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EE122 Fall 2u1u
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Assignments unuei Couise Tools. Assignments shoulu be submitteu in one of the
following foimats: .txt, .puf, oi.ps.

3; <$-$&6= >-?"&#6.+"- @0 :"+-.*A BC"2 6&$ 6=="%$D ." =""' .E$*$ 6-*%$&* 2:;
Naiking scheme: u.4 points each
(a) Which piotocol uses poit S6
XNS Authentication
(b) Who assigns auuiesses to ISPs in Afiica.

(c) Who owns the auuiess 12S.4S.2S4.S4.
Samsung Netwoiks
(u) Who is the Chaiiman of ICANN.

Petei Bangate Thiush
(e) Bow many netwoik auuiesses uiu the oiiginal IP auuiessing stiuctuie

0; )DD&$**$* @0 :"+-.*A
Foi each of the following auuiesses, state whethei it is a legal, globally ioutable
auuiess anu, if not, why not.
Naiking scheme: u.4 points each. u.2 foi YesNo anu u.2 foi ieason each.
(a) 1u.7.12S.14
No, ieseiveu foi piivate use

(b) 169.1S.14.28
(c) 24S.74.S7.126
No, Class E auuiess
(u) 11S.S6.26S.47
No, invaliu IP auuiess (26S > 2SS is not a valiu entiy)
(e) 22S.2S2.6S.SS
Nulticast auuiess (both yes anu no accepteu as answei since multicast
iouting isn't globally suppoiteu, but it is theoietically globally ioutable)

7; 1$*+,- F&+-G+:=$* @7 :"+-.*A
Below aie thiee uesign uecisions, followeu by thiee uesign piinciples. Please match
each uecision with the piinciple most applicable to that uecision.
1. Tianspoit piotocols shoulu not be awaie of the link-layei technology useu to
caiiy packets.
2. Routeis uo not holu pei-flow state.
S. Bosts uo not uepenu on the netwoik foi ieliable packet ueliveiy.
(a) Enu-to-Enu piinciple
(b) Layeiing
(c) Fate Shaiing

Youi answei shoulu be of the foim:
1. Lettei
2. Anothei lettei
S. The iemaining lettei
Naiking scheme: 1 point each
1-(b), 2-(c), S-(a)
H; >FIJ !$6D$& @0 :"+-.*A
Naiking scheme: u.4 points each.
(a) Why uiu IPv6 eliminate the packet heauei length fielu.
Beauei is of fixeu length (4u bytes)
(b) Boes IPv6 suppoit fiagmentation.
(c) Bow uoes IPv6 suppoit options.
0sing Next Beauei
(u) What is the most notable heauei featuie that IPv6 has that IPv4 uoes not.
Flow Label
(e) Assuming an NT0 of 1Suubytes, anu no options, what peicentage of
banuwiuth is wasteu on the heauei.
(4u1Suu) * 1uu = 2.67%
9; !$6D$&* @3 :"+-.A
Consiuei a packet being sent fiom an application using TCP, which is iunning ovei
IP, which in tuin is iunning ovei Etheinet. Which heauei is outeimost (that is,
occupies the leauing bits of the packet).
Etheinet Beauei
J; KL2& 1$*+,-M @3 :"+-.A
BN"I$&$D D2&+-, .E$ =$G.2&$ K1$*+,-+-, .E$ >-.$&-$. +- O4 #+-2.$*M;
i) In "oui" uesign we pioposeu an auuiessing stiuctuie. Is this auuiessing stiuctuie
most like:
(a) The Inteinet's oiiginal auuiessing stiuctuie
(b) Classful auuiessing
(c) CIBR
(a) 0ui auuiessing scheme hau a Bomain:LocalAuuiess stiuctuie, so "host" anu
"netwoik" components weie well sepaiateu (as in the oiiginal Inteinet scheme).
But both (a) anu (b) weie accepteu as coiiect answeis. 0nly CIBR, which uoes
not have a well-uefineu bounuaiy between host anu netwoik (unless you know
the mask), was consiueieu incoiiect.
ii) What aie the foui aspects to "netwoik secuiity". Befine each of the teims in a
few woius.
Naiking scheme: u.2S points foi mentioning the aspects anu u.2S points foi
explaining them
N"-?+D$-.+6=+.C: Keeping infoimation piivate
>-.$,&+.C: Ensuiing that uata is not tampeieu with, anu if it is, it can be uetecteu.
F&"I$-6-G$: Ensuiing that the souice of the uata is what you think it is
)I6+=6P+=+.C: Ensuiing that one can get netwoik seivice
Q; R"2.+-, S6P=$* @J :"+-.*A
Naiking scheme: 2 points each
Suppose a ioutei has foui inteifaces, numbeieu u thiough S. The netwoik
auministiatoi wants the following auuiess ianges to be foiwaiueu to these
inteifaces as follows:
-> inteiface u
Auuiess 111uuuuu uuuuuuuu uuuuuuuu uuuuuuuu
thiough 111uuuuu 11111111 11111111 11111111
-> inteiface 1
Auuiess 111uuuu1 uuuuuuuu uuuuuuuu uuuuuuuu
thiough 111uuuu1 uuuuuuuu 11111111 11111111
-> inteiface 2
Auuiess 111uuuu1 uuuuuuu1 uuuuuuuu uuuuuuuu
thiough 111uuuu1 11111111 11111111 11111111
-> inteiface S
All othei auuiesses --------------------> Inteiface S
a) Pioviue a foiwaiuing table that has foui entiies, using longest-piefix matching,
anu foiwaius packets to the coiiect link inteifaces.

111uuuuu ! Inteiface u
111uuuu1 uuuuuuuu ! Inteiface 1
111uuuu1 ! Inteiface 2
All othei auuiesses ! Inteiface S
b) Consiuei thiee uatagiams with the following auuiesses. Foi each one, which
inteiface woulu they be sent to.
i) 11uu1uuu 1uu1uuu1 u1u1uuu1 u1u1u1u1
ii) 111uuuu1 uuuuuuuu 11uuuu11 uu1111uu
iii) 111uuuu1 1uuuuuuu uuu1uuu1 u111u111

i. Inteiface S
ii. Inteiface 1
iii. Inteiface 2
c) Rewiite this foiwaiuing table using a.b.c.ux notation insteau of the binaiy stiing

224.u.u.u8 ! Inteiface u
22S.u.u.u16 ! Inteiface 1
22S.u.u.u8 ! Inteiface 2
All othei auuiesses ! Inteiface S
Last entiy can also be wiitten as:
u.u.u.uu ! Inteiface S
(Both aie coiiect)
T; U&6,#$-.6.+"- @H :"+-.*A
An IP uatagiam consisting of 14uu-bytes of uata anu a 2u-byte heauei is fiagmenteu
into S fiagments with payloau lengths of S12, S12, anu S76 bytes iespectively each
with a 2u-byte heauei. If these fiagments pass thiough anothei ioutei with an NT0
of S8u bytes, what woulu be the iesulting fiagment sizes anu byte offsets. uive the
numbei of fiagments, anu the size anu byte offset foi each fiagment.

Numbei of Fiagments = 6
Size of fiagments= S6u, 1S2, S6u, 1S2, S6u, 16
0ffsets = u bytes, S6u bytes, S12 bytes, 872 bytes, 1u24 bytes, 1S84 bytes
0ffsets = u, 4S, 64, 1u9, 128, 17S (0ffsets aie geneially gioup of 8 bytes.)

Both answeis foi offsets (bytes, anu gioups of 8 bytes) aie given full cieuit.
O; V)S @H :"+-.*A
a) Why is it saiu that NAT violates the enu-to-enu piinciple.

Naiking scheme: 1 point foi explaining the enu-to-enu piinciple anu 1 point foi
explaining the violation.

The enu-to-enu piinciple states that one shoulu think twice befoie implementing
functionality in the netwoik. If hosts can implement functionality coiiectly,
implement it in a lowei layei only as a peifoimance enhancement, but uo so only if
it uoes not impose buiuen on applications that uo not iequiie that functionality.

People say that NATs violate the enu-to-enu piinciple in that NATs inteicept tiaffic
anu change the packet heaueis in tiansit. Bowevei, it is not cleai that enu hosts can
easily implement the uesiieu functionality (of shaiing a single IP auuiess) without
netwoik involvement. 0ne coulu, of couise, use vaiious foims of pioxies to peifoim
the same functions as NAT boxes, but this woulu iequiie changes to host softwaie.

b) Bow has the uptake of NAT uefeiieu the implementation of IPv6.
Naiking scheme: 2 points if mentioneu the lack of IPv4 auuiesses being solveu
using NAT.
NAT mitigates the pioblems of the ueaith of IPv4 auuiesses. If it haun't been foi
NAT we woulu've iun out the IPv4 auuiesses long ago anu ISPs woulu've been
foiceu to take up IPv6 with moie uigency. Bence, NAT has uefeiieu the
implementation of IPv6. It isn't cleai whethei this is a goou oi bau thing.