisfaction. b. reducing conflict. c. scientific principles. d. all of the above (a !hallenging p. 422% 02. 3ayo?s conclusion(s% about the -awthorne studies was (were% that: a. behavior and sentiments were closely related. b. group influences significantly affected individual behavior. c. group standards established individual wor1er output. d. all of the above (d !hallenging p. 422% 01. 55555 wrote the boo1: -ow to 'in .riends and Bnfluence People. a. @ouglas 3cCregor b. @ale !arnegie c. -enri .ayol d. Dac1 'elch (b Easy p. 421%


!arnegie?s essential theme was that the way to success was through: a. winning the cooperation of others. b. ma1ing others feel unappreciated. c. changing people by criticism. d. disregarding first impressions. (a 3oderate p. 421% 00. 55555 created Theory E and Theory F. a. @ouglas 3cCregor b. ). .. ,1inner &21

c. @avid 3c!lelland d. .rederic1 Taylor (a !hallenging p. 421% 0$. 55555 rests on an essentially negative view of people. a. +dministrative theory b. )ureaucracy c. Theory E d. Theory F (c 3oderate p. 42&% 0". 'hich of the following is not considered a behavioral science theorist* a. Doseph 3oreno b. @avid 3c!lelland c. .rederic1 -erzberg d. .rederic1 Taylor (d Easy p. 42&% 04. 55555 researched operant conditioning and behavior modification. a. )... ,1inner b. Elton 3aylo c. @avid 3c!lelland d. .rederic1 -erzberg (a 3oderate p. 42&% 07. 55555 tested the strength of individual achievement motivation. a. )... ,1inner b. Elton 3aylo c. @avid 3c!lelland d. .rederic1 -erzberg (c 3oderate p. 42&% 09. The importance of the situational aspects of leadership was developed into the contingency model by: a. .red .iedler. b. .rederic1 -erzberg. c. -ac1man and (ldham. d. @avid 3c!lelland. (a 3oderate p. 42&% 0#. 55555 concluded that people preferred 8obs that offered opportunity for recognition: achievement: responsibility: and growth. a. )... ,1inner b. Elton 3aylo c. @avid 3c!lelland d. .rederic1 -erzberg (d 3oderate p. 420% $2. -ac1man and (ldham developed a theory which uncovered: a. motivators. &2&

b. hygiene and motivator factors. c. core 8ob dimensions. d. contingency theory. (c 3oderate p. 420% () Today: + !ontingency Perspective $1. Today: organizational behavior focuses mostly on the 55555 approach. a. scientific management b. need theory c. contingency d. laboratory experiment (c 3oderate p. 420% T!UE"#AL$E Early Practices $&. .rederic1 Taylor wrote The Wealth of Nations : in which he argued that organizations and society would benefit from the division of labor. (.alse Easy p. "#$% $0. @ivision of labor is also called wor1 specialization. (True Easy p. "#$% $$. !harles )abbage expanded on the wor1 of +dam ,mith. (True 3oderate p. "#$% $". )abbage proposed that the economies from specialization should be as relevant to doing mental wor1 as physical labor. (True 3oderate p. "#$% $4. /obert (wen argued that money was better spent on e;uipment than on improving labor. (.alse 3oderate p. "#"% $7. /obert (wen was one of the first industrialists to recognize how the growing factory system was demeaning to wor1ers. (True 3oderate p. "#"% $9. /obert (wen argued for child labor laws over 1"2 years ago. (True !hallenging p. "#"% The !lassical Era $#. The classical period of organizational behavior covered the period 19"2 to 1#22. (.alse 3oderate p. "#"% "2. The classical contributors included Taylor: .ayol: and ,mith. (.alse 3oderate p. "#"% &20

"1. >P, drivers today are using principles laid down by Taylor. (True Easy p. "#"% "&. Taylor sought to create a mental revolution among both the wor1ers and management by defining clear guidelines for improving production efficiency. (True 3oderate p. "#"% "0. Taylor observed that management and wor1ers viewed themselves as a team and wanted to wor1 together for the good of their company. (.alse 3oderate p. "#"% "$. Taylor?s principles of management included the idea that management and wor1ers should cooperate with one another. (True 3oderate p. "#4% "". Taylor wrote The 'ealth of Gations. (.alse Easy p. "#7% "4. Taylor achieved consistent improvements in productivity in the range of &22 percent or more. (True !hallenging p. "#7% "7. Taylor was able to define the one best way for each 8ob. (True !hallenging p. "#7% "9. Taylor favored wage incentive plans to motivate wor1ers. (True 3oderate p. "#7% "#. .ayol argued that management was an activity common to all human underta1ings. (True 3oderate p. "#7% 42. .ayol stated 1$ principles of management. (True 3oderate p. "#7% 41. 'eber was a pioneer in scientific management. (.alse 3oderate p. "#9% 4&. 'eber described an ideal type of organization that he called a bureaucracy. (True Easy p. "#9% 40. 3ary Par1er .ollett and !hester )arnard were pioneers in studying the social aspects of organizations. (True 3oderate p. "#9% 4$. 'eber?s ideal bureaucracy advocated impersonality. (True 3oderate p. "#9% 4". 3ary Par1er .ollett thought that organizations should be based on a group ethic rather than individualism. (True !hallenging p. "#9% &2$


!hester )arnard viewed organizations as made up of people who have interacting social relationships. (True 3oderate pp. "#96"##% 47. The <people side= of organizations came into its own during the behavioral era. (True 3oderate p. "##% 49. -ugo 3unsterberg saw a lin1 between scientific management and industrial psychology. (True 3oderate p. "##% 4#. The 'agner +ct forbade labor unions. (.alse Easy p. "##% 72. The essence of the human relations movement was the belief that the 1ey to higher productivity in organizations was the use of scientific management techni;ues. (.alse 3oderate p. 422% 71. 3ayo?s conclusions about the -awthorne experiments were that behavior and sentiments are closely related: group influences significantly affect individual behavior: group standards establish individual wor1er output: and money is less a factor in determining output than group standards: group sentiments: and security. (True !hallenging p. 422% 7&. @ale !arnegie wrote -ow to 'in .riends and Bnfluence People. (True 3oderate p. 421% 70. !arnegie?s essential theme was that the way to success was through winning in competition with others. (.alse !hallenging p. 42&% 7$. +braham 3aslow proposed a theoretical hierarchy of five needs. (True Easy p. 421% 7". @ouglas 3cCregor is best 1nown for his formulation of two sets of assumptions H Theory E and Theory F H about human behavior. (True Easy p. 421% 74. ,1inner demonstrated that behavior is a function of its conse;uences. (True Easy p. 42&% 77. The wor1 of .iedler is significant for its emphasis on the situational aspects of leadership. (True 3oderate p. 42&% 79. -erzberg?s research undermined the recommendations of scientific management. (True !hallenging p. 42&% 7#. -erzberg studied the core 8ob dimensions. (.alse Easy p. 420%