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# Circuit Theorems Overview Linearity Superposition Source Transformation Th evenin and Norton Equivalents Maximum Power Transfer

ECE 221

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## Linearity Dened Given a function f (x) y y1 y2 = f (x) = f (x1 ) = f (x2 )

the function f (x) is linear if and only if f (a1 x1 + a2 x2 ) = a1 y1 + a2 y2 for any two inputs x1 and x2 and any constants a1 and a2

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v1 v2

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Example 2: Linearity & Power of Resistors Is the power dissipated by a resistor a linear function of the current? p = f (i) = i2 R p1 p2 = i2 1R = i2 2R
2 2 2 = a2 1 i1 R + 2a1 a2 i1 i2 + a2 i2 R = a1 p1 + a2 p2

f (a1 i1 + a2 i2 ) = (a1 i1 + a2 i2 )2 R

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ECE 221

Circuit Theorems

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Linear Circuits A linear circuit is one whose output is linearly related (or directly proportional) to its input In this class we will only consider circuits in which the voltage and currents are linearly related to the independent sources For circuits, the inputs are represented by independent sources The current through and voltage across each circuit element is linearly proportional to the independent source amplitude Will focus on how to apply this principle

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2 k

Vs

+ vo -

4 k

4 k

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ECE 221

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Example 3: Continued 1 vo = Vs 2 Is vo a linear function of Vs ? If we had solved the circuit for Vs = 10 V, could we nd vo for Vs = 20 V without having to reanalyze the circuit?

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2 k

Vs

+ vo -

2 k

Is

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ECE 221

Circuit Theorems

Ver. 1.36

Example 4: Continued 1 vo = Vs + 1k Is 2 If Is = 0, then vo is a linear function of Vs If Vs = 0, then vo is a linear function of Is This holds true in general When used for circuit analysis, this is called superposition

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ECE 221

Circuit Theorems

Ver. 1.36

Superposition The superposition principle states that the voltage across (or current through) an element in a linear circuit is the algebraic sum of the voltages across (or currents through) that element due to each independent source acting alone To apply this principle for analysis, we follow these steps: 1. Turn o all independent sources except one. Find the output (voltage or current) due to that source. 2. Repeat Step 1 for each independent source. 3. Add the contribution of each source to nd the total output.

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Example 5: Superposition
2 k

10 V

+ vo -

2 k

2 mA

Solve for vo using superposition. First, nd the contribution due to the 10 V source. This means we must turn o the current source How do you turn o a current source? What is the equivalent of turning o a current source?

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## Example 5: Continued (1)

2 k

10 V

+ vo -

2 k

Solve for vo due to the 10 V source. Second, nd the contribution due to the 2 mA source. This means we must turn o the voltage source How do you turn o a voltage source? What is the equivalent of turning o a voltage source?

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2 k

+ vo -

2 k

2 mA

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## Example 5: Continued (3)

2 k

10 V

+ vo -

2 k

2 mA

Finally, solve for vo by adding the contributions due to both sources What if the 10 V source had been a 20 V source. Is there an easy way to nd vo in this case?

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Example 6: Superposition
5 i

5 k i

+ 7 mA
20 k

35 V

vo -

Use the principle of superposition to nd vo . Well nd the contribution due to the 35 V source rst So we must rst turn o the current source

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5 i

5 k i

+
20 k

35 V

vo -

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5 i

5 k i

+ 7 mA
20 k

vo -

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Superposition Final Remarks Superposition is based on circuit linearity Must analyze as many circuits as there are independent sources Dependent sources are never turned o As with the examples, is usually more work than combining resistors, the node voltage analysis, or mesh current analysis Is an important idea If you want to consider a range of values for an independent source, is sometimes easier than these methods Although multiple circuits must be analyzed, each is simpler than the original because all but one of the independent sources is turned o Will be necessary when we discuss sinusoidal circuit analysis

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Source Transformation Introduction Recall that we discussed how to combine networks of resistors to simplify circuit analysis Series combinations Parallel combinations Delta Wye Transformations We can also apply this idea to certain combinations of sources and resistors

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## Source Transformation Concept

R

Vs

Is

Source Transformation: the replacement of a voltage source in series with a resistor by a current source in parallel with a resistor or vice versa The two circuits are equivalent if they have the same current-voltage relationship at their terminals

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## Source Transformation Proof

I + Circuit Element No. 1 V Circuit Element No. 2 V I

A two-terminal circuit element is dened by its voltage-current relationship Relationship can be found by applying a voltage source to the element and nding the relationship to current Equivalently, can apply a current source and nd relationship to voltage If two elements have the same relationship, they are interchangable

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## Source Transformation Proof Continued

I R1 Vs V Is + R2 V I

V Vs = I R1 V = R1 I + Vs y = mx + b

V = Is + I R2 V = R2 I + R2 Is y = mx + b

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## Source Transformation Dependent Sources

R

Vs

Is

Also works with dependent sources Arrow of the current source must point towards the positive terminal of the voltage source Does not work if R = 0

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## Voltage Sources & Resistor Series Equivalent

4

5V

8V

13

12 V
1

13 V 2V
8

Recall: Voltage sources in series add Recall: Resistors in series add Mixture of both in series also has an equivalent Equivalent voltage source = sum of the voltages Equivalent resistance = sum of the resistors Proof possible by KVL (left as exercise)

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## Current Sources & Resistor Parallel Equivalent

9A

2A

5A

12

12 A

4.8

Recall: Current sources in parallel add Recall: The conductance of resistors in parallel adds Mixture of both in parallel also has an equivalent Equivalent current source = sum of the currents Equivalent resistance = parallel combination Proof possible by KCL (left as exercise)

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300 V

40

10

+ 10 A
6 8 24

vo -

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Example 7: Workspace

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10 A

io

40

4A

10 V

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Example 8: Workspace

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Example 8: Workspace

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Th evenins Theorem
Req

Linear Circuit

VTh

Th evenins theorem: a linear two-terminal circuit is electrically equivalent to a voltage source in series with a resistor This applies to any two terminals in a circuit This is a surprising result Proof is in text; we will focus on how to apply Better model of physical power supplies like batteries

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ECE 221

Circuit Theorems

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Nortons Theorem

Linear Circuit

IN

Req

Nortons theorem: a linear two-terminal circuit is electrically equivalent to a current source in parallel with a resistor The Norton equivalent can be obtained by a source transformation of the Th evenin equivalent and vice versa This implies RT h = RN and VT h = RT h IN In lectures, I will denote RN and RT h as simply Req

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## Finding Th evenin & Norton Equivalents

Req

VTh

IN

Req

Linear Circuit

Recall: Two terminal circuits are only equivalent if they have the same voltage-current relationship This means regardless of what is connected to the terminals, all three devices must behave the same Consider Open-Circuit Voltage Short-Circuit Current This is sucient, but there are two other methods
Portland State University ECE 221 Circuit Theorems Ver. 1.36 33

## Finding Th evenin & Norton Equivalent Resistance

Req Linear Circuit All Independent Sources Set to Zero

Req

If we set all of the independent sources equal to zero in all three circuits, they should all have the same resistance With the independent sources removed, it should be relatively easy to nd the internal resistance of the circuit If the circuit has dependent sources, this can be tricky

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## Th evenin & Norton Equivalent Resistance Continued

I Linear Circuit All Independent Sources Set to Zero Linear Circuit All Independent Sources Set to Zero + V I

If the circuit has dependent sources, we need to nd the voltage-current relationship for the circuit Easiest to hook up a voltage source (or current source) and calculate the current (or voltage) The source can have any value Then Req =
V I

## If the circuit has dependent sources, Req may be negative

Portland State University ECE 221 Circuit Theorems Ver. 1.36 35

Th evenin & Norton Equivalents: Summary To nd the Th evenin or Norton equivalent of a two-terminal circuit, must do two of three tasks 1. Find the open-circuit voltage: Voc 2. Find the short-circuit current: Isc 3. Find the internal resistance: Ri Then you can nd the equivalent values by the following equations VT h = Voc IN = Isc Req = Ri VT h = Isc Ri Voc IN = Ri Voc Req = Isc

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2 k 5 k

50 V

20 k

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Example 9: Workspace

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## Example 10: Th evenin & Norton Equivalents

40

1.5 A a
25 20 60

30 V

Find the Norton & Th evenin equivalents with respect to the terminals a,b.

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40

1.5 A a
25 20 60

30 V

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## Example 11: Th evenin & Norton Equivalents

20i

2 k

5 k

10 k

a
40 k

50 V

20 k

50 k

Find the Norton & Th evenin equivalents with respect to the terminals a,b.

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20i

2 k

5 k

10 k

a
40 k

50 V

20 k

50 k

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## Maximum Power Transfer

Req

VTh

RL

What load resistance RL will maximize the power absorbed by the resistor?

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Circuit Theorems

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Maximum Power Transfer Derivation Goal: Find the value of RL that maximizes the power absorbed by RL . p = i2 RL = dp dRL = = = VT h RL Req + RL 2 (Req + RL ) 2RL VT h (Req + RL )3 Req RL 2 VT h (Req + RL )3 0
2

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## Maximum Power Transfer Summary

Req

VTh

RL

Finding the load resistance that maximizes power transfer is usually a two-step process 1. Find the Th evenin or Norton equivalent 2. Find the load resistance RL

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## Example 12: Maximum Power Transfer

2 i 4

+ v
5

100 V
13i

RL

The variable resistor (RL ) is adjusted until it absorbs maximum power from the circuit. Find RL , the maximum power absorbed by RL , and the percentage of total power developed that is delivered to RL .

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2 i 4

+ v
5

100 V
13i

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2 i 4

+ v
5

100 V
13i

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