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# KINEMATICS!

Introduction:
Welcome back! Hope you all are good. Today we are going to learn an important topic, that is kinematics. The big question: what is kinematics? It is the study o speed, !elocity, time and acceleration. We"ll study these quantities in more detail in this tutorial.

Definition:
#kay so starting with speed and !elocity, speed is de ined as the distance tra!elled by an ob\$ect in a gi!en time, or more simply as distance tra!elled per unit time. While on the other hand !elocity is displacement per unit time. %o then, what is the di erence between the two? The di erence is the same as that between distance and displacement& %peed is a scalar quantity while !elocity is a !ector. 'ow, what is scalar and what is !ector? Well, scalar quantities are those which ha!e a magnitude only, while !ector quantities ha!e both a direction and a magnitude. (ust to urther clear it out, consider a car going at a speed o )* m+s. We are not told whether the car is going northwards, down the hill or whate!er. %o what is )*m+s? It"s speed. , bit easier now?

## How to calculate average speed

,!erage speed can be calculated using the ormula: ,!erage %peed - Total .istance Tra!elled + Total Time Taken !"# The distance b+w town , and town / is 01 km . , car tra!els rom town , to town / and then returns to town , . The total time taken is 1 hours. What was the a!erage speed o the \$ourney?

\$nifor% acceleration:
,cceleration is the rate o change o !elocity. %imple as that! ,cceleration - 23inal 4elocity 5 Initial 4elocity6 + Time !&# , car starts rom rest and tra!els in a straight path. It reaches a speed o )* m+s in 7 seconds. What is it"s acceleration, assuming that it accelerates uni ormly? I we know that the acceleration o an ob\$ect is constant, we can ind its a!erage !elocity by a di erent ormula, which is as ollows: ,!erage 4elocity - 23inal 4elocity 8 Initial 4elocity6 + 0 ,lso i an ob\$ect is tra!elling with constant acceleration, then these equations o motions are applicable. 9 9 9 9 0as - !0 5 u0 s - ut 8 :+0 at0 ! - u 8 at 0s - 2! 8 u6t

;ey: a - acceleration , s - displacement, ! - inal !elocity, u - initial !elocity, t - time These equations are !ery help ul in inding the unknown.

Non'unifor% acceleration:
This orm o acceleration changes with time. In such case, the equations o motions cannot be used.

(rap)s:
<!ery situation that can be considered can be represented graphically. It helps us in !arious calculations and is easy to interpret. In such graphs, time is always taken on the =5a=is while distance on the y5a=is.

Distance'Ti%e (rap)s:

#kay so here are the distance5time graphs o three ob\$ects in motion. ,s we know the gradient o distance5time graph represents speed. #b\$ect , is mo!ing with increasing speed a it"s gradient is increasing. #b\$ect / is mo!ing with uni orm speed as it"s gradient is uni orm. ,nd similarly, as the gradient o > is decreasing, it"s mo!ing with a decreasing speed. 'othing too scienti ic, right? #kay so mo!ing on to the graph o a stationary ob\$ect, it should be co!ering any distance, right? %o that e=plains it all! The graph o a stationary will look like this:

,s we can see, the ob\$ect is stuck on the same distance. ?et"s say )* m, and it"s on )* m throughout. %o it"s stationary, not mo!ing, at rest!

Speed'Ti%e (rap)s:
%o here"s a speed5time graph or an ob\$ect at rest:

%ince the slope is equal to @ero, there is no acceleration. ,nd secondly, the !elocity is @ero, so ob\$ect is at rest. ,nd a speed time graph or an ob\$ect mo!ing at constant !elocity:

%ince the slope is @ero, the acceleration is ob!iously @ero, right? ,nd as there is no acceleration, that is, change in !elocity, the !elocity is there ore constant. Aet it? #kay, and here"s a new concept: the area under a speed time graph gi!es the distance mo!ed by the ob\$ect.

The shaded area in this case also gi!es the distance mo!ed by the ob\$ect:

## Araph or non uni orm acceleration:

#kay so as we can that the slope o the graph is increasing, and we know that the slope in a !elocity time graph represents acceleration. There ore, the acceleration in this case is increasing. <asy, no? ,nd again, the shaded area in this case represents the distance tra!elled by the ob\$ect. %o to sum up: 9 The gradient o a distance5time graph represents speed 9 The gradient o a speed5time graph represents acceleration 9 The area under a speed5time graph represents distance

## Motion under free'fall:

The acceleration due to the gra!itational pull o the earth is always constant and its !alue is B.7: m+s0 . Howe!er, when a body alls rom the sky, it doesnCt all with constant acceleration. This is due to the resistance pro!ided by air which is present. ,s soon as the body accelerates the air resistance acting on the body also increases. 4ery soon, the air resistance reaches the point where it balances the weight o the body which means that the acceleration o the body becomes @ero, as the resultant orce acting on it is also @ero 2we will deal with orces in the ne=t section6. This causes the body to all with a uni orm !elocity& This !elocity is known as terminal !elocity. , typical graph or motion under ree5 all would look like this:

Task: Okay so finally, your assignment is to google questions of kinematics and assess yourself to see if you have grabbed the basic concepts. ,nswers: D:: :* m+s D0: 1m+s0