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12 2 Thermodynamic Property Models

2 Thermodynamic Property
Models
This section describes the available thermodynamic property models in the
Aspen Physical Property System. The following table provides a list of
available models, with corresponding Aspen Physical Property System model
names. The table provides phase types for which the model can be used and
information on use of the model for pure components and mixtures.
Aspen Physical Property System thermodynamic property models include
classical thermodynamic property models, such as activity coefficient models
and equations of state, as well as solids and electrolyte models. The models
are grouped according to the type of property they describe.
Thermodynamic Property Models
Phases: V = Vapor; L = Liquid; S = Solid. An X indicates applicable to Pure or
Mixture.
Equation-of-State Models
Property Model Model Name(s) Phase(s)Pure Mixture
ASME Steam Tables ESH2O0,ESH2O V L X
BWR-Lee-Starling ESBWR0, ESCSTBWR V L X X
Benedict-Webb-Rubin-Starling ESBWRS, ESBWRS0 V L X X
Hayden-O'Connell ESHOC0,ESHOC V X X
HF equation-of-state ESHF0, ESHF V X X
Ideal Gas ESIG V X X
Lee-Kesler ESLK V L X
Lee-Kesler-Plcker ESLKP0,ESLKP V L X X
NBS/NRC Steam Tables ESSTEAM0,ESSTEAM V L X
Nothnagel ESNTH0,ESNTH V X X
Peng-Robinson ESPR0, ESPR V L X X
Standard Peng-Robinson ESPRSTD0,ESPRSTD V L X X
Peng-Robinson-Wong-Sandler ESPRWS0,ESPRWS V L X X
Peng-Robinson-MHV2 ESPRV20,ESPRV2 V L X X
Predictive SRK ESRKSV10, ESRKSV1 V L X X
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 13
Property Model Model Name(s) Phase(s)Pure Mixture
Redlich-Kwong ESRK0, ESRK V X X
Redlich-Kwong-Aspen ESRKA0,ESRKA V L X X
Standard Redlich-Kwong-Soave ESRKSTD0,ESRKSTD V L X X
Redlich-Kwong-Soave-Boston-
Mathias
ESRKS0,ESRKS V L X X
Redlich-Kwong-Soave-Wong-
Sandler
ESRKSWS0, ESRKSWSV L X X
Redlich-Kwong-Soave-MHV2 ESRKSV20, ESRKSV2 V L X X
Schwartzentruber-Renon ESRKU0,ESRKU V L X X
Soave-Redlich-Kwong ESSRK, ESSRK0 V L X X
VPA/IK-CAPE equation-of-state ESVPA0, ESVPA V X X
Peng-Robinson Alpha functions V L X
RK-Soave Alpha functions V L X
Huron-Vidal mixing rules V L X
MHV2 mixing rules V L X
PSRK mixing rules V L X
Wong-Sandler mixing rules V L X
Activity Coefficient Models (Including Electrolyte Models)
Property Model Model Name Phase(s)Pure Mixture
Bromley-Pitzer(Chien-Null) GMPT2 L X
Chien-Null GMCHNULL L X
Constant Activity Coefficient GMCONS S X
Electrolyte NRTL GMELC L L1 L2 X
Ideal Liquid GMIDL L X
NRTL(Non-Random-Two-Liquid) GMRENON L L1 L2 X
Pitzer GMPT1 L X
Polynomial Activity Coefficient GMPOLY L S X
Redlich-Kister GMREDKIS L S X
Scatchard-Hildebrand GMXSH L X
Three-Suffix Margules GMMARGUL L S X
UNIFAC GMUFAC L L1 L2 X
UNIFAC (Lyngby modified) GMUFLBY L L1 L2 X
UNIFAC (Dortmund modified) GMUFDMD L L1 L2 X
UNIQUAC GMUQUAC L L1 L2 X
van Laar GMVLAAR L X
Wagner interaction parameter GMWIP S X
Wilson GMWILSON L X
Wilson model with liquid molar
volume
GMWSNVOL L X
Vapor Pressure and Liquid Fugacity Models
Property Model Model Name Phase(s)Pure Mixture
Extended Antoine/Wagner PL0XANT L L1 L2 X
14 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Property Model Model Name Phase(s)Pure Mixture
Chao-Seader PHL0CS L X
Grayson-Streed PHL0GS L X
Kent-Eisenberg ESAMIN L X
Maxwell-Bonnell PL0MXBN L L1 L2 X
Solid Antoine PS0ANT S X
Heat of Vaporization Models
Property Model Model Name Phase(s)Pure Mixture
Watson / DIPPR / IK-CAPE DHVLWTSN L X
Clausius-Clapeyron Equation DHVLWTSN L X
Molar Volume and Density Models
Property Model Model Name Phase(s)Pure Mixture
API Liquid Volume VL2API L X
Brelvi-O'Connell VL1BROC L X
Clarke Aqueous Electrolyte
Volume
VAQCLK L X
Costald Liquid Volume VL0CTD,VL2CTD L X X
Debye-Hckel Volume VAQDH L X
Liquid Constant Molar Volume VL0CONS L X
Rackett / DIPPR / IK-CAPE
Liquid Volume
VL0RKT,VL2RKT L X
Rackett Mixture Liquid Volume VL2RKT L X X
Modified Rackett VL2MRK L X X
Aspen/DIPPR/IK-CAPE Solid
Molar Volume
VS0POLY S X
Liquid Volume Quadratic Mixing
Rule
VL2QUAD L X
Heat Capacity Models
Property Model Model Name Phase(s)Pure Mixture
Aqueous Infinite Dilution Heat
Capacity Polynomial
L X
Criss-Cobble Aqueous Infinite
Dilution Ionic Heat Capacity
L X
DIPPR / IK-CAPE Liquid Heat
Capacity
HL0DIP L X
Ideal Gas Heat Capacity / DIPPR V X X
Solids Heat Capacity Polynomial HS0POLY S X
Solubility Correlation Models
Property Model Model Name Phase(s)Pure Mixture
Henry's constant HENRY1 L X
Water solubility L X
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 15
Other Models
Property Model Model Name Phase(s)Pure Mixture
Cavett Liquid Enthalpy
Departure
DHL0CVT, DHL2CVT L X X
BARIN Equations for Gibbs
Energy, Enthalpy, Entropy and
Heat Capacity
S L V X
Electrolyte NRTL Enthalpy HAQELC, HMXELC L X
Electrolyte NRTL Gibbs Energy GAQELC, GMXELC L X
Liquid Enthalpy from Liquid Heat
Capacity Correlation
DHL0DIP L X X
Enthalpies Based on Different
Reference States
DHL0HREF L V X X
Equation-of-State Models
The Aspen Physical Property System has 20 built-in equation-of-state
property models. This section describes the equation-of-state property models
available.
Model Type
ASME Steam Tables Fundamental
BWR-Lee-Starling Virial
Benedict-Webb-Rubin-Starling Virial
Hayden-O'Connell Virial and association
HF Equation-of-State Ideal and association
Huron-Vidal mixing rules Mixing rules
Ideal Gas Ideal
Lee-Kesler Virial
Lee-Kesler-Plcker Virial
MHV2 mixing rules Mixing rules
NBS/NRC Steam Tables Fundamental
Nothnagel Ideal
Peng-Robinson Cubic
Standard Peng-Robinson Cubic
Peng-Robinson Alpha functions Alpha functions
Peng-Robinson-MHV2 Cubic
Peng-Robinson-Wong-Sandler Cubic
Predictive SRK Cubic
PSRK mixing rules Mixing rules
Redlich-Kwong Cubic
Redlich-Kwong-Aspen Cubic
Standard Redlich-Kwong-Soave Cubic
Redlich-Kwong-Soave-Boston-Mathias Cubic
Redlich-Kwong-Soave-MHV2 Cubic
16 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Model Type
Redlich-Kwong-Soave-Wong-Sandler Cubic
RK-Soave Alpha functions Alpha functions
Schwartzentruber-Renon Cubic
Soave-Redlich-Kwong Cubic
SRK-Kabadi-Danner Cubic
SRK-ML Cubic
VPA/IK-CAPE equation-of-state Ideal and association
Wong-Sandler mixing rules Mixing rules
ASME Steam Tables
The ASME steam tables are implemented like any other equation-of-state in
the Aspen Physical Property System. The steam tables can calculate any
thermodynamic property of water or steam and form the basis of the STEAM-
TA property method. There are no parameter requirements. The ASME steam
tables are less accurate than the NBS/NRC steam tables.
References
ASME Steam Tables, Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Steam,
(1967).
K. V. Moore, Aerojet Nuclear Company, prepared for the U.S. Atomic Energy
Commision, ASTEM - A Collection of FORTRAN Subroutines to Evaluate the
1967 ASME equations of state for water/steam and derivatives of these
equations.
BWR-Lee-Starling
The Benedict-Webb-Rubin-Lee-Starling equation-of-state is the basis of the
BWR-LS property method. It is a generalization by Lee and Starling of the
virial equation-of-state for pure fluids by Benedict, Webb and Rubin. The
equation is used for non-polar components, and can manage hydrogen-
containing systems.
General Form:
Where:
Mixing Rules:
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 17
Where:
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
TCBWR T
ci
TC X 5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
VCBWR V
ci
*
VC X 0.001 3.5 MOLE-
VOLUME
BWRGMA

i
OMEGA X -0.5 3.0
BWRKV
c
ij
0 X -5.0 1.0
BWRKT
q
ij
0 X -5.0 1.0
Binary interaction parameters BWRKV and BWRKT are available in the Aspen
Physical Property System for a large number of components. (See Physical
Property Data, Chapter 1).
References
M.R. Brul, C.T. Lin, L.L. Lee, and K.E. Starling, AIChE J., Vol. 28, (1982) p.
616.
Brul et al., Chem. Eng., (Nov., 1979) p. 155.
Watanasiri et al., AIChE J., Vol. 28, (1982) p. 626.
Benedict-Webb-Rubin-Starling
The Benedict-Webb-Rubin-Starling equation-of-state is the basis of the BWRS
property method. It is a modification by Han and Starling of the virial
equation-of-state for pure fluids by Benedict, Webb and Rubin. This equation-
of-state can be used for hydrocarbon systems that include the common light
gases, such as H
2
S, CO
2
and N
2
.
The form of the equation-of-state is:
Where:
18 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
k
ij
= k
ji
In the mixing rules given above, A
0i
, B
0i
, C
0i
, D
0i
, E
0i
, a
i
, b
i
, c
i
, d
i
, o
i
,
i
are pure
component constants which can be input by the user. If the values of these
parameters are not given, the Aspen Physical Property System will calculate
them using the critical temperature, the critical volume (or critical density),
the acentric factor and generalized correlations given by Han and Starling.
When water is present, by default Benedict-Webb-Rubin-Starling uses the
steam table to calculate the enthalpy, entropy, Gibbs energy, and molar
volume of water. The total properties are mole-fraction averages of these
values with the properties calculated by the equation of state for other
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 19
components. Fugacity coefficient is not affected. An option code can disable
this use of the steam table.
For best results, the binary parameter k
ij
must be regressed using phase-
equilibrium data such as VLE data.
Parameter
Name/
Element
SymbolDefault MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
BWRSTC T
ci
TC x 5.0 2000.0TEMPERATURE
BWRSVC V
ci
VC x 0.001 3.5 MOLE-VOLUME
BWRSOM e
i
OMEGA x 0.5 2.0
BWRSA/1 B
0i
fcn(e
i
,V
ci
, T
ci
) x MOLE-VOLUME
BWRSA/2 A
0i
fcn(e
i
,V
ci
, T
ci
) x PRESSURE * MOLE-
VOL^2
BWRSA/3 C
0i
fcn(e
i
,V
ci
, T
ci
) x PRESSURE *
TEMPERATURE^2 *
MOLE-VOLUME^2
BWRSA/4

i
fcn(e
i
,V
ci
, T
ci
) x MOLE-VOLUME^2
BWRSA/5 b
i
fcn(e
i
,V
ci
, T
ci
) x MOLE-VOLUME^2
BWRSA/6 a
i
fcn(e
i
,V
ci
, T
ci
) x PRESSURE * MOLE-
VOL^3
BWRSA/7 o
i
fcn(e
i
,V
ci
, T
ci
) x MOLE-VOLUME^3
BWRSA/8 c
i
fcn(e
i
,V
ci
, T
ci
) x PRESSURE *
TEMPERATURE^2 *
MOLE-VOLUME^3
BWRSA/9 D
0i
fcn(e
i
,V
ci
, T
ci
) x PRESSURE *
TEMPERATURE^3 *
MOLE-VOLUME^2
BWRSA/10 d
i
fcn(e
i
,V
ci
, T
ci
) x PRESSURE *
TEMPERATURE * MOLE-
VOLUME^3
BWRSA/11 E
0i
fcn(e
i
,V
ci
, T
ci
) x PRESSURE *
TEMPERATURE^4 *
MOLE-VOLUME^2
BWRAIJ k
ij
x
Constants Used with the correlations of Han and Starling
Parameter Methane Ethane Propane n-Butane
B
0i
0.723251 0.826059 0.964762 1.56588
A
0i
7520.29 13439.30 18634.70 32544.70
C
0i
2.71092x10
8
2.95195x10
9
7.96178x10
9
1.37436x10
10
D
0i
1.07737x10
10
2.57477x10
11
4.53708x10
11
3.33159x10
11
E
0i
3.01122x10
10
1.46819x10
13
2.56053x10
13
2.30902x10
12
b
i
0.925404 3.112060 5.462480 9.140660
a
i
2574.89 22404.50 40066.40 71181.80
d
i
47489.1 702189.0 1.50520x10
7
3.64238x10
7
o
i
0.468828 0.909681 2.014020 4.009850
c
i
4.37222x10
8
6.81826x10
9
2.74461x10
10
7.00044x10
10
20 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Parameter Methane Ethane Propane n-Butane

i
1.48640 2.99656 4.56182 7.54122
Parameter n-Pentane n-Hexane n-Heptane n-Octane
B
0i
2.44417 2.66233 3.60493 4.86965
A
0i
51108.20 45333.10 77826.90 81690.60
C
0i
2.23931x10
10
5.26067x10
10
6.15662x10
10
9.96546x10
10
D
0i
1.01769x10
12
5.52158x10
12
7.77123x10
12
7.90575x10
12
E
0i
3.90860x10
13
6.26433x10
14
6.36251x10
12
3.46419x10
13
b
i
16.607000 29.498300 27.441500 10.590700
a
i
162185.00 434517.00 359087.00 131646.00
d
i
3.88521x10
7
3.27460x10
7
8351150.0 1.85906x10
8
o
i
7.067020 9.702300 21.878200 34.512400
c
i
1.35286x10
11
3.18412x10
11
3.74876x10
11
6.42053x10
11

i
11.85930 14.87200 24.76040 21.98880
References
M. Benedict, G. B. Webb, and L. C. Rubin, J. Chem. Phys., Vol. 8, (1940), p.
334.
M. S. Han, and K. E. Starling , "Thermo Data Refined for LPG. Part 14:
Mixtures", Hydrocarbon Processing, Vol. 51, No. 5, (1972), p.129.
K. E. Starling, "Fluid Themodynamic Properties for Light Petroleum Systems",
Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, Texas (1973).
Hayden-O'Connell
The Hayden-O'Connell equation-of-state calculates thermodynamic properties
for the vapor phase. It is used in property methods NRTL-HOC, UNIF-HOC,
UNIQ-HOC, VANL-HOC, and WILS-HOC, and is recommended for nonpolar,
polar, and associating compounds. Hayden-O'Connell incorporates the
chemical theory of dimerization. This model accounts for strong association
and solvation effects, including those found in systems containing organic
acids, such as acetic acid. The equation-of-state is:
Where:
- For nonpolar, non-associating species:
, with
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 21
, where
- For polar, associating species:
, with
, where
- For chemically bonding species:
, and
Cross-Interactions
The previous equations are valid for dimerization and cross-dimerization if
these mixing rules are applied:
q = 0 unless a special solvation contribution can be justified (for example, i
and j are in the same class of compounds). Many q values are present in the
Aspen Physical Property System.
Chemical Theory
When a compound with strong association is present in a mixture,
the entire mixture is treated according to the chemical theory of dimerization.
22 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
The chemical reaction for the general case of a mixture of dimerizing
components i and j is:
Where i and j refer to the same component.
The equation-of-state becomes:
with
In this case, molar volume is equal to V/n
t
.
This represents true total volume over the true number of species n
t
.
However, the reported molar volume is V/n
a
.
This represents the true total volume over the apparent number of species n
a
.
If dimerization does not occur, n
a
is defined as the number of species. V/n
a
reflects the apparently lower molar volume of an associating gas mixture.
The chemical equilibrium constant for the dimerization reaction on pressure
basis K
p
, is related to the true mole fractions and fugacity coefficients:
Where:
y
i
and y
j
= True mole fractions of monomers
y
ij
= True mole fraction of dimer

i
= True fugacity coefficient of component i
K
ij
= Equilibrium constant for the dimerization of i and j, on a
pressure basis
=
o
ij
= 1 for i=j
=
0 for
Apparent mole fractions y
i
a
are reported, but in the calculation real mole
fractions y
i
, y
j
, and y
ij
are used.
The heat of reaction due to each dimerization is calculated according to:
The sum of the contributions of all dimerization reactions, corrected for the
ratio of apparent and true number of moles is added to the molar enthalpy
departure .
Parameter Name/
Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 23
Parameter Name/
Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
TC T
ci
5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
PC p
ci
10
5
10
8
PRESSURE
RGYR r
i
gyr
10
-11
5x10
-9
LENGTH
MUP p
i
0.0 5x10
-24
DIPOLEMOMENT
HOCETA q 0.0 X
The binary parameters HOCETA for many component pairs are available in the
Aspen Physical Property System. These parameters are retrieved
automatically when you specify any of the following property methods: NRTL-
HOC, UNIF-HOC, UNIQ-HOC, VANL-HOC, and WILS-HOC.
References
J.G. Hayden and J.P. O'Connell, "A Generalized Method for Predicting Second
Virial Coefficients," Ind. Eng. Chem., Process Des. Dev., Vol. 14,No. 3,
(1974), pp. 209 216.
HF Equation-of-State
HF forms oligomers in the vapor phase. The non-ideality in the vapor phase is
found in important deviations from ideality in all thermodynamic properties.
The HF equation accounts for the vapor phase nonidealities. The model is
based on chemical theory and assumes the formation of hexamers.
Species like HF that associate linearly behave as single species. For example,
they have a vapor pressure curve, like pure components. The component on
which a hypothetical unreacted system is based is often called the apparent
(or parent) component. Apparent components react to the true species.
Electrolyte Calculation in Physical Property Methods discusses apparent and
true species. Abbott and van Ness (1992) provide details and basic
thermodynamics of reactive systems.
The temperature-dependent hexamerization equilibrium constant, can fit the
experimentally determined association factors. The built-in functionality is:
(1)
The constants C
0
and C
1
are from Long et al. (1943), and C
2
and C
3
are set to
0. The correlation is valid between 270 and 330 K, and can be extrapolated to
about 370 K (cf. sec. 4). Different sets of constants can be determined by
experimental data regression.
Molar Volume Calculation
The non-ideality of HF is often expressed using the association factor, f,
indicating the ratio of apparent number of species to the real number or
species. Assuming the ideal gas law for all true species in terms of (p, V, T)
behavior implies:
24 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
(2)
Where the true number of species is given by 1/f. The association factor is
easily determined from (p, V, T) experiments. For a critical evaluation of data
refer to Vanderzee and Rodenburg (1970).
If only one reaction is assumed for a mixture of HF and its associated species,
(refer to Long et al., 1943), then:
(3)
If p
1
represents the true partial pressure of the HF monomer, and p
6
represents the true partial pressure of the hexamer, then the equilibrium
constant is defined as:
(4)
The true total pressure is:
p = p
1
+ p
6
(5)
If all hexamer were dissociated, the apparent total pressure would be the
hypothetical pressure where:
p
a
= p
1
+ 6p
6
= p + 5p
6
(6)
When physical ideality is assumed, partial pressures and mole fractions are
proportional. The total pressure in equation 5 represents the true number of
species. The apparent total pressure from equation 6 represents the apparent
number of species:
(7)
Note that the outcome of equation 7 is independent of the assumption of
ideality. Equation 7 can be used to compute the number of true species 1/f
for a mixture containing HF, but the association factor is defined differently.
If p
1
and p
6
are known, the molar volume or density of a vapor containing HF
can be calculated using equations 2 and 7. The molar volume calculated is the
true molar volume for 1 apparent mole of HF. This is because the volume of 1
mole of ideal gas (the true molar volume per true number of moles) is always
equal to about 0.0224 m3/mol at 298.15 K.
True Mole Fraction (Partial Pressure) Calculation
If you assume the ideal gas law for a mixture containing HF, the apparent HF
mole fraction is:
(8)
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 25
The denominator of equation 8 is given by equation 6. The numerator (the
apparent partial pressure of HF) is the hypothetical partial pressure only if all
of the hexamer was dissociated. If you substitute equation 4, then equation 8
becomes:
(9)
K is known from Long et al., or can be regressed from (p,V,T) data. The
apparent mole fraction of HF, y
a
, is known to the user and the simulator, but
p
1
, or y = p
1
/p must also be known in order to calculate the thermodynamic
properties of the mixture. Equation 9 must be solved for p
1
.
Equation 9 can be written as a polynomial in p
1
of degree 6:
K(6 - 5y
a
)(p
1
)
6
+ p
1
- py
a
= 0 (9a)
A second order Newton-Raphson technique is used to determine p
1
. Then p
6
can be calculated by equation 5, and f is known (equation 7).
Gibbs Energy and Fugacity
The apparent fugacity coefficient is related to the true fugacity coefficient and
mole fractions:
(10)
Equation 10 represents a correction to the ideal mixing term of the fugacity.
The ratio of the true number of species to the apparent number of species is
similar to the correction applied in equation 2. Since the ideal gas law is
assumed, the apparent fugacity coefficient is given by the equation. All
variables on the right side are known.
(11)
For pure HF, y
a
= 1:
From the fugacity coefficient, the Gibbs energy departure of the mixture or
pure apparent components can be calculated:
(12)
(12a)
Enthalpy and Entropy
For the enthalpy departure, the heat of reaction is considered. For an
arbitrary gas phase reaction:
26 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
(13)
(14)
Where
i
*
is the pure component thermodynamic potential or molar Gibbs
energy of a component. Equation 4 represents the first two terms of the
general equation 14. The second or third equality relates the equilibrium
constant to the Gibbs energy of reaction, which is thus related to the enthalpy
of reaction:
(15)
All components are assumed to be ideal. The enthalpy departure is equal to
the heat of reaction, per apparent number of moles:
(16)
(17)
From the Gibbs energy departure and enthalpy departure, the entropy
departure can be calculated:
(18)
Temperature derivatives for the thermodynamic properties can be obtained
by straightforward differentiation.
Usage
The HF equation-of-state should only be used for vapor phase calculations. It
is not suited for liquid phase calculations.
The HF equation-of-state can be used with any activity coefficient model for
nonelectrolyte VLE. Using the Electrolyte NRTL model and the data package
MHF2 is strongly recommended for aqueous mixtures (de Leeuw and
Watanasiri, 1993).
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
ESHFK/1 C
0
43.65
ESHFK/2 C
1
-8910
ESHFK/3 C
2
0
ESHFK/4 C
3
0
References
M. M. Abbott and H. C. van Ness, "Thermodynamics of Solutions Containing
Reactive Species, a Guide to Fundamentals and Applications," Fluid Phase Eq.,
Vol. 77, (1992) pp. 53 119.
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 27
V. V. De Leeuw and S. Watanasiri, "Modelling Phase Equilibria and Enthalpies
of the System Water and Hydroflouric Acid Using an HF Equation-of-state in
Conjunction with the Electrolyte NRTL Activity Coefficient Model," Paper
presented at the 13th European Seminar on Applied Thermodynamics, June 9
12, Carry-le-Rouet, France, 1993.
R. W. Long, J. H. Hildebrand, and W. E. Morrell, "The Polymerization of
Gaseous Hydrogen and Deuterium Flourides," J. Am. Chem. Soc., Vol. 65,
(1943), pp. 182 187.
C. E. Vanderzee and W. WM. Rodenburg, "Gas Imperfections and
Thermodynamic Excess Properties of Gaseous Hydrogen Fluoride," J. Chem.
Thermodynamics, Vol. 2, (1970), pp. 461 478.
Ideal Gas
The ideal gas law (ideal gas equation-of-state) combines the laws of Boyle
and Gay-Lussac. It models a vapor as if it consisted of point masses without
any interactions. The ideal gas law is used as a reference state for equation-
of-state calculations, and can be used to model gas mixtures at low pressures
(without specific gas phase interactions).
The equation is:
p = RT / V
m
Lee-Kesler
This equation-of-state model is based on the work of Lee and Kesler (1975).
In this equation, the volumetric and thermodynamic properties of fluids based
on the Curl and Pitzer approach (1958) have been analytically represented by
a modified Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation-of-state (1940). The model
calculates the molar volume, enthalpy departure, Gibbs free energy
departure, and entropy departure of a mixture at a given temperature,
pressure, and composition for either a vapor or a liquid phase. Partial
derivatives of these quantities with respect to temperature can also be
calculated.
Unlike the other equation-of-state models, this model does not calculate
fugacity coefficients.
The compressibility factor and other derived thermodynamic functions of
nonpolar and slightly polar fluids can be adequately represented, at constant
reduced temperature and pressure, by a linear function of the acentric factor.
In particular, the compressibility factor of a fluid whose acentric factor is e, is
given by the following equation:
Z = Z
(0)
+ eZ
(1)
Where:
Z
(0)
= Compressibility factor of a simple fluid (e = 0)
Z
(1)
= Deviation of the compressibility factor of the real fluid from Z
(0)
28 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Z
(0)
and Z
(1)
are assumed universal functions of the reduced temperature and
pressure.
Curl and Pitzer (1958) were quite successful in correlating thermodynamic
and volumetric properties using the above approach. Their application
employed tables of properties in terms of reduced temperature and pressure.
A significant weakness of this method is that the various properties (for
example, entropy departure and enthalpy departure) will not be exactly
thermodynamically consistent with each other. Lee and Kesler (1975)
overcame this drawback by an analytic representation of the tables with an
equation-of-state. In addition, the range was extended by including new data.
In the Lee-Kesler implementation, the compressibility factor of any fluid has
been written in terms of a simple fluid and a reference as follows:
In the above equation both Z
(0)
and Z
(1)
are represented as generalized
equations of the BWR form in terms of reduced temperature and pressure.
Thus,
Equations for the enthalpy departure, Gibbs free energy departure, and
entropy departure are obtained from the compressibility factor using standard
thermodynamic relationships, thus ensuring thermodynamic consistency.
In the case of mixtures, mixing rules (without any binary parameters) are
used to obtain the mixture values of the critical temperature and pressure,
and the acentric factor.
This equation has been found to provide a good description of the volumetric
and thermodynamic properties of mixtures containing nonpolar and slightly
polar components.
Symbol Parameter Name Default Definition
T
c
TCLK TC Critical temperature
P
c
PCLK PC Critical pressure
e OMGLK OMEGA Acentric factor
References
M. Benedict, G. B. Webb, and L. C. Rubin, J. Chem. Phys., Vol. 8, (1940), p.
334.
R. F. Curl and K.S. Pitzer, Ind. Eng. Chem., Vol. 50, (1958), p. 265.
B. I. Lee and M.G. Kesler, AIChE J., Vol. 21, (1975), p. 510.
Lee-Kesler-Plcker
The Lee-Kesler-Plcker equation-of-state is the basis for the LK-PLOCK
property method. This equation-of-state applies to hydrocarbon systems that
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 29
include the common light gases, such as H
2
S and CO
2
. It can be used in gas-
processing, refinery, and petrochemical applications.
The general form of the equation is:
Where:
The f
o
and f
R
parameters are functions of the BWR form. The f
o
parameter is
for a simple fluid, and f
R
is for reference fluid n-octane.
The mixing rules are:
V
cm
=
=
e =
Z
m
=
Where:
V
cij
=
T
cij
=
Z
ci
=
k
ij
= k
ji
The binary parameter k
ij
is determined from phase-equilibrium data
regression, such as VLE data. The Aspen Physical Property System stores the
binary parameters for a large number of component pairs. These binary
parameters are used automatically with the LK-PLOCK property method. If
binary parameters for certain component pairs are not available, they can be
estimated using built-in correlations. The correlations are designed for binary
interactions among the components CO, CO
2
, N
2
, H
2
, CH
4
alcohols and
hydrocarbons. If a component is not CO, CO
2
, N
2
, H
2
, CH
4
or an alcohol, it is
assumed to be a hydrocarbon.
Parameter
Name/
Element
SymbolDefault MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
TCLKP T
ci
TC x 5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
30 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Parameter
Name/
Element
SymbolDefault MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
PCLKP p
ci
PC x PRESSURE
VCLKP V
ci
VC x 0.001 3.5 MOLE-
VOLUME
OMGLKP e
I
OMEGA x -0.5 2.0
LKPZC
Z
ci
fcn(e) (Method 1)
fcn(p
ci,
V
ci,
T
ci
)
(Method 2)
x 0.1 0.5
LKPKIJ
k
ij
fcn(T
ci
V
ci
/ T
cj
V
cj
) x 5.0 5.0
Method 1 is the default for LKPZC; Method 2 can be invoked by setting the
value of LKPZC equal to zero.
Binary interaction parameters LKPKIJ are available for a large number of
components in the Aspen Physical Property System.
References
B.I. Lee and M.G. Kesler, AIChE J., Vol. 21, (1975) p. 510; errata: AIChE J.,
Vol. 21, (1975) p. 1040.
V. Plcker, H. Knapp, and J.M. Prausnitz, Ind. Eng. Chem., Process Des. Dev.,
Vol. 17, (1978), p. 324.
NBS/NRC Steam Tables
The NBS/NRC Steam Tables are implemented like any other equation-of-state
in the Aspen Physical Property System. These steam tables can calculate any
thermodynamic property of water. The tables form the basis of the
STEAMNBS and STMNBS2 property methods. There are no parameter
requirements. They are the most accurate steam tables in the Aspen Physical
Property System. The STMNBS2 model uses the same equations as
STEAMNBS but with different root search method. The STEAMNBS method is
recommended for use with the SRK, BWRS, MXBONNEL and GRAYSON2
property methods.
References
L. Haar, J.S. Gallagher, and J.H. Kell, "NBS/NRC Steam Tables," (Washington:
Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 1984).
Nothnagel
The Nothnagel equation-of-state calculates thermodynamic properties for the
vapor phase. It is used in property methods NRTL-NTH, UNIQ-NTH, VANL-
NTH, and WILS-NTH. It is recommended for systems that exhibit strong vapor
phase association. The model incorporates the chemical theory of
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 31
dimerization to account for strong association and solvation effects, such as
those found in organic acids, like acetic acid. The equation-of-state is:
Where:
b =
b
ij
=
nc = Number of components in the mixture
The chemical reaction for the general case of a mixture of dimerizing
components i and j is:
The chemical equilibrium constant for the dimerization reaction on pressure
basis K
p
is related to the true mole fractions and fugacity coefficients:
Where:
y
i
and y
j
= True mole fractions of monomers
y
ij
= True mole fraction of dimer

i
= True fugacity coefficient of component i
K
ij
= Equilibrium constant for the dimerization of i and j, on a
pressure basis
When accounting for chemical reactions, the number of true species n
t
in the
mixture changes. The true molar volume V/n
t
is calculated from the
equation-of-state. Since both V and n
t
change in about the same proportion,
this number does not change much. However, the reported molar volume is
the total volume over the apparent number of species: V/n
a
. Since the
apparent number of species is constant and the total volume decreases with
association, the quantity V/n
a
reflects the apparent contraction in an
associating mixture.
The heat of reaction due to each dimerization can be calculated:
The heat of reaction for the mixed dimerization of components i and j is by
default the arithmetic mean of the heats of reaction for the dimerizations of
32 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
the individual components. Parameter is a small empirical correction
factor to this value:
The sum of the contributions of all dimerization reactions, corrected for the
ratio of apparent and true number of moles, is added to the molar enthalpy
departure:
The equilibrium constants can be computed using either built-in calculations
or parameters you entered.
- Built-in correlations:
The pure component parameters b, d, and p are stored in the Aspen
Physical Property System for many components.
Parameters you entered:
In this method, you enter A
i
, B
i
, C
i
, and D
i
on the Properties Parameters
Unary.T-Dependent form. The units for K
ii
is pressure
-1
; use absolute units for
temperature. If you enter K
ii
and K
jj
, then K
ij
is computed from
If you enter A
i
, B
i
, C
i
, and D
i
, the equilibrium constants are computed using
the parameters you entered. Otherwise the equilibrium constants are
computed using built-in correlations.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default Lower
Limit
Upper Limit Units
TC T
ci
5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
TB T
bi
4.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
PC p
ci
10
5
10
8
PRESSURE
NTHA/1 b
i
0.199 RT
ci
/ p
ci
0.01 1.0 MOLE-VOLUME
NTHA/2 d
i
0.33 0.01 3.0
NTHA/3 p
i
0 0.0 1.0
NTHK/1 A
i
PRESSURE
NTHK/2 B
i
0 TEMPERATURE
NTHK/3 C
i
0 TEMPERATURE
NTHK/4 D
i
0 TEMPERATURE
NTHDDH 0

MOLE-
ENTHALPY
For the following systems, the values given in Nothnagel et al., 1973 are
used by default:
- Methyl chloride/acetone
- Acetonitrile/acetaldehyde
- Acetone/chloroform
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 33
- Chloroform/diethyl amine
- Acetone/benzene
- Benzene/chloroform
- Chloroform/diethyl ether
- Chloroform/propyl formate
- Chloroform/ethyl acetate
- Chloroform/methyl acetate
- Chloroform/methyl formate
- Acetone/dichloro methane
- n-Butane/n-perfluorobutane
- n-Pentane/n-perfluoropentane
- n-Pentane/n-perfluorohexane
References
K.-H. Nothnagel, D. S. Abrams, and J.M. Prausnitz, "Generalized Correlation
for Fugacity Coefficients in Mixtures at Moderate Pressures," Ind. Eng. Chem.,
Process Des. Dev., Vol. 12, No. 1 (1973), pp. 25 35.
Peng-Robinson
The Peng-Robinson equation-of-state is the basis for the PENG-ROB and PR-
BM property methods. The model has been implemented with choices of
different alpha functions (see Peng-Robinson Alpha Functions) and has been
extended to include advanced asymmetric mixing rules.
Note: You can choose any of the available alpha functions, but you cannot
define multiple property methods based on this model using different alpha
functions within the same run.
By default, the PENG-ROB property method uses the literature version of the
alpha function and mixing rules. The PR-BM property method uses the
Boston-Mathias alpha function and standard mixing rules. These default
property methods are recommended for hydrocarbon processing applications
such as gas processing, refinery, and petrochemical processes. Their results
are comparable to those of the property methods that use the standard
Redlich-Kwong-Soave equation-of-state.
When advanced alpha function and asymmetric mixing rules are used with
appropriately obtained parameters, the Peng-Robinson model can be used to
accurately model polar, non-ideal chemical systems. Similar capability is also
available for the Soave-Redlich-Kwong model.
The equation for the Peng-Robinson model is:
Where:
34 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
b =
c =
a = a
0
+a
1
a
0
=
(the standard quadratic mixing term, where k
ij
has
been made temperature-dependent)
k
ij
=
k
ij
= k
ji
a
1
(an additional, asymmetric term used to model
highly non-linear systems)
l
ij
=
In general, .
a
i
=
b
i
=
c
i
=
For best results, the binary parameters k
ij
and l
ij
must be determined from
regression of phase equilibrium data such as VLE data. The Aspen Physical
Property System also has built-in k
ij
and l
ij
for a large number of component
pairs in the EOS-LIT databank. These parameters are used automatically with
the PENG-ROB property method. Values in the databank can be different than
those used with other models such as Soave-Redlich-Kwong or Redlich-
Kwong-Soave, and this can produce different results.
The model has option codes which can be used to customize the model, by
selecting a different alpha function and other model options. See Peng-
Robinson Alpha Functions for a description of the alpha functions. See Option
Codes for Equation of State Models (under ESPR) for a list of the option
codes.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
PRTC T
ci
TC x 5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
PRPC p
ci
PC x 10
5
10
8
PRESSURE
OMGPR
e
i
OMEGA x -0.5 2.0
PRZRA z
RA
RKTZRA x
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 35
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
PRKBV/1 k
ij
(1)
0 x
PRKBV/2 k
ij
(2)
0 x TEMPERATURE
PRKBV/3 k
ij
(3)
0 x TEMPERATURE
PRKBV/4 T
lower
0 x TEMPERATURE
PRKBV/5 T
upper
1000 x TEMPERATURE
PRLIJ/1 l
ij
(1)
0 x
PRLIJ/2 l
ij
(2)
0 x TEMPERATURE
PRLIJ/3 l
ij
(3)
0 x TEMPERATURE
PRLIJ/4 T
lower
0 x TEMPERATURE
PRLIJ/5 T
upper
1000 x TEMPERATURE
References
D.-Y. Peng and D. B. Robinson, "A New Two-Constant Equation-of-state," Ind.
Eng. Chem. Fundam., Vol. 15, (1976), pp. 5964.
P.M. Mathias, H.C. Klotz, and J.M. Prausnitz, "Equation of state mixing rules
for multicomponent mixtures: the problem of invariance," Fluid Phase
Equilibria, Vol 67, (1991), pp. 31-44.
Standard Peng-Robinson
The Standard Peng-Robinson equation-of-state is the original formulation of
the Peng-Robinson equation of state with the standard alpha function (see
Peng-Robinson Alpha Functions). It is recommended for hydrocarbon
processing applications such as gas processing, refinery, and petrochemical
processes. Its results are comparable to those of the standard Redlich-
Kwong-Soave equation of state.
Note: You can choose any of the available alpha functions, but you cannot
define multiple property methods based on this model using different alpha
functions within the same run.
The equation for this model is:
Where:
b =
a =
a
i
=
b
i
=
36 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
k
ij
=
The model has option codes which can be used to customize the model, by
selecting a different alpha function and other model options. See Peng-
Robinson Alpha Functions for a description of the alpha functions. See Option
Codes for Equation of State Models (under ESPRSTD) for a list of the option
codes.
For best results, the binary parameter k
ij
must be determined from regression
of phase equilibrium data such as VLE data. The Aspen Physical Property
System also has built-in k
ij
for a large number of component pairs in the EOS-
LIT databank. These parameters are used automatically with the PENG-ROB
property method. Values in the databank can be different than those used
with other models such as Soave-Redlich-Kwong or Redlich-Kwong-Soave,
and this can produce different results.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
TCPRS T
ci
TC x 5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
PCPRS p
ci
PC x 10
5
10
8
PRESSURE
OMGPRS
e
i
OMEGA x -0.5 2.0
PRKBV/1 k
ij
(1)
0 x - - -
PRKBV/2 k
ij
(2)
0 x - - TEMPERATURE
PRKBV/3 k
ij
(3)
0 x - - TEMPERATURE
PRKBV/4 T
lower
0 x - - TEMPERATURE
PRKBV/5 T
upper
1000 x - - TEMPERATURE
References
D.-Y. Peng and D. B. Robinson, "A New Two-Constant Equation-of-state," Ind.
Eng. Chem. Fundam., Vol. 15, (1976), pp. 5964.
Peng-Robinson-MHV2
This model uses the Peng-Robinson equation-of-state for pure compounds.
The mixing rules are the predictive MHV2 rules. Several alpha functions can
be used in the Peng-Robinson-MHV2 equation-of-state model for a more
accurate description of the pure component behavior. The pure component
behavior and parameter requirements are described in Standard Peng-
Robinson, or in Peng-Robinson Alpha Functions.
The MHV2 mixing rules are an example of modified Huron-Vidal mixing rules.
A brief introduction is provided in Huron-Vidal Mixing Rules. For more details,
see MHV2 Mixing Rules.
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 37
Predictive SRK (PSRK)
This model uses the Redlich-Kwong-Soave equation-of-state for pure
compounds. The mixing rules are the predictive Holderbaum rules, or PSRK
method. Several alpha functions can be used in the PSRK equation-of-state
model for a more accurate description of the pure component behavior. The
pure component behavior and parameter requirements are described in
Standard Redlich-Kwong-Soave and in Soave Alpha Functions.
Note: You can choose any of the available alpha functions, but you cannot
define multiple property methods based on this model using different alpha
functions within the same run.
The PSRK method is an example of modified Huron-Vidal mixing rules. A brief
introduction is provided in Huron-Vidal Mixing Rules. For more details, see
Predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong-Gmehling Mixing Rules.
Peng-Robinson-Wong-Sandler
This model uses the Peng-Robinson equation-of-state for pure compounds.
The mixing rules are the predictive Wong-Sandler rules. Several alpha
functions can be used in the Peng-Robinson-Wong-Sandler equation-of-state
model for a more accurate description of the pure component behavior. The
pure component behavior and parameter requirements are described in Peng-
Robinson, and in Peng-Robinson Alpha Functions.
Note: You can choose any of the available alpha functions, but you cannot
define multiple property methods based on this model using different alpha
functions within the same run.
The Wong-Sandler mixing rules are an example of modified Huron-Vidal
mixing rules. A brief introduction is provided in Huron-Vidal Mixing Rules. For
more details see Wong-Sandler Mixing Rules., this chapter.
Redlich-Kwong
The Redlich-Kwong equation-of-state can calculate vapor phase
thermodynamic properties for the following property methods: NRTL-RK,
UNIFAC, UNIF-LL, UNIQ-RK, VANL-RK, and WILS-RK. It is applicable for
systems at low to moderate pressures (maximum pressure 10 atm) for which
the vapor-phase nonideality is small. The Hayden-O'Connell model is
recommended for a more nonideal vapor phase, such as in systems
containing organic acids. It is not recommended for calculating liquid phase
properties.
The equation for the model is:
p =
Where:
38 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
=
b =
a
i
=
b
i
=
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
TC T
ci
5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
PC p
ci
10
5
10
8
PRESSURE
References
O. Redlich and J.N.S. Kwong, "On the Thermodynamics of Solutions V. An
Equation-of-state. Fugacities of Gaseous Solutions," Chem. Rev., Vol. 44,
(1979), pp. 223 244.
Redlich-Kwong-Aspen
The Redlich-Kwong-Aspen equation-of-state is the basis for the RK-ASPEN
property method. It can be used for hydrocarbon processing applications. It is
also used for more polar components and mixtures of hydrocarbons, and for
light gases at medium to high pressures.
The equation is the same as Redlich-Kwong-Soave:
p =
A quadratic mixing rule is maintained for:
a =
An interaction parameter is introduced in the mixing rule for:
b =
For a
i
an extra polar parameter is used:
a
i
=
b
i
=
The interaction parameters are temperature-dependent:
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 39
k
a,ij
=
k
b,ij
=
For best results, binary parameters k
ij
must be determined from phase-
equilibrium data regression, such as VLE data.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
TCRKA T
ci
TC x 5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
PCRKA p
ci
PC x 10
5
10
8
PRESSURE
OMGRKA
e
i
OMEGA x -0.5 2.0
RKAPOL
q
i
0 x -2.0 2.0
RKAKA0 k
a,ij
0
0 x -5.0 5.0
RKAKA1 k
a,ij
1
0 x -15.0 15.0 TEMPERATURE
RKAKB0 k
b,ij
0
0 x -5.0 5.0
RKAKB1 k
b,ij
1
0 x -15.0 15.0 TEMPERATURE
References
Mathias, P.M., "A Versatile Phase Equilibrium Equation-of-state", Ind. Eng.
Chem. Process Des. Dev., Vol. 22, (1983), pp. 385 391.
Redlich-Kwong-Soave
This is the standard Redlich-Kwong-Soave equation-of-state, and is the basis
for the RK-SOAVE property method. It is recommended for hydrocarbon
processing applications, such as gas-processing, refinery, and petrochemical
processes. Its results are comparable to those of the Peng-Robinson
equation-of-state.
The equation is:
Where:
a
0
is the standard quadratic mixing term:
a
1
is an additional, asymmetric (polar) term:
40 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
b =
a
i
=
b
i
=
k
ij
= k
ji
; ;
The parameter a
i
is calculated according to the standard Soave formulation
(see Soave Alpha Functions, equations 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6).
Note: You can choose any of the available alpha functions, but you cannot
define multiple property methods based on this model using different alpha
functions within the same run.
The model uses option codes which are described in Soave-Redlich-Kwong
Option Codes.
For best results, binary parameters k
ij
must be determined from phase-
equilibrium data regression (for example, VLE data). The Aspen Physical
Property System also has built-in k
ij
for a large number of component pairs in
the EOS-LIT databank. These binary parameters are used automatically with
the RK-SOAVE property method. Values of k
ij
in the databank can be different
than those used with other models such as Soave-Redlich-Kwong or Standard
Peng-Robinson, and this can produce different results.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
TCRKSS T
ci
TC x 5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
PCRKSS p
ci
PC x 10
5
10
8
PRESSURE
OMRKSS
e
i
OMEGA x -0.5 2.0
RKSKBV/1 k
ij
(1)
0 x -5.0 5.0
RKSKBV/2 k
ij
(2)
0 x TEMPERATURE
RKSKBV/3 k
ij
(3)
0 x TEMPERATURE
RKSKBV/4 T
k,lower
0 x TEMPERATURE
RKSKBV/5 T
k,upper
1000 x TEMPERATURE
RKSLBV/1 l
ij
(1)
0 x
RKSLBV/2 l
ij
(2)
0 x TEMPERATURE
RKSLBV/3 l
ij
(3)
0 x TEMPERATURE
RKSLBV/4 T
l,lower
0 x TEMPERATURE
RKSLBV/5 T
l,upper
1000 x TEMPERATURE
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 41
References
G. Soave, "Equilibrium Constants for Modified Redlich-Kwong Equation-of-
state," Chem. Eng. Sci., Vol. 27, (1972), pp. 1196 1203.
J. Schwartzentruber and H. Renon, "Extension of UNIFAC to High Pressures
and Temperatures by the Use of a Cubic Equation-of-state," Ind. Eng. Chem.
Res., Vol. 28, (1989), pp. 1049 1955.
A. Peneloux, E. Rauzy, and R. Freze, "A Consistent Correction For Redlich-
Kwong-Soave Volumes", Fluid Phase Eq., Vol. 8, (1982), pp. 723.
Redlich-Kwong-Soave-Boston-Mathias
The Redlich-Kwong-Soave-Boston-Mathias equation-of-state is the basis for
the RKS-BM property method. It is the Redlich-Kwong-Soave equation-of-
state with the Boston-Mathias alpha function (see Soave Alpha Functions). It
is recommended for hydrocarbon processing applications, such as gas-
processing, refinery, and petrochemical processes. Its results are comparable
to those of the Peng-Robinson-Boston-Mathias equation-of-state.
Note: You can choose any of the available alpha functions, but you cannot
define multiple property methods based on this model using different alpha
functions within the same run.
The equation is:
p =
Where:
a
0
is the standard quadratic mixing term:
a
1
is an additional, asymmetric (polar) term:
b =
a
i
=
b
i
=
k
ij
= k
ji
42 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
; ;
The parameter a
i
is calculated by the standard Soave formulation at
supercritical temperatures. If the component is supercritical, the Boston-
Mathias extrapolation is used (see Soave Alpha Functions).
The model uses option codes which are described in Soave-Redlich-Kwong
Option Codes.
For best results, binary parameters k
ij
must be determined from phase-
equilibrium data regression (for example, VLE data).
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
TCRKS T
ci
TC x 5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
PCRKS p
ci
PC x 10
5
10
8
PRESSURE
OMGRKS
e
i
OMEGA x -0.5 2.0
RKSKBV/1 k
ij
(1)
0 x -5.0 5.0
RKSKBV/2 k
ij
(2)
0 x TEMPERATURE
RKSKBV/3 k
ij
(3)
0 x TEMPERATURE
RKSKBV/4 T
k,lower
0 x TEMPERATURE
RKSKBV/5 T
k,upper
1000 x TEMPERATURE
RKSLBV/1 l
ij
(1)
0 x
RKSLBV/2 l
ij
(2)
0 x TEMPERATURE
RKSLBV/3 l
ij
(3)
0 x TEMPERATURE
RKSLBV/4 T
l,lower
0 x TEMPERATURE
RKSLBV/5 T
l,upper
1000 x TEMPERATURE
References
G. Soave, "Equilibrium Constants for Modified Redlich-Kwong Equation-of-
state," Chem. Eng. Sci., Vol. 27, (1972), pp. 1196 1203.
Redlich-Kwong-Soave-Wong-Sandler
This equation-of-state model uses the Redlich-Kwong-Soave equation-of-state
for pure compounds. The predictive Wong-Sandler mixing rules are used.
Several alpha functions can be used in the Redlich-Kwong-Soave-Wong-
Sandler equation-of-state model for a more accurate description of the pure
component behavior. The pure component behavior and parameter
requirements are described in Standard Redlich-Kwong-Soave, and in Soave
Alpha Functions.
Note: You can choose any of the available alpha functions, but you cannot
define multiple property methods based on this model using different alpha
functions within the same run.
The Wong-Sandler mixing rules are an example of modified Huron-Vidal
mixing rules. A brief introduction is provided in Huron-Vidal Mixing Rules. For
more details, see Wong-Sandler Mixing Rules.
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 43
Redlich-Kwong-Soave-MHV2
This equation-of-state model uses the Redlich-Kwong-Soave equation-of-state
for pure compounds. The predictive MHV2 mixing rules are used. Several
alpha functions can be used in the RK-Soave-MHV2 equation-of-state model
for a more accurate description of the pure component behavior. The pure
component behavior and its parameter requirements are described in
Standard Redlich-Kwong-Soave, and in Soave Alpha Functions.
Note: You can choose any of the available alpha functions, but you cannot
define multiple property methods based on this model using different alpha
functions within the same run.
The MHV2 mixing rules are an example of modified Huron-Vidal mixing rules.
A brief introduction is provided in Huron-Vidal Mixing Rules. For more details,
see MHV2 Mixing Rules.
Schwartzentruber-Renon
The Schwartzentruber-Renon equation-of-state is the basis for the SR-POLAR
property method. It can be used to model chemically nonideal systems with
the same accuracy as activity coefficient property methods, such as the
WILSON property method. This equation-of-state is recommended for highly
non-ideal systems at high temperatures and pressures, such as in methanol
synthesis and supercritical extraction applications.
The equation for the model is:
p =
Where:
a =
b =
c =
a
i
=
b
i
=
c
i
=
k
a,ij
=
l
ij
=
44 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
k
b,ij
=
k
a,ij
= k
a,ji
l
ij
= -l
ji
k
b,ij
= k
b,ji
The binary parameters k
a,ij
, k
b,ij
, and l
ij
are temperature-dependent. In most
cases, k
a,ij
0
and l
ij
0
are sufficient to represent the system of interest.
VLE calculations are independent of c. However, c does influence the fugacity
values and can be adjusted to (liquid) molar volumes. For a wide temperature
range, adjust c
io
to the molar volume at 298.15K or at boiling temperature.
Warning: Using c
1i
and c
2i
can cause anomalous behavior in enthalpy and
heat capacity. Their use is strongly discouraged.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
TCRKU T
ci
TC x 5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
PCRKU p
ci
PC x 105 108 PRESSURE
OMGRKU
e
i
OMEGA x -0.5 2.0
RKUPP0 q
0i
x
RKUPP1 q
1i
0 x
RKUPP2 q
2i
0 x
RKUC0 c
0i
0 x
RKUC1 c
1i
0 x
RKUC2 c
2i
0 x
RKUKA0 k
a,ij
0
0 x
RKUKA1 k
a,ij
1
0 x TEMPERATURE
RKUKA2 k
a,ij
2
0 x TEMPERATURE
RKULA0 l
ij
0
0 x
RKULA1 l
ij
1
0 x TEMPERATURE
RKULA2 l
ij
2
0 x TEMPERATURE
RKUKB0 k
b,ij
0
0 x
RKUKB1 k
b,ij
1
0 x TEMPERATURE
RKUKB2 k
b,ij
2
0 x TEMPERATURE
Absolute temperature units are assumed for k
a,ij
2
, l
ij
2
, and k
b,ij
2
.
For polar components (dipole moment >> 0), if you do not enter q
0i
, the
system estimates q
0i
, q
1i
, q
2i
from vapor pressures using the Antoine vapor
pressure model.
If you do not enter at least one of the binary parameters k
a,ij
0
, k
a,ij
2
, l
ij
0
,
l
ij
2
, k
b,ij
0
, or k
b,ij
2
the system estimates k
a,ij
0
, k
a,ij
2
, l
ij
0
, and l
ij
2
from the UNIFAC
or Hayden O'Connell models.
References
G. Soave, "Equilibrium Constants for Modified Redlich-Kwong Equation-of-
state," Chem. Eng. Sci., Vol. 27, (1972), pp. 1196 - 1203.
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 45
J. Schwartzentruber and H. Renon, "Extension of UNIFAC to High Pressures
and Temperatures by the Use of a Cubic Equation-of-State," Ind. Eng. Chem.
Res., Vol. 28, (1989), pp. 1049 1955.
A. Peneloux, E. Rauzy, and R. Freze, "A Consistent Correction For Redlich-
Kwong-Soave Volumes", Fluid Phase Eq., Vol. 8, (1982), pp. 723.
Soave-Redlich-Kwong
The Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation-of-state is the basis of the SRK property
method. This model is based on the same equation of state as the Redlich-
Kwong-Soave model. However, this model has several important differences.
- A volume translation concept introduced by Peneloux and Rauzy is used to
improve molar liquid volume calculated from the cubic equation of state.
- Improvement in water properties is achieved by using the NBS Steam
Table.
- Improvement in speed of computation for equation based calculation is
achieved by using composition independent fugacity.
- Optional Kabadi-Danner mixing rules for improved phase equilibrium
calculations in water-hydrocarbon systems (see SRK-Kabadi-Danner)
- Optional Mathias alpha function
Note: You can choose any of the available alpha functions, but you cannot
define multiple property methods based on this model using different alpha
functions within the same run.
This equation-of-state can be used for hydrocarbon systems that include the
common light gases, such as H
2
S, CO
2
and N
2
.
The form of the equation-of-state is:
Where:
a
0
is the standard quadratic mixing term:
Where:
;
a
1
is an additional, asymmetric (polar) term:
46 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Where:
; ;
The enthalpy, entropy, Gibbs energy, and molar volume of water are
calculated from the steam tables. The total properties are mole-fraction
averages of these values with the properties calculated by the equation of
state for other components. Fugacity coefficient is not affected.
For best results, the binary parameter k
ij
must be determined from phase
equilibrium data regression (for example, VLE data). The Aspen Physical
Property System also has built-in k
ij
for a large number of component pairs in
the SRK-ASPEN databank. These parameters are used automatically with the
SRK property method. Values of k
ij
in the databank can be different than
those used with other models such as Standard Redlich-Kwong-Soave or
Standard Redlich-Kwong-Soave, and this can produce different results.
The model uses option codes which are described in Soave-Redlich-Kwong
Option Codes.
Parameter
Name/
Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
SRKTC T
ci
TC x 5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
SRKPC p
ci
PC x 10
5
10
8
PRESSURE
SRKOMG
e
i
OMEGA x 0.5 2.0
SRKZRA z
RA
RKTZRA x
SRKKIJ/1 k
ij
(1)
0 x
SRKKIJ/2 k
ij
(2)
0 x TEMPERATURE
SRKKIJ/3 k
ij
(3)
0 x TEMPERATURE
SRKKIJ/4 T
lower
0 x TEMPERATURE
SRKKIJ/5 T
upper
1000 x TEMPERATURE
SRKLIJ/1 l
ij
(1)
0 x
SRKLIJ/2 l
ij
(2)
0 x TEMPERATURE
SRKLIJ/3 l
ij
(3)
0 x TEMPERATURE
SRKLIJ/4 T
lower
0 x TEMPERATURE
SRKLIJ/5 T
upper
1000 x TEMPERATURE
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 47
References
G. Soave, "Equilibrium Constants for Modified Redlich-Kwong Equation-of-
state," Chem. Eng. Sci., Vol. 27, (1972), pp. 1196 - 1203.
A. Peneloux, E. Rauzy, and R. Freze, "A Consistent Correction For Redlich-
Kwong-Soave Volumes", Fluid Phase Eq., Vol. 8, (1982), pp. 723.
P.M. Mathias, H.C. Klotz, and J.M. Prausnitz, "Equation of state mixing rules
for multicomponent mixtures: the problem of invariance," Fluid Phase
Equilibria, Vol 67, (1991), pp. 31-44.
SRK-Kabadi-Danner
The SRK-Kabadi-Danner property model uses the SRK equation-of-state with
improved phase equilibrium calculations for mixtures containing water and
hydrocarbons. These improvements are achieved by using the Kabadi-Danner
mixing rules.
The form of the equation-of-state is:
Where:
a
0
is the standard quadratic mixing term:
Where:
;
The best values of k
wj
(w = water) were obtained from experimental data.
Results are given for seven homologous series.
Best Fit Values of k
wj
for Different Homologous Series
with Water
Homologous series k
wj
Alkanes 0.500
Alkenes 0.393
Dialkenes 0.311
Acetylenes 0.348
Naphthenes 0.445
Cycloalkenes 0.355
Aromatics 0.315
a
KD
is the Kabadi-Danner term for water:
48 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Where:
G
i
is the sum of the group contributions of different groups which make up a
molecule of hydrocarbon i.
g
l
is the group contribution parameter for groups constituting hydrocarbons.
Groups Constituting Hydrocarbons and Their Group
Contribution Parameters
Group l g
l
, atm m
6
x 10
5
CH4 1.3580
CH3 0.9822
CH2 1.0780
> CH 0.9728
> C < 0.8687
CH2 (cyclic) 0.7488
> CH (cyclic) 0.7352
CH = CH (cyclic) 0.6180
CH2 = CH2 1.7940
CH2 = CH 1.3450
CH2 = C< 0.9066
CH CH 1.6870
CH C 1.1811
CH = 0.5117
> C = (aromatic) 0.3902
This value is obtained from very little data. Might not be reliable.
The model uses option codes which are described in Soave-Redlich-Kwong
Option Codes.
SRK-Kabadi-Danner uses the same parameters as SRK, with added
interaction parameters. Do not specify values for the SRKLIJ parameters
when using SRK-KD.
Parameter
Name/
Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
SRKTC T
ci
TC x 5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
SRKPC p
ci
PC x 10
5
10
8
PRESSURE
SRKOMG e
i
OMEGA x 0.5 2.0
SRKWF G
i
0 x
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 49
Parameter
Name/
Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
SRKZRA z
RA
RKTZRA x
SRKKIJ/1 k
ij
(1)
0 x
SRKKIJ/2 k
ij
(2)
0 x TEMPERATURE
SRKKIJ/3 k
ij
(3)
0 x TEMPERATURE
SRKKIJ/4 T
lower
0 x TEMPERATURE
SRKKIJ/5 T
upper
0 x TEMPERATURE
References
V. Kabadi and R. P. Danner, "A Modified Soave-Redlich-Kwong Equation of
State for Water-Hydrocarbon Phase Equilibria", Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des.
Dev., Vol. 24, No. 3, (1985), pp. 537-541.
SRK-ML
The SRK-ML property model is the same as the standard Soave-Redlich-
Kwong model with two exceptions:
- k
ij
may not equal k
ji
; they are unsymmetric, and a different set of
parameters are used, as shown below.
- The l
ij
are calculated from the equation l
ij
= k
ji
- k
ij
Parameter
Name/
Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
SRKTCML T
ci
TC x 5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
SRKPCML p
ci
PC x 10
5
10
8
PRESSURE
SRKOMGML
e
i
OMEGA x 0.5 2.0
SRKZRAML z
RA
RKTZRA x
SRKKIJML/1 k
ij
(1)
0 x
SRKKIJML/2 k
ij
(2)
0 x TEMPERATURE
SRKKIJML/3 k
ij
(3)
0 x TEMPERATURE
SRKKIJML/4 T
lower
0 x TEMPERATURE
SRKKIJML/5 T
upper
1000 x TEMPERATURE
VPA/IK-CAPE Equation-of-State
The VPA/IK-CAPE equation of state is similar to the HF equation of state but
allows dimerization, tetramerization and hexamerization to occur
simultaneously. The main assumption of the model is that only molecular
association causes the gas phase nonideality. Attractive forces between the
molecules and the complexes are neglected.
There are three kinds of associations, which can be modeled:
- Dimerization (examples: formic acid, acetic acid)
50 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
- Tetramerization (example: acetic acid)
- Hexamerization (example: hydrogen fluoride)
To get the largest possible flexibility of the model all these kinds of
association can occur simultaneously, for example, in a mixture containing
acetic acid and HF. Up to five components can associate, and any number of
inert components are allowed. This is the only difference between this model
and the HF equation of state, which account only the hexamerization of HF.
Symbols
In the following description, these symbols are used:
y
i
= Apparent concentration
z
in
= True concentration, for component i and degree of
association n=1, 2, 4, 6
z
Mij
= True concentration of cross-dimers of components i
and j, for i,j 1 to 5.
p
0
= Reference pressure
k = Number of components
Association Equilibria
Every association equilibrium reaction
(1)
(2)
is described by the equilibrium constants
(3)
(4)
By setting
(5)
(6)
their temperature dependence can be reproduced.
To evaluate the true concentration of every complex z
in
, the following
nonlinear systems of equations are to be solved:
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 51
Total mass balance:
The sum of true concentrations is unity.
(7)
Mass balance for every component i>1:
The ratio of the monomers of each component i>1 and component i=1
occurring in the various complexes must be equal to the ratio of their
apparent concentrations.
(8)
Thus, a system of k nonlinear equations for k unknowns z
i1
has been
developed. After having solved it, all the z
in
and z
Mij
can be determined using
equations (3, 4). This is the main step to evaluate all the properties needed
for a calculation.
Specific Volume of the Gas Phase
The compressibility factor is defined by the ratio between the number of
complexes and the number of monomers in the complexes.
(9)
The compressibility factor itself is
(10)
Fugacity Coefficient
As is well-known from thermodynamics, the fugacity coefficient can be
calculated by
52 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
(11)
Isothermal Enthalpy Departure
According to the ASPEN enthalpy model, an equation of state must supply an
expression to compute the isothermal molar enthalpy departure between zero
pressure and actual pressure. In the following section this enthalpy
contribution per mole monomers is abbreviated by Ah
a
.
Taking this sort of gas phase non-ideality into account, the specific enthalpy
per mole can be written as
(12)
with
(13)
to evaluate Ah
a
, a mixture consisting of N monomers integrated in the
complexes is considered. The quota of monomers i being integrated in a
complex of degree n is given by
(14)
and
(16)
respectively. For the reactions mentioned above:
(1)
(2)
the enthalpies of reaction are
(17)
(18)
as the van't Hoff equation
(19)
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 53
holds for this case.
For each monomer being integrated in a complex of degree n, its contribution
to the enthalpy departure is Ah
in
/ n or Ah
Mij
/ 2, respectively. Hence, Ah
a
can
easily be derived by
(20)
Isothermal entropy and Gibbs energy departure:
A similar expression for Ag
a
should hold as it does for the enthalpy departure
(eq. 20):
(21)
using
(22)
and
(23)
(24)
Using the association model, more different species occur than can be
distinguished. Thus, the equivalent expression for the entropy of mixing
should be written with the true concentrations. As eq. 24 refers to 1 mole
monomers, the expression should be weighted by the compressibility factor
representing the true number of moles. The new expression is
(25)
For Ag
a
we obtain
(26)
and, analogously,
(27)
54 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
DMER/1 A
i2
0 X
DMER/2 B
i2
0 X TEMPERATURE
TMER/1 A
i4
0 X
TMER/2 B
i4
0 X TEMPERATURE
HMER/1 A
i6
0 X
HMER/2 B
i6
0 X TEMPERATURE
References
M. M. Abbott and H. C. van Ness, "Thermodynamics of Solutions Containing
Reactive Species, a Guide to Fundamentals and Applications," Fluid Phase Eq.,
Vol. 77, (1992) pp. 53119.
V. V. De Leeuw and S. Watanasiri, "Modeling Phase Equilibria and Enthalpies
of the System Water and Hydrofluoric Acid Using an HF Equation-of-state in
Conjunction with the Electrolyte NRTL Activity Coefficient Model," Paper
Presented at the 13th European Seminar on Applied Thermodynamics, June
912, Carry-le-Rouet, France, 1993.
R. W. Long, J. H. Hildebrand, and W. E. Morrell, "The Polymerization of
Gaseous Hydrogen and Deuterium Fluorides," J. Am. Chem. Soc., Vol. 65,
(1943), pp. 182187.
C. E. Vanderzee and W. Wm. Rodenburg, "Gas Imperfections and
Thermodynamic Excess Properties of Gaseous Hydrogen Fluoride," J. Chem.
Thermodynamics, Vol. 2, (1970), pp. 461478.
Peng-Robinson Alpha Functions
The pure component parameters for the Peng-Robinson equation-of-state are
calculated as follows:
(1)
(2)
These expressions are derived by applying the critical constraints to the
equation-of-state under these conditions:
(3)
The parameter o is a temperature function. It was originally introduced by
Soave in the Redlich-Kwong equation-of-state. This parameter improves the
correlation of the pure component vapor pressure.
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 55
Note: You can choose any of the alpha functions described here, but you
cannot define multiple property methods based on this model using different
alpha functions within the same run.
This approach was also adopted by Peng and Robinson:
(4)
Equation 3 is still represented. The parameter m
i
can be correlated with the
acentric factor:
(5)
Equations 1 through 5 are the standard Peng-Robinson formulation. The
Peng-Robinson alpha function is adequate for hydrocarbons and other
nonpolar compounds, but is not sufficiently accurate for polar compounds.
Note: Reduced temperature T
r
is always calculated using absolute
temperature units.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
TCPR T
ci
TC X 5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
PCPR p
ci
PC X 10
5
10
8
PRESSURE
OMGPR
e
i
OMEGA X -0.5 2.0
Boston-Mathias Extrapolation
For light gases at high reduced temperatures (> 5), equation 4 gives
unrealistic results. The boundary conditions are that attraction between
molecules should vanish for extremely high temperatures, and o reduces
asymptotically to zero. Boston and Mathias derived an alternative function for
temperatures higher than critical:
(6)
With
=
=
Where m
i
is computed by equation 5, and equation 4 is used for subcritical
temperatures. Additional parameters are not needed.
Extended Gibbons-Laughton Alpha Function
The extended Gibbons-Laughton alpha function is suitable for use with both
polar and nonpolar components. It has the flexibility to fit the vapor pressure
of most substances from the triple point to the critical point.
56 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Where T
r
is the reduced temperature; X
i
, Y
i
and Z
i
are substance dependent
parameters.
This function is equivalent to the standard Peng-Robinson alpha function if
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
PRGLP/1 X X
PRGLP/2 Y 0 X
PRGLP/3 Z 0 X
PRGLP/4 n 2 X
PRGLP/5 T
lower
0 X TEMPERATURE
PRGLP/6 T
upper
1000 X TEMPERATURE
Twu Generalized Alpha Function
The Twu generalized alpha function is a theoretically-based function that is
currently recognized as the best available alpha function. It behaves better
than other functions at supercritical conditions (T > T
c
) and when the acentric
factor is large. The improved behavior at high values of acentric factor is
important for high molecular weight pseudocomponents. There is no limit on
the minimum value of acentric factor that can be used with this function.
Where the L, M, and N are parameters that vary depending on the equation of
state and whether the temperature is above or below the critical temperature
of the component.
For Peng-Robinson equation of state:
Subcritical T Supercritical T
L
(0)
0.272838 0.373949
M
(0)
0.924779 4.73020
N
(0)
1.19764 -0.200000
L
(1)
0.625701 0.0239035
M
(1)
0.792014 1.24615
N
(1)
2.46022 -8.000000
Twu Alpha Function
The Twu alpha function is a theoretically-based function that is currently
recognized as the best available alpha function. It behaves better than other
functions at supercritical conditions (T > T
c
).
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 57
Where the L, M, and N are substance-dependent parameters that must be
determined from regression of pure-component vapor pressure data or other
data such as liquid heat capacity.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
PRTWUP/1 L X
PRTWUP/2 M 0 X
PRTWUP/3 N 0 X
Mathias-Copeman Alpha Function
This is an extension of the Peng-Robinson alpha function which provides a
more accurate fit of vapor pressure for polar compounds.
(7)
For c
2,i
= 0 and c
3,i
= 0, this expression reduces to the standard Peng-
Robinson formulation if c
2,i
= m
i
. You can use vapor pressure data if the
temperature is subcritical to regress the constants. If the temperature is
supercritical, c
2,i
and c
3,i
are set to 0.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
TCPR T
ci
TC X 5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
PCPR p
ci
PC X 10
5
10
8
PRESSURE
PRMCP/1 c
1,i
X
PRMCP/2 c
2,i
0 X
PRMCP/3 c
3,i
0 X
Schwartzentruber-Renon-Watanasiri Alpha Function
The Schwartzentruber-Renon-Watanasiri alpha function is:
(8)
Where m
i
is computed by equation 5. The polar parameters p
1,i
, p
2,i
and p
3,i
are comparable with the c parameters of the Mathias-Copeman expression.
Equation 8 reduces to the standard Peng-Robinson formulation if the polar
parameters are zero. Equation 8 is used only for below-critical temperatures.
For above-critical temperatures, the Boston-Mathias extrapolation is used.
Use equation 6 with:
(9)
(10)
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
TCPR T
ci
TC X 5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
PCPR p
ci
PC X 10
5
10
8
PRESSURE
58 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
OMGPR
e
i
OMEGA X -0.5 2.0
PRSRP/1 X
PRSRP/2 0 X
PRSRP/3 0 X
Use of Alpha Functions
The alpha functions in Peng-Robinson-based equation-of-state models is
provided in the following table. You can verify and change the value of
possible option codes on the Properties | Property Methods | Model form.
Alpha function Model name First Option code
Standard Peng Robinson ESPRSTD0, ESPRSTD 1
Standard PR/
Boston-Mathias
ESPR0, ESPR
ESPRWS0, ESPRWS
ESPRV20, ESPRV2
0
0
0
Extended Gibbons-
Laughton
ESPR0, ESPR 2
Twu Generalized alpha
function
ESPR0, ESPR 3
Twu alpha function ESPR0, ESPR 4
Mathias-Copeman ESPRWS0, ESPRWS
ESPRV20, ESPRV2
2
2
Schwartzentruber-
Renon-
Watanasiri
ESPRWS0, ESPRWS
ESPRV20, ESPRV2
3 (default)
3 (default)
References
J. F. Boston and P.M. Mathias, "Phase Equilibria in a Third-Generation Process
Simulator" in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Phase
Equilibria and Fluid Properties in the Chemical Process Industries, West Berlin,
(17-21 March 1980) pp. 823-849.
D.-Y. Peng and D.B. Robinson, "A New Two-Constant Equation-of-state," Ind.
Eng. Chem. Fundam., Vol. 15, (1976), pp. 59-64.
P.M. Mathias and T.W. Copeman, "Extension of the Peng-Robinson Equation-
of-state To Complex Mixtures: Evaluation of the Various Forms of the Local
Composition Concept",Fluid Phase Eq., Vol. 13, (1983), p. 91.
J. Schwartzentruber, H. Renon, and S. Watanasiri, "K-values for Non-Ideal
Systems:An Easier Way," Chem. Eng., March 1990, pp. 118-124.
G. Soave, "Equilibrium Constants for a Modified Redlich-Kwong Equation-of-
state," Chem Eng. Sci., Vol. 27, (1972), pp. 1196-1203.
C.H. Twu, J. E. Coon, and J.R. Cunningham, "A New Cubic Equation of State,"
Fluid Phase Equilib., Vol. 75, (1992), pp. 65-79.
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 59
C.H. Twu, D. Bluck, J.R. Cunningham, and J.E. Coon, "A Cubic Equation of
State with a New Alpha Function and a New Mixing Rule," Fluid Phase Equilib.,
Vol. 69, (1991), pp. 33-50.
Soave Alpha Functions
The pure component parameters for the Redlich-Kwong equation-of-state are
calculated as:
(1)
(2)
These expressions are derived by applying the critical constraint to the
equation-of-state under these conditions:
(3)
Note: You can choose any of the alpha functions described here, but you
cannot define multiple property methods based on this model using different
alpha functions within the same run.
In the Redlich-Kwong equation-of-state, alpha is:
(4)
Note: Reduced temperature T
r
is always calculated using absolute
temperature units.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
TC T
ci
5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
PC p
ci
10
5
10
8
PRESSURE
Soave Modification
The parameter o
i
is a temperature function introduced by Soave in the
Redlich-Kwong equation-of-state to improve the correlation of the pure
component vapor pressure:
(5)
Equation 3 still holds. The parameter m
i
can be correlated with the acentric
factor:
(6)
Equations 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 are the standard Redlich-Kwong-Soave
formulation. The Soave alpha function is adequate for hydrocarbons and other
nonpolar compounds, but is not sufficiently accurate for polar compounds.
60 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
TCRKS T
ci
TC X 5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
PCRKS p
ci
PC X 10
5
10
8
PRESSURE
OMGRKS e
i
OMEGA X -0.5 2.0
Boston-Mathias Extrapolation
For light gases at high reduced temperatures (> 5), equation 5 gives
unrealistic results. The boundary conditions are that attraction between
molecules should vanish for extremely high temperatures, and reduces
asymptotically to zero. Boston and Mathias derived an alternative function for
temperatures higher than critical:
(7)
With
d
i
=
c
i
=
Where:
m
i
= Computed by equation 6
Equation 5 = Used for subcritical temperatures
Additional parameters are not needed.
Mathias Alpha Function
This is an extension of the Soave alpha function which provides a more
accurate fit of vapor pressure for polar compounds.
(8)
For q
i
=0, equation 8 reduces to the standard Redlich-Kwong-Soave
formulation, equations 5 and 6. For temperatures above critical, the Boston-
Mathias extrapolation is used, that is, equation 7 with:
(9)
(10)
The Mathias alpha function is used in the Redlich-Kwong-Aspen model, which
is the basis for the RK-ASPEN property method. This alpha function is also
available as an option for SRK, SRKKD, SRK-ML, RK-SOAVE, and RKS-BM.
See Soave-Redlich-Kwong Option Codes for more information.
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 61
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
TCRKA T
ci
TC X 5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
PCRKA p
ci
PC X 10
5
10
8
PRESSURE
OMGRKA e
i
OMEGA X -0.5 2.0
q
i
X -2.0 2.0
RKAPOL for Redlich-Kwong-Aspen, SRKPOL for SRK and SRKKD, SRKMLP for
SRK-ML, RKSPOL for RKS-BM, or RKSSPO for RK-SOAVE.
Extended Mathias Alpha Function
An extension of the Mathias approach is:
(11)
Where m
i
is computed by equation 6. If the polar parameters p
1,i
, p
2,i
and p
3,i
are zero, equation 11 reduces to the standard Redlich-Kwong-Soave
formulation. You can use vapor pressure data to regress the constants if the
temperature is subcritical. Equation 11 is used only for temperatures below
critical.
The Boston-Mathias extrapolation is used for temperatures above critical, that
is, with:
(12)
(13)
This alpha function is used in the Redlich-Kwong-UNIFAC model which is the
basis for the SR-POLAR property method.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
TCRKU T
ci
TC X 5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
PCRKU p
ci
PC X 10
5
10
8
PRESSURE
OMGRKU e
i
OMEGA X -0.5 2.0
RKUPP0 p
1,i
X
RKUPP1 p
2,i
0 X
RKUPP2 p
3,i
0 X
Mathias-Copeman Alpha Function
The Mathias-Copeman alpha function is suitable for use with both polar and
nonpolar components. It has the flexibility to fit the vapor pressure of most
substances from the triple point to the critical point.
(14)
For c
2,i
=0 and c
3,i
=0 this expression reduces to the standard Redlich-Kwong-
Soave formulation if c
1,i
=m
i
. If the temperature is subcritical, use vapor
62 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
pressure data to regress the constants. If the temperature is supercritical, set
c
2,i
and c
3,i
to 0.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
TCRKS T
ci
TC X 5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
PCRKS p
ci
PC X 10
5
10
8
PRESSURE
RKSMCP/1 c
1,i
X
RKSMCP/2 c
2,i
0 X
RKSMCP/3 c
3,i
0 X
Schwartzentruber-Renon-Watanasiri Alpha Function
The Schwartzentruber-Renon-Watanasiri alpha function is:
(15)
Where m
i
is computed by equation 6 and the polar parameters p
1,i
, p
2,i
and p
3,i
are comparable with the c parameters of the Mathias-Copeman expression.
Equation 15 reduces to the standard Redlich-Kwong-Soave formulation if the
polar parameters are zero. Equation 15 is very similar to the extended
Mathias equation, but it is easier to use in data regression. It is used only for
temperatures below critical. The Boston-Mathias extrapolation is used for
temperatures above critical, that is, use equation 7 with:
(16)
(17)
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
TCRKS T
ci
TC X 5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
PCRKS p
ci
PC X 10
5
10
8
PRESSURE
OMGRKS e
i
OMEGA X -0.5 2.0
RKSSRP/1 p
1,i
X
RKSSRP/2 p
2,i
0 X
RKSSRP/3 p
3,i
0 X
Extended Gibbons-Laughton Alpha Function
The extended Gibbons-Laughton alpha function is suitable for use with both
polar and nonpolar components. It has the flexibility to fit the vapor pressure
of most substances from the triple point to the critical point.
Where T
r
is the reduced temperature; X
i
, Y
i
and Z
i
are substance dependent
parameters.
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 63
This function is equivalent to the standard Soave alpha function if
This function is not intended for use in supercritical conditions. To avoid
predicting negative alpha, when T
ri
>1 the Boston-Mathias alpha function is
used instead.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
RKSGLP/1 X X
RKSGLP/2 Y 0 X
RKSGLP/3 Z 0 X
RKSGLP/4 n 2 X
RKSGLP/5 T
lower
0 X TEMPERATURE
RKSGLP/6 T
upper
1000 X TEMPERATURE
Twu Generalized Alpha Function
The Twu generalized alpha function is a theoretically-based function that is
currently recognized as the best available alpha function. It behaves better
than other functions at supercritical conditions (T > T
c
) and when the acentric
factor is large. The improved behavior at high values of acentric factor is
important for high molecular weight pseudocomponents. There is no limit on
the minimum value of acentric factor that can be used with this function.
Where the L, M, and N are parameters that vary depending on the equation of
state and whether the temperature is above or below the critical temperature
of the component.
For Soave-Redlich-Kwong:
Subcritical T Supercritical T
L
(0)
0.544000 0.379919
M
(0)
1.01309 5.67342
N
(0)
0.935995 -0.200000
L
(1)
0.544306 0.0319134
M
(1)
0.802404 1.28756
N
(1)
3.10835 -8.000000
Use of Alpha Functions
The use of alpha functions in Soave-Redlich-Kwong based equation-of-state
models is given in the following table. You can verify and change the value of
possible option codes on the Properties | Property Methods | Models
sheet.
Alpha Function Model Name First Option Code
64 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Alpha Function Model Name First Option Code
original RK ESRK0, ESRK
standard RKS ESRKSTD0, ESRKSTD
standard RKS/Boston-Mathias ESRKS0, ESRKS
ESRKSWS0, ESRKSWS
ESRKSV10, ESRKV1
ESRKSV20, ESRKSV2

1
1
1
Mathias/Boston-Mathias ESRKA0, ESRKA
Extended Mathias/Boston-
Mathias
ESRKU0, ESRKU
Mathias-Copeman ESRKSW0, ESRKSW
ESRKSV10, ESRKSV1
ESRKSV20, ESRKSV2
2
2
2
Schwartzentruber-Renon-
Watanasiri
ESPRWS0, ESPRWS
ESRKSV10, ESRKSV1
ESRKSV20, ESRKSV2
3 (default)
3 (default)
3 (default)
Twu generalized ESRKSTD0, ESRKSTD,
ESRKS, ESRKS0, ESSRK,
ESSRK0, ESRKSML,
ESRKSML0
5
Gibbons-Laughton with Patel
extension
ESRKSTD0, ESRKSTD,
ESRKS, ESRKS0, ESSRK,
ESSRK0, ESRKSML,
ESRKSML0
3
Mathias for T < Tc; Boston-
Mathias for T > Tc
ESRKSTD0, ESRKSTD,
ESRKS, ESRKS0, ESSRK,
ESSRK0, ESRKSML,
ESRKSML0
4
References
J. F. Boston and P.M. Mathias, "Phase Equilibria in a Third-Generation Process
Simulator" in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Phase
Equilibria and Fluid Properties in the Chemical Process Industries, West Berlin,
(17-21 March 1980), pp. 823-849.
P. M. Mathias, "A Versatile Phase Equilibrium Equation-of-state", Ind. Eng.
Chem. Process Des. Dev., Vol. 22, (1983), pp. 385391.
P.M. Mathias and T.W. Copeman, "Extension of the Peng-Robinson Equation-
of-state To Complex Mixtures: Evaluation of the Various Forms of the Local
Composition Concept", Fluid Phase Eq., Vol. 13, (1983), p. 91.
O. Redlich and J. N. S. Kwong, "On the Thermodynamics of Solutions V. An
Equation-of-state. Fugacities of Gaseous Solutions," Chem. Rev., Vol. 44,
(1949), pp. 223244.
J. Schwartzentruber and H. Renon, "Extension of UNIFAC to High Pressures
and Temperatures by the Use of a Cubic Equation-of-state," Ind. Eng. Chem.
Res., Vol. 28, (1989), pp. 10491055.
J. Schwartzentruber, H. Renon, and S. Watanasiri, "K-values for Non-Ideal
Systems:An Easier Way," Chem. Eng., March 1990, pp. 118-124.
G. Soave, "Equilibrium Constants for a Modified Redlich-Kwong Equation-of-
state," Chem Eng. Sci., Vol. 27, (1972), pp. 1196-1203.
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 65
C.H. Twu, W.D. Sim, and V. Tassone, "Getting a Handle on Advanced Cubic
Equations of State", Chemical Engineering Progress, Vol. 98 #11 (November
2002) pp. 58-65.
Huron-Vidal Mixing Rules
Huron and Vidal (1979) used a simple thermodynamic relationship to equate
the excess Gibbs energy to expressions for the fugacity coefficient as
computed by equations of state:
(1)
Equation 1 is valid at any pressure, but cannot be evaluated unless some
assumptions are made. If Equation 1 is evaluated at infinite pressure, the
mixture must be liquid-like and extremely dense. It can be assumed that:
(2)
(3)
Using equations 2 and 3 in equation 1 results in an expression for a/b that
contains the excess Gibbs energy at an infinite pressure:
(4)
Where:
(5)
The parameters
1
and
2
depend on the equation-of-state used. In general a
cubic equation-of-state can be written as:
(6)
Values for
1
and
2
for the Peng-Robinson and the Soave-Redlich-Kwong
equations of state are:
Equation-of-state

1

2
Peng-Robinson
Redlich-Kwong-Soave 1 0
This expression can be used at any pressure as a mixing rule for the
parameter. The mixing rule for b is fixed by equation 3. Even when used at
other pressures, this expression contains the excess Gibbs energy at infinite
pressure. You can use any activity coeffecient model to evaluate the excess
Gibbs energy at infinite pressure. Binary interaction coefficients must be
regressed. The mixing rule used contains as many binary parameters as the
activity coefficient model chosen.
66 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
This mixing rule has been used successfully for polar mixtures at high
pressures, such as systems containing light gases. In theory, any activity
coefficient model can be used. But the NRTL equation (as modified by Huron
and Vidal) has demonstrated better performance.
The Huron-Vidal mixing rules combine extreme flexibility with thermodynamic
consistency, unlike many other mole-fraction-dependent equation-of-state
mixing rules. The Huron-Vidal mixing rules do not allow flexibility in the
description of the excess molar volume, but always predict reasonable excess
volumes.
The Huron-Vidal mixing rules are theoretically incorrect for low pressure,
because quadratic mole fraction dependence of the second virial coefficient (if
derived from the equation-of-state) is not preserved. Since equations of state
are primarily used at high pressure, the practical consequences of this
drawback are minimal.
The Gibbs energy at infinite pressure and the Gibbs energy at an arbitrary
high pressure are similar. But the correspondence is not close enough to
make the mixing rule predictive.
There are several methods for modifying the Huron-Vidal mixing rule to make
it more predictive. The following three methods are used in Aspen Physical
Property System equation-of-state models:
- The modified Huron-Vidal mixing rule, second order approximation
(MHV2)
- The Predictive SRK Method (PSRK)
- The Wong-Sandler modified Huron-Vidal mixing rule (WS)
These mixing rules are discussed separately in the following sections. They
have major advantages over other composition-dependent equation-of-state
mixing rules.
References
M.- J. Huron and J. Vidal, "New Mixing Rules in Simple Equations of State for
representing Vapour-liquid equilibria of strongly non-ideal mixtures," Fluid
Phase Eq., Vol. 3, (1979), pp. 255-271.
MHV2 Mixing Rules
Dahl and Michelsen (1990) use a thermodynamic relationship between excess
Gibbs energy and the fugacity computed by equations of state. This
relationship is equivalent to the one used by Huron and Vidal:
(1)
The advantage is that the expressions for mixture and pure component
fugacities do not contain the pressure. They are functions of compacity V/b
and o:
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 67
(2)
Where:
(3)
and
(4)
With:
(5)
The constants
1
and
2
, which depend only on the equation-of-state (see
Huron-Vidal Mixing Rules) occur in equations 2 and 4.
Instead of using infinite pressure for simplification of equation 1, the condition
of zero pressure is used. At p = 0 an exact relationship between the
compacity and o can be derived. By substitution the simplified equation q(o)
is obtained, and equation 1 becomes:
(6)
However, q(o) can only be written explicitly for o = 5.8. Only an
approximation is possible below that threshold. Dahl and Michelsen use a
second order polynomial fitted to the analytical solution for 10 < o < 13 that
can be extrapolated to low alpha:
(7)
Since q(o)is a universal function (for each equation-of-state), the
combination of equations 6 and 7 form the MHV2 mixing rule. Excess Gibbs
energies, from any activity coefficient model with parameters optimized at
low pressures, can be used to determine o, if o
i
, b
i
, and b are known. To
compute b, a linear mixing rule is assumed as in the original Huron-Vidal
mixing rules:
(8)
This equation is equivalent to the assumption of zero excess molar volume.
The MHV2 mixing rule was the first successful predictive mixing rule for
equations of state. This mixing rule uses previously determined activity
coefficient parameters for predictions at high pressures. UNIFAC was chosen
as a default for its predictive character. The Lyngby modified UNIFAC
formulation was chosen for optimum performance (see UNIFAC (Lyngby
68 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Modified)). However, any activity coefficient model can be used when its
binary interaction parameters are known.
Like the Huron-Vidal mixing rules, the MHV2 mixing rules are not flexible in
the description of the excess molar volume. The MHV2 mixing rules are
theoretically incorrect at the low pressure limit. But the practical
consequences of this drawback are minimal (see Huron-Vidal Mixing Rules,
this chapter).
Reference: S. Dahl and M.L. Michelsen, "High-Pressure Vapor-Liquid
Equilibrium with a UNIFAC-based Equation-of-state," AIChE J., Vol. 36,
(1990), pp. 1829-1836.
Predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong-Gmehling
Mixing Rules
These mixing rules by Holderbaum and Gmehling (1991) use a relationship
between the excess Helmholtz energy and equation-of-state. They do not use
a relationship between equation-of-state properties and excess Gibbs energy,
as in the Huron-Vidal mixing rules. The pressure-explicit expression for the
equation-of-state is substituted in the thermodynamic equation:
(1)
The Helmholtz energy is calculated by integration. A
E
is obtained by:
(2)
Where both A
i
* and A
m
are calculated by using equation 1. A
i
* and A
m
are
written in terms of equation-of-state parameters.
The simplification of constant packing fraction (V
m
/ b) is used:
(3)
With:
(4)
Therefore:
(5)
The mixing rule is:
(6)
Where A' is slightly different from A for the Huron-Vidal mixing rule:
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 69
(7)
Where
1
and
2
, depend on the equation-of-state (see Huron-Vidal Mixing
Rules). If equation 6 is applied at infinite pressure, the packing fraction goes
to 1. The excess Helmholtz energy is equal to the excess Gibbs energy. The
Huron-Vidal mixing rules are recovered.
The goal of these mixing rules is to be able to use binary interaction
parameters for activity coefficient models at any pressure. These parameters
have been optimized at low pressures. UNIFAC is chosen for its predictive
character. Two issues exist: the packing fraction is not equal to one, and the
excess Gibbs and Helmholtz energy are not equal at the low pressure where
the UNIFAC parameters have been derived.
Fischer (1993) determined that boiling point, the average packing fraction for
about 80 different liquids with different chemical natures was 1.1. Adopting
this value, the difference between liquid excess Gibbs energy and liquid
excess Helmholtz energy can be computed as:
(8)
The result is a predictive mixing rule for cubic equations of state. But the
original UNIFAC formulation gives the best performance for any binary pair
with interactions available from UNIFAC. Gas-solvent interactions are
unavailable.
At the University of Oldenburg in Germany, the UNIFAC groups were
extended with often-occurring gases. New group interactions were
determined from gas-solvent data, specific to the Redlich-Kwong-Soave
equation-of-state. The new built-in parameters to the Aspen Physical Property
System are activated when using the PSRK equation-of-state model.
The PSRK method has a lot in common with the Huron-Vidal mixing rules. The
mole fraction is dependent on the second virial coefficient and excess volume
is predicted. These are minor disadvantages.
References
K. Fischer, "Die PSRK-Methode: Eine Zustandsgleichung unter Verwendung
des UNIFAC-Gruppenbeitragsmodells," (Dsseldorf: VDI Fortschrittberichte,
Reihe 3: Verfahrenstechnik, Nr. 324, VDI Verlag GmbH, 1993).
T. Holderbaum and J. Gmehling, "PSRK: A Group Contribution Equation-of-
state based on UNIFAC," Fluid Phase Eq., Vol. 70, (1991), pp. 251-265.
70 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Wong-Sandler Mixing Rules
These mixing rules use a relationship between the excess Helmholtz energy
and equation-of-state. They do not use a relationship between equation-of-
state properties and excess Gibbs energy, as in the Huron-Vidal mixing rules.
The pressure-explicit expression for the equation-of-state is substituted in the
thermodynamic equation:
(1)
The Helmholtz energy is obtained by integration, A
E
is obtained by:
(2)
Where both A
i
* and A
m
are calculated by using equation 1. A
i
* and A
m
are
written in terms of equation-of-state parameters.
Like Huron and Vidal, the limiting case of infinite pressure is used. This
simplifies the expressions for A
i
* and A
m
. Equation 2 becomes:
(3)
Where A depends on the equation-of-state (see Huron-Vidal Mixing Rules).
Equation 3 is completely analogous to the Huron-Vidal mixing rule for the
excess Gibbs energy at infinite pressure. (See equation 4, Huron-Vidal Mixing
Rules.) The excess Helmholtz energy can be approximated by the excess
Gibbs energy at low pressure from any liquid activity coefficient model. Using
the Helmholtz energy permits another mixing rule for b than the linear mixing
rule. The mixing rule for b is derived as follows. The second virial coefficient
must depend quadratically on the mole fraction:
(4)
With:
(5)
The relationship between the equation-of-state at low pressure and the virial
coefficient is:
(6)
(7)
Wong and Sandler discovered the following mixing rule to satisfy equation 4
(using equations 6 and 7):
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 71
The excess Helmholtz energy is almost independent of pressure. It can be
approximated by the Gibbs energy at low pressure. The difference between
the two functions is corrected by fitting k
ij
until the excess Gibbs energy from
the equation-of-state (using the mixing rules 3 and 8) is equal to the excess
Gibbs energy computed by an activity coeffecient model. This is done at a
specific mole fraction and temperature.
This mixing rule accurately predicts the VLE of polar mixtures at high
pressures. UNIFAC or other activity coeffecient models and parameters from
the literature are used. Gas solubilities are not predicted. They must be
regressed from experimental data.
Unlike other (modified) Huron-Vidal mixing rules, the Wong and Sandler
mixing rule meets the theoretical limit at low pressure. The use of k
ij
does
influence excess molar volume behavior. For calculations where densities are
important, check whether they are realistic.
References
D. S. Wong and S. I. Sandler, "A Theoretically Correct New Mixing Rule for
Cubic Equations of State for Both Highly and Slightly Non-ideal Mixtures,"
AIChE J., Vol. 38, (1992), pp. 671 680.
D. S. Wong, H. Orbey, and S. I. Sandler, "Equation-of-state Mixing Rule for
Non-ideal Mixtures Using Available Activity Coefficient Model Parameters and
That Allows Extrapolation over Large Ranges of Temperature and Pressure",
Ind Eng Chem. Res., Vol. 31, (1992), pp. 2033 2039.
H. Orbey, S. I. Sandler and D. S. Wong, "Accurate Equation-of-state
Predictions at High Temperatures and Pressures Using the Existing UNIFAC
Model," Fluid Phase Eq., Vol. 85, (1993), pp. 41 54.
Activity Coefficient Models
The Aspen Physical Property System has the following built-in activity
coefficient models. This section describes the activity coefficient models
available.
Model Type
Bromley-Pitzer Electrolyte
Chien-Null Regular solution, local composition
Constant Activity Coefficient Arithmetic
Cosmo-SAC Regular solution
Electrolyte NRTL Electrolyte
Ideal Liquid Ideal
NRTL (Non-Random-Two-Liquid) Local composition
72 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Model Type
Pitzer Electrolyte
Polynomial Activity Coefficient Arithmetic
Redlich-Kister Arithmetic
Scatchard-Hildebrand Regular solution
Three-Suffix Margules Arithmetic
UNIFAC Group contribution
UNIFAC (Lyngby modified) Group contribution
UNIFAC (Dortmund modified) Group contribution
UNIQUAC Local composition
Van Laar Regular solution
Wagner interaction parameter Arithmetic
Wilson Local composition
Wilson with Liquid Molar Volume Local composition
Bromley-Pitzer Activity Coefficient Model
The Bromley-Pitzer activity coefficient model is a simplified Pitzer activity
coefficient model with Bromley correlations for the interaction parameters.
See Working Equations for a detailed description. This model has predictive
capabilities. It can be used to compute activity coefficients for aqueous
electrolytes up to 6 molal ionic strength, but is less accurate than the Pitzer
model if the parameter correlations are used. The model should not be used
for mixed-solvent electrolyte systems.
The Bromley-Pitzer model in the Aspen Physical Property System involves
user-supplied parameters, used in the calculation of binary parameters for the
electrolyte system.
Parameters |
(0)
, |
(1)
, |
(2)
, |
(3)
, and u have five elements to account for
temperature dependencies. Elements P1 through P5 follow the temperature
dependency relation:
Where:
T
ref
= 298.15K
The user must:
- Supply these elements using a Properties Parameters Binary T-Dependent
form.
- Specify Comp ID i and Comp ID j on this form, using the same order that
appears on the Components Specifications Selection sheet form.
Parameter Name Symbol No. of ElementsDefault Units
Ionic Unary Parameters
GMBPB
|
ion
1 0
GMBPD
o
ion
1 0
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 73
Parameter Name Symbol No. of ElementsDefault Units
Ionic Unary Parameters
Cation-Anion Parameters
GMBPB0
|
(0)
5 0
GMBPB1
|
(1)
5 0
GMBPB2
|
(2)
5 0
GMBPB3
|
(3)
5 0
Cation-Cation Parameters
GMBPTH
u
cc'
5 0
Anion-Anion Parameters
GMBPTH
u
aa'
5 0
Molecule-Ion and Molecule-Molecule Parameters
GMBPB0
|
(0)
5 0
GMBPB1
|
(1)
5 0
Working Equations
The complete Pitzer equation (Frst and Renon, 1982) for the excess Gibbs
energy is (see also equation 4):
(1)
Where:
G
E
= Excess Gibbs energy
R = Gas constant
T = Temperature
n
w
= Kilograms of water
z
i
= Charge number of ion i
= molality of ion i
Where:
x
i
= Mole fraction of ion i
x
w
= Mole fraction of water
M
w
= Molecular weight of water (g/mol)
n
i
= Moles of ion i
74 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
B, C, u and + are interaction parameters, and f(I) is an electrostatic term as
a function of ionic strength; these terms are discussed in Pitzer Activity
Coefficient Model, which has a detailed discussion of the Pitzer model.
The C term and the + term are dropped from equation 1 to give the
simplified Pitzer equation.
(2)
Where:
B
ij
=
f(|
ij
(0)
,|
ij
(1)
,|
ij
(2)
,|
ij
(3)
)
Therefore, the simplified Pitzer equation has two types of binary interaction
parameters, | 's and u''s. There are no ternary interaction parameters with
the simplified Pitzer equation.
Note that the Pitzer model parameter databank described in Physical Property
Data, Chapter 1, is not applicable to the simplified Pitzer equation.
A built-in empirical correlation estimates the |
(0)
and |
(1)
parameters for
cation-anion pairs from the Bromley ionic parameters, |
ion
and o
ion
(Bromley,
1973). The estimated values of |
(0)
's and |
(1)
's are overridden by the user's
input. For parameter naming and requirements, see Bromley-Pitzer Activity
Coefficient Model.
References
L.A. Bromley, "Thermodynamic Properties of Strong Electrolytes in Aqueous
Solution, " AIChE J., Vol. 19, No. 2, (1973), pp. 313 320.
W. Frst and H. Renon, "Effects of the Various Parameters in the Application
of Pitzer's Model to Solid-Liquid Equilibrium. Preliminary Study for Strong 1-1
Electrolytes," Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev., Vol. 21, No. 3, (1982),
pp. 396-400.
Parameter Conversion
For n-m electrolytes, n and m>1 (2-2, 2-3, 3-4, and so on), the parameter
|
(3)
corresponds to Pitzer's |
(1)
; |
(2)
is the same in both Aspen Physical
Property System and original Pitzer models. Pitzer refers to the n-m
electrolyte parameters as |
(1)
, |
(2)
, |
(0)
. |
(0)
and |
(2)
retain their meanings in
both models, but Pitzer's |
(1)
is Aspen Physical Property System |
(3).
Be
careful to make this distinction when entering n-m electrolyte parameters.
Chien-Null
The Chien-Null model calculates liquid activity coefficients and it can be used
for highly non-ideal systems. The generalized expression used in its derivation
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 75
can be adapted to represent other well known formalisms for the activity
coefficient by properly defining its binary terms. This characteristic allows the
model the use of already available binary parameters regressed for those
other liquid activity models with thermodynamic consistency.
The equation for the Chien-Null liquid activity coeficient is:
Where:
R
ji
= A
ji
/ A
ij
A
ii
= 0
A
ij
= a
ij
+ b
ij
/ T
Subscripts i and j are component indices.
The choice of model and parameters can be set for each binary pair
constituting the process mixture by assigning the appropriate value to the
ICHNUL parameter.
The Regular Solution and Scatchard-Hamer models are regained by
substituting in the general expression (ICHNUL = 1 or 2).
V
ji
= S
ji
= V
j
*,l
/ V
i
*,l
Where:
V
j
*,l
= Liquid molar volume of component i
The Chien-Null activity coefficient model collapses to the Margules liquid
activity coefficient expression by setting (ICHNUL = 3):
V
ji
= S
ji
= 1
The Van Laar Liquid activity coefficient model is obtained when the V and S
parameters in the Chien-Null models are set to the ratio of the cross terms of
A (ICHNUL = 4:)
V
ji
= S
ji
= A
ji
/ A
ij
Finally, the Renon or NRTL model is obtained when we make the following
susbstitutions in the Chien-Null expression for the liquid activity (ICHNUL =
5).
S
ji
= R
ji
A
ji
/ A
ij
A
ji
= 2t
ji
G
ji
V
ji
= G
ji
The following are defined for the Non-Random Two-Liquid activity coefficient
model, where:
76 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
t
ij
= a
ij
+ b
ij
/ T
C
ij
= c
ij
+ d
ij
(T - 273.15 K)
c
ji
= c
ij
d
ji
= d
ij
The binary parameters CHNULL/1, CHNULL/2, and CHNULL/3 can be
determined from regression of VLE and/or LLE data. Also, if you have
parameters for many of the mixture pairs for the Margules, Van Laar,
Scatchard-Hildebrand, and NRTL (Non-Random-Two-Liquid) activity models,
you can use them directly with the Chien-Null activity model after selecting
the proper code (ICHNUL) to identify the source model and entering the
appropriate activity model parameters.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
ICHNUL 3 1 6
CHNULL/1 a
ij
0
CHNULL/2 b
ij
0
CHNULL/3 V
ij
0
The parameter ICHNUL is used to identify the activity model parameters
available for each binary pair of interest. The following values are allowed for
ICHNUL:
ICHNUL = 1 or 2, sets the model to the Scatchard-Hamer or regular solution
model for the associated binary;
ICHNUL = 3, sets the model to the Three-Suffix Margules activity model for
the associated binary;
ICHNUL = 4, sets the model to the Van Laar formalism for the activity model
for the associated binary;
ICHNUL = 5, sets the model to the NRTL (Renon) formalism for the activity
model for the associated binary.
ICHNUL = 6, sets the model to the full Chien-Null formalism for the activity
model for the associated binary.
When you specify a value for the ICHNUL parameter that is different than the
default, you must enter the appropriate binary model parameters for the
chosen activity model directly. The routine will automatically convert the
expressions and parameters to conform to the Chien-Null formulation.
Constant Activity Coefficient
This approach is used exclusively in metallurgical applications where multiple
liquid and solid phases can coexist. You can assign any value to the activity
coefficient of component i. Use the Properties Parameters Unary Scalar form.
The equation is:

i
= a
i
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Upper
Limit
Lower
Limit
Units
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 77
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Upper
Limit
Lower
Limit
Units
GMCONS a
i
1.0 x
COSMO-SAC
Cosmo-SAC is a solvation model that describes the electric fields on the
molecular surface of species that are polarizable. It requires a fairly
complicated quantum mechanical calculation, but this calculation must be
done only once for a particular molecule; then the results can be stored. In its
final form, it uses individual atoms as the building blocks for predicting phase
equilibria instead of functional groups. This model formulation provides a
considerably larger range of applicability than group-contribution methods.
The calculation for liquid nonideality is only slightly more computationally
intensive than activity-coefficient models such as NRTL or UNIQUAC. Cosmo-
SAC complements the UNIFAC group-contribution method, because it is
applicable to virtually any mixture.
The Cosmo-SAC model calculates liquid activity coefficients. The equation for
the Cosmo-SAC model is:
With
78 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Where:

i
=Activity coefficient of component i

i
SG
=Staverman-Guggenheim model for combinatorial
contribution to
i
I
i
(o
m
)
=
Segment activity coefficient of segment o
m
in
component i
I
S
(o
m
)
=
Segment activity coefficient of segment o
m
in
solvent mixture
p
i
(o
m
)
=Sigma profile of component i
p
i
(o
m
)
=Sigma profile of solvent mixture
o
=Surface charge density
AW(o
m
,o
n
)
=
Exchange energy between segments o
m
and o
n
AW
HB
(o
m
,o
n
)
=Hydrogen-bonding contribution to exchange energy
between segments o
m
and o
n
z =Coordination number, 10
V
i
=Molecular volume of component i
A
i
=Molecular surface area of component i
a
eff
=Standard segment surface area, 7.50
2
V
eff
=Standard component volume, 66.69
3
A
eff
=Standard component surface area, 79.53
2
o'
=Misfit energy constant
The Cosmo-SAC model does not require binary parameters. For each
component, it has six input parameters. CSACVL is the component volume
parameter which is always defined in cubic angstroms, regardless of chosen
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 79
units sets. SGPRF1 to SGPRF5 are five component sigma profile parameters;
each can store up to 12 points of sigma profile values. All six input
parameters are obtained from COSMO calculation. The Aspen Physical
Property System includes a database of sigma profiles for over 1400
compounds from Mullins et al. (2006). The parameters were obtained by
permission from the Virginia Tech Sigma Profile Database website
(http://www.design.che.vt.edu/VT-2004.htm). Aspen Technology, Inc. does
not claim proprietary rights to these parameters.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
CSACVL V
i
x VOLUME (
3
)
SGPRF1 A
i
p
i
(1-12) x
SGPRF2 A
i
p
i
(13-24) x
SGPRF3 A
i
p
i
(25-36) x
SGPRF4 A
i
p
i
(37-48) x
SGPRF5 A
i
p
i
(49-51) x
Option Codes
The primary version of COSMO-SAC is the model by Lin and Sandler (2002).
Two other versions are available using an option code, as detailed in the table
below:
Option
Code
Description
1 COSMO-SAC model by Lin and Sandler (2002)
2 COSMO-RS model by Klamt and Eckert (2000)
3 Lin and Sandler model with modified exchange energy (Lin
et al., 2002)
References
A. Klamt and F. Eckert, "COSMO-RS: A Novel and Efficient Method for the a
Priori Prediction of Thermophysical Data of Liquids," Fluid Phase Equilibria 43,
172 (2000).
S.-T. Lin, P. M. Mathias, Y. Song, C.-C. Chen, and S. I. Sandler,
"Improvements of Phase-Equilibrium Predictions for Hydrogen-Bonding
Systems from a New Expression for COSMO Solvation Models," presented at
the AIChE Annual Meeting, Indianapolis, IN, 3-8 November (2002).
S.-T. Lin and S. I. Sandler, "A Priori Phase Equilibrium Prediction from a
Segment Contribution Solvation Model," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 41, 899
(2002).
E. Mullins, et al. "Sigma-Profile Database for Using COSMO-Based
Thermodynamic Methods," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 45, 4389 (2006).
Electrolyte NRTL Activity Coefficient Model
The Electrolyte Non-Random Two Liquid (NRTL) model is a versatile model for
the calculation of activity coefficients. Using binary and pair parameters, the
model can represent aqueous electrolyte systems as well as mixed solvent
80 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
electrolyte systems over the entire range of electrolyte concentrations. This
model can calculate activity coefficents for ionic species and molecular species
in aqueous electrolyte systems as well as in mixed solvent electrolyte
systems. The model reduces to the well-known NRTL model when electrolyte
concentrations become zero (Renon and Prausnitz, 1969).
The electrolyte NRTL model uses the infinite dilution aqueous solution as the
reference state for ions. It adopts the Born equation to account for the
transformation of the reference state of ions from the infinite dilution mixed
solvent solution to the infinite dilution aqueous solution.
Water must be present in the electrolyte system in order to compute the
transformation of the reference state of ions. Thus, it is necessary to
introduce a trace amount of water to use the model for nonaqueous
electrolyte systems.
The Aspen Physical Property System uses the electrolyte NRTL model to
calculate activity coefficients, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies for electrolyte
systems. Model development and working equations are provided in
Theoretical Basis and Working Equations.
The adjustable parameters for the electrolyte NRTL model include the:
- Pure component dielectric constant coefficient of nonaqueous solvents
- Born radius of ionic species
- NRTL parameters for molecule-molecule, molecule-electrolyte, and
electrolyte-electrolyte pairs
The pure component dielectric constant coefficients of nonaqueous solvents
and Born radius of ionic species are required only for mixed-solvent
electrolyte systems. The temperature dependency of the dielectric constant of
solvent B is:
Each type of electrolyte NRTL parameter consists of both the nonrandomness
factor, o, and energy parameters, t. The temperature dependency relations
of the electrolyte NRTL parameters are:
- Molecule-Molecule Binary Parameters:
- Electrolyte-Molecule Pair Parameters:
- Electrolyte-Electrolyte Pair Parameters:
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 81
For the electrolyte-electrolyte pair parameters, the two electrolytes must
share either one common cation or one common anion:
Where:
T
ref
= 298.15K
Many parameter pairs are included in the electrolyte NRTL model parameter
databank (see Physical Property Data, Chapter 1).
Certain Electrolyte NRTL activity coefficient model parameters are used with
reciprocal temperature terms:
- CPDIEC
- NRTL/2
- GMELCD for electrolyte-electrolyte or electrolyte-molecule pairs
When any of these parameters is specified, absolute temperature units are
used for the calculations in this model.
Option codes can affect the performance of this model. See Option Codes for
Activity Coefficient Models for details.
Parameter
Name
Symbol No. of
Elements
Default MDS Units
Dielectric Constant Unary Parameters
CPDIEC A
B
1
B
B
1 0
C
B
1 298.15 TEMPERATURE

Ionic Born Radius Unary Parameters


RADIUS r
i
1 3x10
-10
LENGTH
Molecule-Molecule Binary Parameters
NRTL/1 A
BB'
0 x
A
B'B
0 x
NRTL/2 B
BB'
0 x TEMPERATURE

B
B'B
0 x TEMPERATURE

NRTL/3
o
BB'
= o
B'B
.3 x
NRTL/4 0 x TEMPERATURE
NRTL/5 F
BB'
0 x TEMPERATURE
F
B'B
0 x TEMPERATURE
NRTL/6 G
BB'
0 x TEMPERATURE
G
B'B
0 x TEMPERATURE
Electrolyte-Molecule Pair Parameters
GMELCC C
ca,B
1 0 x
C
B,ca
1 0 x
GMELCD D
ca,B
1 0 x TEMPERATURE

82 2 Thermodynamic Property Models


Parameter
Name
Symbol No. of
Elements
Default MDS Units
Dielectric Constant Unary Parameters
D
B,ca
1 0 x TEMPERATURE

GMELCE E
ca,B
1 0 x
E
B,ca
1 0 x
GMELCN
o
ca,B
= o
B,ca
1 .2 x
Electrolyte-Electrolyte Pair Parameters
GMELCC C
ca',ca''
1 0 x
C
ca'',ca'
1 0 x
C
c'a,c''a
1 0 x
C
c''a,c'a
1 0 x
GMELCD D
ca',ca''
1 0 x TEMPERATURE

D
ca'',ca'
1 0 x TEMPERATURE

D
c'a,c''a
1 0 x TEMPERATURE

D
c''a,c'a
1 0 x TEMPERATURE

GMELCE E
ca',ca''
1 0 x
E
ca'',ca'
1 0 x
E
c'a,c''a
1 0 x
E
c''a,c'a
1 0 x
GMELCN
o
ca',ca''
= o
ca'',ca'
1 .2 x
o
c'a,c''a
= o
c''a,c'a
1 .2 x

Certain Electrolyte NRTL activity coefficient model parameters are used with
reciprocal temperature terms:
- CPDIEC
- NRTL/2
- GMELCD for electrolyte-electrolyte or electrolyte-molecule pairs
When any of these parameters is specified, absolute temperature units are
used for the calculations in this model.
Reference: H. Renon, and J.M. Prausnitz, "Local Compositions in
Thermodynamic Excess Functions for Liquid Mixtures", AIChE J., Vol. 14, No.
1, (1968), pp. 135-144.
Theoretical Basis and Working Equations
In this section, the theoretical basis of the model is explained and the working
equations are given. The different ways parameters can be obtained are
discussed with references to the databank directories and the Data
Regression System (DRS). The parameter requirements of the model are
given in Electrolyte NRTL Activity Coefficient Model.
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 83
Development of the Model
The Electrolyte NRTL model was originally proposed by Chen et al., for
aqueous electrolyte systems. It was later extended to mixed solvent
electrolyte systems (Mock et al., 1984, 1986). The model is based on two
fundamental assumptions:
- The like-ion repulsion assumption: states that the local composition of
cations around cations is zero (and likewise for anions around anions).
This is based on the assumption that the repulsive forces between ions of
like charge are extremely large. This assumption may be justified on the
basis that repulsive forces between ions of the same sign are very strong
for neighboring species. For example, in salt crystal lattices the immediate
neighbors of any central ion are always ions of opposite charge.
- The local electroneutrality assumption: states that the distribution of
cations and anions around a central molecular species is such that the net
local ionic charge is zero. Local electroneutrality has been observed for
interstitial molecules in salt crystals.
Chen proposed an excess Gibbs energy expression which contains two
contributions: one contribution for the long-range ion-ion interactions that
exist beyond the immediate neighborhood of a central ionic species, and the
other related to the local interactions that exist at the immediate
neighborhood of any central species.
The unsymmetric Pitzer-Debye-Hckel model and the Born equation are used
to represent the contribution of the long-range ion-ion interactions, and the
Non-Random Two Liquid (NRTL) theory is used to represent the local
interactions. The local interaction contribution model is developed as a
symmetric model, based on reference states of pure solvent and pure
completely dissociated liquid electrolyte. The model is then normalized by
infinite dilution activity coefficients in order to obtain an unsymmetric model.
This NRTL expression for the local interactions, the Pitzer-Debye-Hckel
expression, and the Born equation are added to give equation 1 for the
excess Gibbs energy (see the following note).
(1)
This leads to
(2)
Note: The notation using * to denote an unsymmetric reference state is well-
accepted in electrolyte thermodynamics and will be maintained here. The
reader should be warned not to confuse it with the meaning of * in classical
thermodynamics according to IUPAC/ISO, referring to a pure component
property. In fact in the context of G or , the asterisk as superscript is never
used to denote pure component property, so the risk of confusion is minimal.
For details on notation, see Chapter 1 of Physical Property Methods.
References
C.-C. Chen, H.I. Britt, J.F. Boston, and L.B. Evans, "Local Compositions Model
for Excess Gibbs Energy of Electrolyte Systems: Part I: Single Solvent, Single
84 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Completely Dissociated Electrolyte Systems:, AIChE J., Vol. 28, No. 4, (1982),
p. 588-596.
C.-C. Chen, and L.B. Evans, "A Local Composition Model for the Excess Gibbs
Energy of Aqueous Electrolyte Systems," AIChE J., Vol. 32, No. 3, (1986), p.
444-459.
B. Mock, L.B. Evans, and C.-C. Chen, "Phase Equilibria in Multiple-Solvent
Electrolyte Systems: A New Thermodynamic Model," Proceedings of the 1984
Summer Computer Simulation Conference, p. 558.
B. Mock, L.B. Evans, and C.-C. Chen, "Thermodynamic Representation of
Phase Equilibria of Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte Systems," AIChE J., Vol. 32, No.
10, (1986), p. 1655-1664.
Long-Range Interaction Contribution
The Pitzer-Debye-Hckel formula, normalized to mole fractions of unity for
solvent and zero for electrolytes, is used to represent the long-range
interaction contribution.
(3)
Where:
x
k
= Mole fraction of component k
M
B
= Molecular weight of the solvent B
A

= Debye-Hckel parameter:
A

= (4)
N
A
= Avogadro's number
d = Density of solvent
Q
e
= Electron charge
c
w
= Dielectric constant of water
T = Temperature
k = Boltzmann constant
I
x
= Ionic strength (mole fraction scale):
I
x
= (5)
x
i
= Mole fraction of component i
z
i
= Charge number of ion i

= "Closest approach" parameter


2 Thermodynamic Property Models 85
Taking the appropriate derivative of equation 3, an expression for the activity
coefficient can then be derived.
(6)
The Born equation is used to account for the Gibbs energy of transfer of ionic
species from the infinite dilution state in a mixed-solvent to the infinite
dilution state in aqueous phase.
(7)
Where:
r
i
= Born radius
The expression for the activity coefficient can be derived from (7):
(8)
Local Interaction Contribution
The local interaction contribution is accounted for by the Non-Random Two
Liquid theory. The basic assumption of the NRTL model is that the nonideal
entropy of mixing is negligible compared to the heat of mixing: this is indeed
the case for electrolyte systems. This model was adopted because of its
algebraic simplicity and its applicability to mixtures that exhibit liquid phase
splitting. The model does not require specific volume or area data.
The effective local mole fractions X
ji
and X
ii
of species j and i, respectively, in
the neighborhood of i are related by:
(9)
Where:
X
j
= x
j
C
j
(C
j
= z
j
for ions and C
j
= unity for molecules)
G
ji
=
t
ji
=
o
ji
= Nonrandomness factor
86 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
g
ji
and g
ii
are energies of interaction between species j and i, and i and i,
respectively. Both g
ij
and o
ij
are inherently symmetric (g
ij
= g
ji
and o
ij
= o
ji
).
Similarly,
(10)
Where:
G
ji,ki
=
t
ji,ki
=
o
ji,ki
= Nonrandomness factor
Apparent Binary Systems
The derivations that follow are based on a simple system of one completely
dissociated liquid electrolyte ca and one solvent B. They will be later extended
to multicomponent systems. In this simple system, three different
arrangements exist:
In the case of a central solvent molecule with other solvent molecules,
cations, and anions in its immediate neighborhood, the principle of local
electroneutrality is followed: the surrounding cations and anions are such that
the neighborhood of the solvent is electrically neutral. In the case of a central
cation (anion) with solvent molecules and anions (cations) in its immediate
neighborhood, the principle of like-ion repulsion is followed: no ions of like
charge exist anywhere near each other, whereas opposite charged ions are
very close to each other.
The effective local mole fractions are related by the following expressions:
(central solvent cells)
(11)
(central cation cells)
(12)
(central anion cells)
(13)
Using equation 11 through 13 and the notation introduced in equations 9 and
10 above, expressions for the effective local mole fractions in terms of the
overall mole fractions can be derived.
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 87
i = c, a, or B
(14)
(15)
(16)
To obtain an expression for the excess Gibbs energy, let the residual Gibbs
energies, per mole of cells of central cation, anion, or solvent, respectively, be
, , and . These are then related to the
effective local mole fractions:
(17)
(18)
(19)
The reference Gibbs energy is determined for the reference states of
completely dissociated liquid electrolyte and of pure solvent. The reference
Gibbs energies per mole are then:
(20)
(21)
(22)
Where:
z
c
= Charge number on cations
z
a
= Charge number on anions
The molar excess Gibbs energy can be found by summing all changes in
residual Gibbs energy per mole that result when the electrolyte and solvent in
their reference state are mixed to form the existing electrolyte system. The
expression is:
(23)
Using the previous relation for the excess Gibbs energy and the expressions
for the residual and reference Gibbs energy (equations 17 to 19 and 20 to
22), the following expression for the excess Gibbs energy is obtained:
(24)
88 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
The assumption of local electroneutrality applied to cells with central solvent
molecules may be stated as:
(25)
Combining this expression with the expression for the effective local mole
fractions given in equations 9 and 10, the following equality is obtained:
(26)
The following relationships are further assumed for nonrandomness factors:
(27)
(28)
and,
(29)
It can be inferred from equations 9, 10, and 26 to 29 that:
(30)
(31)
The binary parameters o
ca,B
, t
ca,B
and t
B,ca
are now the adjustable parameters
for an apparent binary system of a single electrolyte and a single solvent.
The excess Gibbs energy expression (equation 24) must now be normalized
to the infinite dilution reference state for ions:
(32)
This leads to:
(33)
By taking the appropriate derivatives of equation 33, expressions for the
activity coefficients of all three species can be determined.
(34)
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 89
(35)
(36)
Multicomponent Systems
The Electrolyte NRTL model can be extended to handle multicomponent
systems.
The excess Gibbs energy expression is:
(37)
Where:
j and k can be any species (a, C, or B)
The activity coefficient equation for molecular components is given by:
(38)
The activity coefficient equation for cations is given by:
90 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
(39)
The activity coefficient equation for anions is given by:
(40)
Where:
(41)
(42)
(43)
(44)
(45)
(46)
(47)
(48)
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 91
Parameters
The model adjustable parameters include:
- Pure component dielectric constant coefficient of nonaqueous solvents
- Born radius of ionic species
- NRTL interaction parameters for molecule-molecule, molecule-electrolyte,
and electrolyte-electrolyte pairs
Note that for the electrolyte-electrolyte pair parameters, the two electrolytes
must share either one common cation or one common anion.
Each type of the electrolyte NRTL parameter consists of both the
nonrandomness factor, o, and energy parameters, t.
The pure component dielectric constant coefficients of nonaqueous solvents
and Born radius of ionic species are required only for mixed-solvent
electrolyte systems.
The temperature dependency relations of these parameters are given in
Electrolyte NRTL Activity Coefficient Model.
Heat of mixing is calculated from temperature derivatives of activity
coefficients. Heat capacity is calculated from secondary temperature
derivative of the activity coefficient. As a result, the temperature dependent
parameters are critical for modeling enthalpy correctly. It is recommended
that enthalpy data and heat capacity data be used to obtain these
temperature dependency parameters. See also Electrolyte NRTL Enthalpy and
Electrolyte NRTL Gibbs Energy.
Obtaining Parameters
In the absence of electrolytes, the electrolyte NRTL model reduces to the
NRTL equation which is widely used for non-electrolyte systems. Therefore,
molecule-molecule binary parameters can be obtained from binary
nonelectrolyte systems.
Electrolyte-molecule pair parameters can be obtained from data regression of
apparent single electrolyte systems.
Electrolyte-electrolyte pair parameters are required only for mixed
electrolytes with a common ion. Electrolyte-electrolyte pair parameters can
affect trace ionic activity precipitation. Electrolyte-electrolyte pair parameters
can be obtained by regressing solubility data of multiple component
electrolyte systems.
When the electrolyte-molecule and electrolyte-electrolyte pair parameters are
zero, the electrolyte NRTL model reduces to the Debye-Hckel limiting law.
Calculation results with electrolyte-molecule and electrolyte-electrolyte pair
parameters fixed to zero should be adequate for very dilute weak electrolyte
systems; however, for concentrated systems, pair parameters are required
for accurate representation.
See Physical Property Data, Chapter 1, for the pair parameters available from
the electrolyte NRTL model databank. The table contains pair parameters for
some electrolytes in aqueous solution at 100C. These values were obtained
92 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
by using the Aspen Physical Property Data Regression System (DRS) to
regress vapor pressure and mole fraction data at T=100C with SYSOP15S
(Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 56th Edition, CRC Press, 1975, p. E-1).
In running the DRS, standard deviations for the temperature (C), vapor
pressure (mmHg), and mole fractions were set at 0.2, 1.0, and 0.001,
respectively. In addition, complete dissociation of the electrolyte was
assumed for all cases.
ENRTL-SAC
eNRTL-SAC (ENRTLSAC, patent pending) is an extension of the nonrandom
two-liquid segment activity coefficient model (NRTL-SAC, patent pending) by
Chen and Song (Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2004, 43, 8354) to include
electrolytes in the solution. It can be used in usable in Aspen Properties and
Aspen Polymers Plus. It is intended for the computation of ionic activity
coefficients and solubilities of electrolytes, organic and inorganic, in common
solvents and solvent mixtures. In addition to the three types of molecular
parameters defined for organic nonelectrolytes in NRTL-SAC (hydrophobicity
X, hydrophilicity Z, and polarity Y- and Y+), an electrolyte parameter, E, is
introduced to characterize both local and long-range ion-ion and ion-molecule
interactions attributed to ionized segments of electrolytes.
In applying the segment contribution concept to electrolytes, a new
conceptual electrolyte segment e corresponding to the electrolyte parameter
E, is introduced. This conceptual segment e would completely dissociate to a
cationic segment (c) and an anionic segment (a), both of unity charge. All
electrolytes, organic or inorganic, symmetric or unsymmetric, univalent or
multivalent, are to be represented with this conceptual uni-univalent
electrolyte segment e together with previously defined hydrophobic segment
x, polar segments y- and y+, and hydrophilic segment z in NRTL-SAC.
A major consideration in the extension of NRTL-SAC for electrolytes is the
treatment of the reference state for activity coefficient calculations. While the
conventional reference state for nonelectrolyte systems is the pure liquid
component, the conventional reference state for electrolytes in solution is the
infinite-dilution aqueous solution and the corresponding activity coefficient is
unsymmetric. The equation for the logarithm of the unsymmetric activity
coefficient of an ionic species is
With
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 93
94 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Where:
I, J = Component index
i, j, m, c, a = Conceptual segment index
m = Conceptual molecular segment, x, y-, y+, z
c = Conceptual cationic segment
a = Conceptual anionic segment
i, j = m,c,a

I
*
= Unsymmetric activity coefficient of an ionic species I

I
*lc
= NRTL term
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 95

I
*PDH
= Pitzer-Debye-Hckel term

I
*FH
= Flory-Huggins term
= Aqueous-phase infinite-dilution reference state
I
i
= Activity coefficient of conceptual segment i
r
I
= Total segment number of component I
x
I
= Mole fraction of component I
r
I,i
= Number of conceptual segment i containing in component I
x
i
= Segment mole fraction of conceptual segment i in mixtures
o
ij
= NRTL binary non-randomness factor parameter for
conceptual segments
t
ij
= NRTL binary interaction energy parameter for conceptual
segments
A

= Debye-Hckel parameter

= Closest approach parameter, 14.9


I
x
= Ionic strength (segment mole fraction scale)
= Average solvent molecular weight, g/mol
= Average solvent density, g/cm
3
N
A
= Avogadros number
Q
e
= Absolute electronic charge
= Average solvent dielectric constant
c
w
= Water dielectric constant
r
c
= Born radius of cationic segment
r
a
= Born radius of anionic segment
NRTL binary parameters for conceptual segments
The NRTL binary parameters between conceptual molecular segments in are
determined by available VLE and LLE data between reference molecules
defined in NRTLSAC.
Segment (1) x x y- y+ x
Segment (2) y- z z z y+
t
12
1.643 6.547 -2.000 2.000 1.643
t
21
1.834 10.949 1.787 1.787 1.834
o
12
= o
21
0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2
NaCl is used as the reference electrolyte for the conceptual electrolyte
segment e. The NRTL binary parameters between conceptual molecular
96 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
segments and the electrolyte segment e are determined from literature data
or preset as follows:
Segment (1) x y- y+ z
Segment (2) e e e e
t
12
15 12 12 8.885
t
21
5 -3 -3 -4.549
o
12
= o
21
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Parameters used in ENRTLSAC
Each component can have up to five parameters, r
I,i
(i = x, y-, y+, z, e),
although only one or two of these parameters are needed for most solvents
and ionic species in practice. Since conceptual segments apply to all species,
these five parameters are implemented together as a binary parameter,
NRTLXY(I, i) where I represents a component index and i represents a
conceptual segment index.
Option codes
There are three option codes in ENRTLSAC. The first is used to enable or
disable the Flory-Huggins term. The other two are only used internally and
you should not change their values. The Flory-Huggins term is included by
default in eNRTL-SAC model. You can remove this term using the first option
code. The table below lists the values for the first option code.
0 Flory-Huggins term included (default)
Others Flory-Huggins term removed
References
C.-C. Chen and Y. Song, "Solubility Modeling with a Nonrandom Two-Liquid
Segment Activity Coefficient Model," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 43, 8354 (2004).
C.-C. Chen and Y. Song, "Extension of Nonrandom Two-Liquid Segment
Activity Coefficient Model for Electrolytes," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 44, 8909
(2005).
Hansen
Hansen is a solubility parameter model and is commonly used in the solvent
selection process. It is based on the regular solution theory and Hansen
solubility parameters. This model has no binary parameters and its application
merely follows the empirical guide like dissolves like.
The Hansen model calculates liquid activity coefficients. The equation for the
Hansen model is:
with
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 97
Where:

i
= Activity coefficient of component i
V
i
= Molar volume of component i
o
i
d
= Hansen solubility parameter of component i for nonpolar
effect
o
i
p
= Hansen solubility parameter of component i for polar effect
o
i
h
= Hansen solubility parameter of component i for hydrogen-
bonding effect
|
i
= Volume fraction of component i
x
i
= Mole fraction of component i
R = Gas constant
T = Temperature
The Hansen model does not require binary parameters. For each component,
it has four input parameters.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
DELTAD
o
i
d
x PRESSURE^0.5
DELTAP
o
i
p
x PRESSURE^0.5
DELTAH
o
i
h
x PRESSURE^0.5
HANVOL V
i
x VOLUME
Option codes
The Hansen volume is implemented as an input parameter. If the Hansen
volume is not input by the user it will be calculated by an Aspen Plus internal
method. You can also request the Aspen Plus method using Option Codes in
Aspen Plus Interface. The table below lists the option codes.
98 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
First Option Code in Hansen model
0 Hansen volume input by user (default)
Other values Hansen volume calculated by Aspen Plus
Reference
Frank, T. C.; Downey, J. R.; Gupta, S. K. "Quickly Screen Solvents for
Organic Solids," Chemical Engineering Progress 1999, December, 41.
Hansen, C. M. Hansen Solubility Parameters: A Users Handbook; CRC Press,
2000.
Ideal Liquid
This model is used in Raoult's law. It represents ideality of the liquid phase.
This model can be used for mixtures of hydrocarbons of similar carbon
number. It can be used as a reference to compare the results of other activity
coefficient models.
The equation is:
ln
i
= 0
NRTL (Non-Random Two-Liquid)
The NRTL model calculates liquid activity coefficients for the following
property methods: NRTL, NRTL-2, NRTL-HOC, NRTL-NTH, and NRTL-RK. It is
recommended for highly non-ideal chemical systems, and can be used for VLE
and LLE applications. The model can also be used in the advanced equation-
of-state mixing rules, such as Wong-Sandler and MHV2.
The equation for the NRTL model is:
Where:
G
ij
=
t
ij
=
o
ij
=
t
ii
= 0
G
ii
= 1
a
ij
, b
ij
, c
ij
, and f
ij
are unsymmetrical. That is, a
ij
may not be equal to a
ji
, etc.
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 99
Recommended c
ij
Values for Different Types of Mixtures
c
ij
Mixtures
0.30 Nonpolar substances; nonpolar with polar non-associated liquids; small
deviations from ideality
0.20 Saturated hydrocarbons with polar non-associated liquids and systems that
exhibit liquid-liquid immiscibility
0.47 Strongly self-associated substances with nonpolar substances
The binary parameters a
ij
, b
ij
, c
ij
, d
ij
, e
ij
, and f
ij
can be determined from VLE
and/or LLE data regression. The Aspen Physical Property System has a large
number of built-in binary parameters for the NRTL model. The binary
parameters have been regressed using VLE and LLE data from the Dortmund
Databank. The binary parameters for the VLE applications were regressed
using the ideal gas, Redlich-Kwong, and Hayden O'Connell equations of state.
See Physical Property Data, Chapter 1, for details.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
NRTL/1 a
ij
0 x -100.0 100.0
NRTL/2 b
ij
0 x -30000 30000.0 TEMPERATURE
NRTL/3 c
ij
0.30 x 0.0 1.0
NRTL/4 d
ij
0 x -0.02 0.02 TEMPERATURE
NRTL/5 e
ij
0 x TEMPERATURE
NRTL/6 f
ij
0 x TEMPERATURE
The NRTL-2 property method uses data set 2 for NRTL. All other NRTL
methods use data set 1.
References
H. Renon and J.M. Prausnitz, "Local Compositions in Thermodynamic Excess
Functions for Liquid Mixtures," AIChE J., Vol. 14, No. 1, (1968), pp. 135
144.
NRTL-SAC
NRTL-SAC (patent pending) is a segment contribution activity coefficient
model, derived from the Polymer NRTL model, usable in Aspen Properties and
Aspen Polymers Plus. NRTL-SAC can be used for fast, qualitative estimation of
the solubility of complex organic compounds in common solvents.
Conceptually, the model treats the liquid non-ideality of mixtures containing
complex organic molecules (solute) and small molecules (solvent) in terms of
interactions between three pairwise interacting conceptual segments:
hydrophobic segment (x), hydrophilic segment (z), and polar segments (y-
and y+). In practice, these conceptual segments become the molecular
descriptors used to represent the molecular surface characteristics of each
solute or solvent molecule. Hexane, water, and acetonitrile are selected as
the reference molecules for the hydrophobic, hydrophilic, and polar segments,
respectively. The molecular parameters for all other solvents can be
determined by regression of available VLE or LLE data for binary systems of
solvent and the reference molecules or their substitutes. The treatment
results in four component-specific molecular parameters: hydrophobicity X,
100 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
hydrophilicity Z, and polarity Y- and Y+. The two types of polar segments, Y-
and Y+, are used to reflect the wide variations of interactions between polar
molecules and water.
The conceptual segment contribution approach in NRTL-SAC represents a
practical alternative to the UNIFAC functional group contribution approach.
This approach is suitable for use in the industrial practice of carrying out
measurements for a few selected solvents and then using NRTL-SAC to
quickly predict other solvents or solvent mixtures and to generate a list of
suitable solvent systems.
The NRTL-SAC model calculates liquid activity coefficients. The equation for
the NRTL-SAC model is:
with
G = exp(-ot)
Where:
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 101
I, J = Component index
i, j, m = Conceptual segment indexx, y-, y+, z

I
= Activity coefficient of component I

I
C
=
I
FH
=
Flory-Huggins term for combinatorial contribution to
I

I
R
=
I
lc
= NRTL term for local composition interaction contribution to

I
|
I
= Segment mole fraction of component I
p
I
= Effective component size parameter
s
I
and c
I
= Empirical parameters for p
I
r
I
= Total segment number of component I
x
I
= Mole fraction of component I
r
I,m
= Number of conceptual segment m containing in component
I
x
i
= Segment mole fraction of conceptual segment i in mixtures
o
im
= NRTL binary non-randomness factor parameter for
conceptual segments
t
im
= NRTL binary interaction energy parameter for conceptual
segments
NRTL binary parameters for conceptual segments
The NRTL binary parameters between conceptual segments in NRTL-SAC are
determined by available VLE and LLE data between reference molecules
defined above.
Segment 1 x x y- y+ x
Segment 2 y- z z z y+
t
12
1.643 6.547 -2.000 2.000 1.643
t
21
1.834 10.949 1.787 1.787 1.834
o
12
= o
21
0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2
Parameters used in NRTL-SAC
Each component can have up to four parameters, r
I,x
, r
I,y-
, r
I,y+
, and r
I,z
although only one or two of these molecular parameters are needed for most
solvents in practice. Since conceptual segments apply to all molecules, these
four molecular parameters are implemented together as a binary parameter,
NRTLXY(I, m) where I represents a component (molecule) index and m
represents a conceptual segment index.
In addition, the Flory-Huggins size parameter, FHSIZE , is used in NRTL-SAC
to calculate the effective component size parameter, p
I
. The Flory-Huggins
combinatorial term can be turned off by setting c
I
= 0 for each component in
mixtures.
102 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Parameter
Name/
Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units Comment
NRTLXY r
I,m
Binary,
symmetric
FHSIZE/1 s
I
1.0 1E-15 1E15 Unary
FHSIZE/2
c
I
1.0 -1E10 1E10 Unary
Option codes
The Flory-Huggins term is included by default in the NRTL-SAC model. You
can remove this term using the first option code. The table below lists the
values for this option code.
0 Flory-Huggins term included (default)
Others Flory-Huggins term removed
NRTL-SAC molecular parameters for common solvents
The molecular parameters are identified for 62 solvents and published.
Solvent name r
I,x
r
I,y-
r
I,y+
r
I,z
ACETIC-ACID 0.045 0.164 0.157 0.217
ACETONE 0.131 0.109 0.513
ACETONITRILE 0.018 0.131 0.883
ANISOLE 0.722
BENZENE 0.607 0.190
1-BUTANOL 0.414 0.007 0.485
2-BUTANOL 0.335 0.082 0.355
N-BUTYL-ACETATE 0.317 0.030 0.330
METHYL-TERT-BUTYL-ETHER 1.040 0.219 0.172
CARBON-TETRACHLORIDE 0.718 0.141
CHLOROBENZENE 0.710 0.424
CHLOROFORM 0.278 0.039
CUMENE 1.208 0.541
CYCLOHEXANE 0.892
1,2-DICHLOROETHANE 0.394 0.691
1,1-DICHLOROETHYLENE 0.529 0.208
1,2-DICHLOROETHYLENE 0.188 0.832
DICHLOROMETHANE 0.321 1.262
1,2-DIMETHOXYETHANE 0.081 0.194 0.858
N,N-DIMETHYLACETAMIDE 0.067 0.030 0.157
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 103
Solvent name r
I,x
r
I,y-
r
I,y+
r
I,z
N,N-DIMETHYLFORMAMIDE 0.073 0.564 0.372
DIMETHYL-SULFOXIDE 0.532 2.890
1,4-DIOXANE 0.154 0.086 0.401
ETHANOL 0.256 0.081 0.507
2-ETHOXYETHANOL 0.071 0.318 0.237
ETHYL-ACETATE 0.322 0.049 0.421
ETHYLENE-GLYCOL 0.141 0.338
DIETHYL-ETHER 0.448 0.041 0.165
ETHYL-FORMATE 0.257 0.280
FORMAMIDE 0.089 0.341 0.252
FORMIC-ACID 0.707 2.470
N-HEPTANE 1.340
N-HEXANE 1.000
ISOBUTYL-ACETATE 1.660 0.108
ISOPROPYL-ACETATE 0.552 0.154 0.498
METHANOL 0.088 0.149 0.027 0.562
2-METHOXYETHANOL 0.052 0.043 0.251 0.560
METHYL-ACETATE 0.236 0.337
3-METHYL-1-BUTANOL 0.419 0.538 0.314
METHYL-BUTYL-KETONE 0.673 0.224 0.469
METHYLCYCLOHEXANE 1.162 0.251
METHYL-ETHYL-KETONE 0.247 0.036 0.480
METHYL-ISOBUTYL-KETONE 0.673 0.224 0.469
ISOBUTANOL 0.566 0.067 0.485
N-METHYL-2-PYRROLIDONE 0.197 0.322 0.305
NITROMETHANE 0.025 1.216
N-PENTANE 0.898
1-PENTANOL 0.474 0.223 0.426 0.248
1-PROPANOL 0.375 0.030 0.511
ISOPROPYL-ALCOHOL 0.351 0.070 0.003 0.353
N-PROPYL-ACETATE 0.514 0.134 0.587
PYRIDINE 0.205 0.135 0.174
SULFOLANE 0.210 0.457
TETRAHYDROFURAN 0.235 0.040 0.320
104 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Solvent name r
I,x
r
I,y-
r
I,y+
r
I,z
1,2,3,4-TETRAHYDRONAPHTHALENE0.443 0.555
TOLUENE 0.604 0.304
1,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE 0.548 0.287
TRICHLOROETHYLENE 0.426 0.285
M-XYLENE 0.758 0.021 0.316
WATER 1.000
TRIETHYLAMINE 0.557 0.105
1-OCTANOL 0.766 0.032 0.624 0.335
Reference
C.-C. Chen and Y. Song, "Solubility Modeling with a Nonrandom Two-Liquid
Segment Activity Coefficient Model," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 43, 8354 (2004).
Using NRTL-SAC
NRTL-SAC (patent pending) is a segment contribution activity coefficient
model, derived from the Polymer NRTL model, usable in Aspen Properties and
Aspen Polymers Plus. NRTL-SAC can be used for fast, qualitative estimation of
the solubility of complex organic compounds in common solvents. For more
information about the model, see NRTL-SAC.
The NRTL-SAC model in the Aspen Physical Property System is a liquid
activity coefficient model called NRTLSAC. To specify it:
1. On the Properties | Specifications sheet, specify an activity coefficient
model, such as NRTL.
2. Click the Properties | Property Methods folder.
3. In the Object Manager, click New.
4. In the Create New ID dialog box, enter a name for the NRTL-SAC
method, such as NRTLSAC.
5. In the Base Property Method field, select NRTL.
6. Click the Models tab.
7. Change the Model Name for GAMMA from GMRENON to NRTLSAC.
In order to use NRTL-SAC, all components must be defined as oligomers. Four
conceptual segments also must be defined. On the Components | Polymers
| Oligomers sheet, enter a number for at least one conceptual segment for
each oligomer component, as required by the definition of an oligomer. These
numbers are not used by NRTL-SAC.
On the Properties | Parameters | Binary Interaction | NRTL-1 form,
enter the binary parameters between conceptual segments. In the following
example, the conceptual segments are named X, Y-, Y+, and Z.
Segment 1 X X Y- Y+ X
Segment 2 Y- Z Z Z Y+
AIJ 1.643 6.547 -2.000 2.000 1.643
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 105
Segment 1 X X Y- Y+ X
Segment 2 Y- Z Z Z Y+
AJI 1.834 10.949 1.787 1.787 1.834
CIJ 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2
On the Properties | Parameters | Binary Interaction | NRTLXY-1 form,
enter a non-zero value for at least one of the four parameters for each
component.
Pitzer Activity Coefficient Model
The Pitzer model was developed as an improvement upon an earlier model
proposed by Guggenheim (1935, 1955). The earlier model worked well at low
electrolyte concentrations, but contained discrepancies at higher
concentrations (>0.1M). The Pitzer model resolved these discrepancies,
without resorting to excessive arrays of higher-order terms.
The model can be used for aqueous electrolyte systems, up to 6 molal ionic
strength. It cannot be used for systems with any other solvent or mixed
solvents.
This section provides theoretical background for the model. All model
equations and parameter requirements are included.
The Pitzer model is commonly used in the calculation of activity coefficients
for aqueous electrolytes up to 6 molal ionic strength. Do not use this model if
a non-aqueous solvent exists. Henry's law parameters are required for all
other components in the aqueous solution. The model development and
working equations are provided in the following sections. Parameter
conversion between the Pitzer notation and our notation is also provided.
The Pitzer model in the Aspen Physical Property System involves user-
supplied parameters that are used in the calculation of binary and ternary
parameters for the electrolyte system.
Five elements (P
1
through P
5
) account for the temperature dependencies of
parameters |
(0)
, |
(1)
, |
(2)
, |
(3)
, C

, u, and +. These parameters follow the


temperature dependency relation:
Where:
T
ref
= 298.15 K
The user must:
- Supply these elements for the binary parameters using a Properties |
Parameters | Binary | T-Dependent form.
- Supply these elements for + on the Properties | Parameters | Electrolyte
Ternary form.
- Specify Comp ID i and Comp ID j (and Comp ID k for +) on these forms,
using the same order that appears on the Components Specifications
Selection sheet.
106 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
The parameters are summarized in the following table. There is a Pitzer
parameter databank in the Aspen Physical Property System (see Physical
Property Data).
Parameter
Name
Provides
P1 - P5 for
No. of
Elements
Default MDS Units
Cation-Anion Parameters
GMPTB0
|
(0)
5 0 x
GMPTB1
|
(1)
5 0 x
GMPTB2
|
(2)
5 0 x
GMPTB3
|
(3)
5 0 x
GMPTC
C

5 0 x
Cation-Cation Parameters
GMPTTH
u
cc'
5 0 x
Anion-Anion Parameters
GMPTTH
u
aa'
5 0 x
Ternary Parameters
GMPTPS,
GMPTP1,
GMPTP2,
GMPTP3,
GMPTP4
+
ijk
1 (in each
parameter)
0 x
Molecule-Ion and Molecule-Molecule Parameters
GMPTB0
|
(0)
5 0 x
GMPTB1
|
(1)
5 0 x
GMPTC
C

5 0 x
Model Development
The Pitzer model analyzes "hard-core" effects in the Debye-Hckel theory. It
uses the following expansion as a radial distribution function:
(1)
Where:
g
ij
= Distribution function
r = Radius
q
ij
=
(pair potential of mean force)
With:
z
i
= Charge of ion i
Q
e
= Electron charge
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 107
+
j
(r)
= Average electric potential for ion j
k = Boltzmann's constant
T = Temperature
This radial distribution function is used in the so-called pressure equation that
relates this function and the intermolecular potential to thermodynamic
properties. From this relation you can obtain an expression for the osmotic
coefficient.
Pitzer proposes a general equation for the excess Gibbs energy. The basic
equation is:
(2)
Where:
G
E
= Excess Gibbs energy
R = Gas constant
T = Temperature
n
w
= Kilograms of water
m
i
=
(molality of ion i)
With:
x
i
= Mole fraction of ion i
x
w
= Mole fraction of water
M
w
= Molecular weight of water (g/mol)
n
i
= Moles of ion i
The function f(I) is an electrostatic term that expresses the effect of long-
range electrostatic forces between ions. This takes into account the hard-core
effects of the Debye-Hckel theory. This term is discussed in detail in the
following section. The parameters
ij
are second virial coefficients that
account for the short-range forces between solutes i and j. The parameters

ijk
account for the interactions between solutes, i, j, k. For ion-ion
interactions,
ij
is a function of ionic strength. For molecule-ion or molecule-
molecule interactions this ionic strength dependency is neglected. The
dependence of
ijk
on ionic strength is always neglected. The matrices
ij
and

ijk
are also taken to be symmetric (that is,
ij
=
ji
).
Pitzer modified this expression for the Gibbs energy by identifying
combinations of functions. He developed interaction parameters that can be
evaluated using experimental data. He selected mathematical expressions for
these parameters that best fit experimental data.
108 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Pitzer's model can be applied to aqueous systems of strong electrolytes and
to aqueous systems of weak electrolytes with molecular solutes. These
applications are discussed in the following section.
In the Aspen Physical Property System, this model is applied using the
reference state of infinite dilution solution in water for non-water molecular
solutes and ionic species. The properties such as DHAQFM are obtained at 25
C and 1 atm.
Application of the Pitzer Model to Aqueous Strong
Electrolyte Systems
Pitzer modified his basic equation to make it more useful for data correlation
of aqueous strong electrolytes. He defined a set of more directly observable
parameters to represent combinations of the second and third virial
coefficients. The modified Pitzer equation is:
(3)
z
i
= Charge of ion i
Subscripts c, c', and a, a' denote cations and anions of the solution. B, C, u,
and + are interaction parameters. f(I) is an electrostatic term as a function of
ionic strength. The cation-anion parameters B and C are characteristic for an
aqueous single-electrolyte system. These parameters can be determined by
the properties of pure (apparent) electrolytes. B is expressed as a function of
|
(0)
and |
(1)
, or of |
(0)
, |
(2)
, and |
(3)
(see equations 11 through 15).
The parameters u and + are for the difference of interaction of unlike ions of
the same sign from the mean of like ions. These parameters can be measured
from common-ion mixtures. Examples are NaCl + KCl + H
2
O or NaCl + NaNO
3
+ H
2
O (sic, Pitzer, 1989). These terms are discussed in detail later in this
section.
Frst and Renon (1982) propose the following expression as the Pitzer
equation for the excess Gibbs energy:
(4)
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 109
The difference between equations 3 and 4 is that Pitzer orders cation before
anions. Frst and Renon do not. All summations are taken over all ions i and j
(both cations and anions). This involves making the parameter matrices B
ij
,
C
ij
, u
ij
, and +
ijk
symmetric, as follows:
Second-order parameters are written B
ij
if i and j are ions of different sign. B
ij
= 0 if the sign of z
i
= sign of z
j
, and B
ii
= 0. Since cations are not ordered
before anions, B
ij
= B
ji
. This eliminates the 2 in the second term in brackets in
Pitzer's original expression (equation 3). Second-order parameters are written
u
ij
if i and j are ions of the same sign. Thus u
ij
= 0 if the sign of z
i
is different
from the sign of z
j
, and u
ii
= 0 with u
ij
= u
ji
.
Third-order parameters are written C
ij
if i and j are ions with different signs.
C
ij
= 0 if the sign of z
i
= sign of z
j
, and C
ii
= 0 with C
ij
= C
ji
. The factor of 2 in
the fifth bracketed term in Pitzer's original expression (equation 3) becomes
1/2 in equation 4. The matrix C is symmetric and is extended to all
ions to make the equation symmetric.
+
ijk
is written for three different ions +
ijk
= +
kij
= +
jki
, and +
ikk
= 0. +
ijk
= 0
if the sign of z
i
=sign of z
j
=sign of z
k
. The factor of 1/6 is different from 1/2
in the last term in brackets in Pitzer's original expression. Pitzer distinguishes
between cations and anions. In Pitzer's original model this parameter appears
twice, as +
cc'a
and +
c'ca
. In this modified model, it appears six times, as +
cc'a
;
+
c'ca
; +
acc'
; +
ac'c
; +
cac'
; and +
c'ac
. Frst and Renon's expression, equation 4,
calculates the expressions for activity coefficients and osmotic coefficients.
Pitzer (1975) modified his model by adding the electrostatic unsymmetrical
mixing effects, producing this modified Pitzer equation for the excess Gibbs
energy:
(4a)
Calculation of Activity Coefficients
The natural logarithm of the activity coefficient for ions is calculated from
equation 4a to give:
110 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
(5)
Where u is neglected and u
ij
and u
'
ij
are the electrostatic unsymmetric mixing
effects:
The X parameters are calculated differently on the option code.
For option code = 1, there is no unsymmetric mixing correction term:
For option code = 0 (default), the unsymmetric mixing correction term is in
polynomial form:
For option code = 1, the unsymmetric mixing correction term is in integral
form:
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 111
For water the logarithm of the activity coefficient is calculated similarly, as
follows:
Applying:
to equation 3 and using:
Where N
w
= moles water, gives:
(6)
f(I), the electrostatic term, is expressed as a function of ionic strength I :
(7)
I, the ionic strength, is defined as:
(8)
Taking the derivative of equation 7 with respect to I, gives:
(9)
So that:
(10)
This equation is used in equation 6. In equations 7 and 9, is the usual Debye-
Hckel constant for the osmotic coefficient, determined from:
112 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
(11)
Where:
N
A
= Avogadro's constant
d
w
= Water density
c
B
= Dielectric constant of solvent B
b is an adjustable parameter, which has been optimized in this model to equal
1.2.
B and B' need expressions so that equations 5 and 6 can completely be solved
for the activity coefficients. The parameter B is determined differently for
different electrolyte pairings. For 1-n electrolytes (1-1, 1-2, 2-1, and so on)
the following expression gives the parameter B:
(12)
with o
1
=2.0.
For n-m electrolytes, n and m>1 (2-2, 2-3, 3-4, and so on), B is determined
by the following expression:
(13)
with o
2
= 12.0 and o
3
= 1.4.
By taking appropriate derivatives, expressions for B' can be derived for 1n
electrolytes:
(14)
and for n-m electrolytes:
(15)
The parameters |
(0)
, |
(1)
, |
(2)
, |
(3)
and also C, u, and + can be found in
Pitzer's articles .
After the activity coefficients are calculated, they can be converted to the
mole fraction scale from the molality scale by the following relations:
For solutes:
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 113
(16)
For water as a solvent:
(17)
Where:

m
= Activity coefficient (molality scale)

x
= Activity coefficient (mole fraction scale)
Application of the Pitzer Model to Aqueous
Electrolyte Systems with Molecular Solutes
In aqueous weak electrolyte systems with molecular solutes, the second and
third virial coefficients in the basic Pitzer equation for molecule-ion and
molecule-molecule interactions must be considered. The following extensions
of Pitzer's interaction parameters are made.
The second-order parameters B
ij
are extended to include molecule-molecule
and molecule-ion interaction parameters.
The third-order parameters +
ijk
are extended to molecule-molecule-molecule
interactions. The following expressions relate +
ijk
to Pitzer's original
ijk
:
+
iii
= 6
iii
However, molecule-molecule interactions were not taken into account by
Pitzer and coworkers. So
iii
is an artificially introduced quantity.
The equations for activity coefficients and the Gibbs free energy are the same
as equations 3 through 6.
Parameters
The Pitzer model in the Aspen Physical Property System involves user-
supplied parameters. These parameters are used in the calculation of binary
and ternary parameters for the electrolyte system. These parameters include
the cation-anion parameters |
(0)
, |
(1)
, |
(2)
, |
(3)
and C

, cation-cation
parameter u
cc'
, anion-anion parameter u
aa'
, cation1-cation2-common anion
parameter +
cc'a
, anion1-anion2-common cation parameter +
caa'
, and the
molecule-ion and molecule-molecule parameters |
(0)
, |
(1)
, and, C

. The
114 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
parameter names in the Aspen Physical Property System and their
requirements are discussed in Pitzer Activity Coefficient Model.
Parameter Conversion
For n-m electrolytes, n and m>1 (2-2, 2-3, 3-4, and so on), the parameter
|
(3)
corresponds to Pitzer's |
(1)
. |
(2)
is the same in both the Aspen Physical
Property System and original Pitzer models. Pitzer refers to the n-m
electrolyte parameters as |
(1)
, |
(2)
, |
(0)
. |
(0)
and |
(2)
retain their meanings in
both models, but Pitzer's |
(1)
is |
(3)
in the Aspen Physical Property System. Be
careful to make this distinction when entering n-m electrolyte parameters.
Pitzer often gives values of |
(0)
, |
(1)
, |
(2)
, |
(3)
, and C

that are corrected by


some factors (see Pitzer and Mayorga (1973) for examples). These factors
originate from one of Pitzer's earlier expressions for the excess Gibbs energy:
(18)
Where:
=
n
a
= Mole number of anions
n
c
= Mole number of cation
Here |
(0)
, |
(1)
, |
(2)
, and |
(3)
are multiplied by a factor of 2n
c
n
a
. C is multiplied
by a factor of 2(n
c
n
a
)
3/2
.
Aspen Physical Property System accounts for these correcting factors. Enter
the parameters without their correcting factors.
For example, Pitzer gives the values of parameters for MgCl
2
as:
4/3|
(0)
= 0.4698
4/3|
(1)
= 2.242
= 0.00979
Perform the necessary conversions and enter the parameters as:
= 0.3524
= 1.6815
= 0.00520
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 115
Parameter Sources
Binary and ternary parameters for the Pitzer model for various electrolyte
systems are available from Pitzer's series on the thermodynamics of
electrolytes. These papers and the electrolyte parameters they give are:
Reference Parameters available
(Pitzer, 1973)
Binary parameters (|
(0)
, |
(1)
, C

) for 13
dilute aqueous electrolytes
(Pitzer and Mayorga, 1973) Binary parameters for 1-1 inorganic
electrolytes, salts of carboxylic acids (1-1),
tetraalkylammonium halids, sulfonic acids
and salts, additional 1-1 organic salts, 2-1
inorganic compounds, 2-1 organic
electrolytes, 3-1 electrolytes, 4-1 and 5-1
electrolytes
(Pitzer and Mayorga, 1974) Binary parameters for 2-2 electrolytes in
water at 25C
(Pitzer and Kim, 1974) Binary and ternary parameters for mixed
electrolytes, binary mixtures without a
common ion, mixed electrolytes with three
or more solutes
(Pitzer, 1975) Ternary parameters for systems mixing
doubly and singly charged ions
(Pitzer and Silvester, 1976) Parameters for phosphoric acid and its buffer
solutions
(Pitzer, Roy and Silvester, 1977) Parameters and thermodynamic properties
for sulfuric acid
(Silvester and Pitzer, 1977) Data for NaCl and aqueous NaCl solutions
(Pitzer, Silvester, and Peterson, 1978) Rare earth chlorides, nitrates, and
perchlorates
(Peiper and Pitzer, 1982) Aqueous carbonate solutions, including
mixtures of sodium carbonate, bicarbonate,
and chloride
(Phutela and Pitzer, 1983) Aqueous calcium chloride
(Conceicao, de Lima, and Pitzer, 1983) Saturated aqueous solutions, including
mixtures of sodium chloride, potassium
chloride, and cesium chloride
(Pabalan and Pitzer, 1987) Parameters for polynomial unsymmetric
mixing term
(Kim and Frederick, 1988) Parameters for integral unsymmetric mixing
term
Pitzer References
Conceicao, M., P. de Lima, and K.S. Pitzer, "Thermodynamics of Saturated
Aqueous Solutions Including Mixtures of NaCl, KCl, and CsCl, "J. Solution
Chem, Vol. 12, No. 3, (1983), pp. 171-185.
Frst, W. and H. Renon, "Effects of the Various Parameters in the Application
of Pitzer's Model to Solid-Liquid Equilibrium. Preliminary Study for Strong 1-1
116 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Electrolytes," Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev., Vol. 21, No. 3, (1982),
pp. 396-400.
Guggenheim, E.A., Phil. Mag., Vol. 7, No. 19, (1935), p. 588.
Guggenheim, E.A. and J.C. Turgeon, Trans. Faraday Soc., Vol. 51, (1955), p.
747.
Kim, H. and W.J. Frederick, "Evaluation of Pitzer Ion Interaction Parameters
of Aqueous Mixed Electrolyte Solution at 25C, Part 2: Ternary Mixing
Parameters," J. Chem. Eng. Data, 33, (1988), pp. 278-283.
Pabalan, R.T. and K.S. Pitzer, "Thermodynamics of Concentrated Electrolyte
Mixtures and the Prediction of Mineral Solubilities to High Temperatures for
Mixtures in the system Na-K-Mg-Cl-SO4-OH-H2O," Geochimica Acta, 51,
(1987), pp. 2429-2443.
Peiper, J.C. and K.S. Pitzer, "Thermodynamics of Aqueous Carbonate
Solutions Including Mixtures of Sodium Carbonate, Bicarbonate, and
Chloride," J. Chem. Thermodynamics, Vol. 14, (1982), pp. 613-638.
Phutela, R.C. and K.S. Pitzer, "Thermodynamics of Aqueous Calcium
Chloride," J. Solution Chem., Vol. 12, No. 3, (1983), pp. 201-207.
Pitzer, K.S., "Thermodynamics of Electrolytes. I. Theoretical Basis and
General Equations, " J. Phys. Chem., Vol. 77, No. 2, (1973), pp. 268-277.
Pitzer, K.S., J. Solution Chem., Vol. 4, (1975), p. 249.
Pitzer, K.S., "Fluids, Both Ionic and Non-Ionic, over Wide Ranges of
Temperature and Composition," J. Chen. Thermodynamics, Vol. 21, (1989),
pp. 1-17. (Seventh Rossini lecture of the commission on Thermodynamics of
the IUPAC, Aug. 29, 1988, Prague, ex-Czechoslovakia).
Pitzer, K.S. and J.J. Kim, "Thermodynamics of Electrolytes IV; Activity and
Osmotic Coefficients for Mixed Electrolytes," J.Am. Chem. Soc., Vol. 96
(1974), p. 5701.
Pitzer, K.S. and G. Mayorga, "Thermodynamics of Electrolytes II; Activity and
Osmotic Coefficients for Strong Electrolytes with One or Both Ions Univalent,"
J. Phys. Chem., Vol. 77, No. 19, (1973), pp. 2300-2308.
Pitzer, K.S. and G. Mayorga, J. Solution Chem., Vol. 3, (1974), p. 539.
Pitzer, K.S., J.R. Peterson, and L.F. Silvester, "Thermodynamics of
Electrolytes. IX. Rare Earth Chlorides, Nitrates, and Perchlorates, "J. Solution
Chem., Vol. 7, No. 1, (1978), pp. 45-56.
Pitzer, K.S., R.N. Roy, and L.F. Silvester, "Thermodynamics of Electrolytes 7
Sulfuric Acid," J. Am. Chem. Soc., Vol. 99, No. 15, (1977), pp. 4930-4936.
Pitzer, K.S. and L.F. Silvester, J. Solution Chem., Vol. 5, (1976), p. 269.
Silvester, L.F. and K.S. Pitzer, "Thermodynamics of Electrolytes 8 High-
Temperature Properties, Including Enthalpy and Heat Capacity, With
Application to Sodium Chloride," J. Phys. Chem., Vol. 81, No. 19, (1977), pp.
1822-1828.
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 117
Polynomial Activity Coefficient
This model represents activity coefficient as an empirical function of
composition and temperature. It is used frequently in metallurgical
applications where multiple liquid and solid solution phases can exist.
The equation is:
Where:
A
i
=
B
i
=
C
i
=
D
i
=
E
i
=
For any component i, the value of the activity coefficient can be fixed:

i
= f
i
This model is not part of any property method. To use it:
1. On the Properties | Specifications sheet, specify an activity coefficient
model, such as NRTL.
2. Click the Properties | Property Methods folder.
3. In the Object Manager, click New.
4. In the Create New ID dialog box, enter a name for the new method.
5. In the Base Property Method field, select NRTL.
6. Click the Models tab.
7. Change the Model Name for GAMMA from GMRENON to GMPOLY.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
GMPLYP/1 a
i1
0 x
GMPLYP/2 a
i2
0 x
GMPLYP/3 a
i3
0 x
GMPLYP/4 b
i1
0 x
GMPLYP/5 b
i2
0 x
GMPLYP/6 b
i3
0 x
GMPLYP/7 c
i1
0 x
GMPLYP/8 c
i2
0 x
GMPLYP/9 c
i3
0 x
GMPLYP/10 d
i1
0 x
GMPLYP/11 d
i2
0 x
GMPLYP/12 d
i3
0 x
GMPLYP/13 e
i1
0 x
GMPLYP/14 e
i2
0 x
118 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
GMPLYP/15 e
i3
0 x
GMPLYO f
i
x
Note: If you specify GMPLYP on the Properties | Parameters | Pure
Component | T-Dependent sheet, you can only enter the first 12 elements.
If you want to specify values for elements 13 to 15, you should go to the
Flowsheeting Options | Add-Input | Add After sheet in Aspen Plus or the
Add-Input | Add-Input | Add After sheet in Aspen Properties, and enter
the values of all 15 elements as in the following example:
PROP-DATA GMPLYP-1
IN-UNITS SI
PROP-LIST GMPLYP
PVAL WATER 0.0 1.5 0.0 &
0.0 0.0 0.0 &
0.0 0.0 0.0 &
0.0 0.0 0.0 &
0.0 16. 0.0
Redlich-Kister
This model calculates activity coefficients. It is a polynomial in the difference
between mole fractions in the mixture. It can be used for liquid and solid
mixtures (mixed crystals).
The equation is:
Where:
nc = Number of components
A
1,ij
= a
ij
/ T + b
ij
A
2,ij
= c
ij
/ T + d
ij
A
3,ij
= e
ij
/ T + f
ij
A
4,ij
= g
ij
/ T + h
ij
A
5,ij
= m
ij
/ T + n
ij
A
n,ii
= A
n,jj
= 0.0
A
n,ji
= A
n,ij
(-1)
(n-1)
A
n,kj
= A
n,jk
(-1)
(n-1)
For any component i, the value of the activity coefficient can be fixed:

i
= v
i
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 119
Parameter Name/
Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
GMRKTB/1 a
ij
0 x
GMRKTB/2 b
ij
0 x
GMRKTB/3 c
ij
0 x
GMRKTB/4 d
ij
0 x
GMRKTB/5 e
ij
0 x
GMRKTB/6 f
ij
0 x
GMRKTB/7 g
ij
0 x
GMRKTB/8 h
ij
0 x
GMRKTB/9 m
ij
0 x
GMRKTB/10 n
ij
0 x
GMRKTO v
i
x
Scatchard-Hildebrand
The Scatchard-Hildebrand model calculates liquid activity coefficients. It is
used in the CHAO-SEA property method and the GRAYSON property method.
The equation for the Scatchard-Hildebrand model is:
Where:
A
ij
=

i
=
V
m
*,l
=
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
TC T
ci
x 5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
DELTA
o
i
x 10
3
10
5
SOLUPARAM
VLCVT1 V
i
*,CVT
x 0.0005 1.0 MOLE-
VOLUME
GMSHVL V
i
*,l
x 0.01 1.0 MOLE-
VOLUME
GMSHXL k
ij
0.0 x -5 5
120 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Three-Suffix Margules
This model can be used to describe the excess properties of liquid and solid
solutions. It does not find much use in chemical engineering applications, but
is still widely used in metallurgical applications. Note that the binary
parameters for this model do not have physical significance.
The equation is:
Where k
ij
is a binary parameter:
For any component i, the value of the activity coefficient can be fixed:

i
= d
i
Parameter Name/
Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
GMMRGB/1 a
ij
0 x TEMPERATURE
GMMRGB/2 b
ij
0 x
GMMRGB/3 c
ij
0 x
GMMRGO d
i
x
References
M. Margules, "ber die Zusammensetzung der gesttigten Dmpfe von
Mischungen," Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Vienna, Vol. 104, (1895), p. 1293.
D.A. Gaskell, Introduction to Metallurgical Thermodyanics, 2nd ed., (New
York: Hemisphere Publishing Corp., 1981), p. 360.
R.C. Reid, J.M. Prausnitz, and B.E. Poling, The Properties of Gases and
Liquids, 4th ed., (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1987).
UNIFAC Activity Coefficient Model
The UNIFAC model calculates liquid activity coefficients for the following
property methods: UNIFAC, UNIF-HOC, and UNIF-LL. Because the UNIFAC
model is a group-contribution model, it is predictive. All published group
parameters and group binary parameters are stored in the Aspen Physical
Property System.
The equation for the original UNIFAC liquid activity coefficient model is made
up of a combinatorial and residual term:
ln
=
ln
i
c
+ ln
i
r
ln
i
c
=
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 121
Where the molecular volume and surface fractions are:
and
Where nc is the number of components in the mixture. The coordination
number z is set to 10. The parameters r
i
and q
i
are calculated from the group
volume and area parameters:
and
Where v
ki
is the number of groups of type k in molecule i, and ng is the
number of groups in the mixture.
The residual term is:
I
k
is the activity coefficient of a group at mixture composition, and I
k
i
is the
activity coefficient of group k in a mixture of groups corresponding to pure i.
The parameters I
k
and I
k
i
are defined by:
With:
And:
The parameter X
k
is the group mole fraction of group k in the liquid:
122 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol DefaultMDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
UFGRP
(k,v
k
, m, v
m
, ...)

GMUFQ Q
k

GMUFR R
k

GMUFB b
kn
TEMPERATURE
The parameter UFGRP stores the UNIFAC functional group number and
number of occurrences of each group. UFGRP is stored in the Aspen Physical
Property System pure component databank for most components. For
nondatabank components, enter UFGRP on the Properties Molecular Structure
Functional Group sheet. See Physical Property Data, Chapter 3, for a list of
the UNIFAC functional groups.
References
Aa. Fredenslund, J. Gmehling and P. Rasmussen, "Vapor-Liquid Equilibria
using UNIFAC," (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1977).
Aa. Fredenslund, R.L. Jones and J.M. Prausnitz, AIChE J., Vol. 21, (1975), p.
1086.
H.K. Hansen, P. Rasmussen, Aa. Fredenslund, M. Schiller, and J. Gmehling,
"Vapor-Liquid Equilibria by UNIFAC Group Contribution. 5 Revision and
Extension", Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., Vol. 30, (1991), pp. 2352-2355.
UNIFAC (Dortmund Modified)
The UNIFAC modification by Gmehling and coworkers (Weidlich and
Gmehling, 1987; Gmehling et al., 1993), is slightly different in the
combinatorial part. It is otherwise unchanged compared to the original
UNIFAC:
With:
The temperature dependency of the interaction parameters is:
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
UFGRPD
(k,v
k
, m, v
m
, ...)

GMUFDQ Q
k

GMUFDR R
k

UNIFDM/1 a
mn,1
0 TEMPERATURE
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 123
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
UNIFDM/2 a
mn,2
0 TEMPERATURE
UNIFDM/3 a
mn,3
0 TEMPERATURE
The parameter UFGRPD stores the group number and the number of
occurrences of each group. UFGRPD is stored in the Aspen Physical Property
System pure component databank. For nondatabank components, enter
UFGRPD on the Properties Molecular Structure Functional Group sheet. See
Physical Property Data, Chapter 3, for a list of the Dortmund modified UNIFAC
functional groups.
References
U. Weidlich and J. Gmehling, "A Modified UNIFAC Model 1. Prediction of VLE,
h
E
and ," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., Vol. 26, (1987), pp. 13721381.
J. Gmehling, J. Li, and M. Schiller, "A Modified UNIFAC Model. 2. Present
Parameter Matrix and Results for Different Thermodynamic Properties," Ind.
Eng. Chem. Res., Vol. 32, (1993), pp. 178193.
UNIFAC (Lyngby Modified)
The equations for the "temperature-dependent UNIFAC" (Larsen et al., 1987)
are similar to the original UNIFAC:
,
Volume fractions are modified:
With:
Where I
k
and I
k
i
have the same meaning as in the original UNIFAC, but
defined as:
124 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
With:
The temperature dependency of a is described by a function instead of a
constant:
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
UFGRPL
(k,v
k
, m, v
m
, ...)

GMUFLQ Q
k

GMUFLR R
k

UNIFLB/1 a
mn,1
0 TEMPERATURE
UNIFLB/2 a
mn,2
0 TEMPERATURE
UNIFLB/3 a
mn,3
0 TEMPERATURE
The parameter UFGRPL stores the modified UNIFAC functional group number
and the number of occurrences of each group. UFGRPL is stored in the Aspen
Physical Property System pure component databank. For nondatabank
components, enter UFGRP on the Properties | Molecular Structure |
Functional Group sheet. See Physical Property Data, Chapter 3, for a list of
the Larsen modified UNIFAC functional groups.
Reference: B. Larsen, P. Rasmussen, and Aa. Fredenslund, "A Modified
UNIFAC Group-Contribution Model for Prediction of Phase Equilibria and Heats
of Mixing," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., Vol. 26, (1987), pp. 2274 2286.
UNIQUAC Activity Coefficient Model
The UNIQUAC model calculates liquid activity coefficients for these property
methods: UNIQUAC, UNIQ-2, UNIQ-HOC, UNIQ-NTH, and UNIQ-RK. It is
recommended for highly non-ideal chemical systems, and can be used for VLE
and LLE applications. This model can also be used in the advanced equations
of state mixing rules, such as Wong-Sandler and MHV2.
The equation for the UNIQUAC model is:
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 125
Where:
u
i
=
u
i
' =
u
i
=
l
i
=
t
i
' =
t
ij
=
z = 10
a
ij
, b
ij
, c
ij
, and d
ij
are unsymmetrical. That is, a
ij
may not be equal to a
ji
, etc.
Absolute temperature units are assumed for the binary parameters a
ij
, b
ij
, c
ij
,
d
ij
, and e
ij
.
can be determined from VLE and/or LLE data regression. The Aspen Physical
Property System has a large number of built-in parameters for the UNIQUAC
model. The binary parameters have been regressed using VLE and LLE data
from the Dortmund Databank. The binary parameters for VLE applications
were regressed using the ideal gas, Redlich-Kwong, and Hayden-O'Connell
equations of state. See Physical Property Data, Chapter 1, for details.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
GMUQR r
i
x
GMUQQ q
i
x
GMUQQ1 q
i
' q x
UNIQ/1 a
ij
0 x -50.0 50.0
UNIQ/2 b
ij
0 x -15000.0 15000.0 TEMPERATURE
UNIQ/3 c
ij
0 x TEMPERATURE
UNIQ/4 d
ij
0 x TEMPERATURE
UNIQ/5 T
lower
0 K x TEMPERATURE
UNIQ/6 T
upper
1000 K x TEMPERATURE
UNIQ/7 e
ij
0 x TEMPERATURE
Absolute temperature units are assumed for elements 2 through 4 and 7 of
UNIQ.
126 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
The UNIQ-2 property method uses data set 2 for UNIQ. All other UNIQUAC
methods use data set 1.
References
D.S. Abrams and J.M. Prausnitz, "Statistical Thermodynamics of liquid
mixtures: A new expression for the Excess Gibbs Energy of Partly or
Completely Miscible Systems," AIChE J., Vol. 21, (1975), p. 116.
A. Bondi, "Physical Properties of Molecular Crystals, Liquids and Gases," (New
York: Wiley, 1960).
Simonetty, Yee and Tassios, "Prediction and Correlation of LLE," Ind. Eng.
Chem. Process Des. Dev., Vol. 21, (1982), p. 174.
Van Laar Activity Coefficient Model
The Van Laar model (Van Laar 1910) calculates liquid activity coefficients for
the property methods: VANLAAR, VANL-2, VANL-HOC, VANL-NTH, and VANL-
RK. It can be used for highly nonideal systems.
Where:
z
i
=
A
i
=
B
i
=
C
i
=
A
ij
=
C
ij
=
C
ij
= C
ji
A
ii
= B
ii
= C
ii
= 0
a
ij
and b
ij
are unsymmetrical. That is, a
ij
may not be equal to a
ji
, and b
ij
may
not be equal to b
ji
.
Parameters
Name/Element
Symbol DefaultMDS Lower Limit Upper
Limit
Units
VANL/1 a
ij
0 x -50.0 50.0
VANL/2 b
ij
0 x -15000.0 15000.0 TEMPERATURE
VANL/3 c
ij
0 x -50.0 50.0
VANL/4 d
ij
0 x -15000.0 15000.0 TEMPERATURE
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 127
The VANL-2 property method uses data set 2 for VANL. All other Van Laar
methods use data set 1.
References
J.J. Van Laar, "The Vapor Pressure of Binary Mixtures," Z. Phys. Chem., Vol.
72, (1910), p. 723.
R.C. Reid, J.M. Prausnitz, and B.E. Poling, The Properties of Gases and
Liquids, 4th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1987).
Wagner Interaction Parameter
The Wagner Interaction Parameter model calculates activity coefficients. This
model is used for dilute solutions in metallurgical applications.
The relative activity coefficient with respect to the reference activity
coefficient of a solute i (in a mixture of solutes i, j, and l and solvent A) is:
Where:
The parameter
i
ref
is the reference activity coefficient of solute i:
k
ij
is a binary parameter:
For any component i, the value of the activity coefficient can be fixed:

i
= g
i
This model is recommended for dilute solutions.
Parameter Name/
Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
GMWIPR/1 a
i
0 x TEMPERATURE
GMWIPR/2 b
i
0 x
GMWIPR/3 c
i
0 x
GMWIPB/1 d
ij
0 x TEMPERATURE
GMWIPB/2 e
ij
0 x
GMWIPB/3 f
ij
0 x
GMWIPO g
i
x
GMWIPS 0 x
GMWIPS is used to identify the solvent component. You must set GMWIPS to
1.0 for the solvent component. This model allows only one solvent.
128 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
References
A.D. Pelton and C. W. Bale, "A Modified Interaction Parameter Formalism for
Non-Dilute Solutions," Metallurgical Transactions A, Vol. 17A, (July 1986),
p. 1211.
Wilson Activity Coefficient Model
The Wilson model calculates liquid activity coefficients for the following
property methods: WILSON, WILS2, WILS-HOC, WILS-NTH, WILS-RK, WILS-
HF, WILS-LR, and WILS-GLR. It is recommended for highly nonideal systems,
especially alcohol-water systems. It can also be used in the advanced
equation-of-state mixing rules, such as Wong-Sandler and MHV2. This model
cannot be used for liquid-liquid equilibrium calculations.
The equation for the Wilson model is:
Where:
ln A
ij
=

The extended form of ln A


ij
provides more flexibility in fitting phase
equilibrium and enthalpy data. a
ij
, b
ij
, c
ij
, d
ij
, and e
ij
are unsymmetrical. That
is, a
ij
may not be equal to a
ji
, etc.
The binary parameters a
ij
, b
ij
, c
ij
, d
ij
, and e
ij
must be determined from data
regression or VLE and/or heat-of-mixing data. The Aspen Physical Property
System has a large number of built-in binary parameters for the Wilson
model. The binary parameters have been regressed using VLE data from the
Dortmund Databank. The binary parameters were regressed using the ideal
gas, Redlich-Kwong, and Hayden-O'Connell equations of state. See Physical
Property Data, Chapter 1, for details.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower Limit Upper
Limit
Units
WILSON/1 a
ij
0 x -50.0 50.0
WILSON/2 b
ij
0 x -15000.0 15000.0 TEMPERATURE

WILSON/3 c
ij
0 x - TEMPERATURE

WILSON/4 d
ij
0 x TEMPERATURE

WILSON/5 T
lower
0 K x TEMPERATURE
WILSON/6 T
upper
1000 K x TEMPERATURE
WILSON/7 e
ij
0 x TEMPERATURE

The WILS-2 property method uses data set 2 for WILSON. All other Wilson
methods use data set 1.
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 129
In the original formulation of the Wilson model, a
ij
= ln V
j
/V
i
, c
ij
= d
ij
= e
ij
=
0, and
b
ij
= -(
ij
-
ii
)/R, where V
j
and V
i
are pure component liquid molar volume at
25C.
If any of b
iA
, c
iA
, and e
iA
are non-zero, absolute temperature units are
assumed for all coefficients. If b
iA
, c
iA
, and e
iA
are all zero, the others are
interpreted in input units. The temperature limits are always interpreted in
input units.
References
G.M. Wilson, J. Am. Chem. Soc., Vol. 86, (1964), p. 127.
Wilson Model with Liquid Molar Volume
This Wilson model (used in the method WILS-VOL) calculates liquid activity
coefficients using the original formulation of Wilson (Wilson 1964) except that
liquid molar volume is calculated at system temperature, instead of at 25C.
It is recommended for highly nonideal systems, especially alcohol water
systems. It can be used in any activity coefficient property method or in the
advanced equation of state mixing rules, such as Wong Sandler and MHV2.
This model cannot be used for liquid liquid equilibrium calculations.
The equation for the Wilson model is:
Where:
ln A
ij
=

V
j
and V
i
are pure component liquid molar volume at the system temperature
calculated using the Rackett/DIPPR/IK-CAPE model. The extended form of ln
A
ij
provides more flexibility in fitting phase equilibrium and enthalpy data. a
ij
,
b
ij
, c
ij
, d
ij
, and e
ij
are unsymmetrical. That is, a
ij
may not be equal to a
ji
, etc.
The binary parameters a
ij
, b
ij
, c
ij
, d
ij
, and e
ij
must be determined from data
regression of VLE and/or heat-of-mixing data. There are no built in binary
parameters for this model.
Parameter
Name/Element
SymbolDefault MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
WSNVOL/1 a
ij
0 x -50.0 50.0
WSNVOL/2 b
ij
0 x -15000.0 15000.0 TEMPERATURE

WSNVOL/3 c
ij
0 x - TEMPERATURE

WSNVOL/4 d
ij
0 x TEMPERATURE

WSNVOL/5 e
ij
0 x TEMPERATURE

130 2 Thermodynamic Property Models


Parameter
Name/Element
SymbolDefault MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
WSNVOL/6 T
lower
0 K x TEMPERATURE
WSNVOL/7 T
upper
1000 K x TEMPERATURE
Pure component parameters for the Rackett model/DIPPR/IK-CAPE are also
required.
In the original formulation of the Wilson model, a
ij
= c
ij
= d
ij
= e
ij
= 0 and
. V
j
and V
i
are calculated at 25C.
If any of b
iA
, c
iA
, and e
iA
are non-zero, absolute temperature units are
assumed for all coefficients. If b
iA
, c
iA
, and e
iA
are all zero, the others are
interpreted in input units. The temperature limits are always interpreted in
input units.
Reference: G.M. Wilson, J. Am. Chem. Soc., Vol. 86, (1964), p. 127.
Vapor Pressure and Liquid
Fugacity Models
The Aspen Physical Property System has the following built-in vapor pressure
and liquid fugacity models. This section describes the vapor pressure and
liquid fugacity models available.
Model Type
Extended Antoine/Wagner/IK-CAPE Vapor pressure
API Sour Vapor pressure
Braun K-10 Vapor pressure
Chao-Seader Fugacity
Grayson-Streed Fugacity
Kent-Eisenberg Fugacity
Maxwell-Bonnell Vapor pressure
Solid Antoine Vapor pressure
Extended Antoine/Wagner/PPDS/IK-CAPE
Liquid Vapor Pressure Model
The Aspen Physical Property System has several submodels for calculating
vapor pressure of a liquid. It uses parameter THRSWT/3 to determine which
submodel is used. See Pure Component Temperature-Dependent Properties
for details.
If THRSWT/3 is Then this equation is used
0 Extended Antoine
200 BARIN
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 131
If THRSWT/3 is Then this equation is used
301 Wagner
302 PPDS Modified Wagner
400 PML
401 IK-CAPE
501 NIST TDE Polynomial
502 NIST Wagner 25
Extended Antoine Equation
Parameters for many components are available for the extended Antoine
equation from the Aspen Physical Property System pure component databank.
This equation can be used whenever the parameter PLXANT is available.
The equation for the extended Antoine vapor pressure model is:
Extrapolation of ln p
i
*,l
versus 1/T occurs outside of temperature bounds.
Parameter
Name/ Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
PLXANT/1 C
1i
x PRESSURE,
TEMPERATURE
PLXANT/2 C
2i
x TEMPERATURE
PLXANT/3, . . . , 7 C
3i
, ..., C
7i
0 x TEMPERATURE
PLXANT/8 C
8i
0 x TEMPERATURE
PLXANT/9 C
9i
1000 x TEMPERATURE
If C
5i
, C
6i
, or C
7i
is non-zero, absolute temperature units are assumed for all
coefficients C
1i
through C
7i
. The temperature limits are always in user input
units.
Wagner Vapor Pressure Equation
The Wagner vapor pressure equation is the best equation for correlation. The
equation can be used if the parameter WAGNER is available:
Where:
T
ri
= T / T
ci
p
ri
*,l
= p
i
*,l
/ p
ci
Linear extrapolation of ln p
i
*,l
versus T occurs outside of temperature bounds.
Note: Reduced temperature T
r
is always calculated using absolute
temperature units.
132 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
PPDS Modified Wagner Vapor Pressure Equation
The PPDS equation also uses the same parameter WAGNER as the standard
Wagner equation:
Where:
T
ri
= T / T
ci
p
ri
*,l
= p
i
*,l
/ p
ci
Linear extrapolation of ln p
i
*,l
versus T occurs outside of temperature bounds.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
WAGNER/1 C
1i
x
WAGNER/2 C
2i
0 x
WAGNER/3 C
3i
0 x
WAGNER/4 C
4i
0 x
WAGNER/5 C
5i
0 x TEMPERATURE
WAGNER/6 C
6i
1000 x TEMPERATURE
TC T
ci
TEMPERATURE
PC p
ci
PRESSURE
NIST Wagner 25 Liquid Vapor Pressure Equation
This equation is the same as the PPDS Modified Wagner equation above, but
it uses parameter WAGNER25 instead of WAGNER, and it uses critical
properties from this parameter set also.
Where:
T
ri
= T / T
ci
Linear extrapolation of ln p
i
*,l
versus T occurs outside of temperature bounds.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
WAGNER25/1 C
1i
x
WAGNER25/2 C
2i
0 x
WAGNER25/3 C
3i
0 x
WAGNER25/4 C
4i
0 x
WAGNER25/5 ln p
ci
0 x
WAGNER25/6 T
ci
x TEMPERATURE
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 133
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
WAGNER25/7 T
lower
0 x TEMPERATURE
WAGNER25/8 T
upper
1000 x TEMPERATURE
IK-CAPE Vapor Pressure Equation
The IK-CAPE model is a polynomial equation. If the parameter PLPO is
available, the Aspen Physical Property System can use the IK-CAPE vapor
pressure equation:
Linear extrapolation of ln p
i
*,l
versus T occurs outside of temperature bounds.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol DefaultMDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
PLPO/1 C
1i
X PRESSURE
TEMPERATURE
PLPO/2, ..., 10 C
2i
, ..., C
10i
0 X TEMPERATURE
PLPO/11 C
11i
0 X TEMPERATURE
PLPO/12 C
12i
1000 X TEMPERATURE
PML Vapor Pressure Equations
The PML vapor pressure equations are modified versions of the Antoine and
Wagner equations. Each equation comes in two alternate forms, identical
except for the use of natural or base-10 logarithms. Parameter LNVPEQ/1
specifies the number of the equation used. Each equation uses a separate
parameter: LNVP1 for equation 1, LOGVP1 for 2, LNPR1 for 3, LOGPR1 for 4,
LNPR2 for 5, and LOGPR2 for 6.
Equation 1 (natural logarithm) and 2 (base 10 logarithm):
Equation 3 (natural logarithm) and 4 (base 10 logarithm):
Equation 5 (natural logarithm) and 6 (base 10 logarithm):
Where:
T
ri
= T / T
ci
134 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
p
ri
*,l
= p
i
*,l
/ p
ci
LNVPEQ/2 and LNVPEQ/3 are the lower and upper temperature limits,
respectively.
In equations 1-4, if elements 4, 7, or 8 are non-zero, absolute temperature
units are assumed for all elements.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
LNVP1/1, ...,8 C
1i
, ..., C
8i
x PRESSURE
TEMPERATURE
LOGVP1/1, ..., 8 C
1i
, ..., C
8i
x PRESSURE
TEMPERATURE
LNPR1/1, ..., 8 C
1i
, ..., C
8i
x PRESSURE
TEMPERATURE
LOGPR1/1, ..., 8 C
1i
, ..., C
8i
x PRESSURE
TEMPERATURE
LNPR2/1,2 C
1i
, C
2i
x
LOGPR2/1,2 C
1i
, C
2i
x
LNVPEQ/1 (equation
number)
LNVPEQ/2 T
lower
0 X TEMPERATURE
LNVPEQ/3 T
upper
1000 X TEMPERATURE
TC T
ci
TEMPERATURE
PC p
ci
PRESSURE
NIST TDE Polynomial for Liquid Vapor Pressure
This equation can be used for calculating vapor pressure when parameter
PLTDEPOL is available.
Linear extrapolation of ln p
i
*,l
versus T occurs outside of temperature bounds.
If elements 2, 3, 6, or 8 are non-zero, absolute temperature units are
assumed for all elements.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol DefaultMDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
PLTDEPOL/1 C
1i
X
PLTDEPOL/2 C
2i
0 X TEMPERATURE
PLTDEPOL/3 C
3i
0 X
PLTDEPOL/4, ..., 8 C
4i
, ..., C
8i
0 X TEMPERATURE
PLTDEPOL/9 T
lower
0 X TEMPERATURE
PLTDEPOL/10 T
upper
1000 X TEMPERATURE
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 135
References
Reid, Prausnitz, and Poling, The Properties of Gases and Liquids, 4th ed.,
(New York: McGraw-Hill, 1987).
Harlacher and Braun, "A Four-Parameter Extension of the Theorem of
Corresponding States," Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev., Vol. 9, (1970), p.
479.
W. Wagner, Cryogenics, Vol. 13, (1973), pp. 470-482.
D. Ambrose, M. B. Ewing, N. B. Ghiassee, and J. C. Sanchez Ochoa "The
ebulliometric method of vapor-pressure measurement: vapor pressures of
benzene, hexafluorobenzene, and naphthalene," J. Chem. Thermodyn. 22
(1990), p. 589.
API Sour Model
The API Sour model is based on the API sour water model for correlating the
ammonia, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide volatilities from aqueous sour
water system. The model assumes aqueous phase chemical equilibrium
reactions involving CO
2
, H
2
S, and NH
3
.
The model is applicable from 20 C to 140 C. The authors developed the model
using available phase equilibrium data and reported average errors between
the model and measured partial pressure data as follows
Compound Average Error, %
Up to 60 C Above 60 C
Ammonia 10 36
Carbon dioxide 11 24
Hydrogen sulfide 12 29
Detail of the model is described in the reference below and is too involved to
be reproduced here.
Reference
New Correlation of NH3, CO2, and H2S Volatility Data from Aqueous Sour
Water Systems, API Publication 955, March 1978 (American Petroleum
Institute).
Braun K-10 Model
The BK10 model uses the Braun K-10 K-value correlations, which were
developed from the K10 charts (K-values at 10 psia) for both real and pseudo
components. The form of the equation used is an extended Antoine vapor
pressure equation with coefficients specific to real components and pseudo
component boiling ranges.
This method is strictly applicable to heavy hydrocarbons at low pressures.
However, our model includes coefficients for a large number of hydrocarbons
and light gases. For pseudocomponents the model covers boiling ranges 450
136 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
700 K (350 800F). Heavier fractions can also be handled using the
methods developed by AspenTech.
References
B.C. Cajander, H.G. Hipkin, and J.M. Lenoir, "Prediction of Equilibrium Ratios
from Nomograms of Improved Accuracy," Journal of Chemical Engineering
Data, vol. 5, No. 3, July 1960, p. 251-259.
J.M. Lenoir, "Predict K Values at Low Temperatures, part 1," Hydrocarbon
Processing, p. 167, September 1969.
J.M. Lenoir, "Predict K Values at Low Temperatures, part 2," Hydrocarbon
Processing, p. 121, October 1969.
Chao-Seader Pure Component Liquid
Fugacity Model
The Chao-Seader model calculates pure component fugacity coefficient, for
liquids. It is used in the CHAO-SEA property method. This is an empirical
model with the Curl-Pitzer form. The general form of the model is:
Where:
=
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower Limit Upper
Limit
Units
TC T
ci
5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
PC p
ci
10
5
10
8
PRESSURE
OMEGA
e
i
-0.5 2.0
References
K.C. Chao and J.D. Seader, "A General Correlation of Vapor-Liquid Equilibria
in Hydrocarbon Mixtures," AIChE J., Vol. 7, (1961), p. 598.
Grayson-Streed Pure Component Liquid
Fugacity Model
The Grayson-Streed model calculates pure component fugacity coefficients for
liquids, and is used in the GRAYSON/GRAYSON2 property methods. It is an
empirical model with the Curl-Pitzer form. The general form of the model is:
Where:
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 137
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower Limit Upper
Limit
Units
TC T
ci
5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
PC p
ci
10
5
10
8
PRESSURE
OMEGA
e
i
-0.5 2.0
References
H.G. Grayson and C.W. Streed, Paper 20-PO7, Sixth World Petroleum
Conference, Frankfurt, June 1963.
Kent-Eisenberg Liquid Fugacity Model
The Kent-Eisenberg model calculates liquid mixture component fugacity
coefficients and liquid enthalpy for the AMINES property method.
The chemical equilibria in H
2
S + CO
2
+ amine systems are described using
these chemical reactions:
Where:
R' = Alcohol substituted alkyl groups
The equilibrium constants are given by:
138 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
The chemical equilibrium equations are solved simultaneously with the
balance equations. This obtains the mole fractions of free H
2
S and CO
2
in
solution. The equilibrium partial pressures of H
2
S and CO
2
are related to the
respective free concentrations by Henry's constants:
The apparent fugacities and partial molar enthalpies, Gibbs energies and
entropies of H
2
S and CO
2
are calculated by standard thermodynamic
relationships. The chemical reactions are always considered.
The values of the coefficients for the seven equilibrium constants (A
1i
, ... A
5i
)
and for the two Henry's constants B
1i
and B
2i
are built into the Aspen Physical
Property System. The coefficients for the equilibrium constants were
determined by regression. All available data for the four amines were used:
monoethanolamine, diethanolamine, disopropanolamine and diglycolamine.
You are not required to enter any parameters for this model.
References
R.L. Kent and B. Eisenberg, Hydrocarbon Processing, (February 1976),
pp. 87-92.
Maxwell-Bonnell Vapor Pressure Model
The Maxwell-Bonnell model calculates vapor pressure using the Maxwell-
Bonnell vapor pressure correlation for all hydrocarbon pseudo-components as
a function of temperature. This is an empirical correlation based on API
procedure 5A1.15, 5A1.13. This model is used in property method MXBONNEL
for calculating vapor pressure and liquid fugacity coefficients (K-values).
References
API procedure 5A1.15 and 5A1.13.
Solid Antoine Vapor Pressure Model
The vapor pressure of a solid can be calculated using the Antoine equation.
Parameters for some components are available for the extended Antoine
equation from the Aspen Physical Property System pure component databank.
This equation can be used whenever the parameter PSANT is available.
The equation for the solid Antoine vapor pressure model is:
Extrapolation of ln p
i
*,s
versus 1/T occurs outside of temperature bounds.
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 139
Parameter
Name/
Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower Limit Upper
Limit
Units
PSANT/1 C
1i
x PRESSURE,
TEMPERATURE
PSANT/2 C
2i
x TEMPERATURE
PSANT/3 C
3i
0 x TEMPERATURE
PSANT/4 C
4i
0 x TEMPERATURE
PSANT/5 C
5i
1000 x TEMPERATURE
DIPPR/Watson/PPDS/IK-CAPE
Heat of Vaporization Model
The Aspen Physical Property System has several submodels for calculating
pure component heat of vaporization. It uses parameter THRSWT/4 to
determine which submodel is used. See Pure Component Temperature-
Dependent Properties for details.
If THRSWT/4 is Then this equation is used
0 Watson
106 DIPPR
301 PPDS
401 IK-CAPE
505 NIST TDE Watson equation
DIPPR Heat of Vaporization Equation
The DIPPR equation is used to calculate heat of vaporization when THRSWT/4
is set to 106. (Other DIPPR equations may sometimes be used. See Pure
Component Temperature-Dependent Properties for details.)
The equation for the DIPPR heat of vaporization model is:
Where:
T
ri
= T / T
ci
Note: Reduced temperature T
r
is always calculated using absolute
temperature units.
Linear extrapolation of A
vap
H
i
*
versus T occurs outside of temperature bounds,
using the slope at the temperature bound, except that A
vap
H
i
*
is zero for
.
140 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
DHVLDP/1 C
1i
x MOLE-ENTHALPY
DHVLDP/2, ..., 5 C
2i
, ..., C
5i
0 x
DHVLDP/6 C
6i
0 x TEMPERATURE
DHVLDP/7 C
7i
1000 x TEMPERATURE
TC T
ci
5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
Watson Heat of Vaporization Equation
The Watson equation is used to calculate heat of vaporization when
THRSWT/4 is set to 0. See Pure Component Temperature-Dependent
Properties for details.
The equation for the Watson model is:
Where:
A
vap
H
i
*
(T
1
)
= Heat of vaporization at temperature T
1
Linear extrapolation of A
vap
H
i
*
versus T occurs below the minimum
temperature bound, using the slope at the temperature bound.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
TC T
ci
5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
DHVLWT/1
A
vap
H
i
*
(T
1
)
5x10
4
5x10
8
MOLE-ENTHALPY
DHVLWT/2 T
1
4.0 3500.0 TEMPERATURE
DHVLWT/3 a
i
0.38 -2.0 2.0
DHVLWT/4 b
i
0 -2.0 2.0
DHVLWT/5 T
min
0 0.0 1500.0 TEMPERATURE
PPDS Heat of Vaporization Equation
The PPDS equation is used to calculate heat of vaporization when THRSWT/4
is set to 301. See Pure Component Temperature-Dependent Properties for
details.
The equation for the PPDS model is:
where R is the gas constant.
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 141
Linear extrapolation of A
vap
H
i
*
versus T occurs outside of temperature bounds,
using the slope at the temperature bound.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
TC T
ci
5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
DHVLDS/1 C
1i

DHVLDS/2 C
2i
0
DHVLDS/3 C
3i
0
DHVLDS/4 C
4i
0
DHVLDS/5 C
5i
0
DHVLDS/6 C
6i
0 TEMPERATURE
DHVLDS/7 C
7i
1000 TEMPERATURE
IK-CAPE Heat of Vaporization Equation
The IK-CAPE equation is used to calculate heat of vaporization when
THRSWT/4 is set to 401. See Pure Component Temperature-Dependent
Properties for details.
The equation for the IK-CAPE model is:
Linear extrapolation of A
vap
H
i
*
versus T occurs outside of temperature bounds,
using the slope at the temperature bound
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
DHVLPO/1 C
1i
X MOLE-
ENTHALPY
DHVLPO/2, ..., 10C
2i
, ..., C
10i
0 X MOLE-
ENTHALPY
TEMPERATURE
DHVLPO/11 C
11i
0 X TEMPERATURE
DHVLPO/12 C
12i
1000 X TEMPERATURE
NIST TDE Watson Heat of Vaporization
Equation
The NIST TDE Watson equation is used to calculate heat of vaporization when
THRSWT/4 is set to 505. See Pure Component Temperature-Dependent
Properties for details.
The equation is:
142 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Linear extrapolation of A
vap
H
i
*
versus T occurs outside of temperature bounds,
using the slope at the temperature bound
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
DHVLTDEW/1 C
1i
X
DHVLTDEW/2, 3,
4
C
2i
, C
3i
, C
4i
0 X
DHVLTDEW/5 T
ci
X TEMPERATURE
DHVLTDEW/6 nTerms 4 X
DHVLTDEW/7 T
lower
0 X TEMPERATURE
DHVLTDEW/8 T
upper
1000 X TEMPERATURE
Clausius-Clapeyron Equation
The Aspen Physical Property System can calculate heat of vaporization using
the Clausius Clapeyron equation:
Where:
= Slope of the vapor pressure curve calculated from the Extended
Antoine equation
V
i
*,v
= Vapor molar volume calculated from the Redlich Kwong
equation of state
V
i
*,l
= Liquid molar volume calculated from the Rackett equation
For parameter requirements, see Extended Antoine/Wagner, the Rackett
model, and Redlich Kwong.
Molar Volume and Density
Models
The Aspen Physical Property System has nine built-in molar volume and
density models available. This section describes the molar volume and density
models.
Model Type
API Liquid Volume Liquid volume
Brelvi-O'Connell Partial molar liquid
volume of gases
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 143
Model Type
Clarke Aqueous Electrolyte Volume Liquid volume
Costald Liquid Volume Liquid volume
Debye-Hckel Volume Electrolyte liquid volume
Liquid Constant Molar Volume Model Liquid volume
Rackett/DIPPR/IK-CAPE Liquid Molar Volume Liquid volume/liquid
density
Rackett Mixture Liquid Volume Liquid volume
Modified Rackett Liquid volume
Aspen/IK-CAPE Solids Volume Solid volume
Liquid Volume Quadratic Mixing Rule Liquid volume
API Liquid Volume
This model calculates liquid molar volume for a mixture, using the API
procedure and the Rackett model. Ideal mixing is assumed:
Where:
x
p
= Mole fraction of pseudocomponents
x
r
= Mole fraction of real components
For pseudocomponents, the API procedure is used:
Where:
fcn = A correlation based on API Figure 6A3.5 (API Technical Data Book,
Petroleum Refining, 4th edition)
At high density, the Ritter equation is used (adapted from Ritter, Lenoir, and
Schweppe, Petrol. Refiner 37 [11] 225 (1958)):
Where SG is the specific gravity, T
b
is the mean average boiling point in
Rankine, T is the temperature of the system in Rankine, and the mass volume
is produced in units of cubic feet per pound-mass.
For real components, the mixture Rackett model is used:
Note: Reduced temperature T
r
is always calculated using absolute
temperature units.
144 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
See the Rackett model for descriptions.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
TB T
b
4.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
API API -60.0 500.0
TC T
c
5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
PC p
c
10
5
10
8
PRESSURE
RKTZRA Z
RA
ZC 0.1 0.5
Brelvi-O'Connell
The Brelvi-O'Connell model calculates partial molar volume of a supercritical
component i at infinite dilution in pure solvent A. Partial molar volume at
infinite dilution is required to compute the effect of pressure on Henry's
constant. (See Henry's Constant.)
The general form of the Brelvi-O'Connell model is:
Where:
i = Solute or dissolved-gas component
A = Solvent component
The liquid molar volume of solvent is obtained from the Rackett model:
Note: Reduced temperature T
r
is always calculated using absolute
temperature units.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
TC T
cA
5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
PC p
cA
10
5
10
8
PRESSURE
RKTZRA Z
A
RA
ZC x 0.1 1.0
VLBROC/1 V
i
BO
VC x -1.0 1.0 MOLE-VOLUME
VLBROC/2 0 x -0.1 0.1 TEMPERATURE
References
S.W. Brelvi and J.P. O'Connell, AIChE J., Vol. 18, (1972), p. 1239.
S.W. Brelvi and J.P. O'Connell, AIChE J., Vol. 21, (1975), p. 157.
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 145
Clarke Aqueous Electrolyte Volume
The Clarke model calculates liquid molar volume for electrolytes solutions.
The model is applicable to mixed solvents and is based on:
- Molar volume of molecular solvents (equation 1)
- The relationship between the partial molar volume of an electrolyte and its
mole fraction in the solvent (equation 2)
All quantities are expressed in terms of apparent components.
If option code 1 is set to 1, the liquid volume quadratic mixing rule is used
instead.
Apparent Component Approach
For molecular solvents, the liquid molar volume is calculated by:
(1)
Where:
V
w
*
is calculated using the steam table.
x
nws
is the sum of the mole fractions of all non-water
solvents.
V
nws
l
is the liquid molar volume for the mixture of all non-
water solvents. It is calculated using the Rackett
equation.
For electrolytes:
(2)
Where:
x
ca
= Apparent electrolyte mole fraction
The mole fractions x
ca
are reconstituted arbitrarily from the true ionic
concentrations, even if you use the apparent component approach. This
technique is explained in Electrolyte Calculation in Physical Property Methods.
The result is that electrolytes are generated from all possible combinations of
ions in solution. For example: given an aqueous solution of Ca
2+
, Na
+
, SO
4
2-
,
Cl
-
four electrolytes are found: CaCl
2
, Na
2
SO
4
, CaSO
4
, and NaCl. The Clarke
parameters of all four electrolytes are used. You can rely on the default,
which calculates the Clarke parameters from ionic parameters. Otherwise, you
must enter parameters for any electrolytes that may not exist in the
components list. If you do not want to use the default, the first step in using
the Clarke model is to enter any needed component ID's for electrolytes not
in the components list.
The mole fractions of apparent electrolytes used in the calculation are all
nonzero, but are arbitrary values. For a given ionic solution, the Clarke model
always yields the same volume, independent of the mole fractions of the
electrolytes. Constraints between the Clarke parameters result:
146 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
A similar equation exists for A
ca
You can consider these constraints in simple
parameter input and in data regression.
True Component Approach
The true molar volume is obtained from the apparent molar volume:
Where:
V
m
l,t
= Liquid volume per number of true species
V
m
l,a
= Liquid volume per number of apparent species, V
m
l
of equation 1
n
a
= Number of apparent species
n
t
= Number of true species
The apparent molar volume is calculated as explained in the preceding
subsection.
Temperature Dependence
The temperature dependence of the molar volume of the solution is
approximately equal to the temperature dependence of the molar volume of
the solvent mixture:
Where:
B = Any solvent
Parameter
Name/Element
Applicable
Components
Symbol Default Units
VLCLK/1 Cation-Anion MOLE-VOLUME
VLCLK/2 Cation-Anion A
ca
0.020 MOLE-VOLUME
If VLCLK/1 is missing, it is calculated based on VLBROC and CHARGE. If
VLBROC is missing, the default value of -0.12x10
-2
is used.
See also Rackett/Campbell-Thodos Mixture Liquid Volume for additional
parameters used in the Rackett equation.
Reference
C.C. Chen, private communication.
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 147
COSTALD Liquid Volume
The equation for the COSTALD liquid volume model is:
Where:
V
m
R,0
and V
m
R,
o
are functions or T
r
for
For , there is a linear interpolation between the liquid density at
T
r
= 0.95 and the vapor density at T
r
= 1.05. This model can be used to
calculate saturated and compressed liquid molar volume. The compressed
liquid molar volume is calculated using the Tait equation:
Where B and C are functions of T, e, T
c
, P
c
and P
sat
is the saturated pressure
at T.
Note: Reduced temperature T
r
is always calculated using absolute
temperature units.
Mixing Rules:
Where:
To improve results, the Aspen Physical Property System uses a special
correlation for water when this model is used. Changing the VSTCTD and
OMGCTD parameters for water will not affect the results of the special
correlation.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
TC T
ci
5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
VSTCTD V
r
*,CTD
VC X 0.001 3.5 MOLE-VOLUME
OMGCTD
e
r
OMEGA X -0.5 2.0
References
R.W. Hankinson and G.H. Thomson, AIChE J., Vol. 25, (1979), p. 653.
148 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
G.H. Thomson, K.R. Brobst, and R.W. Hankinson, AIChE J., Vol. 28, (1982),
p. 4, p. 671.
Debye-Hckel Volume
The Debye-Hckel model calculates liquid molar volume for aqueous
electrolyte solutions.
The equation for the Debye-Hckel volume model is:
Where:
V
k

is the molar volume for water and is calculated from the ASME steam
table.
V
k
is calculated from the Debye-Hckel limiting law for ionic species. It is
assumed to be the infinite dilution partial volume for molecular solutes.
Where:
V
k

= Partial molar ionic volume at infinite dilution


z
k
= Charge number of ion k
A
v
= Debye-Hckel constant for volume
b = 1.2
I =
the ionic strength, with
m
k
= Molarity of ion k
A
v
is computed as follows:
Where:
A

= Debye-Hckel constant for the osmotic


coefficients (Pitzer, 1979)

w
= Density of water (kg / m
3
)
c
w
= Dielectric constant of water (Fm
-1
), a function
of pressure and temperature (Bradley and
Pitzer, 1979)
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 149
Parameter Name Applicable
Components
Symbol Default Units
VLBROC Ions, molecular Solutes
V
k

0 MOLE-VOLUME
References
D. J. Bradley, K. S. Pitzer, "Thermodynamics of Electrolytes," J. Phys. Chem.,
83 (12), 1599 (1979).
H.C. Helgeson and D.H. Kirkham, "Theoretical prediction of the
thermodynamic behavior of aqueous electrolytes at high pressure and
temperature. I. Thermodynamic/electrostatic properties of the solvent", Am.
J. Sci., 274, 1089 (1974).
K.S. Pitzer, "Theory: Ion Interaction Approach," Activity Coefficients in
Electrolyte Solutions, Pytkowicz, R. ed., Vol. I, (CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton,
Florida, 1979).
Liquid Constant Molar Volume Model
This model, VL0CONS, uses a constant value entered by the user as the pure
component liquid molar volume. It is not a function of temperature or
pressure. This is used with the solids handling property method for modeling
nonconventional solids.
Parameter Name Default MDS Units
VLCONS 1 x MOLE-VOLUME
Rackett/DIPPR/PPDS/IK-CAPE Liquid
Molar Volume
The Aspen Physical Property System has several submodels for calculating
liquid molar volume. It uses parameter THRSWT/2 to determine which
submodel is used. See Pure Component Temperature-Dependent Properties
for details.
If THRSWT/2 is This equation is used And this parameter is used
0 Rackett RKTZRA
100-116 DIPPR DNLDIP
301 PPDS DNLPDS
401 IK-CAPE VLPO
503 NIST ThermoML
Polynomial
DNLTMLPO
504 NIST TDE expansion DNLEXSAT
514 NIST TDE Rackett DNLRACK
515 NIST COSTALD DNLCOSTD
For liquid molar volume of mixtures, the Rackett mixture equation is always
used by default. This is not necessarily consistent with the pure component
molar volume or density. If you need consistency, select route VLMX26 on the
150 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Properties | Property Methods form. This route calculates mixture molar
volume from the mole-fraction average of pure component molar volumes.
Many of these equations calculate density first, and return calculate liquid
molar volume based on that density:
DIPPR
DIPPR equation 105 is the default DIPPR equation for most substances:
This equation is similar to the Rackett equation.
DIPPR equation 116 is the default equation for water.
t = 1 - T / T
c
Other DIPPR equations, such as equation 100, may be used for some
substances. Check the value of THRSWT/2 to determine the equation used.
See Pure Component Temperature-Dependent Properties for details about
DIPPR equations.
In either case, linear extrapolation of
i
*,l
versus T occurs outside of
temperature bounds.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
DNLDIP/1 C
1i
x MOLE-DENSITY
DNLDIP/2 C
2i
0 x
DNLDIP/3 C
3i
T
ci
x TEMPERATURE
DNLDIP/4 C
4i
0 x
DNLDIP/5 C
5i
0 x
DNLDIP/6 C
6i
0 x TEMPERATURE
DNLDIP/7 C
7i
1000 x TEMPERATURE
For equation 116, the units are MOLE-DENSITY for parameters DNLDIP/1
through DNLDIP/5 and the default for DNLDIP/3 is 0. For equation 105,
DNLDIP/5 is not used, and absolute temperature units are assumed for
DNLDIP/3.
PPDS
The PPDS equation is:
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 151
Linear extrapolation of
i
*,l
versus T occurs outside of temperature bounds.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol DefaultMDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
MW M
i
1.0 5000.0
VC V
ci
0.001 3.5 MOLE-VOLUME
TC T
ci
5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
DNLPDS/1 C
1i
MASS-DENSITY
DNLPDS/2 C
2i
0 MASS-DENSITY
DNLPDS/3 C
3i
0 MASS-DENSITY
DNLPDS/4 C
4i
0 MASS-DENSITY
DNLPDS/5 C
5i
0 x TEMPERATURE
DNLPDS/6 C
6i
1000 x TEMPERATURE
IK-CAPE
The IK-CAPE equation is:
Linear extrapolation of V
i
*,l
versus T occurs outside of temperature bounds.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
VLPO/1 C
1i
X MOLE-
VOLUME
VLPO/2, ..., 10 C
2i
, ..., C
10i
0 X MOLE-
VOLUME
TEMPERATURE
VLPO/11 C
11i
0 X TEMPERATURE
VLPO/12 C
12i
1000 X TEMPERATURE
NIST ThermoML Polynomial
This equation can be used when parameter DNLTMLPO is available.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
DNLTMLPO/1 C
1i
X MOLE-
DENSITY
DNLTMLPO/2, 3,
4
C
2i
, C
3i
, C
4i
0 X MOLE-
DENSITY
TEMPERATURE
DNLTMLPO/5 nTerms 4 X
DNLTMLPO/6 0 X TEMPERATURE
DNLTMLPO/7 1000 X TEMPERATURE
152 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Rackett
The Rackett equation is:
Where:
T
r
= T / T
ci
Note: Reduced temperature T
r
is always calculated using absolute
temperature units.
Parameter
Name/
Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
TC T
ci
5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
PC p
ci
10
5
10
8
PRESSURE
RKTZRA Z
i
*,RA
ZC x 0.1 1.0
NIST TDE Rackett Parameters
This equation can be used when the parameter DNLRACK is available.
Linear extrapolation of V
i
*,l
versus T occurs outside of temperature bounds.
Parameter
Name/
Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
DNLRACK/1 Z
c
x
DNLRACK/2 n 2/7 x
DNLRACK/3 T
ci
x TEMPERATURE
DNLRACK/4 p
ci
0 x PRESSURE
DNLRACK/5 T
lower
0 x TEMPERATURE
DNLRACK/6 T
upper
1000 x TEMPERATURE
NIST COSTALD Parameters
This equation can be used when the parameter DNLCOSTD is available.
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 153
Linear extrapolation of V
i
*,l
versus T occurs outside of temperature bounds.
Parameter
Name/
Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
DNLCOSTD/1 V
oi
x VOLUME
DNLCOSTD/2
O
0 x
DNLCOSTD/3 T
ci
x TEMPERATURE
DNLCOSTD/4 T
lower
0 x TEMPERATURE
DNLCOSTD/5 T
upper
1000 x TEMPERATURE
NIST TDE Expansion
This equation can be used when the parameter DNLEXSAT is available.
Linear extrapolation of V
i
*,l
versus T occurs outside of temperature bounds.
Parameter
Name/
Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
DNLEXSAT/1

ci
x MOLE-
DENSITY
DNLEXSAT/2 C
1i
x MOLE-
DENSITY
DNLEXSAT/3,
..., DNLEXSAT/7
C
2i
, ..., C
6i
0 x MOLE-
DENSITY
DNLEXSAT/8 T
ci
x TEMPERATURE
DNLEXSAT/9 nTerms 6 x
DNLEXSAT/10 T
lower
0 x TEMPERATURE
DNLEXSAT/11 T
upper
1000 x TEMPERATURE
References
H.G. Rackett, J.Chem. Eng. Data., Vol. 15, (1970), p. 514.
C.F. Spencer and R.P. Danner, J. Chem. Eng. Data, Vol. 17, (1972), p. 236.
154 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Rackett/Campbell-Thodos Mixture Liquid
Volume
The Rackett equation calculates liquid molar volume for all activity coefficient
based and petroleum tuned equation of state based property methods. In the
last category of property methods, the equation is used in conjunction with
the API model. The API model is used for pseudocomponents, while the
Rackett model is used for real components. (See API Liquid Volume .)
Campbell-Thodos is a variation on the Rackett model which allows the
compressibility term Z
i
*,RA
to vary with temperature.
Rackett
The equation for the Rackett model is:
Where:
T
c
=
=
Z
m
RA
=
V
cm
=
T
r
= T / T
c
Note: Reduced temperature T
r
is always calculated using absolute
temperature units.
Parameter
Name/
Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
TC T
ci
5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
PC p
ci
10
5
10
8
PRESSURE
VCRKT V
ci
VC x 0.001 3.5 MOLE-
VOLUME
RKTZRA Z
i
*,RA
ZC x 0.1 1.0
RKTKIJ k
ij
x -5.0 5.0
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 155
Campbell-Thodos
The Campbell-Thodos model uses the same equation and parameters as the
Rackett model, above, except that Z
m
RA
is allowed to vary with temperature:
Z
m
RA
=
Campbell-Thodos also uses separately-adjustable versions of the critical
parameters. Tmin and Tmax define the temperature range where the
equation is applicable.
Parameter
Name/
Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
RACKET/1 R*T
ci
/P
ci
R*Tci/Pci MOLE-
VOLUME
RACKET/2 Z
i
*,RA
RKTZRA x 0.1 1.0
RACKET/3 d
i
0 x 0 0.11
RACKET/4 T
min
0 x TEMPERATURE
RACKET/5 T
max
1000 x TEMPERATURE
The Campbell-Thodos model is used when RACKET/3 is set to a value less
than 0.11. The default value, 2/7, indicates that the standard Rackett
equation should be used. When Campbell-Thodos is not used, RACKET/3
should be kept at its default value of 2/7 for all components.
References
H.G. Rackett, J.Chem, Eng. Data., Vol. 15, (1970), p. 514.
C.F. Spencer and R.P. Danner, J. Chem. Eng. Data, Vol. 17, (1972), p. 236.
Modified Rackett Liquid Molar Volume
The Modified Rackett equation improves the accuracy of liquid mixture molar
volume calculation by introducing additional parameters to compute the pure
component parameter RKTZRA and the binary parameter k
ij
.
The equation for the Modified Rackett model is:
Where:
T
c
=
k
ij
=
156 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
=
Z
m
RA
=
Z
i
*,RA
=
V
cm
=
T
r
= T / T
c
Note: Reduced temperature T
r
is always calculated using absolute
temperature units.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
MRKZRA/1 a
i
RKTZRA x 0.1 0.5
MRKZRA/2 b
i
0 x
MRKZRA/3 c
i
0 x
MRKKIJ/1 A
ij
x
MRKKIJ/2 B
ij
0 x
MRKKIJ/3 C
ij
0 x
References
H.G. Rackett, J.Chem, Eng. Data., Vol. 15, (1970), p. 514.
C.F. Spencer and R.P. Danner, J. Chem. Eng. Data, Vol. 17, (1972), p. 236.
Aspen/DIPPR/IK-CAPE Solid Molar Volume
The Aspen Physical Property System has several submodels for calculating
solid molar volume. It uses parameter THRSWT/1 to determine which
submodel is used. See Pure Component Temperature-Dependent Properties
for details.
If THRSWT/1 is This equation is used And this parameter is
used
0 Aspen VSPOLY
100 DIPPR DNSDIP
401 IK-CAPE VSPO
503 NIST ThermoML
polynomial
DNSTMLPO
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 157
Aspen Polynomial
The equation for the Aspen solids volume polynomial is:
Linear extrapolation of V
i
*,s
versus T occurs outside of temperature bounds.
Parameter
Name
Applicable
Components
Symbol MDS Default Units
VSPOLY/1 Salts, CI solids C
1i
x MOLE-VOLUME
TEMPERATURE
VSPOLY/2, ..., 5 Salts, CI solids C
2i
, ..., C
5i
x 0 MOLE-VOLUME
TEMPERATURE
VSPOLY/6 Salts, CI solids C
6i
x 0 MOLE-VOLUME
TEMPERATURE
VSPOLY/7 Salts, CI solids C
7i
x 1000 MOLE-VOLUME
TEMPERATURE
IK-CAPE Equation
The IK-CAPE equation is:
Linear extrapolation of V
i
*,s
versus T occurs outside of temperature bounds.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
VSPO/1 C
1i
X MOLE-
VOLUME
VSPO/2, ..., 10 C
2i
, ..., C
10i
0 X MOLE-
VOLUME
TEMPERATURE
VSPO/11 C
11i
0 X TEMPERATURE
VSPO/12 C
12i
1000 X TEMPERATURE
DIPPR
The DIPPR equation is:
Linear extrapolation of
i
*,s
versus T occurs outside of temperature bounds.
V
i
*,s
= 1 /
i
*,s
(Other DIPPR equations may sometimes be used. See Pure Component
Temperature-Dependent Properties for details.)
The model returns solid molar volume for pure components.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
DNSDIP/1 C
1i
x MOLE-
158 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
DENSITY
DNSDIP/2, ..., 5 C
2i
, ..., C
5i
0 x MOLE-
DENSITY,
TEMPERATURE
DNSDIP/6 C
6i
0 x TEMPERATURE
DNSDIP/7 C
7i
1000 x TEMPERATURE
NIST ThermoML Polynomial
Linear extrapolation of
i
*,s
versus T occurs outside of temperature bounds.
V
i
*,s
= 1 /
i
*,s
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
DNSTMLPO/1 C
1i
x MOLE-
DENSITY
DNSTMLPO/2,...,8 C
2i
, ..., C
8i
0 x MOLE-
DENSITY,
TEMPERATURE
DNSTMLPO/9 nTerms 8 x
DNSTMLPO/10 T
lower
0 x TEMPERATURE
DNSTMLPO/11 T
upper
1000 x TEMPERATURE
Liquid Volume Quadratic Mixing Rule
With i and j being components, the liquid volume quadratic mixing rule is:
Option Codes
Option Code Value Descriptions
1 0 Use normal pure component liquid volume model for all
components (default)
1 Use steam tables for water
2 0 Use mole basis composition (default)
1 Use mass basis composition
Parameter
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
VLQKIJ K
ij
- x - -
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 159
Heat Capacity Models
The Aspen Physical Property System has five built-in heat capacity models.
This section describes the heat capacity models available.
Model Type
Aqueous Infinite Dilution Heat Capacity
Polynomial
Electrolyte liquid
Criss-Cobble Aqueous Infinite Dilution
Ionic Heat Capacity
Electrolyte liquid
DIPPR/IK-CAPE Liquid Heat Capacity Liquid
Aspen/DIPPR/Barin/IK-CAPE Ideal Gas
Heat Capacity
Ideal gas
Aspen/DIPPR/Barin/IK-CAPE Solid Heat
Capacity
Solid
Aqueous Infinite Dilution Heat Capacity
The aqueous phase infinite dilution enthalpies, entropies, and Gibbs energies
are calculated from the heat capacity polynomial. The values are used in the
calculation of aqueous and mixed solvent properties of electrolyte solutions:
versus T is linearly extrapolated using the slope at C
7i
for T < C
7i
versus T is linearly extrapolated using the slope at C
8i
for T < C
8i
Parameter
Name/Element
Applicable
Components
Symbol Default Units
CPAQ0/1 Ions, molecular solutes C
1i
TEMPERATURE and
HEAT CAPACITY
CPAQ0/2,,6 Ions, molecular solutes C
2i
, ..., C
6i
0 TEMPERATURE and
HEAT CAPACITY
CPAQ0/7 Ions, molecular solutes C
7i
0 TEMPERATURE
CPAQ0/8 Ions, molecular solutes C
8i
1000 TEMPERATURE
If any of C
4i
through C
6i
is non-zero, absolute temperature units are
assumed for C
1i
through C
6i
. Otherwise, user input units for temperature are
used. The temperature limits are always interpreted in user input units.
160 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Criss-Cobble Aqueous Infinite Dilution Ionic
Heat Capacity
The Criss-Cobble correlation for aqueous infinite dilution ionic heat capacity is
used if no parameters are available for the aqueous infinite dilution heat
capacity polynomial. From the calculated heat capacity, the thermodynamic
properties entropy, enthalpy and Gibbs energy at infinte dilution in water are
derived:
Parameter
Name
Applicable
Components
Symbol Default Units
IONTYP Ions Ion Type 0
SO25C Anions MOLE-ENTROPY
Cations MOLE-ENTROPY
DIPPR/PPDS/IK-CAPE Liquid Heat Capacity
The Aspen Physical Property System has several submodels for calculating
liquid heat capacity. It uses parameter THRSWT/6 to determine which
submodel is used. See Pure Component Temperature-Dependent Properties
for details.
If THRSWT/6 is This equation is used And this parameter is used
100 DIPPR CPLDIP
200 Barin CPLXP1, CPLXP2
301 PPDS CPLPDS
401 IK-CAPE heat capacity
polynomial
CPLPO
403 IK-CAPE liquid heat
capacity
CPLIKC
503 NIST ThermoML
polynomial
CPLTMLPO
506 NIST TDE equation CPLTDECS
The DIPPR/PPDS/IK-CAPE liquid heat capacity model is used to calculate pure
component liquid heat capacity and pure component liquid enthalpy. To use
this model, two conditions must exist:
- One of the parameters for calculating heat capacity (see table below) is
available.
- The component is not supercritical (HENRY-COMP).
The model uses a specific method (see Methods in Property Calculation
Methods and Routes):
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 161
Where
= Reference enthalpy calculated at T
ref
= Ideal gas enthalpy
= Vapor enthalpy departure
= Enthalpy of vaporization
T
ref
is the reference temperature; it defaults to 298.15 K. You can enter a
different value for the reference temperature. This is useful when you want to
use this model for very light components or for components that are solids at
298.15K.
Activate this model by specifying the route DHL09 for the property DHL on
the Properties Property Methods Routes sheet. For equation of state property
method, you must also modify the route for the property DHLMX to use a
route with method 2 or 3, instead of method 1. For example, you can use the
route DHLMX00 or DHLMX30. You must ascertain that the route for DHLMX
that you select contains the appropriate vapor phase model and heat of
mixing calculations. Click the View button on the form to see details of the
route.
Optionally, you can specify that this model is used for only certain
components. The properties for the remaining components are then
calculated by the standard model. Use the parameter COMPHL to specify the
components for which this model is used. By default, all components with the
CPLDIP or CPLIKC parameters use this model.
DIPPR Liquid Heat Capacity
The DIPPR equation is used to calculate liquid heat capacity when parameter
THRSWT/6 is 100.
The DIPPR equation is:
Linear extrapolation occurs for C
p
*,l
versus T outside of bounds.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
CPLDIP/1 C
1i
x MOLE-HEAT-
CAPACITY,
TEMPERATURE
CPLDIP/2, ..., 5 C
2i
, ..., C
5i
0 x MOLE-HEAT-
CAPACITY,
TEMPERATURE
162 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
CPLDIP/6 C
6i
0 x TEMPERATURE
CPLDIP/7 C
7i
1000 x TEMPERATURE
TREFHL T
ref
298.15 TEMPERATURE
COMPHL
To specify that the model is used for a component, enter a value of 1.0 for
COMPHL.
(Other DIPPR equations may sometimes be used. See Pure Component
Temperature-Dependent Properties for details.)
PPDS Liquid Heat Capacity
The PPDS equation is used to calculate liquid heat capacity when parameter
THRSWT/6 is 301.
The PPDS equation is:
Where R is the gas constant.
Linear extrapolation occurs for C
p
*,l
versus T outside of bounds.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
CPLPDS/1 C
1i

CPLPDS/2 C
2i
0
CPLPDS/3 C
3i
0
CPLPDS/4 C
4i
0
CPLPDS/5 C
5i
0
CPLPDS/6 C
6i
0
CPLPDS/7 C
7i
0 x TEMPERATURE
CPLPDS/8 C
8i
1000 x TEMPERATURE
IK-CAPE Liquid Heat Capacity
Two IK-CAPE equations can be used to calculate liquid heat capacity. Linear
extrapolation occurs for C
p
*,l
versus T outside of bounds for either equation.
When THRSWT/6 is 403, the IK-CAPE liquid heat capacity equation is used.
The equation is:
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 163
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
CPLIKC/1 C
1i

T
x MOLE-HEAT-
CAPACITY
CPLIKC/2,...,4 C
2i
, ..., C
4i
0 x MOLE-HEAT-
CAPACITY,
TEMPERATURE
CPLIKC/5 C
5i
0 x MOLE-HEAT-
CAPACITY,
TEMPERATURE
CPLIKC/6 C
6i
0 x TEMPERATURE
CPLIKC/7 C
7i
1000 x TEMPERATURE
If C
5i
is non-zero, absolute temperature units are assumed for C
2i
through
C
5i
. Otherwise, user input units for temperature are used. The temperature
limits are always interpreted in user input units.
When THRSWT/6 is 401, the IK-CAPE heat capacity polynomial is used.The
equation is:
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
CPLPO/1 C
1i
X MOLE-CAPACITY
CPLPO/2,,10 C
2i
, ..., C
10i
0 X MOLE-CAPACITY
TEMPERATURE
CPLPO/11 C
11i
0 X TEMPERATURE
CPLPO/12 C
12i
1000 X TEMPERATURE
See Pure Component Temperature-Dependent Properties for details on the
THRSWT parameters.
NIST Liquid Heat Capacity
Two NIST equations can be used to calculate liquid heat capacity. Linear
extrapolation occurs for C
p
*,l
versus T outside of bounds for either equation.
When THRSWT/6 is 503, the ThermoML polynomial is used to calculate liquid
heat capacity:
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
CPLTMLPO/1 C
1i
X J/K^2/mol
CPLTMLPO/2,,5 C
2i
, ..., C
5i
0 X J/K^2/mol
CPLTMLPO/6 nTerms 5 X
CPLTMLPO/7 T
lower
0 X TEMPERATURE
164 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
CPLTMLPO/8 T
upper
1000 X TEMPERATURE
When THRSWT/6 is 506, the TDE equation is used to calculate liquid heat
capacity:
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
CPLTDECS/1 C
1i
X MOLE-HEAT-
CAPACITY
CPLTDECS/2,,4 C
2i
, ..., C
4i
0 X MOLE-HEAT-
CAPACITY
CPLTDECS/5 B 0 X MOLE-HEAT-
CAPACITY
CPLTDECS/6 T
ci
X TEMPERATURE
CPLTDECS/7 nTerms 4 X
CPLTDECS/8 T
lower
0 X TEMPERATURE
CPLTDECS/9 T
upper
1000 X TEMPERATURE
See Pure Component Temperature-Dependent Properties for details on the
THRSWT parameters.
Aspen/DIPPR/Barin/PPDS/IK-CAPE Ideal
Gas Heat Capacity
The Aspen Physical Property System has several submodels for calculating
ideal gas heat capacity. It uses parameter THRSWT/7 to determine which
submodel is used. See Pure Component Temperature-Dependent Properties
for details.
If THRSWT/7 is This equation is used And this parameter is
used
0 Ideal gas heat capacity
polynomial
CPIG
107 DIPPR CPIGDP
200 Barin CPIXP1, CPIXP2, CPIXP3
301 PPDS CPIGDS
401 IK-CAPE heat capacity
polynomial
CPIGPO
503 NIST ThermoML
polynomial
CPITMLPO
513 NIST Aly-Lee CPIALEE
These equations are also used to calculate ideal gas enthalpies, entropies,
and Gibbs energies.
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 165
Aspen Ideal Gas Heat Capacity Polynomial
The ideal gas heat capacity polynomial is available for components stored in
ASPENPCD, AQUEOUS, and SOLIDS databanks. This model is also used in
PCES.
C
p
*,ig
is linearly extrapolated using slope at
Parameter
Name/
Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
CPIG/1 C
1i
MOLE-HEAT-CAPACITY,
TEMPERATURE
CPIG/2, ..., 6 C
2i
, ..., C
6i
0 MOLE-HEAT-CAPACITY,
TEMPERATURE
CPIG/7 C
7i
0 TEMPERATURE
CPIG/8 C
8i
1000 TEMPERATURE
CPIG/9, 10,
11
C
9i
, C
10i
, C
11i
MOLE-HEAT-CAPACITY,
TEMPERATURE
If C
10i
or C
11i
is non-zero, then absolute temperature units are assumed for
C
9i
through C
11i
. Otherwise, user input temperature units are used for all
parameters. User input temperature units are always used for C
1i
through C
8i
.
NIST ThermoML Polynomial
This equation can be used when parameter CPITMLPO is available.
Parameter
Name/
Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
CPITMLPO /1 C
1i
x J/K^2/mol
CPITMLPO /2,
..., 6
C
2i
, ..., C
6i
0 x J/K^2/mol
CPITMLPO/7 nTerms 6 x
CPITMLPO /8 T
lower
0 x TEMPERATURE
CPITMLPO /9 T
upper
1000 x TEMPERATURE
DIPPR
The DIPPR ideal gas heat capacity equation by Aly and Lee 1981 is:
No extrapolation is used with this equation.
166 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
(Other DIPPR equations may sometimes be used. See Pure Component
Temperature-Dependent Properties for details.)
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
CPIGDP/1 C
1i
x MOLE-HEAT-
CAPACITY
CPIGDP/2 C
2i
0 x MOLE-HEAT-
CAPACITY
CPIGDP/3 C
3i
0 x TEMPERATURE
CPIGDP/4 C
4i
0 x MOLE-HEAT-
CAPACITY
CPIGDP/5 C
5i
0 x TEMPERATURE
CPIGDP/6 C
6i
0 x TEMPERATURE
CPIGDP/7 C
7i
1000 x TEMPERATURE
Absolute temperature units are assumed for C
3i
and C
5i
. The temperature
limits are always interpreted in user input units.
NIST Aly-Lee
This equation is the same as the DIPPR Aly and Lee equation above, but it
uses a different parameter set. Note that elements 6 and 7 of the CPIALEE
parameter are not used in the equation.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
CPIALEE/1 C
1i
x MOLE-HEAT-
CAPACITY
CPIALEE/2 C
2i
0 x MOLE-HEAT-
CAPACITY
CPIALEE/3 C
3i
0 x TEMPERATURE
CPIALEE/4 C
4i
0 x MOLE-HEAT-
CAPACITY
CPIALEE/5 C
5i
0 x TEMPERATURE
CPIALEE/8 C
6i
0 x TEMPERATURE
CPIALEE/9 C
7i
1000 x TEMPERATURE
Absolute temperature units are assumed for C
3i
and C
5i
. The temperature
limits are always interpreted in user input units.
PPDS
The PPDS equation is:
where R is the gas constant.
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 167
Linear extrapolation of C
p
*,ig
versus T is performed outside temperature
bounds.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
CPIGDS/1 C
1i
TEMPERATURE
CPIGDS/2, , 8 C
2i
, ..., C
8i
0
CPIGDS/9 C
9i
0 TEMPERATURE
CPIGDS/10 C
10i
1000 TEMPERATURE
IK-CAPE Heat Capacity Polynomial
The equation is:
Linear extrapolation of C
p
*,ig
versus T is performed outside temperature
bounds.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
CPIGPO/1 C
1i
X MOLE-CAPACITY
CPIGPO/2,,10 C
2i
, ..., C
10i
0 X MOLE-CAPACITY
TEMPERATURE
CPIGPO/11 C
11i
0 X TEMPERATURE
CPIGPO/12 C
12i
1000 X TEMPERATURE
References
Data for the Ideal Gas Heat Capacity Polynomial: Reid, Prausnitz and Poling,
The Properties of Gases and Liquids, 4th ed., (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1987).
The Aspen Physical Property System combustion data bank, JANAF
Thermochemical Data, Compiled and calculated by the Thermal Research
Laboratory of Dow Chemical Company.
F. A. Aly and L. L. Lee, "Self-Consistent Equations for Calculating the Ideal
Gas Heat Capacity, Enthalpy, and Entropy, Fluid Phase Eq., Vol. 6, (1981), p.
169.
Aspen/DIPPR/Barin/IK-CAPE Solid Heat
Capacity
The Aspen Physical Property System has several submodels for calculating
solid heat capacity. It uses parameter THRSWT/5 to determine which
submodel is used. See Pure Component Temperature-Dependent Properties
for details.
168 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
If THRSWT/5 is This equation is used And this parameter is
used
0 Aspen solid heat capacity
polynomial
CPSPO1
100 DIPPR CPSDIP
200 Barin CPSXP1, CPSXP2, ,
CPSXP7
401 IK-CAPE heat capacity
polynomial
CPSPO
503 NIST ThermoML
polynomial
CPSTMLPO
The enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs energy of solids are also calculated from
these equations:
Aspen Solid Heat Capacity Polynomial
The Aspen equation is:
Linear extrapolation occurs for C
p,i
*,s
versus T outside of bounds.
Parameter
Name
Applicable
Components
Symbol MDS Default Units
CPSPO1/1 Solids, Salts C
1i
x
CPSPO1/2, ..., 6 Solids, Salts C
2i
, ..., C
6i
x 0
CPSPO1/7 Solids, Salts C
7i
x 0
CPSPO1/8 Solids, Salts C
8i
x 1000
The units are TEMPERATURE and HEAT-CAPACITY for all elements. If any of
C
4i
through C
6i
are non-zero, absolute temperature units are assumed for
elements C
1i
through C
6i
. Otherwise, user input temperature units are
assumed for all elements. The temperature limits are always interpreted in
user input units.
DIPPR
The DIPPR equation is:
Linear extrapolation occurs for C
p,i
*,s
versus T outside of bounds.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
CPSDIP/1 C
1i
x MOLE-HEAT-
CAPACITY,
TEMPERATURE
CPSDIP/2,...,5 C
2i
, ..., C
5i
0 x MOLE-HEAT-
CAPACITY,
TEMPERATURE
CPSDIP/6 C
6i
0 x TEMPERATURE
CPSDIP/7 C
7i
1000 x TEMPERATURE
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 169
(Other DIPPR equations may sometimes be used. See Pure Component
Temperature-Dependent Properties for details.)
NIST ThermoML Polynomial
The equation is:
Linear extrapolation occurs for C
p,i
*,s
versus T outside of bounds.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
CPSTMLPO/1 C
1i
x J/K^2/mol
CPSTMLPO/2,...,5C
2i
, ..., C
5i
0 x J/K^2/mol
CPSTMLPO/6 nTerms 5 x
CPSTMLPO/7 T
lower
0 x TEMPERATURE
CPSTMLPO/8 T
upper
1000 x TEMPERATURE
IK-CAPE Heat Capacity Polynomial
The equation is:
Linear extrapolation occurs for C
p,i
*,s
versus T outside of bounds.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
CPSPO/1 C
1i
X MOLE-CAPACITY
CPSPO/2,,10 C
10i
0 X MOLE-CAPACITY
TEMPERATURE
CPSPO/11 C
11i
0 X TEMPERATURE
CPSPO/12 C
12i
1000 X TEMPERATURE
Solubility Correlations
The Aspen Physical Property System has three built-in solubility correlation
models. This section describes the solubility correlation models available.
Model Type
Henry's constant Gas solubility in liquid
Water solubility Water solubility in organic liquid
Hydrocarbon solubility Hydrocarbon solubility in water-rich
liquid
170 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Henry's Constant
The Henry's constant model is used when Henry's Law is applied to calculate
K-values for dissolved gas components in a mixture. Henry's Law is available
in all activity coefficient property methods, such as the WILSON property
method. The model calculates Henry's constant for a dissolved gas component
(i) in one or more solvents (A or B):
Where:
w
A
=
ln H
iA
(T, p
A
*,l
) =
Linear extrapolation occurs for ln H
iA
versus T outside of bounds.
H
iA
(T, P) =
The parameter is obtained from the Brelvi-O'Connell model. p
A
*,l
is
obtained from the Antoine model. is obtained from the appropriate activity
coefficient model.
The Henry's constants a
iA
, b
iA
, c
iA
, d
iA
, and e
iA
are specific to a solute-solvent
pair. They can be obtained from regression of gas solubility data. The Aspen
Physical Property System has a large number of built-in Henry's constants for
many solutes in solvents. These parameters were obtained using data from
the Dortmund Databank. See Physical Property Data, Chapter 1, for details.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
VC V
cA
0.001 3.5 MOLE-VOLUME
HENRY/1 a
iA
x PRESSURE,
TEMPERATURE
HENRY/2 b
iA
0 x TEMPERATURE
HENRY/3 c
iA
0 x TEMPERATURE
HENRY/4 d
iA
0 x TEMPERATURE
HENRY/5 T
L
0 x TEMPERATURE
HENRY/6 T
H
2000 x TEMPERATURE
HENRY/7 e
iA
0 x TEMPERATURE
If any of b
iA
, c
iA
, and e
iA
are non-zero, absolute temperature units are
assumed for all coefficients. If b
iA
, c
iA
, and e
iA
are all zero, the others are
interpreted in input units. The temperature limits are always interpreted in
input units.
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 171
If a
iA
is missing, is set to zero and the weighting factor w
A
is
renormalized.
Water Solubility
This model calculates solubility of water in a hydrocarbon-rich liquid phase.
The model is used automatically when you model a hydrocarbon-water
system with the free-water option. See Free-Water Immiscibility Simplification
in Free-Water and Three-Phase Calculations for details.
The expression for the liquid mole fraction of water in the ith hydrocarbon
species is:
No extrapolation is used with this equation.
The parameters for about 60 components are stored in the Aspen Physical
Property System pure component databank.
Parameter
Name/
Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
WATSOL/1 C
1i
fcn(T
bi
, SG
i
, M
i
) -10.0 33.0
WATSOL/2 C
2i
fcn(T
bi
, SG
i
, M
i
) -10000.0 3000.0 TEMPERATURE
WATSOL/3 C
3i
0 -0.05 0.05 TEMPERATURE
WATSOL/4 C
4i
0 0.0 500 TEMPERATURE
WATSOL/5 C
5i
1000 4.0 1000 TEMPERATURE
Absolute temperature units are assumed for elements 2 through 5.
Hydrocarbon Solubility
This model calculates solubility of hydrocarbon in a water-rich liquid phase.
The model is used automatically when you model a hydrocarbon-water
system with the dirty-water option. See Free-Water Immiscibility
Simplification in Free-Water and Rigorous Three-Phase Calculations for
details.
The expression for the liquid mole fraction of the ith hydrocarbon species in
water is:
No extrapolation is used with this equation.
The parameters for about 40 components are stored in the Aspen Physical
Property System pure component databank.
172 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Parameter
Name/
Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
HCSOL/1 C
1i
fcn(carbon
number)
-1000.0 1000.0
HCSOL/2 C
2i
0 -
100000.0
100000.0 TEMPERATURE
HCSOL/3 C
3i
0 -100.0 100.0 TEMPERATURE
HCSOL/4 C
4i
0 0.0 500 TEMPERATURE
HCSOL/5 C
5i
1000 4.0 1000 TEMPERATURE
For Hydrocarbons and pseudocomponents, the default values are estimated
by the method given by API Procedure 9A2.17 at 25 C.
Absolute temperature units are assumed for elements 2 and 3. The
temperature limits are always interpreted in user input units.
Reference
C. Tsonopoulos, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 186 (2001), 185-206.
Other Thermodynamic Property
Models
The Aspen Physical Property System has some built-in additional
thermodynamic property models that do not fit in any other category. This
section describes these models:
- Cavett Liquid Enthalpy Departure
- Barin Equations for Gibbs Energy, Enthalpy, Entropy and Heat Capacity
- Electrolyte NRTL Enthalpy
- Electrolyte NRTL Gibbs Energy
- Liquid Enthalpy from Liquid Heat Capacity Correlation
- Enthalpies Based on Different Reference States
- Helgeson Equations of State
- Quadratic Mixing Rule
Cavett
The general form for the Cavett model is:
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 173
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
TC T
ci
5.0 2000.0 TEMPERATURE
PC p
ci
10
5
10
8
PRESSURE
DHLCVT ZC X 0.1 0.5
Barin Equations for Gibbs Energy, Enthalpy,
Entropy, and Heat Capacity
The following equations are used when parameters from the Aspen Physical
Property System inorganic databank are retrieved.
- Gibbs energy:
(1)
- Enthalpy:
(2)
- Entropy:
(3)
- Heat capacity:
(4)
o refers to an arbitrary phase which can be solid, liquid, or ideal gas. For each
phase, multiple sets of parameters from 1 to n are present to cover multiple
temperature ranges. The value of the parameter n depends on the phase.
(See tables that follow.) When the temperature is outside all these
temperature ranges, linear extrapolation of properties versus T is performed
using the slope at the end of the nearest temperature bound.
The four properties C
p
, H, S, and G are interrelated as a result of the
thermodynamic relationships:
There are analytical relationships between the expressions describing the
properties C
p
, H, S, and G (equations 1 to 4). The parameters a
n,i
to h
n,i
can
occur in more than one equation.
The Aspen Physical Property System has other models which can be used to
calculate temperature-dependent properties which the BARIN equations can
174 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
calculate. The Aspen Physical Property System uses the parameters in
THRSWT to determine which model is used. See Pure Component
Temperature-Dependent Properties for details.
If this parameter is 200 Then the BARIN equations are
used to calculate
THRSWT/3 Liquid vapor pressure
THRSWT/5 Solid heat capacity
THRSWT/6 Liquid heat capacity
THRSWT/7 Ideal gas heat capacity
Solid Phase
The parameters in range n are valid for temperature: T
n,l
s
< T < T
n,h
s
When you specify this parameter, be sure to specify at least elements 1
through 3.
Parameter Name
/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
CPSXPn/1 T
n,l
s
x TEMPERATURE
CPSXPn/2 T
n,h
s
x TEMPERATURE
CPSXPn/3 a
n,i
s
x
CPSXPn/4 b
n,i
s
0 x
CPSXPn/5 c
n,i
s
0 x
CPSXPn/6 d
n,i
s
0 x
CPSXPn/7 e
n,i
s
0 x
CPSXPn/8 f
n,i
s
0 x
CPSXPn/9 g
n,i
s
0 x
CPSXPn/10 h
n,i
s
0 x
n is 1 through 7. CPSXP1 vector stores solid parameters for the first
temperature range. CPSXP2 vector stores solid parameters for the second
temperature range, and so on.
TEMPERATURE, ENTHALPY, ENTROPY
Liquid Phase
The parameters in range n are valid for temperature: T
n,l
l
< T < T
n,h
l
When you specify this parameter, be sure to specify at least elements 1
through 3.
Parameter Name
/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
CPLXPn/1 T
n,l
l
x TEMPERATURE
CPLXPn/2 T
n,h
l
x TEMPERATURE
CPLXPn/3 a
n,i
l
x
CPLXPn/4 b
n,i
l
0 x
CPLXPn/5 c
n,i
l
0 x
CPLXPn/6 d
n,i
l
0 x
CPLXPn/7 e
n,i
l
0 x
CPLXPn/8 f
n,i
l
0 x
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 175
Parameter Name
/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
CPLXPn/9 g
n,i
l
0 x
CPLXPn/10 h
n,i
l
0 x
n is 1 through 2. CPLXP1 stores liquid parameters for the first temperature
range. CPLXP2 stores liquid parameters for the second temperature range.
TEMPERATURE, ENTHALPY, ENTROPY
Ideal Gas Phase
The parameters in range n are valid for temperature: T
n,l
ig
< T < T
n,h
ig
When you specify this parameter, be sure to specify at least elements 1
through 3.
Parameter Name
/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
CPIXPn/1 T
n,l
ig
x TEMPERATURE
CPIXPn/2 T
n,h
ig
x TEMPERATURE
CPIXPn/3 a
n,i
ig
x
CPIXPn/4 b
n,i
ig
0 x
CPIXPn/5 c
n,i
ig
0 x
CPIXPn/6 d
n,i
ig
0 x
CPIXPn/7 e
n,i
ig
0 x
CPIXPn/8 f
n,i
ig
0 x
CPIXPn/9 g
n,i
ig
0 x
CPIXPn/10 h
n,i
ig
0 x
n is 1 through 3. CPIXP1 vector stores ideal gas parameters for the first
temperature range. CPIXP2 vector stores ideal gas parameters for the second
temperature range, and so on.
TEMPERATURE, ENTHALPY, ENTROPY
Electrolyte NRTL Enthalpy
The equation for the electrolyte NRTL enthalpy model is:
The molar enthalpy H
m
*
and the molar excess enthalpy H
m
*E
are defined with
the asymmetrical reference state: the pure solvent water and infinite dilution
of molecular solutes and ions. (here * refers to the asymmetrical reference
state.)
H
w
* is the pure water molar enthalpy, calculated from the Ideal Gas model
and the ASME Steam Table equation-of-state. (here * refers to pure
component.)
176 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
The property H
k

is calculated from the infinite dilution aqueous phase heat


capacity polynomial model, by default. If polynomial model parameters are
not available, it is calculated from the Criss-Cobble model for ions and from
Henry's law for molecular solutes.
The subscript k can refer to a molecular solute (i), to a cation (c), or an anion
(a):
H
m
*E
is excess enthalpy and is calculated from the electrolyte NRTL activity
coefficient model.
See Criss-Cobble model and Henry's law model for more information.
Option codes can improve the performance of this model when using mixed
solvents and Henry components. See Option Codes for Enthalpy Models for
details.
Parameter
Name
Applicable Components Symbol Default Units
IONTYP Ions Ion 0
SO25C Cations
S
c

,aq
(T=298)
MOLE-ENTROPY
Anions
S
a

,aq
(T=298)
MOLE-ENTROPY
DHAQFM Ions, Molecular Solutes
A
f
H
k

,aq
MOLE-ENTHALPY
CPAQ0 Ions, Molecular Solutes
C
p,k

,aq
HEAT-CAPACITY
DHFORM Molecular Solutes
A
f
H
i
*,ig
MOLE-ENTHALPY
Water, Solvents
A
f
H
w
*,ig
MOLE-ENTHALPY
CPIG Molecular Solutes C
p,i
*,ig

Water, Solvents C
p,w
*,ig

IONTYP is not needed if CPAQ0 is given for ions.
DHFORM is not used if DHAQFM and CPAQ0 are given for molecular solutes
(components declared as Henry's components). If CPAQ0 is missing, DHFORM
and Henry's constants are used to calculate infinite dilution enthalpy for
solutes.
The unit keywords for CPIG are TEMPERATURE and HEAT-CAPACITY. If
CPIG/10 or CPIG/11 is non-zero, then absolute temperature units are
assumed for CPIG/9 through CPIG/11. Otherwise, user input temperature
units are used for all elements of CPIG. User input temperature units are
always used for other elements of CPIG.
Electrolyte NRTL Gibbs Energy
The equation for the NRTL Gibbs energy model is:
The molar Gibbs energy and the molar excess Gibbs energy G
m
* and G
m
*
E
are
defined with the asymmetrical reference state: as pure water and infinite
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 177
dilution of molecular solutes and ions. (* refers to the asymmetrical reference
state.) The ideal mixing term is calculated normally, where j refers to any
component. The molar Gibbs energy of pure water (or thermodynamic
potential)
w
* is calculated from the ideal gas contribution. This is a function
of the ideal gas heat capacity and the departure function. (here * refers to
the pure component.)
The departure function is obtained from the ASME steam tables.
The aqueous infinite dilution thermodynamic potential
k

is calculated from
the infinite dilution aqueous phase heat capacity polynomial model, by
default. Subscript k refers to any ion or molecular solute. If polynomial model
parameters are not available, it is calculated from the Criss-Cobble model for
ionic solutes:
Because A
f
H
k

,aq
and A
f
G
k

,aq
are based on a molality scale, and
k

is based
on mole fraction scale, the term RT ln(1000/M
w
) is added.
For molecular solutes,
k

is calculated from Henry's law:


G*
E
is calculated from the electrolyte NRTL activity coefficient model.
See the Criss-Cobble model and Henry's law model for more information.
Option codes can improve the performance of this model when using mixed
solvents and Henry components. See Option Codes for Gibbs Energy Models
for details.
Parameter
Name
Applicable Components Symbol Default Units
IONTYP Ions Ion 0
SO25C Cations
S
c

,aq
(T=298)
MOLE-ENTROPY
Anions
S
a

,aq
(T=298)
MOLE-ENTROPY
DGAQFM Ions, Molecular Solutes
A
f
G
k

,aq
MOLE-ENTHALPY
CPAQ0 Ions, Molecular Solutes
C
p,k

,aq
HEAT-CAPACITY
DGFORM Molecular Solutes
A
f
G
i
MOLE-ENTHALPY
Water, Solvents
A
f
G
w
MOLE-ENTHALPY
178 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Parameter
Name
Applicable Components Symbol Default Units
CPIG Molecular Solutes C
p,i
*,ig

Water, Solvents C
p,w
*,ig

IONTYP and SO25C are not needed if CPAQ0 is given for ions.
DGFORM is not needed if DHAQFM and CPAQ0 are given for molecular
solutes.
The unit keywords for CPIG are TEMPERATURE and HEAT-CAPACITY. If
CPIG/10 or CPIG/11 is non-zero, then absolute temperature units are
assumed for CPIG/9 through CPIG/11. Otherwise, user input temperature
units are used for all elements of CPIG. User input temperature units are
always used for other elements of CPIG.
Liquid Enthalpy from Liquid Heat Capacity
Correlation
Liquid enthalpy is directly calculated by integration of liquid heat capacity:
The reference enthalpy is calculated at T
ref
as:
Where:
H
i
*,ig
= Ideal gas enthalpy
H
i
*,v
- H
i
*,ig
= Vapor enthalpy departure from equation of state
A
vap
H
i
*,l
= Heat of vaporization from Watson/DIPPR/IK-CAPE model
T
ref
= Reference temperature, specified by user. Defaults to
298.15 K
See DIPPR/IK-CAPE Liquid Heat Capacity for parameter requirement and
additional details.
Enthalpies Based on Different Reference
States
Two property methods, WILS LR and WILS GLR, are available to calculate
enthalpies based on different reference states. The WILS LR property method
is based on saturated liquid reference state for all components. The WILS GLR
property method allows both ideal gas and saturated liquid reference states.
These property methods use an enthalpy method that optimizes the accuracy
tradeoff between liquid heat capacity, heat of vaporization, and vapor heat
capacity at actual process conditions. This highly recommended method
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 179
eliminates many of the problems associated with accurate thermal properties
for both phases, especially the liquid phase.
The liquid enthalpy of mixture is calculated by the following equation (see the
table labeled Liquid Enthalpy Methods):
Where:
H
m
ig
= Enthalpy of ideal gas mixture
=
H
i
*,ig
= Ideal gas enthalpy of pure component i
(H
m
l
-H
m
ig
) = Enthalpy departure of mixture
For supercritical components, declared as Henry's components, the enthalpy
departure is calculated as follows:
For subcritical components:
H
m
l
-H
m
ig
=
H
m
E,l
=
H
A
*,l
-H
A
*,ig
= Enthalpy departure of pure component A
H
*,ig
and H
*,l
can be calculated based on either saturated liquid or ideal gas as
reference state.
Saturated Liquid as Reference State
The saturated liquid enthalpy at temperature T is calculated as follows:
Where:
H
i
ref,l
= Reference enthalpy for liquid state at T
i
ref,l
= 0 at T
i
ref,l
of 273.15 K by default
C
p,i
*,l
= Liquid heat capacity of component i
The ideal gas enthalpy at temperature T is calculated from liquid enthalpy as
follows:
180 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Where:
T
i
con,l
= Temperature of conversion from liquid to vapor
enthalpy for component i
A
vap
H
i
*
(T
i
con,l
)
= Heat of vaporization of component i at
temperature of T
con,l
AH
v,i
*
(T
i
con,l
, p
i
*,l
)
= Vapor enthalpy departure of component i at the
conversion temperature and vapor pressure p
i
*,l
p
i
*,l
= Liquid vapor pressure of component i
= Ideal gas heat capacity of component i
T
i
con,l
is the temperature at which one crosses from liquid state to the vapor
state. This is a user defined temperature that defaults to the system
temperature T. T
i
con,l
may be selected such that heat of vaporization for
component i at the temperature is most accurate.
The vapor enthalpy is calculated from ideal gas enthalpy as follows:
Where:
AH
v,i
*
(T, P)
= Vapor enthalpy departure of pure component i at the
system temperature and pressure
The liquid heat capacity and the ideal gas heat capacity can be calculated
from the ASPEN, DIPPR, IK-CAPE, or BARIN models. The heat of vaporization
can be calculated from the Watson/DIPPR/IK-CAPE model. The enthalpy
departure is obtained from an equation-of-state.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
RSTATE 2
TREFHL T
i
ref,l
TEMPERATURE
DHLFRM H
i
ref,l
0 MOLE ENTHALPY
TCONHL T
i
con,l
T TEMPERATURE
Enthalpy reference state given by RSTATE. 2 denotes saturated liquid as
reference state.
For WILS LR property method TREFHL defaults to 273.15K. For WILS GLR
property method, TREFHL defaults to 298.15 K.
Liquid heat capacity is required for all components.
Ideal Gas as Reference State
The saturated liquid enthalpy is calculated as follows:
Where:
H
i
ref,ig
= Reference state enthalpy for ideal gas at T
i
ref,ig
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 181
= Heat of formation of ideal gas at 298.15 K by default
T
i
ref,ig
= Reference temperature corresponding to H
i
ref,ig
.
Defaults to 298.15 K
T
i
con,ig
= The temperature at which one crosses from vapor
state to liquid state. This is a user defined
temperature that defaults to the system temperature
T. T
i
con,ig
may be selected such that heat of
vaporization of component i at the temperature is
most accurate.
The ideal gas enthalpy is calculated as follows:
The vapor enthalpy is calculated as follows:
The liquid heat capacity and the ideal gas heat capacity can be calculated
from the ASPEN, DIPPR, IK-CAPE, or BARIN models. The heat of vaporization
can be calculated from the Watson/DIPPR/IK-CAPE model. The enthalpy
departure is obtained from an equation of state.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
RSTATE 1 or 2
TREFHI T
i
ref,ig
TEMPERATURE
DHFORM H
i
ref,ig
MOLE ENTHALPY
TCONHI T
i
con,ig
T TEMPERATURE
Enthalpy reference state RSTATE can be 1 (for ideal gas) or 2 (for liquid).
For components with TB < 298.15 K, RSTATE defaults to 1 (ideal gas).
TREFHI defaults to 298.15 K. For components with TB > 298.15 K, RSTATE
defaults to 2 (liquid). TREFHL defaults to 298.15 K.
Helgeson Equations of State
The Helgeson equations of state for standard volume , heat capacity ,
entropy , enthalpy of formation , and Gibbs energy of formation
at infinite dilution in aqueous phase are:
182 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Where:
2 Thermodynamic Property Models 183
Where:
+
= Pressure constant for a solvent (2600 bar for water)
u
= Temperature constant for a solvent (228 K for
water)
e
= Born coefficient
c
= Dielectric constant of a solvent
T
r
= Reference temperature (298.15 K)
P
r
= Reference pressure (1 bar)
Note: Reduced temperature T
r
is always calculated using absolute
temperature units.
Parameter
Name/Element
Symbol Default MDS Lower
Limit
Upper
Limit
Units
AHGPAR/1, ... ,
4
a
1
, ..., a
4
0
CHGPAR/1, ... ,
2
c
1
, c
2
x
DHAQHG 0 -0.5x10
10
0.5x10
10
MOLE-ENTHALPY
DGAQHG 0 -0.5x10
10
0.5x10
10
MOLE-ENTHALPY
S25HG 0 -0.5x10
10
0.5x10
10
MOLE-ENTROPY
OMEGHG 0 -0.5x10
10
0.5x10
10
MOLE-ENTHALPY
If pressure is under 200 bar, AHGPAR may not be required.
References
Tanger, J.C. IV and H.C. Helgeson, "Calculation of the thermodynamic and
transport properties of aqueous species at high pressures and temperatures:
Revised equation of state for the standard partial properties of ions and
electrolytes," American Journal of Science, Vol. 288, (1988), p. 19-98.
Shock, E.L. and H.C. Helgeson, "Calculation of the thermodynamic and
transport properties of aqueous species at high pressures and temperatures:
184 2 Thermodynamic Property Models
Correlation algorithms for ionic species and equation of state predictions to 5
kb and 1000 C," Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 52, p. 2009-2036.
Shock, E.L., H.C. Helgeson, and D.A. Sverjensky, "Calculation of the
thermodynamic and transport properties of aqueous species at high pressures
and temperatures: Standard partial molal properties of inorganic neutral
species," Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 53, p. 2157-2183.
Quadratic Mixing Rule
The quadratic mixing rule is a general-purpose mixing rule which can be
applied to various properties. For a given property Q, with i and j being
components, the rule is:
The pure component properties Q
i
and Q
j
are calculated by the default model
for that property, unless modified by option codes. Composition x
i
and x
j
is in
mole fraction unless modified by option codes. K
ij
is a binary parameter
specific to the mixing rule for each property. A variation on the equation using
the logarithm of the property is used for viscosity.