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Chapter 6: Mechanical Properties

ISSUES TO ADDRESS...

Stress and strain: What are they and why are they used instead of load and deformation?

Elastic behavior: When loads are small, how much deformation occurs? What materials deform least?

Plastic behavior: At what point does permanent deformation occur? What materials are most resistant to permanent deformation?

Toughness and ductility: What are they and how do we measure them?

Chapter 6 - 1

What is mechanical property?

1.

2. 3.

4.

Mechanical Properties are defined as deformation in the material observed when it is subjected to the external force of stretching, compressing, bending, striking. Factors effecting mechanical properties: Nature of the applied load, e.g. stretching, compressive, shear Magnitude of the applied force The duration (application time) e.g.may be less than a second, may extend over a period of many years. Service temperature
Chapter 6 - 2

Important mechanical properties

Strength

Hardness

Ductility

Stiffness

Chapter 6 - 3

Elastic Deformation
2. Small load
bonds stretch return to initial

1. Initial

3. Unload

F F
Linearelastic

=lfinal-linitial

Elastic means reversible!

Non-Linearelastic

Chapter 6 - 4

Plastic Deformation (Metals)


3. Unload planes still sheared plastic 2. Small load bonds stretch & planes shear elastic + plastic

1. Initial

F F
linear elastic linear elastic

Plastic means permanent!

plastic

Chapter 6 - 5

Engineering Stress
Shear stress, :

Tensile stress, :

Ft F Fs Fs Fs = Ao F Ft
Area, A

Ft

Area, A

Ft

Ft lb f N = 2 or = 2 in m Ao

original area before loading

Unit of Stress SI unit : N m-2 = Pascal (Pa) 3 Pa 1psi = 6.89 x 10 Chapter 6- 6

Common States of Stress


F

Simple tension: cable

Ao = cross sectional area (when unloaded)

F = Ao Fs Ao Fs = Ao

Torsion (a form of shear): drive shaft

Ski lift

(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)

Ac

2R

Note: = M/AcR here.


Chapter 6 - 7

OTHER COMMON STRESS STATES (1)

Simple compression:

Ao

Canyon Bridge, Los Alamos, NM


(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)

Balanced Rock, Arches National Park

(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)

F = Ao

Note: compressive structure member ( < 0 here).

Chapter 6 - 8

OTHER COMMON STRESS STATES (2)


Hydrostatic compression:

Bi-axial tension:

Pressurized tank

(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)

Fish under water

> 0 z > 0

(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)

h< 0
Chapter 6 - 9

Engineering Strain
Lateral strain: /2

Tensile strain:

= Lo wo
L /2

Lo

L L = wo

Shear strain:

= x/y = tan
90 -

In engineering practice it is common to convert engineering strain into percent strain or percent elongation % engineering strain = engineering strain x 100 % = % elongation

90
Adapted from Fig. 6.1 (a) and (c), Callister 7e.

Strain is always dimensionless.


Chapter 6 - 10

ENGINEERING STRAIN

Engineering stress

= = =
2F Engineering (normal) strain

2 A L

F A

= =

F A 2 2L

L Chapter 6 - 11

Stress-Strain Testing
Typical tensile specimen

Typical tensile test machine

extensometer

specimen

Adapted from Fig. 6.2, Callister 7e.

gauge length

Adapted from Fig. 6.3, Callister 7e. (Fig. 6.3 is taken from H.W. Hayden, W.G. Moffatt, and J. Wulff, The Structure and Properties of Materials, Vol. III, Mechanical Behavior, p. 2, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1965.)

Chapter 6 - 12

Linear Elastic Properties

Modulus of Elasticity, E:

(also known as Young's modulus)

Hooke's Law:

=E

Modulus of Elasticity gives an idea about materials resistance to elastic deformation.

E
Linearelastic Units of E: [GPa] or [psi]

F
simple tension test
Chapter 6 - 13

YOUNG'S MODULUS (E)


E ( GPa) 69 97 110 45 207 207 107 407

Metal Alloy

Modulus of Elasticity,

Aluminum

Brass

Copper

Magnesium

Nickel

Steel

Titanium

Tungsten

Chapter 6 - 14

Poisson's ratio,
L L = -

Poisson's ratio, : The ratio of lateral and axial strains.

y x v = z z

> 0.50 density increases < 0.50 density decreases


(voids form)

metals: ~ 0.33 ceramics: ~ 0.25 polymers: ~ 0.40

Unit of Poissons ratio (): dimensionless

Chapter 6 - 15

Mechanical Properties

Slope of stress strain plot (which is proportional to the elastic modulus) depends on bond strength of metal

Adapted from Fig. 6.7, Callister 7e.

Chapter 6 - 16

Other Elastic Properties


G M P K V P Vo P P
simple torsion test

Elastic Shear modulus, G:

=G

Elastic Bulk modulus, K:

V P = -K Vo

Special relations for isotropic materials: E K= 3(1 2)

E G= 2(1 + )

pressure test: Init. vol =Vo. Vol chg. = V

Chapter 6 - 17

Youngs Moduli: Comparison


Graphite Composites Ceramics Polymers /fibers Semicond
Diamond

Metals Alloys

1200 1000 800 600 400


Si carbide Al oxide Si nitride
Carbon fibers only

E(GPa)
Si crystal
<100> Aramid fibers only <111>

200
AFRE(|| fibers)*
Glass fibers only

CFRE(|| fibers)*

Glass -soda GFRE(|| fibers)* Concrete GFRE* Graphite CFRE* GFRE( fibers)* CFRE( fibers) * AFRE( fibers) *

100 80 60 40

Tungsten Molybdenum Steel, Ni Tantalum Platinum Cu alloys Zinc, Ti Silver, Gold Aluminum Magnesium, Tin

109

Pa

20

10 8 6 4
Polyester PET PS PC PP HDPE PTFE LDPE Wood(

Epoxy only

Based on data in Table B2, Callister 7e. Composite data based on reinforced epoxy with 60 vol% of aligned carbon (CFRE), aramid (AFRE), or glass (GFRE) fibers.

1 0.8 0.6 0.4

grain)

0.2

Chapter 6 - 18

Useful Linear Elastic Relationships Simple tension: Simple torsion:


=
4 r o G M = moment = angle of twist

= FL o = Fw o L EA o EA o F
/2 Lo Lo

2ML o

Ao

wo

2ro L /2 Material, geometric, and loading parameters all contribute to deflection. Larger elastic moduli minimize elastic deflection.
Chapter 6 - 19

Plastic (Permanent) Deformation


(at lower temperatures, i.e. T < Tmelt/3)
Elastic+Plastic at larger stress

Simple tension test:

engineering stress,

Elastic initially
permanent (plastic) after load is removed

engineering strain, plastic strain


Adapted from Fig. 6.10 (a), Callister 7e.

Chapter 6 - 20

Yield Strength, y

Stress at which noticeable plastic deformation has occurred. when p = 0.002

tensile stress,

y = yield strength
Note: for 2 inch sample = 0.002 = z/z z = 0.004 in

engineering strain,
Adapted from Fig. 6.10 (a), Callister 7e. Chapter 6 - 21

p = 0.002

Yield Strength : Comparison


Graphite/ Ceramics/ Semicond Polymers Composites/ fibers

Metals/ Alloys

2000

Steel (4140) qt

1000

700 600 500 400

Ti (5Al-2.5Sn) a W (pure) Cu (71500) cw Mo (pure) Steel (4140) a Steel (1020) cd

300

Room T values

200

Al (6061) ag Steel (1020) hr Ti (pure) a Ta (pure) Cu (71500) hr

100
dry

70 60 50 40
PC Nylon 6,6 PET PVC humid PP HDPE

Al (6061) a

Hard to measure,

Yield strength, y (MPa)

Hard to measure , since in tension, fracture usually occurs before yield.

20

10

Tin (pure)

LDPE

in ceramic matrix and epoxy matrix composites, since in tension, fracture usually occurs before yield.

30

Based on data in Table B4, Callister 7e. a = annealed hr = hot rolled ag = aged cd = cold drawn cw = cold worked qt = quenched & tempered

Chapter 6 - 22

Tensile Strength, TS
Adapted from Fig. 6.11, Callister 7e.

Maximum stress on engineering stress-strain curve.

TS

F = fracture or ultimate strength

engineering stress

Typical response of a metal

Neck acts as stress concentrator

strain engineering strain

Metals: occurs when noticeable necking starts. Polymers: occurs when polymer backbone chains are
Chapter 6 - 23

aligned and about to break.

Tensile Strength : Comparison


Graphite/ Ceramics/ Semicond Polymers
C fibers Aramid fib E-glass fib

Metals/ Alloys

Composites/ fibers

5000

3000 2000
AFRE(|| fiber) GFRE(|| fiber) CFRE(|| fiber)

Steel (4140) qt

1000

300 200
<100>

100
Glass-soda Concrete HDPE Graphite LDPE Nylon 6,6 PC PET PVC PP

Diamond W (pure) a Ti (5Al-2.5Sn)a Steel (4140) Si nitride Cu (71500) cw Cu (71500) hr Al oxide Steel (1020) ag Al (6061) Ti (pure) a Ta (pure) Al (6061) a Si crystal wood(|| fiber) GFRE( fiber) CFRE( fiber) AFRE( fiber)

Room Temp. values

40 30

20

10

Tensile strength, TS (MPa)

wood (

fiber)

Based on data in Table B4, Callister 7e. a = annealed hr = hot rolled ag = aged cd = cold drawn cw = cold worked qt = quenched & tempered AFRE, GFRE, & CFRE = aramid, glass, & carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy composites, with 60 vol% fibers.
Chapter 6 - 24

Ductility
L f Lo x 100 %EL = Lo
smaller %EL

Plastic tensile strain at failure:

Engineering tensile stress, larger %EL

Lo

Ao

Af

Lf

Adapted from Fig. 6.13, Callister 7e.

Engineering tensile strain,

Another ductility measure:

Ao - Af %RA = x 100 Ao
Chapter 6 - 25

Toughness

Energy to break a unit volume of material Approximate by the area under the stress-strain curve.
small toughness (ceramics) large toughness (metals)

Engineering tensile stress,

Adapted from Fig. 6.13, Callister 7e.

very small toughness (unreinforced polymers)

Engineering tensile strain,

Brittle fracture: elastic energy Ductile fracture: elastic + plastic energy


Chapter 6 - 26

Resilience, Ur

Ability of a material to store energy Energy stored best in elastic region


y

U r = d
0

If we assume a linear stress-strain curve this simplifies to

1 Ur y y 2
Chapter 6 - 27

Adapted from Fig. 6.15, Callister 7e.

Elastic Strain Recovery

Adapted from Fig. 6.17, Callister 7e. Chapter 6 - 28

Hardness

Resistance to permanently indenting the surface. Large hardness means:

--resistance to plastic deformation or cracking in compression. --better wear properties.


apply known force measure size of indent after removing load

e.g., 10 mm sphere

D
easy to machine steels file hard

Smaller indents mean larger hardness.


cutting tools nitrided steels

most plastics

brasses Al alloys

diamond

increasing hardness
Chapter 6 - 29

Hardness: Measurement

Rockwell

No major sample damage Each scale runs to 130 but only useful in range 20-100. Minor load 10 kg Major load 60 (A), 100 (B) & 150 (C) kg

A = diamond, B = 1/16 in. ball, C = diamond

HB = Brinell Hardness

TS (psia) = 500 x HB TS (MPa) = 3.45 x HB


Chapter 6 - 30

Hardness: Measurement

Table 6.5

Chapter 6 - 31

True Stress & Strain


T = F Ai

Note: S.A. changes when sample stretched


T = ln(1 + ) T = (1 + )

True stress

True Strain

T = ln(l i l o )

Adapted from Fig. 6.16, Callister 7e.

Chapter 6 - 32

Hardening
large hardening small hardening

An increase in y due to plastic deformation.

y 1 y

T = K T

Curve fit to the stress-strain response:

( )

hardening exponent: n = 0.15 (some steels) to n = 0.5 (some coppers) true strain: ln(L/Lo)
Chapter 6 - 33

true stress (F/A)

Variability in Material Properties

Elastic modulus is material property Critical properties depend largely on sample flaws (defects, etc.). Large sample to sample variability. Statistics
n

Mean

xn x= n
1 2 2 n ( ) x x i s= n 1

Standard Deviation

where n is the number of data points


Chapter 6 - 34

Design or Safety Factors


y
between 1.2 and 4

Design uncertainties mean we do not push the limit. Factor of safety, N Often N is

working = N

Example: Calculate a diameter, d, to ensure that yield does

not occur in the 1045 carbon steel rod below. Use a factor of safety of 5.

working = N
5

d Lo

220,000N d2 / 4

1045 plain carbon steel: y = 310 MPa TS = 565 MPa F = 220,000N

d = 0.067 m = 6.7 cm

Chapter 6 - 35

6.1

Example Problem Solutions

Elongation (Elastic Computation) A piece of copper originally 305 mm long is pulled in tension with a stress of 276 MPa.

Solutions :Since the deformation is elastic, strain is dependent on stress according to Equation 6.5. Furthermore the elogation l is related to the original length l0 through Eq. 6.2.Combining these two expressions and solving for l yields

= E= (l / l0) E l=( l0)/ E l= (276MPa)(305mm) / 110 x103 = 0.77 mm


Chapter 6 - 36

Example Problem Solutions

6.2 Computation of Load to Produce Specified Diameter Change

A tensile stress is to be applied along the axis of a cylindrical brass rod that has a diameter of 10 mm. Determine the magnitude of the load required to produce a 2.5x10-3 mm change in diameter if the deformation is entirely elastic. Solution: This deformation stress is represented in drawing.

Chapter 6 - 37

z= (l / l0) = li- l0/l0 x= (d / d0) = di- d0/d0


For the strain in the x direction

x= (d / d0) = -2.5 x10-3 mm /10mm


= -2.5x10-4 (it is negative since the diameter is reduced) For the strain in the z direction z=- x/ = -(-2.5x10-4)/0.34=7.35x10-4 =7.35x10-4

Chapter 6 - 38

The applied stress may now be computed

The modulus of elasticity is (Table 6.1) 97 GPa

= zE=(7.35x10-4)(97x103)MPa=71.3x10-4

Finally the applied force may be determined as;

F= A0 = (d0/2)2 x

(71.3x106 N/m2)(10x10-3/2)2x = 5600 N


Chapter 6 - 39

6.3 Mechanical Property Determinations from StressStrain Plot

From the tensile stress strain behavior for the brass specimen shown in figure determine the following a.) the modules of elasticity b.)The yield strength at a strain offset of 0.002 c.) The max.load that can be sustained by a cylindrical specimen having an original diameter of 12.8 mm d.) The change in length of a specimen originally 250 mm long that is subjected to a tensile stress of 345 MPa

Chapter 6 - 40

Solution

Chapter 6 - 41

a.) E=slope= / = (2 1)/ 2- 1

E=(150-0) MPa/(0.0016-0)=93.8GPa

b.) approximately 250 MPa

c.) F= A0= (d0/2)2 = (450x106 N/m2)x (12.8x10-3m /2)2x = 57900 N

d.) l= l0= (0.006)(250 mm) = 15 mm

Chapter 6 - 42

6.31 (Core Problems)

Calculate the moduli of resilience for the materials having the stress-strain behaviours shown in figures 6.12 and 6.21.

Figure 6.12

Chapter 6 - 43

Figure 6.21

Chapter 6 - 44

Solution

According to Equation 6.14, the modulus of resilience Ur is a function of the yield strength and the modulus of elasticity as

Ur =2y/2E

The values for y and E for the brass in Figure 6.12 are determined in Example Problem 6.3 as 250 MPa and 93.8 GPa respectively. Thus

Ur =(250 MPa)2/(2)(93.8x103MPa)= 3.32 x 105 J/m3

Values of the corresponding parameters for the steel alloy (Figure 6.21) are determined in Problem 6.24 as 1570 MPa and 210 GPa, respectively, and therefore

Ur =(1570 MPa)2/(2)(210x103MPa)=5.87 x 106 J/m3


Chapter 6 - 45

6.4 Ductility and True-Stress-At-Fracture Computations

A cylindrical specimen of steel having an original diameter of 12.8 mm is tensile tested to fracture and found to have an engineering fracture strength f of 460 MPa.If its cross sectional diameter at fracture is 10.7 mm determine a.) The ductility in terms of percent reduction in area b.) The true stress at fructure Solution:

% RA= [(12.8mm/2)-(10.7mm/2)2 ]/(12.8mm/2)2 x100 = (128.7mm2 -89.9mm2 ) / 128.7 mm2 x 100 =%30 6.6 x 10-8 N/m2
Chapter 6 - 46

b.) the load at fracture computed from the fracture stress as F= A0 = (460x106 N/m2) (128.7 mm2 )(1m2/106 mm2) =59200 N Thus the true strees is calculated T=F/Af= 59200N/(89.9mm2 ) (1m2/ 106 mm2) 6.6x 108 N/m2=660 MPa

Chapter 6 - 47

Summary

Stress and strain: These are size-independent measures of load and displacement, respectively. Elastic behavior: This reversible behavior often shows a linear relation between stress and strain. To minimize deformation, select a material with a large elastic modulus (E or G). Plastic behavior: This permanent deformation behavior occurs when the tensile (or compressive) uniaxial stress reaches y. Toughness: The energy needed to break a unit volume of material. Ductility: The plastic strain at failure.

Chapter 6 - 48

ANNOUNCEMENTS

Reading:

Core Problems: 6.3-6.4-6.5-6.6-6.7-6.8-6.96.14-6.15-6.16-6.20-6.21-6.22-6.23-6.24-6.256.26-6.27-6.28-6.29-6.31-6.32-6.40

Self-help Problems:6.1-6.2-6.3-6.4-6.6 Concept Checks 6.1 6.2 and 6.4

Chapter 6 - 49