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An embedded system is a computer system designed for specific control functions within a larger system, often with real-time computing constraints. It is embedded as part of a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts. By contrast, a general-purpose computer, such as a personal computer (PC), is designed to be flexible and to meet a wide range of end-user needs. Embedded systems control many devices in common use today.[3] Embedded systems contain processing cores that are either microcontrollers or digital signal processors (DSP). A processor is an important unit in the embedded system hardware. It is the heart of the embedded system. The key characteristic, however, is being dedicated to handle a particular task. Since the embedded system is dedicated to specific tasks, design engineers can optimize it to reduce the size and cost of the product and increase the reliability and performance. Some embedded systems are massproduced, benefiting from economies of scale. Physically, embedded systems range from portable devices such as digital watches and MP3 players, to large stationary installations like traffic lights, factory controllers. Complexity varies from low, with a single microcontroller chip, to very high with multiple units, peripherals and networks mounted inside a large chassis or enclosure. In general, an Embedded System: It is a combination of hardware and software to performs a specific task. Is a system built to perform its duty, completely or partially independent of human intervention. Is specially designed to perform a few tasks in the most efficient way. Interacts with physical elements in our environment, viz. controlling and driving a motor, sensing temperature, etc. An embedded system can be defined as a control system or computer system designed to perform a specific task. Common examples of embedded systems include MP3 players, navigation systems on aircraft and intruder alarm systems. An embedded system can also be defined as a single purpose computer. Microcontrollers As computer miniaturization progressed through the mid to late 1900s, controllers became smaller and smaller. All the parts of a controller, including memory and I/O devices, became integrated with the controller as a standard. Finally, when the entire controller apparatus was able to fit on single chips, they became known as "microcontrollers." A microcontroller contains everything required to control an external system, and nothing else. This limiting of microcontroller functionality to the basic requirements of a control unit makes implementing microcontrollers cheap and easy. Embedded Processors An "embedded" processor is simply a computing device placed inside a system it controls. A processor embedded into a system handles all the computation and logical operation of a computer. The embedded processor also handles such tasks as storing and retrieving data from memory, and processing data from any inputs or outputs. Embedded processors often work as part of a computer system, alongside memory and I/O devices.

Differences The primary difference between microcontrollers and embedded processors is makeup and integration. Embedded processors, while in a sense "controlling" the system they are a part of, require external resources such as RAM and registers in order to do so. A processor is not a control "system." Microcontrollers, on the other hand, contain everything required to control a system in a single chip. A microcontroller might contain an embedded processor as part of its makeup, but also combines other computer parts, such as memory and signal registers, in a single chip.


Microcontroller versus general-purpose microprocessor By microprocessor is meant the general-purpose microprocessors such as Intels x86 family (8086, 80286, 80386, 80486, and the Pentium) or Motorolas 6800 family (68000, 68010, 68020, 68030, 68040, etc.). These microprocessors contain no RAM, no ROM, and no I/O ports on the chip itself. For this reason, they are commonly referred to as general-purpose microprocessors.

Figure- Microprocessor System Contrasted With Microcontroller System A system designer using a general-purpose microprocessor such as the Pentium or the 68040 must add RAM, ROM, I/O ports, and timers externally to make them functional. Although the addition of external RAM, ROM, and I/O ports makes these systems bulkier and much more expensive, they have the advantage of versatility such that the designer can decide on the amount of RAM, ROM, and I/O ports needed to fit the task at hand. This is not the case with microcontrollers. A microcontroller has a CPU (a microprocessor) in addition to a fixed amount of RAM, ROM, I/O ports, and a timer all on a single chip. In other words, the processor, RAM, ROM, I/O ports, and timer are all embedded together on one chip; therefore, the designer cannot add any external memory, I/O, or timer to it. The fixed amount of on-chip ROM, RAM, and number of I/O ports in microcontrollers makes them ideal for many applications in which cost and space are critical. In many applications, for example a TV remote control, there is no need for the computing power of a 486 or even an 8086 microprocessor. In many applications, the space it takes, the power it consumes, and the price per unit are much more critical considerations than the computing power. These applications most often require some I/O operations to read signals and turn on and off certain bits. For this reason some call these processors IBP, itty-bitty processors Some microcontroller manufacturers have gone as far as integrating an ADC (analog-to-digi-tal converter) and other peripherals into the microcontroller.

Microcontrollers for embedded systems Microprocessors and microcontrollers are widely used in embedded system products. An embedded product uses a microprocessor (or microcontroller) to do one task and one task only. A printer is an example of embedded system since the processor inside it performs only one task ; namely, getting the data and printing it. Contrast this with a Pentium-based PC (or any x86 IBM-compatible PC). A PC can be used for any number of applications such as word processor, print server, bank teller terminal, video game player, network server, or internet terminal. Software for a variety of applications can be loaded and run. Of course the reason a PC can perform myriad tasks is that it has RAM memory and an operating system that loads the application software into RAM and lets the CPU run it. In an embedded system, there is only one application software that is typically burned into ROM. An x86 PC contains or is connected to various embedded products such as the keyboard, printer, modem, disk controller, sound card, CD-ROM driver, mouse, and so on. Each one of these peripherals has a microcontroller inside it that performs only one task. Choosing a microcontroller There are four major 8-bit microcontrollers. They are: Freescales 6811, Intels 8051, Zilogs Z8, and PIC 16X from Microchip Technology. Each of these microcontrollers has a unique instruction set and register set; therefore, they are not compatible with each other. Programs written for one will not run on the others. There are also 16-bit and 32-bit microcontrollers made by various chip makers. Three criteria in choosing microcontrollers are as follows: (1) meeting the computing needs of the task at hand efficiently and cost effectively, (2) availability of software development tools such as compilers, assemblers, and debuggers, and (3) wide availability and reliable sources of the microcontroller. Criteria for choosing a microcontroller The first and foremost criterion in choosing a microcontroller is that it must meet the task at hand efficiently and cost effectively. In analyzing the needs of a microcontroller-based project, we must first see whether an 8-bit, 16-bit,or 32-bit microcontroller can best handle the computing needs of the task most effectively. Among other considerations in this category are: Speed. What is the highest speed that the microcontroller supports? Packaging. Does it come in a 40-pin DIP (dual inline package) or a QFP(quad flat package), or some other packaging format? This is important interms of space, assembling, and prototyping the end product. Power consumption. This is especially critical for battery-powered products. The amount of RAM and ROM on chip. The number of I/O pins and the timer on the chip. How easy it is to upgrade to higher-performance or lower power-consumption versions. Cost per unit. This is important in terms of the final cost of the product inwhich a microcontroller is used. The second criterion in choosing a microcontroller is how easy it is to develop products around it. Key considerations include the availability of an assembler, debugger, a code-efficient C language compiler, emulator, technical support, and both in-house and outside expertise. The third criterion in choosing a microcontroller is its ready availability in needed quantities both now and in the future. For some designers this is even more important than the first two criteria. Currently, of the leading 8-bitmicrocontrollers, the 8051 family has the largest number of diversified (multiple source) suppliers. By supplier is meant a producer besides the originator of the microcontroller. In the case of the 8051, which was originated by Intel, several companies also

currently produce (or have produced in the past) the8051. These companies include: Intel, Atmel, Philips/Signetics, AMD, Infineon (formerly Siemens), Matra, and Dallas Semiconductor. A brief history of the 8051 In 1981, Intel Corporation introduced an 8-bit microcontroller called the 8051. This microcontroller had 128 bytes of RAM, 4K bytes of on-chip ROM, two timers, one serial port, and four ports (each 8-bits wide) all on a single chip. The 8051 is an 8-bit processor, meaning that the CPU can work on only 8 bits of data at a time. Data larger than 8 bits has to be broken into 8-bit pieces to be processed by the CPU. The 8051 has a total of four I/O ports, each 8 bits wide. Although the 8051 can have a maximum of 64K bytes of on-chip ROM, many manufacturers have put only 4K bytes on the chip. The 8051 became widely popular after Intel allowed other manufacturers to make and market any flavors of the 8051 they please with the condition that they remain code-compatible with the 8051. This has led to many versions of the 8051 with different speeds and amounts of on-chip ROM marketed by more than half a dozen manufacturers. 8052 microcontroller The 8052 is another member of the 8051 family. The 8052 has all the standard features of the 8051 as well as an extra 128 bytes of RAM and an extra timer.8052 has 256 bytes of RAM and 3 timers.It has 8K bytes of on-chip program ROM instead of 4K bytes. 8031 microcontroller This chip is often referred to as a ROM-less 8051 since it has 0K bytes of on-chip ROM. To use this chip you must add external ROM to it. This external ROM must contain the program that the 8031 will fetch and execute. The ROM containing the program attached to the 8031 can be as large as 64K bytes. In the process of adding external ROM to the 8031, you lose two ports. To solve this problem, you can add external I/O to the 8031. Feature Interrupt sources Serial port I/O pins Timers RAM (bytes) ROM (on-chip program space in bytes) 8051 6 1 32 2 128 4K 8052 8 1 32 3 256 8K 8031 6 1 32 2 128 0K

Various 8051 microcontrollers The 8051 is available in different memory types, such as UV-EPROM, flash, and NV-RAM, all of 'which have different part numbers. The UV-EPROM version of the 8051 is the 8751. The flash ROM version is marketed by many companies including Atmel Corp. and Dallas Semiconductor. The Atmel Flash 8051 is called AT89C51, while Dallas Semiconductor calls theirs DS89C4xO (DS89C420/430/440).The NV-RAM version of the 8051 made by Dallas Semiconductor is called DS5000. There is also an OTP (one-time programmable) version of the 8051 made by various manufacturers

8051 belongs to MCS-51 family of microcontrollers MCS-51 was developed by Intel but other manufacturers (e.g., Siemens, Philips) are second sources of this family. We can classify computer architectures into two categories:

von Neumann architecture: computers has a single, common memory space in which both program instructions and data are stored. There is a single internal data bus that fetches both instructions and data. They cannot be performed at the same time. Harvard architecture: computers have separate memory areas for program instructions and data. There are two or more internal data buses, which allow simultaneous access to both instructions and data. The CPU fetches program instructions on the program memory bus. The 8051 microcontrollers (MCS-51) have an 8-bit data bus. They can address 64K of external data memory and 64K of external program memory. These may be separate blocks of memory, so that up to 128K of memory can be attached to the microcontroller. Separate blocks of code and data memory are referred to as the Harvard architecture. A single block of memory may be mapped to act as both data and program memory. This is referred to as the Von Neumann architecture.

Features of the standard 8051 4K bytes internal ROM (program) 128 bytes internal RAM (data) Four 8-bit I/O ports Two 16-bit timers Serial interface 64K external code memory space 64K external data memory space 210 bit-addressable locations The Intel 8051 is a very popular general purpose microcontroller widely used for small scale embedded systems. Many vendors such as Atmel, Philips, and Texas Instruments produce MCS-51 family microcontroller chips. The 8051 is an 8-bit microcontroller with 8 bit data bus and 16-bit address bus. The 16 bit address bus can address a 64K ( 216) byte code memory space and a separate 64K byte of data memory space. The 8051 has 4K on-chip read only code memory and 128 bytes of internal Random Access Memory (RAM) Besides internal RAM, the 8051 has various Special Function Registers (SFR) such as the Accumulator, the B register, and many other control registers. 34 8-bit general purpose registers in total. The ALU performs one 8-bit operation at a time. 3 internal interrupts (one serial) and 2 external interrupts. 4 8-bit I/O ports (3 of them are dual purposed). One of them used for serial port, Some 8051 chips come with UART for serial communication and ADC for analog to digital conversion.

System Clock and Oscillator

The 8051 requires an external oscillator circuit. The oscillator circuit usually runs around 12MHz. the crystal generates 12M pulses in one second. The pulse is used to synchronize the system operation in a controlled pace.. A machine cycle is minimum amount time a simplest machine instruction must take An 8051 machine cycle consists of 12 crystal pulses (clock cycle). instruction with a memory oprand so that it needs multiple memory accesses. The first 6 crystal pulses (clock cycle) is used to fetch the opcode and the second 6 pulses are used to perform the operation on the operands in the ALU. This gives an effective machine cycle rate at 1MIPS (Million Instructions Per Second).

Program counter and Data pointer

The program counter points to the address of the next instruction to be executed As the CPU fetches the opcode from the program ROM, the program counter is increasing to point to the next instruction The program counter is 16 bits wide. This means that it can access program addresses 0000 to FFFFH, a total of 64K bytes of code The PC is automatically incremented after every instruction is fetched and may also be altered by certain instructions. It is the only register that does not have an internal address The DPTR register is made up of two 8-bit registers, named DPH and DPL that are used to furnish memory address for internal and external code access and external data access. The DPTR is under the control of program instructions and can be specified by its 16-bit name, DPTR, or by each individual byte name, DPH and DPL. DPTR does not have a single internal address; DPH and DPL are each assigned an address.

Register are used to store information temporarily, while the information could be a byte of data to be processed, or an address pointing to the data to be fetched. The vast majority of 8051 register are 8-bit registers. There is only one data type, 8 bits. The 8 bits of a register are shown from MSB D7 to the LSB D0 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0

With an 8-bit data type, any data larger than 8 bits must be broken into 8-bit chunks before it is processed The most widely used registers are A (Accumulator)- For all arithmetic and logic instructions, B, R0, R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, DPTR (data pointer), and PC (program counter)

Pinout Description Pins 1-8: Port 1 Each of these pins can be configured as an input or an output. Pin 9: RS A logic one on this pin disables the microcontroller and clears the contents of most registers. In other words, the positive voltage on this pin resets the microcontroller. By applying logic zero to this pin, the program starts execution from the beginning. Pins10-17: Port 3 Similar to port 1, each of these pins can serve as general input or output. Besides, all of them have alternative functions: Pin 10: RXD Serial asynchronous communication input or Serial synchronous communication output. Pin 11: TXD Serial asynchronous communication output or Serial synchronous communication clock output. Pin 12: INT0 Interrupt 0 input. Pin 13: INT1 Interrupt 1 input. Pin 14: T0 Counter 0 clock input. Pin 15: T1 Counter 1 clock input. Pin 16: WR Write to external (additional) RAM. Pin 17: RD Read from external RAM. Pin 18, 19: X2, X1 Internal oscillator input and output. A quartz crystal which specifies operating frequency is usually connected to these pins. Instead of it, miniature ceramics resonators can also be used for frequency stability. Later versions of microcontrollers operate at a frequency of 0 Hz up to over 50 Hz. Pin 20: GND Ground. Pin 21-28: Port 2 If there is no intention to use external memory then these port pins are configured as general inputs/outputs. In case external memory is used, the higher address byte, i.e. addresses A8-A15 will appear on this port. Even though memory with capacity of 64Kb is not used, which means that not all eight port bits are used for its addressing, the rest of them are not available as inputs/outputs.

Pin 29: PSEN If external ROM is used for storing program then a logic zero (0) appears on it every time the microcontroller reads a byte from memory. Pin 30: ALE Prior to reading from external memory, the microcontroller puts the lower address byte (A0-A7) on P0 and activates the ALE output. After receiving signal from the ALE pin, the external register (usually 74HCT373 or 74HCT375 add-on chip) memorizes the state of P0 and uses it as a memory chip address. Immediately after that, the ALU pin is returned its previous logic state and P0 is now used as a Data Bus. As seen, port data multiplexing is performed by means of only one additional (and cheap) integrated circuit. In other words, this port is used for both data and address transmission. Pin 29: PSEN If external ROM is used for storing program then a logic zero (0) appears on it every time the microcontroller reads a byte from memory. Pin 30: ALE Prior to reading from external memory, the microcontroller puts the lower address byte (A0-A7) on P0 and activates the ALE output. After receiving signal from the ALE pin, the external register (usually 74HCT373 or 74HCT375 add-on chip) memorizes the state of P0 and uses it as a memory chip address. Immediately after that, the ALU pin is returned its previous logic state and P0 is now used as a Data Bus. As seen, port data multiplexing is performed by means of only one additional (and cheap) integrated circuit. In other words, this port is used for both data and address transmission. Pin 31: EA By applying logic zero to this pin, P2 and P3 are used for data and address transmission with no regard to whether there is internal memory or not. It means that even there is a program written to the microcontroller, it will not be executed. Instead, the program written to external ROM will be executed. By applying logic one to the EA pin, the microcontroller will use both memories, first internal then external (if exists). Pin 32-39: Port 0 Similar to P2, if external memory is not used, these pins can be used as general inputs/outputs. Otherwise, P0 is configured as address output (A0-A7) when the ALE pin is driven high (1) or as data output (Data Bus) when the ALE pin is driven low (0). Pin 40: VCC +5V power supply.

Input/Output Ports (I/O Ports)

All 8051 microcontrollers have 4 I/O ports each comprising 8 bits which can be configured as inputs or outputs. Accordingly, in total of 32 input/output pins enabling the microcontroller to be connected to peripheral devices are available for use.

Pin configuration, i.e. whether it is to be configured as an input (1) or an output (0), depends on its logic state. In order to configure a microcontroller pin as an output, it is necessary to apply a logic zero (0) to appropriate I/O port bit. In this case, voltage level on appropriate pin will be 0. Similarly, in order to configure a microcontroller pin as an input, it is necessary to apply a logic one (1) to appropriate port. In this case, voltage level on appropriate pin will be 5V (as is the case with any TTL input). Port 0 - The P0 port is characterized by two functions. If external memory is used then the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7) is applied on it. Otherwise, all bits of this port are configured as inputs/outputs. The other function is expressed when it is configured as an output. Unlike other ports consisting of pins with built-in pull-up resistor connected by its end to 5 V power supply, pins of this port have this resistor left out. Port 1 - P1 is a true I/O port, because it doesn't have any alternative functions as is the case with P0, but can be configured as general I/O only. It has a pull-up resistor built-in and is completely compatible with TTL circuits. Port 2 - P2 acts similarly to P0 when external memory is used. Pins of this port occupy addresses intended for external memory chip. This time it is about the higher address byte with addresses A8A15. When no memory is added, this port can be used as a general input/output port showing features similar to P1. Port 3 - All port pins can be used as general I/O, but they also have an alternative function. In order to use these alternative functions, a logic one (1) must be applied to appropriate bit of the P3 register. In terms of hardware, this port is similar to P0, with the difference that its pins have a pull-up resistor built-in.

Memory Organization
The 8051 has two types of memory and these are Program Memory and Data Memory. Program Memory (ROM) is used to permanently save the program being executed, while Data Memory (RAM) is used for temporarily storing data and intermediate results created and used during the operation of the microcontroller. All 8051 microcontrollers have a 16-bit addressing bus and are capable of addressing 64 kb memory. . Program Memory The first models of the 8051 microcontroller family did not have internal program memory. It was added as an external separate chip. These models are recognizable by their label beginning with 803 (for example 8031 or 8032). All later models have a few Kbyte ROM embedded. Even though such an amount of memory is sufficient for writing most of the programs, there are situations when it is necessary to use additional memory as well

How does the microcontroller handle external memory depends on the EA pin logic state:

EA=0 In this case, the microcontroller completely ignores internal program memory and executes only the program stored in external memory. EA=1 In this case, the microcontroller executes first the program from built-in ROM, then the program stored in external memory. In both cases, P0 and P2 are not available for use since being used for data and address transmission. Besides, the ALE and PSEN pins are also used. Data Memory Data Memory is used for temporarily storing data and intermediate results created and used during the operation of the microcontroller. Besides, RAM memory built in the 8051 family includes many registers such as hardware counters and timers, input/output ports, serial data buffers etc. Locations available to the user occupy memory space with addresses 0-7Fh, i.e. first 128 registers. This part of RAM is divided in several blocks.

The first block consists of 4 banks each including 8 registers denoted by R0-R7. Prior to accessing any of these registers, it is necessary to select the bank containing it. The next memory block (address 20h-2Fh) is bit- addressable, which means that each bit has its own address (0-7Fh). Since there are 16 such registers, this block contains in total of 128 bits with separate addresses (address of bit 0 of the 20h byte is 0, while address of bit 7 of the 2Fh byte is 7Fh). The third group of registers occupy addresses 2Fh-7Fh, i.e. 80 locations, and does not have any special functions or features. Memory expansion In case memory (RAM or ROM) built in the microcontroller is not sufficient, it is possible to add two external memory chips with capacity of 64Kb each. P2 and P3 I/O ports are used for their addressing and data transmission From the users point of view, everything works quite simply when properly connected because most operations are performed by the microcontroller itself. The 8051 microcontroller has two pins for data read RD#(P3.7) and PSEN#. The first one is used for reading data from external data memory (RAM), while the other is used for reading data from external program memory (ROM). Both pins are active low. A typical example of memory expansion by adding RAM and ROM chips (Hardward architecture), is shown in figure above.

Counters and Timers

The microcontroller oscillator uses quartz crystal for its operation. As the frequency of this oscillator is precisely defined and very stable, pulses it generates are always of the same width, which makes them ideal for time measurement. Such crystals are also used in quartz watches. In order to measure time between two events it is sufficient to count up pulses coming from this oscillator. That is exactly what the timer does. If the timer is properly programmed, the value stored in its register will be incremented (or decremented) with each coming pulse, i.e. once per each machine cycle. A single machine-cycle instruction lasts for 12 quartz oscillator periods, which means that by embedding quartz with oscillator frequency of 12MHz, a number stored in the timer register will be changed million times per second, i.e. each microsecond. The 8051 microcontroller has 2 timers/counters called T0 and T1. As their names suggest, their main purpose is to measure time and count external events. Besides, they can be used for generating clock pulses to be used in serial communication, so called Baud Rate. Timer T0 The timer T0 consists of two registers TH0 and TL0 representing a low and a high byte of one 16digit binary number. If the content of the timer T0 is equal to 0 (T0=0) then both registers it consists of will contain 0. If the timer contains for example number 1000 (decimal), then the TH0 register (high byte) will contain the number 3, while the TL0 register (low byte) will contain decimal number 232.Formula used to calculate values in these two registers is very simple: TH0 256 + TL0 = T Matching the previous example it would be as follows: 3 256 + 232 = 1000 Since the timer T0 is virtually 16-bit register, the largest value it can store is 65 535. In case of exceeding this value, the timer will be automatically cleared and counting starts from 0. This condition is called an overflow. Two registers TMOD and TCON are closely connected to this timer and control its operation.

UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter)

One of the microcontroller features making it so powerful is an integrated UART, better known as a serial port. It is a full-duplex port, thus being able to transmit and receive data simultaneously and at

different baud rates. Without it, serial data send and receive would be an enormously complicated part of the program in which the pin state is constantly changed and checked at regular intervals. When using UART, all the programmer has to do is to simply select serial port mode and baud rate. When it's done, serial data transmit is nothing but writing to the SBUF register, while data receive represents reading the same register. The microcontroller takes care of not making any error during data transmission.

8051 Microcontroller Interrupts

There are five interrupt sources for the 8051, which means that they can recognize 5 different events that can interrupt regular program execution. Each interrupt can be enabled or disabled by setting bits of the IE register. Likewise, the whole interrupt system can be disabled by clearing the EA bit of the same register.. Now, it is necessary to explain a few details referring to external interrupts- INT0 and INT1. If the IT0 and IT1 bits of the TCON register are set, an interrupt will be generated on high to low transition, i.e. on the falling pulse edge (only in that moment). If these bits are cleared, an interrupt will be continuously executed as far as the pins are held low. Interrupt Priorities It is not possible to forseen when an interrupt request will arrive. If several interrupts are enabled, it may happen that while one of them is in progress, another one is requested. In order that the microcontroller knows whether to continue operation or meet a new interrupt request, there is a priority list instructing it what to do. The priority list offers 3 levels of interrupt priority: 1. Reset! The absolute master. When a reset request arrives, everything is stopped and the microcontroller restarts. 2. Interrupt priority 1 can be disabled by Reset only. 3. Interrupt priority 0 can be disabled by both Reset and interrupt priority 1. The IP Register (Interrupt Priority Register) specifies which one of existing interrupt sources have higher and which one has lower priority. Interrupt priority is usually specified at the beginning of the program. According to that, there are several possibilities: If an interrupt of higher priority arrives while an interrupt is in progress, it will be immediately stopped and the higher priority interrupt will be executed first. If two interrupt requests, at different priority levels, arrive at the same time then the higher priority interrupt is serviced first. If the both interrupt requests, at the same priority level, occur one after another, the one which came later has to wait until routine being in progress ends. If two interrupt requests of equal priority arrive at the same time then the interrupt to be serviced is selected according to the following priority list: 1. External interrupt INT0 2 Timer 0 interrupt 3 External Interrupt INT1 4 Timer 1 interrupt 5 Serial Communication Interrupt