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A HYBRID PULSE FORMING TECHNIQUE by William R. Cravey, B.S. IN E.E.

A THESIS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINERRING Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Texas Tech University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Appro\7etd

Accepted

December, 1988

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to express my appreciation to a number of individuals: Dr. T. R. Burkes for providing me with the opportunity to do this research. Dr. WiUiam M. Portnoy for his assistance in

developing the work, and Dr. G. McDuff who provided me with valuable feedback in the completion of this research. I would also like to extend my appreciation to Susan Ball for her helpful suggestions and comments. Finally, I would like to thank my

beautiful wife for the love, patience, and support she has shown during the writing of this thesis.

11

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS USTOFTABLES LIST OF FIGURES I. II. INTRODUCnON TRANSMISSION LINE TRANSIENTS Wave Propagation in Transmission Lines Analytic Solution of Charged Transmission Line Equations III. PULSE FORMING NETWORKS The Type 'C' Pulse Forming Network The Type 'A Pulse Forming Network The Type 'E' Pulse Forming Network OtherTypes Of Pulse Forming Networks IV. SERIES CONNECTION OF A TRANSMISSION LINE WITH A PULSE FORMING NETWORK Junction Filtering LaboratoiyResults Line Length Variations V. THE PIYBRID NETWORK Parameters Afecting Pulse Shape

ii v vi 1 4 5 14 27 27 29 32 33 36 37 43 47 50 51

111

Impedance Considerations For The Hybrid Network Line Length Considerations VI. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EVALUATION OF THE HYBRID NETWORK The Pulse Forming Network The Transmission Line Evaluation of the Hybrid Network VII. CONCLUSION

57 59 64 64 73 75 78 80

REFERENCES APPENDICES A B C FOURIERCOEFFICIENrS TEST SYSTEM DESIGN VARIOUS SPICE CIRCUTT MODELS

81 89 94

IV

LIST

OF T A B L E S

Table 3.1. Values of bn's, Ln's, and Cn's for the t)T)e 'C' network of Figure 3.1 (Glasoe and Lebacqz, 192) Table4.1. Summary of series connection results

29 49 68 68 69 76 81 82 83 84 85 86 87

Table 6.1. Values of capacitance measured at each stage of the PFN using a vector impedance bridge Table 6.2. Values of inductance measured at each stage of the PFN using a vector impedance bridge Table 6.3. Calculated values of mutual inductance for each stage

Table 6.4. Table showing parameter changes for each test case Table A.I. Fourier coeffcients for a trapezoidal pulse shape

Table A.2. Fourier coefficients for a parabolic pulse shape Table A.3. Table A.4. Table A.5. Table A.6. Table A.7. Fourier coefficients for a square pulse shape Normalized capacitor values for a trapezoidal pulse shape. Multiply Cn's by t/Zo Normalized inductor values for a trapezoidal pulse shape. Multiply Ln's by t Zo Normalized capacitor values for a parabolic pulse shape. Multiply Cn's by t/Zo Normalized inductor values for a parabolic pulse shape. Multiply Ln's by t Zo

LIST

OF

FIGURES

Figure 1.1. Figure2.1. Figure 2.2.

Block diagram of the hybrid network Voltage pulses formed by (a) undermatched, RL < Zo, and (b) overmatched, RL > Zo, loads Lumped equivalent circuit of l o s s l e s s transmission line used to describe the process of voltage and current wave propagation in transmission lines Histogram of wave propagation for a charged transmission line with a matched load at one end and a open circuit at the other end. LightInitial voltage, MediumResultant wave, and DarkPropagating wave Histogram of wave propagation for a charged transmission line with a matched load at one end and an ideal voltage source at the other end. LightInitial voltage, MediumResultant wave, and DarkPropagating wave Histogram of wave propagation of two charged transmission lines and a matched load. Light Initial voltage, MediumResultant wave, and Dark-Propagating wave Small section of transmission line used to derive the general solution of a charged transmission line Non-ideal voltage source at sending end of a charged transmission line Output response of charged transmission line with a non-ideal voltage source at the sending end and a matched load at the receiving end

3 5

Figure 2.3.

Figure 2.4.

10

Figure 2.5.

13

Figure 2.6.

14 18

Figure 2.7. Figure 2.8.

20

VI

Figure 2.9.

Circuit used in calculating the output response of a charged transmission line

21

Figure2.10. Plot generated using equation (2.4). Charged sending end capacitor. C = IF, T = 0.625 s e c , R = 50a Figure2.11. Circuit used in determining the output wave form of a charged transmission line Figure2.12. Plot generated using equation (31). LC network at sending end of transmission line. L=50 ^H, R = 10 f, T=10 ^isec, C=2 |iF and Eo=200 V Figure3.1. Figure 3.2. Type 'C' network of n sections. Foster form The second

23 24

26 28

Number of stages versus rise time of a PFN with a Square (a), Parabolic (b), and a trapezoidal pulse shape (c) Equivalent Type 'A' network derived using Foster's Reactance Theorem Equivalent networks derived by continued fraction expansion of the impedance and admittance functions of the network in Figure 3.2. The First Cauer Form or Type 'B' PFN (a). The Second Cauer Form or l y p e 'F' PFN Useful ranges of various tj^es of PFN and distributed networks PFN a n d combination transmission line in series

30 31

Figure 3.3. Figure 3.4.

34 35 37 38

Figure 3.5. Figure4.1. Figure 4.2. Figure 4.3.

SPICE generated output of series combination SPICE output generated by varying the end inductance of the PFN, junction inductor. Plots for values of 4, 6, 8, 10, and 16 microhenrys

40

vii

Figure 4.4.

SPICE generated output at load. Curves generated for .5, 5, and 15 nf variations in shunt capacitor SPICE generated o u t p u t of Tee network. Variations of 0.01, 1, and 10 microhenrys end inductance with a 1 nanofarad shunt, and 10 nanohenrys with a 5 nanofarad shunt Photograph of the load voltage with a onenanofarad shunt capacitor Photograph of the load voltage with a 56nanofarad shunt capacitor Photograph of the load voltage with a onenanofarad s h u n t capacitor and a 4 . 5 microhenry series inductor Photograph of the load voltage with 192 feet of line, T=288 nanoseconds

41

Figure 4.5.

42 44 45

Figure 4.6. Figure 4.7. Figure 4.8.

46 47 48 48 52

Figure 4.9.

Figure 4.10. Photograph of the load voltage with 400 feet of line, T=600 nanoseconds Figure 4.11. Photograph of the load voltage with 791 feet of line, T=1.1875 microseconds Figure 5.1. Figure 5.2. Figure 5.3. The hybrid pulse forming network SPICE generated network. output of the hybrid

52

Typical output responses for a PFN discharge into a matched load, (a), and a transmission line discharged into an overmatched load, (b) SPICE generated output of transmission line discharged into overmatched load where Zo is the impedance of the transmission line, and Ro is the resistance of the load Resistive network used to describe the need for a low impedance transmission line Simple resistive voltage divider

54

Figure 5.4.

55 55 57

Figure 5.5. Figure 5.6.

Vlll

Figure 5.7.

Percent overshoot versus the impedance of the line. Where Zo is the line impedance, Ro is the load resistance Percent undershoot versus the impedance of the line. Where Zo is the line impedance, Ro is the load resistance, To is the delay time of the line, and Tr is the rise time of the PFN SPICE generated output of a transmission line discharge for various lengths of hne

58

Figure 5.8.

60 62

Figure 5.9.

Figure 5.10. Percent undershoot versus the length of the line. Where Zo is the line impedance, Ro is the load resistance, To is the delay time of the line. and Tr is the rise time of the PFN Figure6.1. Picture of experimental pulse forming network, (a). Sketch of PFN illustrating special features, (b) Schematic of experimental type 'E' PFN Photograph of out-put pulse of the PFN Photograph of charging current through a 3Q viewing resistor Charging circuit (a). Photograph of charging voltage across charging inductor Charging inductor wave form before (a) and after (b) the use of a RC-snubber Photographs of transmission line output Photographs of "Hybrid" network o u t p u t voltage for a line delay of d=30 ns and a line impedanceofZo=10f

63

65 66 67 67 71 72 74

Figure 6.2. Figure 6.3. Figure 6.4. Figure 6.5. Figure 6.6. Figure 6.7. Figure 6.8.

77

IX

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

Lasers,

high

power

radio

frequency

generators,

and

electromagnetic pulse (EMP) simulators are but a few of the systems that require high-power rectangular pulses. Over the past

45 years, the need for repetitive pulsers has expanded and changed to the point where, today, there are hundreds of different uses. The design of a network which can produce a rise time of less than tens of nanoseconds is usually done by constructing a PFN of numerous stages, depending on pulse width. Another approach

used for producing a pulse of this type utilizes the charged transmission line. Although the transmission line produces a

desirable pulse shape, when the pulse width is greater than a few microseconds, an excessive length of line is needed. The work described here presents a pulse forming technique which has an advantage over the transmission line and the PFN; in that, it can produce pulses of long duration and fast rise times. The pulse is produced by taking advantage of the desired characteristics of both the distributed parameter network, or the transmission line, and the lumped parameter network, or PFN. By this means the network is able to produce a pulse of extended width and fast

rise time without an excessive length of line or numerous PFN stages. The combined circuit is referred to as the "hybrid"

network since it is a combination of two dissimilar networks (Figure 1.1). Chapter II begins with an introduction to transmission lines and the effects of various loads upon their discharge. This chapter investigates transmission line transient behavior by looking at two methods of analysis. First, the wave propagation of transmission lines is discussed with the use of histograms; second, the load

interactions are presented with the use of the mathematical equations describing the line behavior. FoIIowing the discussion on transmission lines, the pulse forming network (PFN) is introduced, Chapter III, as an alternative to the distributed transmission line. parameter

A series coupling of the two networks is The hybrid network is introduced in

discussed in Chapter IV.

Chapter V with specific emphasis placed on the characteristics of impedance and pulse shape. Chapter VI describes the laboratory

test system used to evaluate the hybrid networks performance and to compare the laboratory measurement with the SPICE generated data. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for further

research are discussed in Chapter VII.

I
(U

t-l

CHAPTER TRANSMISSION LINE

II TRANSIENTS

In general, the transmission line is composed of parameters or constants (Ku, 282).

distributed

The distributed parameter

network, or transmission line, has many useful characteristics for pulse shaping. "An initially charged lossless transmission line can produce perfect rectangular pulses into a matched load" (Wilson, 13). The width of the pulse formed by the transmission line is a

function of the transmission line's length, geometry, and the wave velocity in the dielectric material from which it is made. The

impedance, Z^, of the line is independent of the length of line (Javid, 335). A drawback to the transmission line is the excessive length of line needed to produce a pulse of only short duration. An initially charged transmission line can produce perfectly rectangular pulses into a matched load, Rj^. Furthermore, the

amplitude of such a pulse is equal to one half the initial charge voltage of the transmission line. Variations to the rectangular pulse can result if the load is undermatched or overmatched, as

The length of 50 ohm coaxial cable needed to produce a pulse of SLX micro-seconds is 2000 feet.

illustrated in Figure 2 . 1 .

These wave forms are the result of

reflected waves which are generated at the interface between the load and the line. The greater the load mismatch, the longer it

takes for the reflected wave to dissipate.


v(t)^ v(t),

2T

2T
(a) (b)

Figure 2 . 1 . Voltage pulses formed by (a) undermatched, R^ < ZQ, and (b) overmatched, R^ > ZQ, loads. Wave Propagation in Transmission Lines Wave propagation in transmission lines is generated by the distributed parameter characteristics of the network. In order to

explain the process of voltage wave propagation in a transmission line, the distributed inductance and capacitance of the line are lumped together in small finite amounts as illustrated in Figure 2.2. If the resistance of the line is neglected, the line is considered "lossless," and only this case will be considered. Although the

lumped equivalent circuit is a useful way of describing wave

propagation, the description below neglects certain characteristics related to lumped elements (i.e., infnitesimal element values).
L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 Ln

alh-l5h-flll-r-^^
C2; C3: C4; 05;

mh
Qi

Figure 2.2. Lumped equivalent circuit of lossless transmission line u s e d to describe the process of voltage and current wave propagation in t r a n s mission lines. The voltage source, E, of Figure 2.2 is switched into the line at t=0. and Immediately, current will begin to flow through inductor Ll into capacitor C l . Element Cl begins to charge causing a In a

current to flow through inductor L2 and into capacitor C2.

similar manner, C2 charges causing the current to flow through L3 and the sequence continues down the line. This effect results in a voltage wave traveling down the line at a velocity determined by the material properties of the line. Accompanying the voltage wave is a c u r r e n t wave which is related to the voltage wave by the characteristics of the line. In fact, the current and the voltage are not separate waves; they are merely different aspects of the same wave of energy (SkiIIing, 263). Three circuits are examined to illustrate the effects of wave propagation in a transmission line. First, an open ended, charged line with a matched resistive load at one end is analyzed. Next, a source is added to the open end of the charged transmission line

7 and the resulting effects are observed. Finally, the characteristics of a wave traveling from one transmission line to another line of a different impedance are examined.

Charged Transmission Line A charged transmission line with a matched load at one end and an open circuit at the other end is the simplest case of charged transmission line transients. discharged into a matched Provided the transmission line is

load, it will produce an output pulse

across the load of pulse width 2T where T is the one-way travel time on the line and an amplitude of E Q / 2 . In order to understand how this pulse is formed by the transmission considered. line, properties of wave propagation must be

Figure 2.3(a) illustrates the circuit in this example.

The open circuit end of the transmission line is labeled as x=o while the load side of the line is at x=d. The variable "x" must be introduced because the voltage and current waves on the line are functions of time and distance "x." The length of the hne is "d"

and it has a one-way travel time of T. Initially, the line is charged to voltage E Q . The impedance of the line is Z^ f. The line is

terminated into a purely resistive load of R=ZQ. At t=0 the switch is closed and the initial voltage is divided evenly between the load, R, and the line at x=d. Propagation of the first wave begins at this time, and it propagates towards the open circuit end of the line. The wave has an amphtude of - E Q / 2 and is

8
Zo Eo x.O x.d ^ .
R = Zo

(a)

^'i k

E ; 0<t<T

n
X

(b)

v(u)

T<t<2T

2T < t < o o

v(t.d)

Figure 2.3. Histogram of wave propagation for a charged transmission line with a matched load at one end and an open circuit at the other end. LightInitial voltage, Medium--Resultant wave, and Dark--Propagating wave.

illustrated in Figure 2.3(b) by the darkest shaded area. The lightly shaded area in Figure 2.3(b) represents the initial charge on the

line, and the medium shading is the sum of the propagated waves. As the wave propagates down the line the net voltage seen across the line becomes E Q / 2 . At time t=T the wave encounters the open circuit end of the line and is reflected with the same polarity. As the reflected wave propagates back down the line, the resultant wave becomes zero, Figure 2.3(c). Finally, at time t=2T the wave encounters the matched load, and the voltage on the line is now zero. The wave is not reflected at the load, and the system relaxes, Figure 2.3(d). The voltage seen across the load resistor, v(t,d), is a pulse of magnitude E Q / 2 and pulse width 2T. This output wave form was determined by observing the change in voltage at x=d (i.e., v[t,d]) during wave propagation. The output voltage is shown in Figure 2.3(e). Ideal Voltage Source at Sending End of Transmission Line In the following example, the open circuit end of the charged line is replaced with an ideal voltage source. The voltage source

appears as a shorted line to the propagating wave and will result in a reflected wave of opposite polarity to that of the incoming wave. The circuit (Figure 2.4[a]) is a charged transmission line length, "d," impedance, Z^, and one-way travel time, T. of

At one end

of the line, a matched resistive load is connected through a switch.

10
Zo Es. Eo ^ .
R = Zo

x=0

x=d

(a) v(t.x) Eom^^^^^^nmmm

0<t<T

0.

(b)
v(tP()

Eo-

T<t<2T

^j.l.WJJ.^UAiA'.i.HJJ.Ij.SMA^'Ai.'jA^iM'.W^^

(c)
v(U)

2T < t < oo

(d)
v(t.d)

Eo-

I T

I 2T

I (e)

I / /

Figure 2.4. Histogram of wave p r o p a g a t i o n for a charged t r a n s m i s s i o n line with a matched load at one end and an ideal voltage source at the other end. L i g h t - I n i t i a l voltage, MediumResultant wave, a n d DarkPropagating wave.

11 The switch is closed at t=0, and on the sending end of the line, x=0, there is an ideal source of voltage Eg = EQ. A wave of magnitude E Q / 2 begins to propagate towards the sending end of the line when the switch is closed. Figure 2.4(b)

illustrates the propagation wave with a dark shading. The initial voltage and resulting wave are represented with the lighter and medium shading, respectively. When the propagating wave reaches the voltage source at time t=T, the wave reverses polarity and is reflected. As the wave moves back down the line, the resulting

voltage across the line becomes that of the voltage source, E^ (Figure 2.4[c]). The steady-state condition is obtained when the

wave reaches the receiving end of the line (the load end), the voltage across the line is once again E^ volts (Figure 2.4[d]). The output voltage wave form observed across the load is shown in Figure 2.4(e).

Two-Section Transmission Line The final case illustrates that the waves are not only reflected but are transmitted in some instances. Two relations are needed to describe the transmission and the reflection of waves propagating down the line. Tt and Tr
= =

The two needed equations are: V Vo " ^o


Vi l Vo
2ZL
=

Z L +^ ZO ^L '^o

(2.1)

ZL ,-Z ZQ ^ Z
=

ZL + Z Q '

(2.2)

12 where Z^ and Z^ are the line impedance. From equations (2.1) and (2.2) it is noted t h a t at a Junction of two lines of different impedance there will be a reflected wave and a transmitted wave. The circuit used for this analysis is shown in Figure 2.5(a). The circuit consists of two series connected transmission lines of impedances Z^ and Z^. Each line is of length d / 2 with line 2 being connected to the matched resistive load R (i.e., R^Z^). Both lines have a one-way transit time, T, and are charged to a voltage E^. At time t=0, line 2 is switched into the load and a wave, W^, of magnitude E Q / 2 begins to propagate towards line 1, Figure 2.5(b). When the wave reaches the right end of line 2, part of the wave is transmitted down line 1, W^, and part of the wave is reflected back towards the load, W^, as shown in Figure 2.5(c). This reflection is due to the different impedances of the lines. After the switch has been closed for t=2T seconds, wave three, W^, reaches the end of line 1 and is reflected back; while at the same time, wave two, W^, reaches the load and is dissipated. The reflected wave from the

end of line 1, W^, is reflected with the same magnitude and sign of the forward going wave as seen in Figure 2.5(d). When wave

four,Wj^, reaches line 1 at time t=3T seconds, part of the wave is transmitted down the line where it will be dissipated by the load, and part of the wave is reflected back towards the open end of line 1. This process continues indefinitely until all the energy is Finally, the output seen across the load,

dissipated in the load.

v(t,d) is fllustrated in Figure 2.5(e). This output is characteristic of

13
Z1 Z2 Eo x=0 R = Z2

(a)

x>d

v(t.x) ^ Eo.

0<t<T

0 wi
. . ^ . . . . .^^. .. < ^

(b) v(t.x) ^ Eo. T<t<2T 0 w3

SSS'-.v. x i f- M.. .

, ^N . ^

X\V /v. ('

.V

^- :sS$-.: u-.i.0.i.i.0.n.ti I n i 11 m i i 11 n i i fi^ i i fi ri a

w2 (c)

2T < t < 3T

v(t.d) Eo-

^m^^^Mg"v::;.''::'':<;;::;;::;;
2T 3T (e)

Figure 2.5. Histogram of wave propagation of two charged t r a n s m i s s i o n lines a n d a matched load. Light--Initial voltage, Medium--Resultant wave, and Dark--Propagating wave.

14 the output response of two lines of unequal impedance connected in series. Analytic Solution of Charged Transmission Line Equations The general solution of the charged transmission line equation was solved analytically. The equation was solved using Laplace

transform analysis (Ku 286). The first step in solving for the output pulse solutions of a charged transmission line began by determining the general solution of the line equations. transmission line is illustrated in Figure 2.6. R = resistance per unit length of line, L = inductance per unit length of line, G = conductance per unit length of line, C = capacitance per unit length of line (Ku 283).
i + 3i/3xAx !
;

A small section of Let


i ii

Ax

' v + 3v/3xAx

Figure 2.6. Small section of transmission line used to derive t h e general solution of a charged transmission line.

15 AIso, let "x" be measured from the sending end of the transmission Une. The voltage and current for an incremental

section of line, Ax, is expressed by

' x ^ = Ri + l H V
- g ^ = Gv+C5^Vx,
or -|=(Ri.lt) -=(Gv +c | ) .

(2.3a)
(2.3b)

(2.4a, (2.4b)

It is of importance to note that both the voltage, "v," and the current, "i," are a function of time, "t," and distance, "x." With v(0,x) and i(0,x) equal to zero, taking the Laplace transforms of equations (2.4a) and (2.4b) with respect to time, "t," gives
- ^ ^ = ( R + LS)I(S.X) (2.5)

- ^ ^ = (G + CS)V(S.X) .

(2.6)

Dlfferentiating equatlon (2.5) with respect to dlstance. "x," and substituting into equation (2.4) produces - ^ ^ = ( R . L S ) ^ = v 2 v ( S . x ) , (2.7)

where y^ = (R + LS)(G + CS) = ZY. The propagation constant for the line is y = a + jp. Note that for a "lossless" line (R=G=0), y = VZY

16 = V L C S = (38. Differentiating equation (2.6) with respect to "x" and substituting into equation (2.3) yields 3^I(S,x) r^ ^^^aV(S,x) orre ^ - ^^r~ = l ^ + ^^J~d^ = Y^I(S,x) o ft^ (2.8)

where Y=a+jP is the propagation constant of the line. The general solutions of equations (2.7) and (2.8) are of the form V(S,x) = AjeTx + B^e-TX I(S,x) = A^eTX + B^e-Yx . (2.9) (2.10)

For a charged transmission line the initial voltage is equal to E^ ever^rwhere on the line for time t = 0, that is,
V(0.X) = EQ.

(2.11)

Furthermore, the initial current flow at time t = 0 is zero, that is. i(o,x) = 0. (2.12)

Modifying equations (2.4a) and (2.4b) and taking the Laplace transforms gives ^ ^ T l ^ = SV(S,x) - v(0,x) = SV(S,x) - EQ (2.13)

: [ ^ ^ ]

= SI(S,X).

(2.14)

Equations (2.7) and (2.8) become ^^J^f'"'^ = 72v(S,x) - (R + LS)Cv(0,x) (2.15)

a | : X ) = , 2 i ( s . x ) . C ^ . Since v(0,x) is a constant, C " ^ ^ ^ ^ = 0. For a "lossless" transmission line, the line equations reduce to ^ ^ g l ^ = p2s2v(S,x) - p2SEo

(2.16)''

(2.17)

^^g^=p2s2l(S,x) . Equations (2.17) and (2.18) have the general solutions V(S,x) = A^e^Sx + B^e-J^Sx + ^

(2.18)

(2.19)

I(S,x) = - y ^ ^ - A i e ^ S x + B^e-J5SxJ .

(2.20)

Equations (2.19) and (2.20) are the general solutions of the "lossless," charged transmission line. The solutions to the circuits

in the following examples were obtained by using equations (2.19) and (2.20) and the boundary conditions associated with each circuit. Non-Ideal Voltage Source at Sending End of Transmission Line Ideally, a voltage source has no intemal resistance and, often is not considered in circuit analysis; however, ideal situations in general do not tell the complete story. For this reason the solution of the charged transmission line with a non-ideal voltage source is addressed. The solution of the network of Figure 2.7 should give

18 the reader some insight into the effects of the non-ideal

considerations.
Rs Zo

r-AAA^
x=0

;
Eo R
x=d

Figure 2.7. Non-ideal voltage source at sending end of a charged transmission line. The line in Figure 2.7 is a charged transmission line with a resistive load at the receiving end and a non-ideal source at the sending end. The switch at the receiving end is closed at t=0.

Letting the length of the transmission line be d, the following boundary conditions exist: V(0,x) = EQ, I(S,d) = 1(0,x) = 0. p , and (initially charged hne) (Ohm's law at the receiving end) (no initial current flow)

In order to solve the general transmission line equations (2.19) and (3.20), the boundary conditions at the sending end are required. Nodal analysis at the sending end yields:

5M^-^=I(S,0) .

(2.21)

19 By setting x=0 in equations (2.19) and (2.20) and substituting into equation (2.21), the following relation is obtained. n:5,uj - - 2 Q ^ i + ZO ^ l - S R S " RS R S " S R S
(2.22)

From equation (2.20), the relationship for A^ and B^ is given by

E-Eo
Ai =

/J_ J_^
(2.23)

SRs " ^ l Zo"^Rs

^- \^Rs Zo
I(S,d)R = V(S,d). From this B^ was

The other equation relating A ^ ^ to the network is found from the second boundary condition found to be ^+AieST^^+l Bi =
(2.24)

e-STfA.i
l^Zo

The coefficients A^^ and B^ were simplified by considering the case of a matched load (i.e., become: Eo ^l - " 2 e-sT S / Bi = (2.25) E-Eo SRx Zo
\

R=ZQ).

For a matched load,

A^ and B^

^ ZoJ Rx
Rx "^Z

Eo e-ST
y

(2.26)

^Rx

Substituting equations (2.25) and (2.26) into equation (2.19) and taking the inverse Laplace transform results in the time domain equation for the voltage seen across the load (i.e., v[t,d]).

20

v(t,d) = Eo

E - Eo

,, ^,

/ Zo - Rx \Eo

, ^^,

(2.27)

where u(t) is the unit step function. Figure 2.8 shows a plot of the receiving end voltage versus time for the case when E = E Q . AS the source resistance approaches zero, the output is that of an ideal voltage source at the sending end. Similarly, as the source resistance approaches infinity the output seen at the receiving end is that of a single charged transmission effect of

line. As a result of equation (2.27) and Figure 2.8, the

considering the source resistance is seen to have a significant effect on the output of the system.

v(t.d) Rs = 0 Eo -

l^
^

Rs = Zo

I
T

I
2T

^TJ^
Rs = 3T

Figure 2.8. Output response of charged transmission line with a non-ideal voltage source at the sending end and a matched load at the receiving end.

21 Char^ed Capacitor at Sending End of Transmission Line Information on the system response was acquired from the

solution of equations (2.19) and (2.20). The equations are solved for a charged transmission line connected to a charged capacitor at the sending end and a matched load at the receiving end (Figure 2.9).

Ro = Zo

x=0

x=d

Figure 2.9. Circuit used in calculating the output response of a charged transmission line. The circuit is composed of a charged transmission line connected between a matched resistive load and a charged capacitor, Figure 2.9. At t=0, the charged transmission line and capacitor combination is switched into the load. Letting the line

length be "d," the boundary conditions describing the circuit are V(0,x) = Eo ; I(S,d) = l(0,x) = 0 . p ; and (initially charged hne) (Ohm's law at the receiving end) (no initial current flow)

Another important boundary condition is the current at the sending end for all time t, (i.e., I[S,0]). The sending end current is found by

22 writing Kirchoff s Current Law resulting in the expression i(t.O) = - C ^ ^ ^ ^ . Taking the Laplace transform of equation (2.27) yields I(S,0) = -S C V(S,0) + C Vc . (2.29) (2.28)

I(S,0) and V(S,0) are found by setting x=0 in equations (2.19) and (2.20), respectively.

I(S,0) = ^IY^-A^ + ^l
Eo V(S,0) = Aj + B j + - ^ .

(2.30)
(2.31)

A relationship for A^ and B^ for this example is found by setting equation (2.29) equal to equation (2.30) and substituting equation (2.31) for V(S,0). (l/CZ-S)

^1= 7 7 7 7 ^+ 7s) 7^^1(i/cz

(2.32)

Setting the boundary condition of I(S,d) equal to equation (2.20) at x=d, A-j^ is found to be Ai=-||e-ST (2.33)

Substituting equations (2.31) and (2.32) into equation (2.19) with x=d, reduces equation (2.20) to Eo Eo / 1 1 \ oc'p V(S.d) = 2 S - ^ C 2 S ( S + l / C Z ) h ' ^ ^ ^ (2-34)

23

Taking the inverse Laplace transform of equation (2.34) obtains the time domain response of the output.
Eo Eo -(t-2T) ^

v(t.d) = -j-u^t) + -2" l2e cz . i) u(t-2T) .

(2.35)

Figure 2.10 shows the results of equation (2.35) plotted against time. Equation (2.34) was plotted for Z = 50Q, C = IF and T = .625 seconds. The output represents a tj^ical RC decay delayed by the

one-way transmission time of the line.

LC Section at Sending End of Line The capacitor in the previous example was replaced with a series inductor-capacitor combination (Figure 2.11) and the output

iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinmiMiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiimniimiiiiiiiiiiiiii 0.00 0.63 1.25 1.88 2.50 3.13 3.75 4.38 5.00 Time in microseconds

Figure 2.10. Plot generated using equation (2.4). Charged sending end capacitor. C = IF, T = 0.625 s e c , R = 50f.

24

H
VC: x=0

Zo Eo Ro = Zo

x=d

Figure 2.11. Circuit used in determining the output wave form of a charged transmission line.

was observed. AII the boundary conditions for the circuit of Figure 2.9 hold for the circuit of Figure 2.11 except for the relation at the receiving end current, I(S,0). Applying Kirchoff s Voltage Law around the sending end loop of circuit (2.11) results in the foUowing expression: - ^ ji(t)dt + L - ^ - Vc(0)j = V(t,0) . The Laplace transform of equation (2.28) produces
V(S,0) = - ( ^ . L S I ( S , 0 ) - ^ )

(2.36)

d(S,0) . rr^^rr^ r.. VC(0)A

(2.37)

As before, setting equation (2.30) equal to equation (2.37) and reducing yields

.^\ A i + B i = - ^ ( - A i + B i ) (n ^+ LS V "

(2.38)

25

Solving for A^ and B^ in equation (2.37) by substituting in the boundary relations given previously, yields
/

LC e-2ST , (2.39) S2 + Sf+T7. V L LCy for the voltage at the receiving end. For the critically damped case, taking the inverse Laplace transform ^nelds the solution in the time domain, ., ,. Eo Eo v(t,d) = "2" - " ^ l - ^ ( t - 2 T ) e '
. z(t-2T)x

Eo Eo V(S,d) = 2S 2S

S2-^

'^

u(t-2T)

(2.40)

Equation (2.40) is plotted against time and is shown in Figure 2.12. The values for Z, L, C, and T where chosen as 10 Q, 50 nH, 2 ^iF, and 10 |is, respectively.

It has been shown for the case of a charged transmission line with a matched load at one end that the output pulse is clearly dependent on the network at the sending end of the line. In

addition, when the line is terminated into an overmatched or undermatched load, the output is also affected. The solutions of

the boundaiy value equations were used to verify that the charged transmission line acts as a delay between the sending end network and the load.

26

10

20

30

40 50 60 Time in microseconds

100

Figure 2.12. Plot generated u s i n g e q u a t i o n (31). LC network at sending end of transmission line. L=50 ^iH, R = 10 Q, T=10 (isec, C=2 ^F and Eo=200 v.

CHAPTER

III

PULSE FORMING NETWORKS

The pulse forming network, PFN, is a lumped parameter equivalent of the transmission line. Pulse forming networks are An

composed of numerous stages of inductors and capacitors.

advantage of the PFN is the duration of the pulse which can be achieved. However, the PFN has one major disadvantage, the pulse shape. which Specifically, is governed the rise time of the PFN has a finite limit by the components characteristics.

Furthermore, the general shape of the pulse (i.e., overshoot ) is not desired (Cook, 4). The Tvpe 'C' Pulse Forming Network A transmission line can be modeled using a lumped parameter network with the disadvantage of its shape (Wilson, 13). A type 'C' PFN is illustrated in Figure 3.1. The type 'C' network is the

building block from which all the other networks are derived. The type 'C' network is comprised of several sections, each of which

represents a single term in the Fourier series of the pulse it is designed to simulate. For all pulse forming networks, the rise time of the output pulse is determined by the number of sections of the

27

28

PFN. The values for the inductances, L^^'s, and capacitances, Cj^'s. for the type 'C' PFN are determined from the Fourier coefficients, bj^'s, of the desired pulse shape. Table 3.1 gives the Fourier

coefficients, b^^'s and the L's and C's for a square, trapezoidal and flat topped pulse with parabolic rise and fall. In addition, Figure 3.2 shows how many sections are needed for a PFN to have a given rise time to pulse width ratio depending on its designed pulse shape.

Ll

L3

L5

Ln

Ci

C3

C5

Cn

Figure 3.1. Type 'C' network of n sections. The second Foster form. Three variables must be defined for use in Table 3.1. The

three variables are the characteristic impedance of the network, Z , the width of the pulse produced by the network, t. and the

ratios of the rise time of the pulse to the total pulse width, "a." From this information each element of the type 'C' network can be determined for any one of the three pulse shapes given in Table 3.1. Appendix A contains the computed values of these coefficients. It is noted here that the type 'C' network is equivalent to the Second Foster Form.

29

Table 3.1. Values of b^^'s L^^'s and Cj^'s for the type 'C' network of Figure 3.1 (Glasoe and Lebacqz, 192).
Wavform Rectangular bn's _4_ n L's Znt 4 Znt sin InTtaJ "\ nTia ) Cs 4 T n ^ Z n

Trapazoidal

4 ^sln (nTta) "^ nn \ nm. )

4 T sln(n7ta) rA^ Zn nca

Flat top a n d parabolic rise a n d fall

''sln (-5-)^
4.n7c) njia

,njia.s2

Znt
4 T

n7ta,s2 sin njca

The Tvpe 'A' Pulse Forming Network The Type 'A' network (Figure 3.3) is derived using Foster's Reactance Theorem (Glasoe and Lebacqz, 200). By writing the

admittance function for the network of Figure 3.1 and inverting, the equivalent impedance function, Z(s), is obtained,

f l (LnCnS' + "
Z(S) =
n=l

CnLn

(3.1) (LmCniS^ + 1) Only the odd harmonics are Partial

n=l

m=l5*n

where n = 1,3,5.... and m = 1,3,5

needed because the pulse was defined as an odd function.

fraction expansion of Z(s) results in the impedance function for the network shown in Figure 3.3. The partial fraction expansion of Z(S) can be written as

30
Square Pulse Shape

6 7 Numbar o( StagM

12

(a)
Parabolic Pulse Shape

Nunbar ol StagM

(b)
Trapazoldal Pulse Shape

Numb*r ol Stag**

(c)

Figure 3.2. Number of stages versus rise time of a PFN with a Square (a), Parabolic (b), and a trapezoidal pulse shape (c).

31
Cn L2 L4 L2n-1

1
C2

1
C4

1
C2n-1

-m

Ln

Figure 3.3. Equivalent Type 'A' network derived using Foster's Reactance Theorem.

2n-2

Zp(S) =

'o
n=2

BjjS^ + 1

+ A2nS .

(3.2)

where Zp(S) is the partial fraction expansion of Z(S). The Aj^'s and Bj^'s are the zeros and poles of equation (3.1). The values of Cjsj, L2n ^ d the fltering elements are given by
C]vj =

Ao'

(3.3a) (3.3b)
(3.3c)

^ n - -^^n
L^ = Aj^ and, B, n ^n-A

(3.3d)

The values of C^ and L^^ make up the fundamental component of the output pulse. The resulting output from this configuration is a pulse of finite rise and fall times. As before, the network of Figure 3.1 is determined by the Fourier coefficients of the desired wave shape. In fact, each

element can be determined by the following two formulas:

32

L n =r i t
Cn = H ^

^^'^^
(3.5)

where, n = number of sections Zn = PFN impedance t = pulse width bn = Fourier coefficients. Once the values of the network of Figure 3.1 are determined, the equivalent Type 'A' representation can be found. The Tvpe 'E' Pulse Forming Net^vork By using a combination of network synthesis techniques, the type 'E' PFN can be obtained from the type 'C'; however, in most cases the t^^e 'E' PFN is designed from an approximation method (Glasoe and Lebacqz, 204). The type 'E' PFN is desirable because of its simplicity and ease of construction. AII the capacitors of the

type 'E' are of equal value and the inductance of the PFN is obtained from a single solenoid. Since the type 'E' PFN was used as the

laboratory test system for this experiment, a detailed discussion on its design is given in Appendix B.

33 Other Types Of Pulse Forming Networks It was seen in the previous section that the type 'A' PFN was derived using Foster's Reactance Theorem on the impedance function of the network of Figure 3.1. Two more networks can be derived from this impedance function using Cauer's extension of Foster's reactance theorem. Both Cauer forms are characterized by ladder networks. The First Cauer Form, denoted as a type 'B'

network, is obtained from a continued fraction expansion of the impedance function of the network of Figure 3.1. The Second

Cauer Form, denoted as a type 'F' network, is formed by a continued fraction expansion of the admittance function of the same network. Both networks are conical, that is, they have the same number of elements (Figure 3.4). Figure 3.5 gives some useful ranges of forming

impedance and pulse width for five types of pulse networks.

34

-m
C2

Ll

L3

L5

Ln-1

C4

C6

Cn

(a)

Cl

C3

C5

Cn-1

\{
L2

X
X

r-\^
L4 L6

T
X.--

i
(b)

1 r

Ln

Figure 3.4. Equivalent networks derived by continued fraction expansion of the impedance and admittance functions of the network in Figure 3.2. The First Cauer Form or Type 'B' PFN (a). The Second Cauer Form or Type 'F' PFN.

35

5
T5

o
'O <u

CL,

o
T3
CL)

co X5 C o o co o
S-i

-0

c cu
(4-1

5
03

O co (U cn

6 S

co
(D

o co

p
lO CO

U4

srnno u aouBpaduii

CHAPTER

IV

SERIES CONNECTION OF A TRANSMISSION LINE WITH A PULSE FORMING NETWORK

A charged transmission line was connected between the pulse forming network and the load, and the output voltage response of the series PFN-transmission line combination was studied using SPICE. Variations include changes in series inductance and shunt capacitance. The results generated by SPICE were compared with the laboratory measurements. Although the series combination

was inferior to the hybrid network, the series work was useful for understanding the output behavior of a distributed network when it is connected to a circuit composed of lumped elements. The PFN was a nine-stage type 'E' GuiIIemin network

(Appendix B), which produced a 6-microsecond pulse into a matched load of 50 ohms. The transmission line was connected to the pulse forming network via a BNC coaxial connector. operating voltage of the system was 100 volts. The

The PFN and A

transmission line were resonantly charged at the same time.

mercury wetted relay was used as the switch. Figure 4.1 illustrates the circuit arrangement.

36

37

The system produced a poorly shaped pulse at the load. The output pulse had the fast rise time of the transmission line, but there was a discontinuity in the output pulse produced by the series combination of the PFN and transmission line. A SPICE plot of the
M M M M M M M M
Mercury Relay

-rCI-T-C - r C - r C - i - C -r-C -i-C

+ -i=C9

Transmission Line

rtL
0

J
Figure 4 . 1 . PFN and t r a n s mission line in series combination.

output pulse produced by the system is shown in Figure 4.2. The o u t p u t pulse had two distinct parts: first, the square pulse

produced by the transmission line; and second, the pulse formed by the PFN. The discontinuity in the output wave form appeared at the instant the transmission line pulse had subsided and the PFN began to discharge. Junction Filtering Junction filtering involves a change in a signal resulting from a change in a series system introduced at the interface between the system elements. Component changes here were made only at the

38
120

100o >

>
"O

a o

Tlme (microseconds)

Figure 4.2 SPICE generated o u t p u t of the series combination.

interface between the PFN and transmission line so that the initial rise time of the transmission line was not affected. Numerous LC

filtering procedures were investigated including parallel LC filters and LC Tee networks. In the use of LC flters, it was hoped that the glitch or discontinuity of the output pulse would be reduced or filtered to a desirable level, less than five percent of the designated output. The various filtering schemes were evaluated first through a SPICE simulation, then tuned with additional modeling. When a scheme appeared suitable, it was completed in the laboratory.

39 The LC filters were developed sequentially. The results of

inserting a series inductor between the PFN and transmission line were examined. Then a shunt capacitance was added to the series inductance and the output pulse was examined. A T-network was designed for adding a second series inductor. The effect on the

output of a single series capacitor, and for an uncharged shunt capacitor were then considered. Series Inductance In order to observe the varying effects of the output response of the system, the value of the series inductance between the PFN and transmission line, that is, the fnal inductance stage in the PFN, was varied in the SPICE model. The output response was observed for inductance values of 4, 6, 8, 10, and 16 microhenrys. The

effects (Figure 4.3) of reducing the inductance were: 1. An initial overshoot following the transmission line was

discharge became more pronounced as the inductance reduced; 2.

and as the inductance was reduced, the rise time of the

pulse foUowing the transmission line discharge became shorter. The discontinuity in Figure 4.3 between the two discharged pulses appears to be less prominent as the inductance is decreased; however, this effect is a result of the number of points plotted by SPICE. In actuality, the point of discontinuity between the pulses goes identically to zero. Similarly, if the rise time of a PFN pulse was observed, without the added transmission line, the viewer

40

would also see an increase in rise time of the output pulse as the end inductance was decreased.

160

140

120

100

80

80
*0

.
.

20

.,

0.51

0.88

0.98 Tlm* In MieroMcond*

1.11

Figure 4 . 3 . SPICE generated by varying inductance of the PFN, inductor. The plots inductance values of 4, and 16 microhenrys. Shunt Capacitance

output the end junction are for 6, 8, 10,

A s h u n t capacitor was added to the last stage of the pulse forming network on the output side of the final inductor. capacitor was varied in values of .5, 5, and 15 nanofarads. The Figure

4.4 shows the output pulse predicted by SPICE. Three effects were observed (Figure 4.4). 1. At time t=2T, the voltage overshoot decreased as the value

of the shunt capacitor was reduced.

41 2. The undershoot was increased as the value of capacitance

was reduced. 3. The time constant of the decay from the overshoot

increased as the capacitance was decreased.

200 j 180 -

L o a d V
0 I t a g e

160 140 -
1 2 0

100 -r 80 60 40 20 -

0
0

iiiniiiiiitiMiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimmiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
0.135 0.285 0.435 0.585 0.735 0.885 1.035 1.185 1.335 1.485 Tlme In Mlcroseconds

Figure 4.4. SPICE generated output pulses at the load. The curves are for .5, 5, and 15 nf variations in shunt capacitor. These can be partially explained by considering the magnitude of the capacitance. The overshoot in the current will be small if the capacitance is small; and for a given resistive load, the overshoot was decreased with a decrease in capacitance, that is, a smaller RC discharge time. Single T-Network By adding an additional inductor to the s h u n t capacitor, or

single T-network, it was hoped the glitch would become less

42

apparent.

The inductor was varied in values of 0.01, 1, and 10

microhenrys while the shunt capacitor was held at one nanofarad. AIso, the case where the shunt capacitor was five nanofarads and the inductor was 10 nanohenrys was plotted. The outputs are

shown in Figure 4.5. The effects of adding T-network were: 1. The overshoot at time t=2T decreased as the inductance

increased. 2. The undershoot decreased with an increase in T-network

capacitance. 3. The undershoot increased proportionally with an increase

in inductance. 4. The T-network, in general, decreases both the overshoot

and undershoot.

2 0 0 1180 .

L o a d V o I t a g e

160 140 - 120-" 100 - '


8 0

60 - 40 2 0 -

10)i<

miiitiiiiiititimmiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
0.15 0.3 0.45 0.6 0.75 0.9 1.05 1.2 Tlme In Microseconds

miiiiimi
1.35 1.5

Figure 4.5. SPICE generated output of T-network. Variations of 0.01, 1, and 10 microhenrys end inductance.

43 In effect, the added T-network accomplished the goal of adding another stage to the PFN. As expected, the pulse width of the PFN was slightly increased along with a faster rise time. Furthermore, as the rise time of the PFN was increased the discontinuity became less pronounced. Laboratory Results AII the measurements presented in this section of the report were made on the test system. The photographs were generated

with a Tektronix oscilloscope and one-megohm input amplifier. Voltages were measured with the Tektronix P-6006 probe. Shunt Capacitor The first effects to be tested in the lab were the change in shunt capacitance. As shown earlier with SPICE, the results had an initial voltage overshoot after the transmission line discharge foUowed by an exponential decay in voltage. In the laboratory, two cases were examined. First, with a s h u n t capacitance of one

nanofarad, then, with a 56-nanofarad capacitor. Case I With a one-nanofarad shunt capacitor,the output pulse (Figure 4.6) dissipated an initial overshoot with a fast decay following the transmission line discharge. At the end of the transmission line discharge, the output voltage jumps to 120 volts. One hundred and twenty nanoseconds later, the output voltage drops to 45 volts. Due

44

to the fast decay after the voltage overshoot, the PFN was unable to discharge completely.

Horizontal: Vertical:

200-nanoseconds 20 volts

Figure 4.6. Photograph of the load voltage pulse with a onenanofarad shunt capacitor.

Case II The shunt capacitor was replaced with a larger capacitor of value 56 nanofarads. By increasing the shunt capacitance, it was seen that the decay time following the peak overshoot also increased. The increase in the decay time allowed the PFN to The decay time was or approximately 550

reach its designed output, Figure 4.7. measured to be 700 nanoseconds,

nanoseconds slower than the rise time of the pulse forming network. Since the PFN was given enough time to discharge, the

45

undershoot

following the voltage overshoot did not

occur.

Furthermore, the increase in voltage following the transmission line discharge occurred as predicted.

Horizontal: Vertical:

200-nanoseconds 50 volts

Figure 4.7. Photograph of the load voltage pulse with a 56nanofarad shunt capacitor.

Single Tee Measurements for the Tee configuration were made for only one case, a shunt capacitance of one nanofarad and a series inductance of 4.5 microhenrys. Figure 4.8 shows the output voltage measured across the load. The observed characteristics were: 1. A fnite rise time reaching the peak overshoot following The rise time was measured at 40

transmission hne discharge. nanoseconds.

46 2. A smaller amount of voltage overshoot than the case of a

single shunt. The overshoot was 20 volts as compared to 30 volts for the shunt case. 3. 4. The same amount of voltage drop following the overshoot. The width of the discontinuity decreased from 340

nanoseconds, Figure 4.6. to 250 nano-seconds, Figure 4.8. The results were similar to those obtained in the SPICE simuIaUon except for the small amount of undershoot immediately following the discharge of the transmission line. The initial

u n d e r s h o o t was probably caused by the inductance of the transmission line switch connection.

Horizontal: Vertical:

200-nanoseconds 20 volts

Figure 4.8. Photograph of the load voltage with a onenanofarad shunt capacitor and a 4.5-microhenry series inductor.

47 Line Length Variations The length of the transmission line between the PFN and the load had a strong effect on the magnitude of the discontinuity.

Three different lengths of line were tested: 192 feet with a one-way travel time. T, of 288 nanoseconds; 400 feet with T = 600

nanoseconds; and 791 feet with T = 1.1875 microseconds. As the length of transmission line was increased, the undershoot of the discontinuity diminished. This was the result of losses in the line. Measurements, in this case, differed from the predictions of the SPICE simulation. Figures 4.9, 4.10, and 4.11 show the effects of lengthening the transmission line, and Table 4.1 summarizes the results of all the measurements.

Horizontal: Vertical:

200-nanoseconds 50 volts

Figure 4.9. Photograph of the load voltage v^th 192 feet of line, T=288 nanoseconds.

48

Horizontal: Vertical:

200-nanoseconds 50 volts

Figure 4.10. Photograph of the load voltage with 400 feet of line, T=600 nanoseconds.

Horizontal: Vertical:

200-nanoseconds 50 volts

Figure 4.11. Photograph of the load voltage with 791 feet of line, T= 1.1875 microseconds.

3
B B
^ JW
<TJ

co
c o
^ ^ ^
*M

.s> ^

.c

o o c 2

^ ^^

2
o o c

Cas eDescription
ly//

Conclusio
k_

Owi=
-

^
o

> o

CO

o
O

.2

'l- 3

in c

<D
^

E o
O

1O
^

^ ( o
O as

( i : "^ o -S

i S 2

CM

(0

> 6 ^

rsho Itpe
</)

.E fn
O =;
O)
<D

*"

le-nanofarad c;apacitor jntbetween PlFNand nsmis!sicn line -volt ders -volt

2 -

The 1 nf capa was to small t allow thePFN discharge

cn

o ^

^ lO
"D

(/) o

lounc
<D
<D

econ

o o .c </)

o o > > o 6 ^ ''' o ^

ir> n)

TJ LI_

T- - D

rsho Itpe
^

o ca

* "^

t-

(0

(t rt

m (f iz
T3

o
nl

nanof arad cap)acitor jntbe tween PlFNand nsmis!sion line


> o o
(f
ciS

The increase value gave Pi time to disch;

<D

(D

^l

'k.

JC

(0 O
O

5 -S^ O (Tt

^ T O T-

CM <fl

=r <fl o

< F J= o ^

= 2 ^

in c o ^ <J>

o ^ o ^ </) o ^

<D

O)

> 6 5

..

rsho Jtpe -volt ders -volt

econ peak

< D " ^ (0 \- ^ . c
C
(A O

e network, i-microhenry s luctance and a nofarad shunt


o o ^
(t c

The added T reduced the width

ns "c

y^ r f

O)

ecom

(fi T3

o C in 3

o o

-volt ders

< LU

CL

2feet of charged nsmis sion line betwee N and load


O ^

"O

(A O

o o ^

(T) C

(n

ecom

(0

"c
JC

^^ o o

c
C 3

-volt ders

o (0 uTf i : L
"c
C V J (TJ

Ofeet of charged nsmis sion line betwee Nandlload

o d"^

(TJ C

(n o c

</)

#-

econi
^^ o o .c

in c 3

(D B

1 feet of charged nsmis sion line betwee N and1 load

-volt ders

O) (0 Li. Pv. i : Q.

(A <D

The increase length reduce undershoot b increased los

49

CHAPTER V THE HYBRID NETWORK

In C h a p t e r

II the

distributed

parameter

network

was

introduced and it was shown that networks of this type can produce perfectly rectangular pulses into matched resistive loads. One disadvantage of the distributed parameter network, transmission line, or

was the excessive lengths of line needed to

produce pulses of only a veiy short duration (i.e., nanosecond pulse widths). Chapter III reviewed the lumped equivalent

representation of the transmission line, the PFN, and it was shown t h a t long pulse widths of hundreds of microseconds could be achieved with only a few LC sections. Again, however, the extended pulse width was gained at the expense of the pulse shape, more specifically, the rising and trailing edges. This chapter introduces a network which combines both previously mentioned networks. The extended pulse width of the PFN is combined with the fast rise time of the transmission line. The resulting pulse shape has the pulse width of a PFN and the rise time of a transmission line. The network is called the hybrid

network since it is a development of two dissimilar networks (i.e., the distributed and lumped parameter networks).

50

51 Parameters Affecting Pulse Shape The hybrid network is shown in Figure 5.1. The hybrid

network consists of a transmission line in parallel with a pulse forming network. Both networks are charged to the same voltage In general, the PFN

and then discharged into a resistive load.

impedance is matched to the impedance of the resistive load, Rj^. However, the impedamce of the line is chosen to be smaller than

that of the load so that its discharge response is analogous to an over-damped RLC network. A typical output response of the hybrid network is shown in Figure 5.2. The o u t p u t has three distinct features: the

instantaneous rise time, A, the initial overshoot, B, and the initial undershoot, C. lumped Furthermore, the characteristic pulse shape of a network is also noticeable (i.e., ripple).

parameter

Therefore, the desired pulse shape is achieved. Although a similar pulse shape can be obtained by using a capacitor as the last stage of a PFN, the initial overshoot will be the charged voltage of the capacitor (refer to Chapter IV). Upon

discharge this overshoot will be twice the voltage of the pulse delivered by the PFN. By using a transmission line, the impedance of the line can be varied thus changing the initial overshoot seen across the load. The interaction of the distributed network and the PFN is best described by looking at the outputs of each network. A typical

52
PFN Switch

-a

Tline

>

L o a d

Figure 5.1. The hybrid pulse forming network.

HYBRID DISCHARGE
200

150-

(9 (0

C7>

100-

>

T3 (0 O

50-

0-

-50'

'

10

Time in microseconds

Figure 5.2. SPICE generated output of the hybrid network.

53 response of a PFN discharged into a matched load Figure 5.3(a). is shown in

The pulse h a s a 500 n s rise time and a six

microsecond pulse width. Figure 5.3(b) shows the output response of a transmission line discharged into an overmatched load. The

pulse shape is characterized by an instantaneous rise time and an exponential decay. Although the pulse appears to decay

continuously, a closer look reveals that the pulse is formed by a stair step response. This is a typical response for an overmatched load. The width of each step is the two-way transit time of the

transmission line. There are two reasons for making the transmission line impedance smaller than the load resistance. First, in order to

counteract the shape of the PFN discharge, it was desired to have a pulse that decreased at the same rate as the PFN pulse increased. The decreasing pulse shape of the transmission line was produced by discharging a relatively low impedance line into a relatively high impedance load; therefore, the low impedance line was needed.

The effect of varying the line impedance on the discharge of the line is shown in Figure 5.4. In order for the initial voltage pulse

seen across the load to be dominated by the transmission line, the impedance of the line had to be small in comparison with the impedance of the PFN and the load. The second reason for the low line impedance is illustrated by looking at the resistive network in Figure 5.5. The network

consists of two voltage sources of impedances Rl and R2. The

54
PFN DISCHARGE
200

150 -

I >
O

100 -

Tine in microse(X)nds

(a)

TLINE DISCHARGE
200

150 -

<D

s
"3 >
C3

100 -

(0

Tine in microsends

(b) Figure 5.3. Typical o u t p u t responses for a PFN discharge into a matched load, (a), and a t r a n s m i s s i o n line discharged into an overmatched load, (b).

55

Line Decay Vs. Line Impedance


200

8>

o (0

100

0.00

0.25

1.50 Time in microsecon<Js

Figure 5.4. SPICE generated o u t p u t of t r a n s m i s s i o n line discharged into overmatched load where Zo is the impedance of the transmission line, and Ro is the resistance of the load.

II
Rl

12

Figure 5.5. Resistive network used to describe the need for a low impedance t r a n s m i s s i o n line.

56 voltage sources are connected in parallel to a resistive load of R ohms. Furthermore, the load is matched to the impedance of the (i.e., R = R2). The equation describing the

second voltage source

current through the load is given as


Tc _ p. f
R2 R^ ^ N _ ^.

' ^ - "^ |^R1R2 + R(R1+R2) " * " R1R2 + R(R1+R2)J-

^^'^^

The expression inside the parentheses on the left is the term due to II and the expression on the right is due to 12. impedance of the first source becomes small, Rl As the R2, the In a

current through the load is dominated by the current U.

similar manner, as the impedance of the transmission line is decreased, the output voltage is dominated by its discharge. A

significant difference in the circuit of Figure 5.5 and the hybrid network is t h a t the voltage sources correspond to charged capacitors. Therefore, the output response is governed by the

transmission line discharge until the voltage drops below the voltage produced by the PFN. At this point, the transmission line has little effect on the output response since the voltage on the line tracks the voltage across the load. There are two important effects to consider in the hybrid network: 1. The effects of variations in line impedance, Z^, have on

overall pulse shape. 2. The effects of variations in line length have on the primary of the o u t p u t pulse. These two effects were

undershoot

57 determined by modeling the network on SPICE. contains a SPICE listing of the circuit model. Impedance Considerations For The Hybrid Network Variations in the line impedance directly determines the amount of initial overshoot in the output pulse. Consider the Appendix C

voltage divider as shown in Figure 5.6. Although this is a purely resistive circuit, it is analogous to the initial voltage drop encountered by the hybrid network. The output voltage, Vo, is a function of the input voltage E by the following relation: Vo E 1 + Z^/Ro

(5.2)

where Z^ is the transmission line impedance and R^ is the load resistance.


Zo

A/W

4
Vin

Ro

4
Vo

Figure 5.6. Simple resistive voltage divider. By plotting this function as a percentage of initial overshoot for the output pulse, the initial overshoot can be determined for any value of ZQ and R^. Figure 5.7 shows the initial overshoot versus

58
C\J

OJ
^^ 0)
<

C J >

^ co ^"
h*.

X i-> c o ^ o N
(L>
Ui

(O

(D

O O

_ in _ "*
<D
-H

c
(0 O O

_ co
_ CVJ

^^ <D

--)
H-I

O
QJ <J

(0
_

o
C7>

o N o

'O (U

c c3
DH

O O (0 O

5
_

^ (U

00

co (U

D o
_ ht-l

(O

_ in
_
Tf

_ co
_

CM

looqs J9'^0%

Figure imped

.7. Per ce.


ID

vers loa
o o

>

o t-i T3

(L) --) > co 4-) ^ co o (U

c x:
cn <vi-H o o

c: cd

59 the impedance of the transmission line. As the line impedance

approaches zero, the initial overshoot approaches twice the output pulse voltage. This scenario is analogous to having a capacitor as the last stage of a PFN. In effect, as the impedance of the line is decreased, the line acts like a capacitor as described by the equation for the impedance of a lossless transmission line below. ' o - VC (5.3)

where L is the inductance per unit length of line and C is the capacitance per unit length of line. As Z^ is decreased, C becomes dominant in equation (5.3). Variations in line impedance also have an effect on the initial undershoot of the pulse as observed in the graph of Figure 5.8. This graph was generated by varying the impedance of the line in the SPICE model and observing the results. The family of curves are for various line lengths. It is seen from this data that as the line impedance is decreased, the initial undershoot is decreased. u s u a l , there is a trade off to be considered. As

As the initial

undershoot is decreased, by decreasing Z^, the initial overshoot is increased. Line Length Considerations In the previous section, two reasons were mentioned for having a small line impedance relative to the load resistance, namely, pulse shape and line discharge dominance. First, it was

60

(0

o c

o o c
(0

o o
(f>

o
T3

in

o in o (D m u)

in "^ o

o "^ o

in co c>

o co

n c\i

o
C\J

in o

in

o o

61 stated t h a t the decaying pulse shape of the line was needed to compensate for the increasing pulse shape of the PFN discharge. By varying the impedance of the line, the rate of decay could be

varied resulting in a variation in the overall output pulse shape. An alternate way in which the rate of decay of the line was changed was by changing the delay time of the transmission line (i.e^, the line length). This change in line length results in a change in decay by changing the length of each "stair step" of the pulse. Figure 5.9 shows a plot of a transmission line output and how the rate of decay is changed by altering the length of line. Although the initial overshoot wiU not be affected by varying the length of the line, there is a significant change in the initial undershoot of the output pulse. Figure 5.10 shows the effects of varying the length of line as a function of the initial undershoot. For a very short line, short delay time T^, relative to the rise time of the PFN, the undershoot approaches 100 %. On the other hand, if the PFN has a very fast rise time and is close to the delay time of the transmission line, the initial undershoot is very small. The

family of curves given in Figure 5.10 is for varying ratios of the PFN to the line impedances.

63
(U "^
.1.H

C'

V
-^

1-H

co
t-l

.S

t3

-a c
ct

l-<

o;
4-)
U H

JC V
1Q)

cent
u

Wher the lin


<D IH-I

o J

o o;

'r^ 4-)

s
>.

o
O

C u

-t-)

o; cn I.H
-M

cn H P * cn (D 1-1 o
>
- M -f-)

co O .p>H O c o; i-i co t-l <D'C 'O cti C o

1H

the
o
cd o; co

-t->
11

iz: 3H
DH
H-)

o;
PLH

o o;
(H-< (U CJ

o
i-H

OJL/Jl

Figure imped rise tii

lO C Cti

CHAPTER

VI

DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EVALUATION OFTHEHYBRID NETV^ORK

The PFN was a nine-stage type 'E' GuiIIemin network

which

produced a pulse of 6 microseconds into a matched load of 50 Q' The design of the PFN is given in Appendix B. The rise time of the pulse was 250-nanoseconds. The transmission line consisted of

fve 50 Q RG58-AU coaxial cables connected in parallel to form a 10 ohm line. The operating voltage of the system was 100 volts.

Resonant charging was used to charge both the PFN and the transmission line to 200 volts DC. A mercury wetted relay was used as the switch. Figure 6.1 shows the hybrid network as it was

constructed and a photo of the PFN. A BNC Jack, mounted on the end of the PFN (see Figure 6.1) allowed for quick connection of the switch box. The switch and The "switch

load were combined to form an independent unit.

box," the switch and load combination, also had a BNC mounting for easy connection to the PFN. The Pulse Forming Network The pulse forming network used in the experiment was a ninestage GuiIIemin type 'E' PFN. A schematic of the PFN is shown in

64

65

(a)

Solenoid .

Ground Plane

BNC Conector

Capactors

(b) Figure 6 . 1 . Picture of experimental pulse forming network, (a). Sketch of PFN illustrating special features, (b).

66

Figure 6.2. The PFN was designed to deliver a 6 microsecond pulse into a 50-ohm load. The PFN was physically composed of a single solenoid with nine 6.68-nanofarad capacitors tapped at appropriate points. A output pulse produced by the PFN is shown in the photograph of Figure 6.3, and the charging current of the system is shown in Figure 6.4.

Trlggcr Gcnerator Ml

5h

1N4(X)4

^M

hsjsO
Cl Powcr Supply 6.68nf

rtc\ wsc !.{l^ l A ivV ^ J rv\ m v^so

^M

,M.

,^

M9

WQ
C9

Wl N5m

Ci_

Figure 6.2. Schematic experimental type 'E' PFN.

of

A 42-cm piece of PVC pipe was used for the PFN core. core had an outside radius of 1.34 cm.

The

Eighty feet of 20-gauge Each of the

insulated copper wire was used for the core windings.

nine sections of the PFN core contained 28 t u r n s , with the exception of the ends, which had 32 turns (Gloasoe and Lebacqz, 205). The element values were measured using a vector impedance bridge Model HP-4815. Tables 6.1 and 6.2 list all the measured values of inductance and capacitance of the PFN. Mutual

inductances were calculated from the measured results and are

67

Horizontal: Vertical:

1-microsecond 50 volts

Figure 6.3. Photograph of output pulse of the PFN.

Horizontal: Vertical:

500-microsecond 50 volts

Figure 6.4. Photograph of charging current through a 32 viewing resistor.

68

Table 6.1. Values of capacitance measured at each stage of the PFN using a vector impedance bridge.
Element 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 Frequency MHz^ 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 Magnltucie ICI) 47.0 47.5 48.0 48.0 47.0 48.0 48.0 49.0 49.0 Angle dearees) 90" 90" 90" 90" 90" 90 90" 90" 90" Capacitance nF) 6.77 6.70 6.63 6.63 6.77 6.63 6.63 6.50 6.50 Reslstance mQ) 000.0 000.0 000.0 000.0 000.0 000.0 000.0 000.0 000.0

Table 6.2. Values of inductance measured at each stage of the PFN using a vector impedance bridge.
Element L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 L9 L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L4 L4-L5 L5-L6 L6-L7 L7-L8 L8-L9 Frequency MHz) 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 Magnitude IQ) 46.0 38.0 38.0 38.0 38.0 37.0 37.0 38.0 50.0 095.0 085.0 085.0 085.0 085.0 085.0 085.0 100.0 Angle dearees^ 90" 90" 89" 90 89" 89" 89" 89" 89" 90" 90" 90" 90" 90 90" 90" 90" Inductance Ivih) 14.6 12.1 12.1 12.1 12.1 1 1.8 11.8 12.1 15.9 30.2 27.1 27.1 27.1 27.1 27.1 27.1 31.8 Resistance ImQ) 00.0 00.0 00.7 00.0 00.7 00.6 00.6 00.7 00.9 00.0 00.0 00.0 00.0 00.0 00.0 00.0 00.0

69

given in Table 6.3. Appendix B contains additional information on the PFN design. PFN Char^inpr Resonant charging was used for initializing the PFN and transmission hne. Using an inductor as the charging element, resonant charging. has many useful advantages over other charging methods (i.e., efficiency). Three important criteria where met by

using the resonant charging scheme: 1. The same amount of energy was stored in the storage

elements for each pulse. 2. The charging inductor isolated the power supply from

the load during discharge of system. 3. And the resonant charging circuit maintained a high

efficiency, > 90% (Gloasoe and Lebacqz, 365).

Table 6.3. Calculated values of mutual inductance for each stage.


Element M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 Value 1 (^h) 14.6 12.1 12.1 12.1 12.1 11.8 11.8 12.1 Value 2
(^th)

12.1 12.1 12.1 12.1 11.8 11.8 12.1 15.9

Sum (Hh) 26.7 24.2 24.2 24.2 23.9 23.6 23.9 28.0

V1.V2 (Hh) 30.2 27.1 27.1 27.1 27.1 27.1 27.1 31.8

Mutual (^h) 01.8 01.4 01.4 01.4 01.6 01.8 01.6 01.9

Coupling Coefficent 0.13 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.13 0.15 0.13 0.14

70 A five-henry choke was used as the charging inductor. calculated time required to charge the system was The 1.8

miIIiseconds.S

The voltage across the charging inductor is shown

in Figure 6.5(b). The osciUations on the tail of the wave form are due to the stray capacitances formed between each turn of the inductor. Figure 6.5(b) shows the voltage measured at point A of Voltage oscillations are often present across the

Figure 6.5(a).

charging inductor of a pulse system and can cause unnecessaiy stress on adjacent components (Scoles, 1). The 'ringing" was Figure

damped out by placing a RC-snubber across the inductor.

6.6 shows the voltage at point A of Figure 6.5(a) before and after the snubber was implemented. Switching The switching element used on the original system was a mercuiy wetted relay. Bounce-free switching is obtained by means of a thin flm of mercuiy on the reeds; after the reeds make contact and begin to bounce. a thin thread of mercury is drawn and m a i n t a i n s electrical contact. The mercury wetted relay is

appropriate for testing at low voltages, 100 volts or less. The relay was triggered by a 10 millisecond square pulse of 10 volts produced by a Data Dynamics Model 5105 pulse generator.

The charging time of the system was calculated using T=7CVLC where L is the charging inductance and C is th PFN capacitance.

71
5h

rm mU -"'""
Power Supply "Hybrid" Network

(a)

Horizontal: Vertical: (b)

500-microsecond 50 volts

Figure 6.5. Charging circuit (a). Photograph of charging voltage across charging inductor.

72

Horizontal: Vertical: (a)

>200-nanosecond 50 volts

Horizontal: Vertical: (b)

>200-nanosecond 50 volts

Figure 6.6. Charging inductor wave form before (a) and after (b) the use of a RC-snubber.

73 The Transmission Line The transmission line for the hybrid network was constructed by placing five 50n, RG58-AU coaxial cables in parallel. Each line

was 20 feet long, initially, and had a one-way travel time of 30 nanoseconds. The line was discharged into a 51 Q load and the The line was resistively

output pulse is shown in Figure 6.7.

charged with a 10 MQ resistor. The charging time of the line was approximately microamps. Comparing Figure 6.7 with Figure 5.3, it is seen that the SPICE generated output of the undermatched transmission line discharge and the laboratory measurements are congruent. The initial 135 ms with a peak charging current of 20

overshoot of the transmission line can be determined using the graph of Figure 5.7 for a line impedance of 2^=10 Q. and a load resistance R Q = 5 1 Cl. A small amount of loop inductance is formed between the transmission line/PFN and the load. This inductance is due to the geometry of the loop formed between the PFN, switch, and the load. The loop inductance was calculated to be 648 nanohenrys. In the ideal case, the transmission line would deliver a pulse of instantaneous rise time; however, this rise time was limited by the inductance formed by the discharge loop. This loop inductance

also accounts for any minor discrepancies in the graphs given in Chapter V.

74

Horizontal: Vertical: (a)

2-microsecond 50 volts

Horizontal: Vertical: (b)

100-nanosecond 50 volts

Figure 6.7. Photographs of transmission line output.

75 Evaluation of the Hvbrid Network The transmission line and PFN previously described were combined to form the hybrid pulse forming network. In Chapter V the graphs of the initial overshoot versus line impedance, Figure

4.7, and the initial undershoot versus line impedance, Figure 4.8, were verifed in the laboratory for the cases given in Table 6.4. The impedance of the line was changed by disconnecting one of the coaxial cables which made up the transmission line; in addition, the delay time of the line was changed by shortening the length of line. There were only minor discrepancies in the laboratory

measurements and the data obtained with SPICE. As mentioned before, the major reason for this disagreement was due to the discharge loop inductance which was not accounted for in the SPICE models. Overall, however, the results were within a few as

percent of the modeled data and the circuit performed expected.

For a line impedance of 2^=10 Q and a load resistance of 50f, the graph of Figure 5.7 yields a 65 % overshoot. Figure 6.8 shows the output of a 10 2 line with a delay of 30 nanoseconds which is an equivalent case; furthermore, looking at the photograph, it is seen that the overshoot is measured to be approximately 64 %. In addition to the initial overshoot of the system being predicted, the initial undershoot was also found to correspond to the graph of Figure 5.8.

IQ

Observing that the rise time, T^., of the PFN discharge. Figure 6.3, is approximately 280 nanoseconds, and the line delay, T^, is 30 nanoseconds, Figure 5.8 yields a fundamental undershoot

between 20 % and 30 %. Measuring the undershoot of Figure 6.8 gives a value of approximately 25 % which is within the percentage given by the graph. Data measured in the laboratoiy is summarized in Table 6.4.

Table 6.4. Table showing parameter changes for each test case and the laboratory measurements.

Case Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Line Impedancc (ohms) 10.0 12.5 16.6 25.0 10.0 12.5 16.6 25.0 10.0 10.0

Line Length (feet) 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 10.0 5.0

Line Capacitance* (pF) 600.0 600.0 600.0 600.0 450.0 450.0 450^0 450.0 300.0 150.0

Delay Time* (nS) 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 22.5 22.5 22.5 22.5 15.0 7.5

Undershoot (percent) 30.0 35.0 40.0 55.0 25.0 30.0 40.0 55.0 45.0 55.0

Overshoot (p)ercent) 70.0 55.0 45.0 30.0 70.0 60.0 50.0 35.0 70.0 40.0

* Based on 1 .5 ns/FL and 30 pF/Ft. or ^ 6 ^ - A / U coaxial cable.

77

Horizontal: Vertical: (a)

1-microsecond 50 volts

Horizontal: Vertical: (b)

200-nanoseconds 50 volts

Figure 6.8. Photographs of hybrid network output voltage for a line delay of d=30 ns and a line impedance of Zo=10f.

CHAPTER

VII

CONCLUSION

The prediction of the SPICE simulations, although similar to the experimental results, did not correspond exactly. The

differences were probably caused by unknown discharge loop inductance and other strays in the system which cannot easily be taken into account in the simulations. It is clear from the results of the series arrangement that a successful combination is possible; however, no junction filtering h a s a significant effect on the simulation. The parallel, or hybrid. arrangement is consistently Although no direct method for completely

more successful.

eliminating the discontinuity was observed, even with the hybrid network, its magnitude was reduced by changing the impedance of the line. Increasing the number of stages of the PFN reduced the initial undershoot. If the rise time of the PFN could be made equal to the rise time of the transmission line, the undershoot would be eliminated; however, in this case. the transmission line would not be needed. There are some disadvantages to the hybrid circuit. There is an undesirable initial overshoot; also, the impedance of the line

78

79 m u s t be less than that of the load, which for extremely low impedance loads, results in impractical line characteristics. More work is required to reduce the initial overshoot and undershoot. This might be achieved by placing a resistor in series with the transmission line, although this is not desirable because of unwanted power losses. Additional calculations involving the

mathematics of the lumped and distributed parameter network response should be performed.

REFERENCES

Cook, Edward Guy, Pulse Forming Network Investlgation. Texas Tech University, 1975. Glasoe, G. N. and Lebacqz, J. V., Pulse Generators. Dover Publications, I n c , 1984.

Lubbock: New York:

Javid, Mansour, Analvsis. Transmission. and Filtering of Signals. New York: McGraw-HiII Book Company, 1963. Ku, Y.H.. Transient Circuit Analysis. Princeton, New Jersey: D. Van Nostrand Company. I n c . 1961. Scoles. G. J.. The Reduction of Unwanted OsciIIations (Ringing) in Charging Inductors and Power T r a n s f o r m e r s . lEEE Conference Records of the 12th power Modulator Symposia: State University of New York at Buffalo. 1976. SkiIIing. H. H. . Transient Electric Currents. HiII Book Company, 1952. New York: McGraw-

Wilson, Dale G. , Pulser Design And Performance For An Electron Beam Gun. Lubbock: Texas Tech University, 1977.

80

APPENDIX A FOURIER COEFFICIENTS

81

82
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Tj- o S o in o ^ C V J o o o co o ^ CO O TT O O O o C Dp P o o o P <D ci> p o d o


0 0 " ^ "^ ^

o co o ^ O l O o C O o Sii o C M o o o o o o o o o P o o d d d 9 d d

o OJ O C7) O r^ o l O o ^ o C\J O T - O o o J^ o o o o o O o o o o o o o o o O o o o P d d d d d d d d d o
y 1 1

o co o o o o o d d

CO CVJ

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O 00 o> C OC V J "^tJG 2 00 CO T t CO 5 Tco o r- g o o o O o o o p p o o o O o d Cli O <D o <D 9 9 o ^ ^ Tf o d c^ cvj i'' o d -^ "-ro d oj c3 -^ o d ^ "^ r: P o S 25 S P o ^ S o p p 2 "^ J^ P o 00 <^ o o o iG 2 S p d co r^ o o o o o o d d o
^ ^

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1 1

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y -

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1

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1

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1

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ct

< 7 > 00 c\j cv ^ "^ o o d d Tir^ 00 o d


^ ^

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1

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1

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1

o o o o d
Tt
T

CO T -

co o o d
1

T - 00

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lO CM

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1

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S f^ i ^ S co TO o T-

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C O 00 co Csl l O h- Csl ^ CO 0 0 r*. co co lo co l O ^ o o p o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o d d o o d d d d d d d d d


1 1 1 1 1

to r^ <o r^

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1

"^ oo co "^ c o o o d d "^ lO o o d


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Tjm To

^ 0 0 r*. co lo o o " ^ C\J " ^ T - <3> " ^ C\J l O co C3> o r^ o co CO i r S^ C\J T - O o r- T - o o O T- o P P o o o o o o o o O o o <^ <^ <5 c> d d d d d d d d d g l ^ CO CvJ
1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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1

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T

o ^ 00 r^ o o o o d d
y ~ y

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T

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Ui

c
JO

o> .o

TyC\l t^ C<4 m o"S. T t CO C\J 0 0 l O co CO - 0 0 " ^ T - " C\J t - ip- o o o P o d CD d <:> <D <^<5

co l O 0 0 0 0 l O 0 0 C3> o lo g o co r^ co l O CsJ 0> C\J CO C\J "*!' ^ o 2 2 O P o o o o o o o o O o o d d d 9 o o d d d <^ <^ d d


"^ O
CJ>
1 1 1 1 1

r^ 00

r^

co r*^ o o d
1

"^ C O 00 t 00 o o o o o o d d d
1

o o o d

r^

- co ir> CD o> C O r^ l o co
T- T- T-

<D

co o> c\j fs. T- co co co o co co o 1- o o S S d o d

O o* '^ o o

O TlO co C r^ o> 2 C3> ^ CO CO C\l o o o o d d d d


1 1 1

o r^ To d
1

to r*. co 0 0 r*. o o o o o d d d
| N .

s J r^ co < 3 > ^ C C M oj CJ> CJ co C\J C J o o o o o o d d d d d


T T
ip

r^ l o co lo - l O CO "^ ^T ^~ T o o o o o d d d d
1 1 1

<

co .o

< 3 > TC M ^

-^ "^ ^ o> < 3 > co c\j

C\J C M O ^*

CO lO 00 CO

C O lO -^ C J > C O Q CO co

ci <6 d <5 d d d
* X3

'<" C\J r*<. c\j

d d d d o o d d o o o o o o o 1 OC O lO ^ co o co co <3> ^ co co co co co 0 0 T^^ o> ^ co C Tj- ^ lO C J > C\J C OC M o co "^ co co l O C\J CJ> " ^ 0 0 ^ co O C\J o <3> r^ lo co ^- o> C O "<^ 1 - CJ> co co l o l o "^ C o r>. ^ T ^ cy c\j c\j cy CJ C\J C\J p p p p CJ> C3> C3> <3> 0 0 d d d d d
1 1 1 1 T T T -

to

c\j ^
O

co 00 o
O
T-

c\j ^
TT -

<D O

<D <5 d d c> d d

3115 2809 2482 2141 1794 1446 1104 0775 0464 0176 .0083 .0311 .0505 .0662 .0782 .0864 .0910 .0922 .0901
o
1

m .o

lo Q o C\J

c\i 00 co C\J

co 00 t C\J

c> d <D d d

s J o CJ> r^ l O f - "^ 00 r*. "^ r- o CJ CO l O C r^ ^ l o r> co 00 0 0 CsJ CsJ C\J C\J 00 co o> r. C\J o> o l O ^ 00 co co o CM CsJ CO CO C3> l O C\Jo C\J C O lO l O l O ^ C O C s J o o> C O C\J t - ".- T- o o o o o o o o o <5 o o o o o o o o o

d d d d
1

d d d d d
1 1 1 1

d d d d d d d
1 1

o
1

"""j- T 00 00

r^ co C M o

CO 00
T ^

CM T f CO 0 0 CVJ C\J C\J C\J CM

d d d d

O 00 o o CsJ " ^ CO 0 0 o CM ' t C co co co co co T t "^ "^ "^. "^ l O d d d d d d d d d d d

83
to
CsJ .O

^ ?S 2S ^S S2 2 2 iQ o o2 co oo cM " ' jp 'C Mo oo -ro - co o^ O To - co j -o . -o p "p ^ S ^ S ^ 2 2 o o p o p S ? p ^ S oo oo oo oo oo o o o p p p 2 pS p 2 p 2 p2 oo oo oo o oo oo ooooooo oo o ooodddddddddddddddddddddd


??;Z^S2ifi^Si:'^^*52^'^*50"t-CMCsl^0"-CMt-

co
CM .O

?^8S888888888888888888888

$N?SS22

: $ 2 O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O

<D

.O

a
<f
C3> JO

SRS}5Sii22S2'*S^r:ooT-h;.cjocoioiocsjO"-cococM

ooooodddddddddddddddddddd rul^SS?;^. S^S^:::S9oiopi--^iocjo-.-cocji-OTC \ J C J C O C ^ O C M C M ^ p O O ^ - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 r 5 S ; 2 2 2 2 2 o o o o o o a o o o o o a o o o o p p p p p p p p o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o ooddddddddddddddddddddddd

3 a
o
^

i 5 2 i ; 2 2 o p p o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o p p p p p p p p p p p o p p o o o o o o o o o o o ooddddddddddddddddddddddd
0 0 0 0 > T - C M O ^ C O C O ^ - O O O T - ^ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

p O O > l O O O C M C M f - 0 0 0 ^ - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

05ir-rs.cMor^"^CMr^coococMf-co^.-ococococooocM .o

'o
cd

p ipopc p MpTp- p o o po oo o o oo oo o p po po po o ooopo p oo oo oo o ooooo o ddddddddddddddddddddddddd


OOlO^5fcOCOOCMT-r-OOlOO>T-CMOO^tCOOOCMOCMlOr^COCO 0 0 C M ^ - ^ - r ^ i - O C M C 0 C 0 C s J O O O O T - T - O O O O O O O O r ^ C O ^ t C M O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O

Fourier Coeffcients

lO
T

.o
co

03
t-l

p p p p p p p p p p p p p p o o o o p o o o o o o ddddddddddddddddddddddddd

C
<D

p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p o o o o p ddddddddddddddddddddddddd
JQ

C0O00C0C0C00>T-0>00C00>"<t<7>T-T-00T-C0C0r^CMOT-lO C M O O r ^ C O O O C O O O T - C O ^ C O C M O O O O - r - 1 - i - O O O O O C 3 > r ^ l O C O ^ > - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

O O O
l-i

i-o>r^iococMOOooo<)0<r>ooooooooooo T - ^ p p o o p p p o o o o p o o o o o o o o o o o o ddddddddddddddddddddddddd

CMtOOOlOOOI^r>*-r-00>OOOlO<3>^^OOlOOCsJOOlOC3>00'tOO - 0 0 < 3 > O O r ^ O O O C M O O C O ^ l O ^ C O i - O O O O T - t - t - T - 0

c
csi
<

<3> X3

hococoT-^^5itc3>r>-ooor>.oocMr^i-r^T-ioioocMr^^^ r^r^oocj>oo<Dcocoi-oocMTj-<ococoTtcoi-oooo^.C O C M i - < J > C O T t C O T - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 T - ; - r - i - p p P P P P p p P P P p p P P P p O O O O p

ddddddddddddddddddddddddd
.o oioocO"^or^r^T-cocoi-i^^.-TfOi-Csjr"*ioiococor.o o>orcj>c3>oocococj>"^cocoi-oocM"^cor^oooor^cO"^co r^r^iocOT-cj>r*.iococMi-oooooooooooooo i-;T-T-T--r.;pppppOOppOOOOpOOOOOO
CO"TtCO<3>T-COCM<J>COCMCMOOlOlOCJ>CJ>"^Or*OCOOOCMCO CMcococMcor^^r-io-^coco^^oo^cMcor^coooocMTrcooo
1 0 " ^ C O C M O O O C O " ^ C M O O O C O " ^ C O C M T - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

ddddddddddddddddddddddddd

lO

.o co .o

C M C M C M C M C M i - T - - r - i - - , - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

ddddddddddddddddddddddddd
CM-^CMr^o>i-cooo<j>r^cor^cor-.cMc3>CMCMi-ocooooocsjCM CO<J>CO"^COi-CO<J>i-CMCMT-OOOr*lOlOlOCOOOi-lOi-C3>00 Csji-i-ocj>oocO"^cOT-c?>r^iocMooocO"^CMOc7>r^co^co "^"^"^"^C0C0C0C0C0C0CMCMCMCMCMT-i--r-T-;T-OOOOO

ddddddddddddddddddddddddd
oocoiocooocMcor^r^cj>Tti-ocMr^cor^csjococj>oioioo

B
C O

CSJI-<J>COCM00CMCO<J>I-C0"^^C0T-CJ>COC0CJ>"^00C0COO>CM

r^r<.cococoioiO"^cococsji-o<j>oocoiOTfCMi-cj>oocO'^co
C M C M C M C M C M C M C S J C M C M C M C M C M C M T - T - T - I - I - T - T - 0 0 0 0 0

Ca5COOOOCM"tCOOOOCM"tCOOOOCM"^COOOOCsJ"^COOOO p p p p i - ; T - i - i - - , - C s J C M C M C M C M C O C O C O C O C O ' ' t " ' t " ' t " ^ , "^IO

ddddddddddddddddddddddddd

84
pC3>0>0>0>CJ>CJ>0>CJ>0>CJ>0>C3>CJ>0>0>(7>0>0>0>0>0>0>0>0>

lO CM

9 2 2 P P o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o lOlOlOlOlOlOlOOlOlOlOlOlOlOlOlOlOlOlOlOlOlOlOlOlO p p p p p p p p p p p o o o o o o o o o o p p p p d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d

CO CM

CM

C 3 >

3
o

ioo o i o o i o i o i o l o o S S i S i o S i S S i i o i i o i o i o iQiQ'2y2"^^''^^''^''^'^^ioioioioioioioioioiooioio p p p p p p p p p p p o o p p o o o o p p o p p p ddddddddddddddddddddddddd cococococococococococococococococococococococococo o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o cocococococococococococococococococococpcococococo p p p p p p o p p o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o r^r..r.r"*r^r^r>.r.r'^r^h*r.r^r..r^r^r^r^r".r"*r>.r*.r'*r^r*. cococococococococococococococococococococococococo p p p p p p p o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o p p ddddddddddddddddddddddddd rs.rr^r>.r^r"..r-r^i^h*r.r*-.r">i^r^r.r^r^r^r^r^r-.r-.r*^r^ o p p o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o p o o o o d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d


0)0)0)0)0)0)OiOiOiOiOiOiO)OiOiO)OiO)0)OiOiO)0)0)0) 0>0)0)OiO>0)OiOiO)0)OiO>OiO)OiO)OiOiO>OiOiOiOiOyOi ^ ^ " ^ T r " ^ ^ ^ " ^ ^ " ^ " ^ - ^ ^ " ^ " ^ " ^ ^ ^ " ^ " ^ " ^ " ^ " ^ " ^ " ^ " ^

r>.

2
Fourier Coefficients
lO

cr
co
u
(D

coobobaocbcb^wobmwwobobcomco^ooobcboboocbab o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o p p o o o o ddddddddddddddddddddddddd r^r^r^r^rN.r^(^iv.r.*r"..r>.r>.r^r..r^r^r.^rs.r^r.r..r^r-r-r-. 0>0>0>0>0>0>0>CJ>0>C3>CJ>0>0>0>0>0>0>0>C7>0>0>C3>0>0>0> o p p o o o o p p o o o o p p o p o o p p p o p p d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d f>.*r^r^r^r^r^r>.r-r-r-r"-r-r-.r.r-r.r^r^r.r-r-r^r-r^r^ loioioioioioioioioioioioioioioioioioioioioioioioio o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o loioioioioioioioioioioioioioioioioioioioioioioioio


" T t ' ^ ' ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ' ^ ' ^ t ^ " ^ ^ ' ^ " ^ " ^ " ^ " ^ " ^ ^ " ^ " ^ ^ " ^ " ^
0)0)0)0)0)0)0)0)0)0)0)0)0)0)CDO)0)0)<y>0)0)0)0)0)0)

co
T

c
<D
4

J2

o
<D O O

J3

c
o

U O

C 3 >

ddddddddddddddddddddddddd
O)0)O)0)0)0)0)0)0iOi0i0iO>O><yi0i0i0i<3)Oi0iOiO)0)0)

r^co
< JO
JO

OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO

ddddddddddddddddddddddddd
COCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCDCOCOCOCOCOCDCO

lO J3

i^ioioioioioioioioioioioioioioloioioioioioioioioio
CMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCsJCMCMCMCMCsJCMCMCMCMCVJCMCMCMCMCM

ddddddddddddddddddddddddd
co
.Q y t ' T t r r r t r t T r r t r t - i t r t - ^ r t - ^ r t T r r t T t r t r t r t - ^ r t r t ^ ' ^ r t ' ^ ' ^ - ^ - ^ r t r t ' ^ r t - ^ r t r t ' ^ ' ^ ' ^ r t r t T t T t r t ' ^ T t r t r t r t
CMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCM ^ . " ^ "^. " ^ "^. " ^ " ^ " ^ "^. "^. "^ " ^ " ^ "^. "^. "^ "^. ^ "^. "^. "^. "^. " ^ "^. "^

ddddddddddddddddddddddddd
^^
CMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCM COCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCO

r-r'^r^r>.r-.r>.r"-r.^-r^r^r'.r^r^r-r-r^r^r*-r>-r*-r"-r^t^rCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCSJCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCM

C O

o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o p p p p p p p o o o p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d

85

5 S 5 0 o S ' O o O ' O o O ' " O o S ' S n O ' O o

C25

O.Sf^..OC\jOcvjOCVjOpjofyjOCVJoCsJgcgopjO

o^cof?". >co>>'ro^eonr>'*'cy^<j-cvjco^
O C N J T ' O O C M ' ' ^ ' ' ' C O ' ' ' C N J C N J " ' " * ' ' ' ^

C21

C19

C17

C15

Capacltor Values

C13

C11

CJ>

u> O

co O

0.00053 6.6E-05 -0.0002 -6E-05 8.6E-05 6E-05 -5E-05 -6E-05 2.5E-05 5E-05 -9E-06 -4E-05 -3E-06 3.7E-05 1.1E-05 -3E-05 -2E-05 2.3E-05 2E-05 -2E-05 -2E-05 8.9E-06 2.2E-05 -3E-06 -2E-05
^^gSgS^ginu>gg>tf>u>gginu>>gginu>gg
O O o o 0 O o O O o o o O O o Q o O O o o O O

C23

ooooUJomi^u^mmu^L^u^iyiiii^uJi^miyij^ujLLJUJ 9 9oo'"?oc3)Sin^o>r.inSj=0'*. w-^osjf^cvjo*^


O O T . < O T - ' ' rt \f ' 'COCO' ' O ^ ' h.CNJ

r ^ e N j ^ c v j C v j c v j _ ^ u > u > u > , _ , , - , i n u > n u - , - . , n U > ^ ir, ir, O o S S o 5 S o O o O O O o o < 3 0 0 o o o O g o o

ooiLooujijUjmuJi^i^iiJiiJUJujiiiujU|i^uJiij c J d T T ' d c b ' T ' " ^ ^ - ^ ^ ' '--u>csj' ' ' c o " ' '

! ^ n ' S ? i S ^ ^ " ? ; ^ o o o ' " ' " o o o ' ' ' " o o
^ o O O O C D - - o O o O O O o o o O O O o o o O O

oouJooi^oouJuJliJiiiiiJmujuJJiiJiiJujujuJiJiii o o o x S ^ . 9 0 r > 2 a > f ^ q ' * . cu>'^o>Oco)co>? o o ' ' ' C i o o ' ' ' c j o > > ' ' ' c v j < o r > ' 'CNJW
'"'^MCO^CaU^COf"-. T-CVJirt <^ ir\y-in<-\^*^^inin

!^SS5SS5gSog^999gS
O O O V T T C O O O

/-^ o o o _j

r*. o o

. 00

r.

,' o

1 i^" _; _;

r*.cocNj

^SgggggSS::gSggggJg55Ss

S52ii^SSii2S!4i 222^99952 dd^^^^SSSS'^oo^ss


O)oocvju>(^|.^r^.^^oocor>-<)^cococuu>"*j?, ^ ' " u > c \ ' c ^ or>"^r"*ooooS^2S2:::;ooooo;;?i??;ooo c o c v j ^ O o o o o 9 o o o o O o o o 9 o o o o V o o
O O O O O O O O U J O O O O U J O O O U J O O O O U J O O

o o o o ^ ^ . ^ c o o o o o o > o - ^ d 9 S 2 d d ' ^ o o O O O O ' ' " ' o o o o o o o o


"*

^l*'''"*CJ>r-C3>U>ir>S<)S2S2cj"*COU>"^COu>*''mm

r ^ " * c 3 > v : u > 5 o T - o o o S 2 o S o o O o o o o S 2


^ O C J S O o O O O O ^ O g O O g O Q Q Q Q C o O O

o o o o 5 o o o o u j o g o o g i u o o o o u j o o o T - " r i . . c a " *.^ r .o 0)u> cor^ coo ocv co S 2 2o ^l 2 'o ^ c \ ' ' ~, "'- < o ^j 2 ^ o = O CoJ 'O - > d O Uo > - -o 5 o :o ^ ' Uv T ^ o O O 2 Oo 0 ^ 0 O O U >oT - " O O O O c o rO - cO D ^ o o o o O g ^' j '- o o o o oo oo oo O ' ^' c 'o i -' o ' o o O Oo O o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o g o o o o o o o o o o c D o o o o O " ^ . ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ o P o p o o o ^ ^ ^ ^
O O O O O O O ' ' O ^ O O O O O ' ' O ' O . O i n O . O O . u > o o o

u - .c cjs ii .. o-o c)o o^ )" ru >o cr a> ur >> " -ro "* >f ^ 5S mo oo o O> >r^ > cs jc c> ojO rp s> . r^ ^e jc c o c- ju "> ^ io i :o o :; o

?22!gS5uJujo55SS
o o 0 q 0 o 0 o 0 q 0 o0 q0 o< c0 ^ i ^ ^ ^ ^ - ^ o 0 0 ^ d d ^ S oS oS o d o d o r*-i^t.oou>co<)-,'*'^*^'*'^^^C::o)r>^^r>cjf^oo> rs.o><Doo<oooS;cor.ocor-c\J500or>u>rooo)0>0)c:) ^r>c\jooo<>coSco^o*'^'^"^'^ooo2ooooo ^^^^cor)r>ScNJCsji--'-T-oooooo'-'. o o o o o o o ci^ <:> oo o'^ oo oo <:>, o <:>.<:>. ^ d 9 d o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o ^ ' e j\ c )r ur >^ uc > ^ c^ o r> ^-^ o ^o o r o *^ >N " 'j'< (o '> Zo ^o ?c ,S ^ o\ c ia oc ojo <> > o ^ O ' r.o 0< ) 'D ^u> >S Su jC r? ."u j c? .J O u>^^CNji-oou>c\Joo^*0)cor^S''''^oi;'*u><or^oooocooo ooooc3>C3><3)OOOoi^r^<oS;r>'"'i^CNj]-oo>c\ir-<pu>
* ^ ^_ ^_ CO CO CO CO r > CO CO ^ Q CO CO ^ CO CO CO CNJ Q

CNJ CVJ CNJ

ocicicicicici^
(B

d d o d d o o

o o o

CVJ^<D00OCVJ^<000OCiJ<4'<OC0OCg^(J900OC\J^<0C0O OOOO'-'--.-'-f-CNJCNJCNJCNJCMr>C0C0C0C0^^'*^^'*'^U> O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O

86

927 .4E+15 781 +15 1.9 635

1429

1509

588

2.7 489

U)

U)

U)
UJ CM
1

U)

_l

U) CNJ

+
UJ

CO

d <o
u >
L23
1

^ <o

UJ

Ul u > Ul <o co 1 < o c o 1

Ul o <o 1 U)

ut
(O 1

(O

+ ut
^

7.4 613
t

5.8 905

4.3 197

U)

u>

U)

+ 2 ^ c o + i^ ui^iquj^. "* CJ) <o *! r) 00 ' ' O)

798 1.2 4.344 4.7' 149

< 3 >r ^r U) CJ U) CJ r . .<D C3) ^ U) O) 00 < o r * c o < o -O CM <D <o CJ r> r U) <o o <D o> q CO q q

r>

CJ
_j

. ^" J . c o . CM c c o CM 1 C o o r * "* U) r . .<D CJ 00 U) C V J CO ^ CJ < u > ^ r ^ o O) u o >< or > .c o CJ T ' < U) CO 00 o c o c o o > c o o a>.cj J co ^- ^ c 1 > T- C o *" u
^

C3)

CJ

<o

u>

00

1.4i

.T - U) CM U) < o co o> ^" S cj TO) r (3) T - r U) o> r^ ^ o oo cj ^ 00 <o <3) co O)


r>
^ i U) S O) T- co oC co < _ <o r^ a> o cj u) (i .
*

< d< d

-4.829

o> r*.
C 3 > -i

T- 00 ^- <o o> r i r ^ U) > .< o ^ 00 < J > . CM 00 ^ c o r . .CJ ^ r -- ._ O) -- 00 u > 1- O) c .< o ^ U) o <o 5joo oo o r^ ^ (O U) 00 CJ 00 r ^ r > o o . . (O CJ < > U) co <o U) CJ CJ tn CJ U) (O o > .^ o o CO O) eo 00 ^ (O T ~ o T c ^ ^ oc o o> ; o . CM (D a> 00 s i . c o d ^ 3 > . CM T 00 ^ 1 ^t t C t < o d <0 T i CO 00 U) r) c . < o< d

CM

^ B

^ B

^ M

3.6 0.7 4.9 5.5; 9.2 5.1

r ^
"

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'alue

\n ^ ^

^
k>
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c o

duc

-j

c ^"

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O) _l

r.
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o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

APPENDIX B TEST SYSTEM DESIGN

89

90 Tvpe 'E' PFN Design The type 'E' PFN was designed using the approximation method (Glasoe and Lebacqz, 205) to meet the following

specifications: Rise Time Pulse Width.T, Impedance, ZQ, >300 ns. 6 ^s. 50 Q.

The approximation method is based on the assumption that all the energy stored in the capacitors is delivered to the load. equations of interest are: T Cn " 2 Z o TZo Ln ~ 2 (B.l) The

(B.2)

where T is the desired pulse width and Z^ is the PFN impedance. For a PFN with a pulse width of 6 microseconds and a impedance of 50 2, the total capacitance, C^, was calculated to be 60 nanofarads and the total inductance was found to be 150 microhenrys. The type 'E' network can be reduced to a single solenoid of total inductance, L^^. The equal values of capacitance are then tapped at appropriate points on the solenoid. The taps are placed so they will produce an equal inductance between each section of the PFN. The ends, however, are made to have 20 to 30 percent more inductance (Glasoe and Lebacqz, 2045). The inductance

91 between each stage in this arrangement is 15% of the self inductance. The total inductance of the solenoid is L^ = Lg[(k -2) + 2(1 + o/oE) + 2(n-l)%M] where n = number of stages, Lj^ = total inductance, Lg = self inductance, %E = percent end inductance, and %M = percent mutual inductance. For a rise time of less than 300 nanoseconds, a nine-stage pulse forming network was needed. and m u t u a l respectively. The percent end inductance (B.3)

i n d u c t a n c e where selected as 2 5 % and 15%, Solving for "Lg" ylelded a self inductance of 12.6

microhenrys, an end inductance of 15.75 microhenrys, and a mutual inductance of 1.89 microheniys. The capacitance for each stage was found by dividing the total capacitance, Cj^, by the n u m b e r of stages, "n," yielding a stage capacitance of 6.66 nanofarads. Element Design and PFN Construction The stage capacitors were commercially available and had a capacity of 6.68 nanofarads and a rated voltage of 600 volts. The solenoid for the type 'E' PFN was designed to have a total inductance of 150 microhenrys and a mutual inductance of 1.89

92 microhenrys as found previously. was calculated using the formula: r2n2 ^ - 2.54(9r + 10/) The self inductance of the coil

^^'^^

where "r" is the radius of the coil measured in centimeters, "n" is the n u m b e r of t u r n s per section, and "f is the coils length in centimeters. The mutual inductance is given as: a^ M = 0.00986 where w = (kj-^ + k^^ + k^2), Figure B.l
A2

ni n^ w 4 x^

^^'^^

^ll other variables are defined in

Equations (B.4) and (B.5) where solved simultaneously

giving a coil radius of 1.5 cm, a coil length of 4.16 cm, and 28 t u m s per section.

93

MUTUAL INDUCTANCE DESIGN

coil 1

XI

-^

coil 2

D X2 M = {(.oo986Ma'2)(A"2)(nrn2)lkrkl*k3'k5*K5'k5l/4lx) uH A - radius of coil 1 a - radius of coil 2 2X = length of coil 1 21 - lenglh of coil 2 D = axial disiance between coils nl - * of lurns on coil 1 n2 = * of lurns on coil 2 XI - D - X X2 - D * X r l - l ( X r 2 - A'2)r.5 r2 = l(X2-2 * A'2)l .5

Kl - ( 2 / A ' 2)* ( ( X 2 / r 2 ) - (XI / r l ) ) kl - 2 ' l K3 -((XI / r l ' 5 ) - ( X 2 / r 2 5)) / 2 k 3 - ( A - 2 ) M i ) ' ( 3 - ( ( 4 ' r 2 ) / A' 2)) * : 5 - -(A 2 / 8) (((XI / r l - 9) (3 - 4 XI -2 / A ' 2)) - X2 / n ( 3 - 4 ' X2' 2 / A"2)) k 5 - A ' 4 " l ' ( ( 5 / 2 ) - ( 1 0 ' 1 - 2 / A' 2 ) * ( 4 T 4 / A * 4 )

Figure B.l. Mutual inductance between two coils.

APPENDIX C VARIOUS SPICE CIRCUIT MODELS

94

95 The program listings given below are the SPICE decks used as the base model of the series connected system and the hybrid network. AII generated wave forms referred to throughout the

thesis were constructed from these listings. Series Connection Circuit Model
** VAR. ** TYPE 'E' - VARIATIONS IN END INDUCTANCE.
****************************************************** * *

* * * * *
* *

9 STAGE TYPE E PULSE FORMING NETWORK IN SERIES WITH A CHARGED TRANSMISSION LINE THIS FILE WAS DESIGNED FROM THE VALUES MEASURED IN THE LAB. W. R. CRAVEY 7/5/87

* * * * *
*

***********************************************************

WIDTH IN=70 OUT=80 **** pFN STAGES **** Cl RCl Ll Rl C2 RC2 L2 R2 C3 RC3 L3 R3 C4 RC4 L4 R4 10 10 10 15 20 20 20 25 30 30 30 35 40 40 40 45 0 0 15 20 0 0 25 30 0 0 35 40 0 0 45 50 6.77N IC=200 1E12 14. 6U .155 6.70N IC=200 1E12 12. lU .155 6.63N IC=200 1E12 12. lU .155 6.63N IC=200 1E12 12. lU .155

96
C5 RC5 L5 R5 C6 RC6 L6 R6 C7 RC7 L7 R7 C8 RC8 L8 R8 C9 RC9 50 50 50 55 60 60 60 65 70 70 70 75 80 80 80 85 90 90 0 0 55 60 0 0 65 70 0 0 75 80 0 0 85 90 0 0 6.77N IC=200 1E12 12. lU .155 6.63N IC=200 1E12 11.8U .155 6.63N IC=200 1E12 11.8U .155 6.50N IC=200 1E12 12. lU .155 6.50N IC=200 1E12

*** ALTERED PARAMETER ***


**************************

L9 R9

90 95

95 100

16U .155

**************************

**** MUTUAL INDUCTANCE **** Kl K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 K8 Ll L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 L9 .13 .12 .12 .12 .13 .15 .13 .14

**** 192 FT OF TRANSMISSION LINE **** TLINE 100 0 101 0 Z0=50 TD=.5U 10=200,0,200,0

**** LOAD MODEL **** RL 120 0 50

97
**** OUTPUT DECK **** VL 101 120 0 .TRAN 40N 4U UIC .PRINT TRAN V(120) .END

Hybrid Network Circuit Model


TLOl-lO. PFN(3-SEC.,Z=50,T=6US) TLINE(ZO=10,TDION) *** PFN SECTIONS *** Ll 10 20 75U Cl 20 0 49N L3 C3 L5 05 10 30 10 40 30 0 40 0 75U 5.4N 75U 1.9N

IC=200V IC=200V IC=200V

*** TLINE *** TLINE 100 0 *** LOAD *** RL 10 0 *** OUTPUT *** .TRAN .075U 15U .PLOT TRAN V(10) .END 50

10 0

Z0=10 TD=10N 10=200,0,200,0

UIC

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