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DUMPING SYNDROME COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT CONSTIPATION An abnormal infrequency and irregularity of defecation Multiple causations

COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT CONSTIPATION: Pathophysiology Interference with three functions of the colon 1. Mucosal transport 2. Myoelectric activity 3. Process of defecation COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT NURSING INTERVENTIONS 1. Assist physician in treating the underlying cause of constipation 2. Encourage to eat HIGH fiber diet to increase the bulk 3. Increase fluid intake 4. Administer prescribed laxatives, stool softeners 5. Assist in relieving stress COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT Diarrhea Abnormal fluidity of the stool Multiple causes Gastrointestinal Diseases Hyperthyroidism Food poisoning COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT Diarrhea Nursing Interventions 1. Increase fluid intake- ORESOL is the most important treatment! 2. Determine and manage the cause 3. Anti-diarrheal drugs COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT DUMPING SYNDROME A condition of rapid emptying of the gastric contents into the small intestine usually after a gastric surgery Symptoms occur 30 minutes after eating COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Foods high in CHO and electrolytes must be diluted in the jejunum before absorption takes place.

COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT PATHOPHYSIOLOGY The rapid influx of stomach contents will cause distention of the jejunum early symptoms COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT PATHOPHYSIOLOGY The hypertonic chyme will draw fluid from the blood vessels to dilute the high concentrations of CHO and electrolytes COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT Later, there is increased blood glucose stimulating the increased secretion of insulin Then, blood glucose will fall causing reactive hypoglycemia COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT DUMPING SYNDROME ASSESSMENT FINDINGS: early symptoms 1. Nausea and Vomiting 2. Abdominal fullness 3. Abdominal cramping 4. Palpitation 5. Diaphoresis COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT DUMPING SYNDROME ASSESSMENT FINDINGS: LATE symptoms: 6. Drowsiness 7. Weakness and Dizziness 8. Hypoglycemia COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT DS NURSING INTERVENTIONS 1. Advise patient to eat LOW-carbohydrate HIGH-fat and HIGH-protein diet 2. Instruct to eat SMALL frequent meals, include MORE dry items. 3. Instruct to AVOID consuming FLUIDS with meals COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT DS NURSING INTERVENTIONS 4. Instruct to LIE DOWN after meals 5. Administer anti-spasmodic medications to delay gastric emptying GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT PERNICIOUS ANEMIA Results from Deficiency of vitamin B12 due to autoimmune destruction of the parietal cells, lack of INTRINSIC FACTOR or total removal of the stomach GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT PERNICIOUS ANEMIA ASSESSMENT Severe pallor

Fatigue Weight loss Smooth BEEFY-red tongue Mild jaundice Paresthesia of extremities Balance disturbance GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT NURSING INTERVENTION for Pernicious Anemia Lifetime injection of Vitamin B 12 weekly initially, then MONTHLY Conditions of the GIT UPPER GI system CONDITION OF THE ESOPHAGUS HIATAL HERNIA Protrusion of the esophagus into the diaphragm thru an opening Occurs more often in women Two types- Sliding hiatal hernia ( most common) and Axial hiatal hernia