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Soronnadi-Ononiwu, G.C et al.

, IJSID, 2013, 3 (4), 458-464

ISSN:2249-5347

IJSID

International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries


Research Article

An International peer Review Journal for Science

Available online through www.ijsidonline.info


BIOSTRATIGRAPHY; A CASE STUDY FROM NIGERIA SEDIMENTARY BASIN Soronnadi-Ononiwu, G.C1*, Omoboriowo, A.O2

1Department

of Geology and Physics, Niger Delta University, Amassoma, Nigeria; 2Geological Services, Shell Petroleum Development Company (S.P.D.C), Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Received: 10-07-2013 Accepted: 29-08-2013


*Corresponding Author

ABSTRACT Biostratigraphic study has been carried out on ditch cuttings and outcrop samples from Umuna-1 well in Nigerian Sedimentary Basin . An attempt was made to determine the section shows that the samples are made up of shale, claystone and siltstone which are grey to dark grey and brown in colour with intercalations of medium to fine grained environment. foraminiferal dominance skewed to the benthonics, almost 99% of the total assemblage. The assemblage from base to the top shows the predominance of calcareous paleoenvironment of deposition and the age range is from Maastrichtian to Eocene. Keywords: Biostratigraphy, Sedimentary Basin, Foraminifera, Stratigraphy.

relative age and depositional environment of the section. A lithologic analysis of the sandstone beds. The predominance of benthonics to planktonics affirms a shallow marine forms to the arenaceous The planktonic/benthonic ratio plot favours a shallow marine

Address: Depatment of Geology Niger Delta University, Amassoma Nigeria Name: Soronnadi-Ononiwu, G.C Place: Nigeria E-mail: adeboriowo@yahoo.com

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Soronnadi-Ononiwu, G.C et al., IJSID, 2013, 3 (4), 458-464 INTRODUCTION global energy, moreso when the number of producing wells in a state, determines how much they get from the federal revenue allocation. This has brought about increased interest and considerable research to the improvement of our understanding of stratigraphy and sedimentation, the geohistory, the organic geochemistry, structures and paleontology; these studies have basin particularly on Integrating foraminiferal and palynomorph assemblages OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY the basin fill pattern. At various times, Geoscientist have continuously looked at the various aspects of the basin; the always shown that there is a limited biostratigraphic data hampering the delineation of key stratigraphic surfaces within the The aim of this study is to; Establish lithostratigraphic sequence of the study area, Carry out quantitative and There has been a renewed call for a revisitation of the Anambra Basin vis--vis present technology and demand for

qualitative analysis of foraminifera, Determine the age of the well section, Interprete the depositional environment of the sediments and Attempt zonation of the strata using foraminiferal data LOCATION OF STUDY AREA 80E and Latitudes50 and 70N. The study area, falls within the Anambra and Niger Delta Basin. It is geographically located between longitudes 70 and

STRATIGRAPHY OF THE STUDY AREA UMUNA-1 WELL penetrated 2 lithostratigraphic units, Namely; of Nsukka Formation with a sandstone unit capping it. NSUKKA FORMATION (3800 - 22900ft) It consists of shale with a thin layer of ironstone at the middle. Typical characteristics IMO FORMATION (2900 - 1800ft) The formation consists at the base claystone and a dark grey fissile shale and sandstone at the middle and terminates with the massive shale that grades into a siltstone at the top. METHOD OF STUDY There are two methods of study, laboratory and field study. The samples studied was obtained from the Geologic

Survey Agency, Kaduna and those obtained from the fieldwork (i.e outcrops) located in the Anambra and Niger Delta Basins. The well sample belong to Umuna-1, this is the borehole drilled by Shell-BP. (a) samples collected vertically form the various horizons. Sedimentary structures were noted. Graphic logs of the horizons were erected. The collected rock samples were then subjected to laboratory analysis and interpretation. samples preparation. Field Method Field visit of studied rock outcrops was undertaken during which rock section were logged and rock

(b) Laboratory Method : the laboratory method entails two approach; lithostratigraphic description and paleontology (i) Lithostratigraphic description- detailed lithologic description of the various sample were described, each sample was expressed in fig. 1. tested with dilute hydrochloric acid. The degree of reaction of the samples with the acid was noted and expressed as

calcareous, when there is effervescence and non-calcareous when there is no reaction with the acid. The description were (ii) Paleontological Sample Preparations A total of twenty four samples were subjected to paleontological sample preparation. 10grams of each sample was put into an enamel plate mixed with water and treated with 2 grams of sodium International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 3, Issue 4, July-August 2013 carbonate (Na2 CO3). This is allowed to boil for 30mins in a hot plate. The essence of this is to disintegrate the clay and shale

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Soronnadi-Ononiwu, G.C et al., IJSID, 2013, 3 (4), 458-464 and free the fossils from the matrix.Each boiled sample was then washed through a stack of sieves arranged in decreasing order. 106m for the coarse grain fraction, 75m for medium and 63m for fine fraction using a jet of water. samples were done using stereomicroscope. The dried samples were each sprinkled on smooth black surfaced rectangular paper, which was divided into grids. The fossils on each grid traversed were picked with a trimmed brush which was constantly moistened by dipping into water. The specimens where stored in a slides, which was labeled against the depth of occurrence. Precautions were made/taken by closing the slides with special cover slips. To also avoid contamination, the tray published references of Peters (1982), Bolli et al, (1985) and Fayose (1970). Preservation problems especially those of post will be utilized in the interpretation. 1. LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY gray, from moderately hard, sub-fissile to fissile, sandy, laminated with millimeters of siltstones bands and non calcareous with argillaceous cement
Formation

Residues from each sieve size were collected in a filter paper dried and labeled for analysis. Analyses of the dried

is constantly cleansed with a brush and a new slide used for each depth. The foramineferal identification was carried out using burial, test dissolution, test breakage, (deformation) and various Morphological variations were ob served and noted, which PRESENTATION OF RESULT

The various lithostratigraphic units penetrated composed of thick units of sandy shale which is gray to brownish

with thin ironstone at the middle. The interval upper interval is made up of thick shale and rippled sandstone-clear quartz grain, light brown, off- white in parts, transparent to translucent from very fine to fine grained, sub angular to sub-rounded, (See figure 1)

Li thol ogy

Depth In Meters

Sample Number

Description

1900 2100 2300 2500 2700 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2900 ... ... ... ...... ... ... .. . . ... .. .. . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3100 . . . . . . . 3300 3500 3700 3800 Shale, fissile, intercalation, non calcareous with a thin Ironstone layer at the middle. . Shale, fissile, grey in colour, non calcareousat the top and base butslightly calcareous at the middle.

Sandstone intercalation, coarse to medium grain.

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Fig.1, Lithologic Description of Umuna-1 Well.

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Soronnadi-Ononiwu, G.C et al., IJSID, 2013, 3 (4), 458-464 2. UMUNA 1 WELL MICROFAUNA microfauna out of which 22 (twenty-two) genera are of benthonics and one general of planktonic, forty-two species of benthonics and a specie of planktonics. The assemblage consist mostly benthonics of calcareous types followed by the agglutinated types. The list of foraminifera, as extracted from the stratigraphic range chart is presented below, one can The interval between 2800ft the top, witnessed a slight increase on foraminifera occurrence. Following the chart from the observe that from the base 3810ft 3129ft., this interval is fossiliferous with scanty forms recorded between 3129ft 2823ft. Base at 3810ft, contain forms mostly benthonic, Bolivina explicata, Bolivina afra, Ammobaculites sp, Quinqueloculina sp. and interval 3790 3710 is very fossiliferous, contains more of benthonics to only one planktonic occurrence, Planulina nacatochensis, Anomalinoides midwayensis, Anomalinoides umboniferous, Praebulimina robusta, Praebulimina longa, P. proxima, Globigerina triloculinoides. Praebulimina opima, Haplophragmoides excavate, Bolivina africana, Gavelinella lelligensis, Cibicides harperi, Ostracoda and plummerae. Between 3504ft 3380ft, Epistomina repleyensis, Ammobaculites coprolithiformis, few gastropods. The interval 3380ft 3130ft recorded more fossil assemblage, all are benthonics: within the Nsukka Formation. Niononella insecta, Bulimina kugleri, Bulimina asperoaculeata, Cibicides succedens, Lagena sp, Gavelinella danca, Eponides elevatus and Nonionella panamencis. All this fall The interval 3130ft 2240 recorded few benthonic forms such as Dentalina megapolitana, Fursenkoina nigeriana, Marginulina recorded few forms: Miliammina sp and Eponides pseudoelevatus. 3. BOIZONATION FOR UMUNA 1 WELL sp, Lenticulina midwayensis and few pelecypods . The interval 2240ft 2020ft., recorded more of shell fragments, Miliammina telemaquensis, M. petila and Textulariopsis dukamajina . Finally, between 2020ft 1740ft which is the top of the well, it Using the foraminiferal stratigraphic range chart on the basis of first and last stratigraphic occurrence (last downhole (a) Biozone A Bolivina afra zone: Upper Maastrichtian (3810ft)Species having their first appearances are difficult to differentiate because this zone represents the base of the well. Species having their first downhole occurrences are: Bolivina explicata, Bolivina afra, Ammobaculites sp, Quinqueloculina sp and Miliammina pindingensis. The interval between 3710 3504, recorded few forms, Haplophragmoides sp, Textulariopsis gilbedina, Osangularia Miliammina pindingensis, Between 3810ft 3790ft, contains few benthonics, Gavelinella guineana, and Nonionella robusta. The The foraminifera assemblage of Umuna 1 well recorded twenty three genera and forty-three (43) species of

occurrence and first downhole occurrences respectively) zones are defined by the first occurrences of two or more species. The zones encountered in the study are as follows;

(b) Biozone B Gavelinella guineana zone: Upper Maastrichtian (3810ft 3790ft) Gavelinella guineana and Nonionella robusta.

The base of this zone is the same as the top of zone A, characterized by the last downhole occurrence of the following: (c) Biozone C Planulina nacatochensis zone: Maastrichtian (3790ft 3710ft) The base of this zone is the same as the top of Zone B, characterized by the last downhole occurrence of the following: Planulina nacatochensis, Anomalinoides midwayensis, Anomalinoides umboniferus, Praebulimina robusta, Praebulimina longa, Praebulimina proxima, Praebulimina opima, Haplophragmoides excavata.

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Soronnadi-Ononiwu, G.C et al., IJSID, 2013, 3 (4), 458-464 (d) Biozone D Textulariopsis gilbedina zone: Middle-Late Maastrichtian (3710ft 3504ft) The base of this zone is the same as the top of zone C marked by the last downhole occurrence of the following forms: Bolivina africana, Gavelinella lelligensis, Cibicides harperi, Ostracoda, Globigerina triloculinoides, Haplophragmoides sp, Textulariopsis gilbedina, Osangularia plummerae. (e) Biozone E Ammobaculites coprolithiformis zone: Upper Maastrichtian (3504ft 3380ft) The zone marks the last downhole occurrence of the following forms: Epistomina repleyensis, Ammobaculites coprolithiformis, abundance of gastropods. (f) Biozone F Cibicides succedens zone: Maastrichtian Paleocene transition (3380ft 3130ft) The base of this zone is the same as the top of zone E characterized by the last downhole occurrence of the following: Nonionella insecta, Bulimina kugleri, Bulimina asperoaculeata, Cibicides succedens, Lagena sp, Gavelinella danca, Eponides elevatus. (g) Biozone G Fursenkoina nigeriana zone: Middle to Late Maastrichtian (3130ft 2240ft) The base of this zone is the same as the top of zone F, characterized by the last downhole occurrence of the following: Nonionella panamencis, Dentalina megapolitana, Fursenkoina nigeriana, Marginulina sp. (h) Biozone H Lenticulina midwayensis zone: Lower Paleocene (2240ft 2020ft) The base of this zone is the same as the top of zone G, characterized by the last downhole occurrence of the following forms: Pelecypods and shell fragments. (i) Biozone I Eponides pseudoelevatus zone: Paleocene (2020ft 1740ft) The base of this zone is the same as the top of zone H characterized by the last downhole occurrence of the following:
Formation
Lithology

Lenticulina midwayensis, Miliammina telemaquensis, Miliammina petila, Textulariopsis dukamajina, with abundance of

Depth In Meters

Sample Number

Miliammina sp., Eponides pseudoelevatus.

Population (%)
20 40 60 80 100 120 5

Diversity
10 15 20 25 30 35

1740 1760

1900

IMO SHALE

2100 2300 2500

2020 2040

2220 2240 2260

MFS

2520

2700 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2900 . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . .. . . . .. .. . ... ... ... . .. .. . . .. . . . .. . . . . . 3100 . 3300 3500 3700 3800
3350 3380 3410 3504 3507 3511 3710 3790 3810 2800

SB

NSUKKA F rm.

3130

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Figure 2: Foraminifera Diversity/Population Plot of Umuna-1 Well.

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Soronnadi-Ononiwu, G.C et al., IJSID, 2013, 3 (4), 458-464 DISCUSSION in the different parts of the basin. A total of twenty-four samples were described and logged. Two lithostratigraphic units were identified and delineated, namely; Nsukka Formation and the Imo Shale). The ditch cuttings and outcrops samples yielded well persevered foraminifera. Umuna-1 well yielded 23 genera and 43 ranging from Late Maastrichtian to Eocene. The depositional environment of the well were evaluated following detailed analyses and characterization of the biogenic and physical features of sedimentary lithofacies coupled with Paleoecological tools employed, these are planktonic/benthonic ratio plot, calcareous/agglutinated ratio plot (See figure 2). The predominance of benthonics to planktonics affirms a shallow marine environment. Foraminiferal dominance skewed to the forms to the arenaceous The planktonic/benthonic ratio plot favours a shallow marine paleoenvironment of deposition. CONCLUSION benthonics, almost 99% of the total assemblage. The assemblage from base to the top shows the predominance of calcareous Biostratigraphic study has been carried out on ditch cuttings and outcrop samples from Umuna-1 well in Nigerian Sedimentary Basin. An attempt was made to determine the relative age and depositional environment of the section. A shallow marine environment and the age range is from Maastrichtian to Eocecne. REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Amer. Paleont., 71, no. 295, pp. 36. lithologic analysis of the section shows that the samples are made up of shale, claystone and siltstone which are grey to dark grey and brown in colour with intercalations of medium to fine grained sandstone beds. The foraminifera analysis affirms a Adegoke, O. S., 1977. Stratigraphy and Paleontology of the Ewekoro Formation (Paleocene) of South Western Nigeria. Bull. Adegoke, O. S., Dessauvagie, T. F. J., Kogbe, C. A., 1971. Planktonic Foraminifera in Gulf of Guinea Sediments; Micropal., Jour. Min. Geol.Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 197-213. Adeleye, D. R., 1975. Nigerin Late Cretaceous stratigraphy and paleogeography. A.A.P.G. Bull., V.59, No.12, pp. 2302 2313. eastern Nigeria. Jour. Min. Geol.Vol.23, pp. 25-36. Agagu. O. K., Fayose, E. A. and Peters S. W., 1985. Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the SenonianAnambra Basin of Agagu, O. K, and Ekweozor, C. M., 1982. Source rock characteristics of Senomanian shales in the Anambra Basin of Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology V.19, pp. 52 61. Nigeria, NAPE Bulletin, V.14/2. Akaegbobi, I. M. and Boboye, O. A, 1999. Textural, structural features and microfossil assemblage relationship as a delineating criteria for the stratigraphic boundary between Mamu Formation and Nkporo shale within the Anambra Basin, Southern Benue Trough Nigeria. Sedimentary Geol. Vol. 54, pp. 47-60. Formation of Trinidad. B.W.I., U.S., Nat. Mus. Bult Vol. 215 pp. 61-81. Amajor L. C., 1987. Paleocurrent, petrography and provenance analysis of the Ajali Sandstone (Upper Cretaceous) Bolli, H. M. Saunders. J. B. and Perch-Nielsen, K., 1985. Plankton stratigraphy. Cambridge University Press. Bolli W. H., 1957.The Genera Globigerian Concinna and Globorotalia in the Palaeocene-lower Eocene Lizard Springs Southeastern Nigeria: a field guide,. International symposium on Geology of Deltas, Port Harcourt, May, 1992. species of foraminiferas. Foraminifera from outcrops were scanty and yielded 9 informal foraminiferal assemblage zones, Paleontological analysis of Umuna-1 well were carried out with a view to determining the stratigraphic successions

10. Ladipo K. O., Nwajide C. S., Akande S. O., 1992. Cretaceous and Paleogene sequence in the Abakaliki and Anambra Basins, International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 3, Issue 4, July-August 2013

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Soronnadi-Ononiwu, G.C et al., IJSID, 2013, 3 (4), 458-464 11. Omoboriowo, A.O and Soronnadi, G.C ,2011 .Foraminifera Biostratigraphy and Paleoenviroment of the ETOP Well, Deep 12. Omoboriowo, A.O and Soronnadi, G.C ,2012 . Biostratigraphy of a Stratigraphic Section along Port Harcourt to Enugu 392. Offshore, Niger Delta, Nigeria. International journal of Science and Emerging Technologies Vol. 2. No. 3 pp. 87-94. Express Way, Exposed at Agbogugu, Anambra Basin,Nigeria. Advances in Applied Science Research Vol..3 No.1 pp. 384Nigeria: Geologie de LAfrique sud: Actes Colloques Angers 1994, pp. 219 233.

13. Petters, S. W, and Edet, J. J., 1996. Shallow shelf and anoxic facies in the Late Campanian Early Maastrichtian of S.E 14. Soronnadi, G.C and Omoboriowo, A.O .2012: Palynological and Paleoenviromental Studies of the Mamu Formation, Enugu Area, Anambra Basin, Nigeria. International Journal of Pure Applied. Science. Technology.,Vol. 10 No 2 pp. 1-11.

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