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Electronics Paper 2

1. Figure 1 shows a cathode-ray oscilloscope.

(a) State the function of the filament. (b)

[1 mark] [1 mark]

(i) What happens to the cathode when the filament is turned on? (ii) Name the process described in (b)(i). [1 mark]

(c) If a bar magnet is brought close to the cathode ray, what can be observed?

[1 mark]

(d) Every part of the CRO is working except for the Y-plates. Sketch the display shown on the screen in Figure 2 (the timebase circuit is switched on). [1 mark]

(e) State the conversion of energy when the cathode ray hits the screen. (f) The potential difference between the filament and anode is 6000 V. (i) Calculate the kinetic energy of the electron. [2 marks]

[1 mark]

(ii) What assumption is used to obtain the answer to (f)(i)? [1 mark] (iii) Name the principle in (f)(ii). [1 mark]

(iv) Find the maximum speed of the electron. [2 marks] [Charge of electron, e = 1.6 x 10-19C; Mass of electron, m = 9.0 x 10-31 kg] (g) State one use of a CRO. [1 mark]

2. Figure 3 shows a fire safety system. The smoke detector is ON when smoke is detected while the heat detector is ON when heat is detected. The fire extinguisher and alarm are turned on using logic gates P and Q.

(a) What logic gate is represented by (i) P? (ii) Q? [2 marks] (b) Construct a truth table for the system, using column headings A, B, C and D. [2 marks] (c) What happens if (i) smoke is detected but there is no heat? (ii) heat is detected but there is no smoke? [2 marks] [1 mark]

(d) What must happen to turn both the fire extinguisher and the alarm ON? (e) Figure 4 shows a logic circuit.

(i) Based on Figure 4, complete the truth table below.

[2 marks]

(ii) Name one gate which is equivalent to the circuit shown in Figure 4 and draw its symbol. [2 marks]

Figure 5 shows resistors X and Y, a light-dependent resistor (LDR), a transistor, a battery and a light-emitting diode (LED) that make up a circuit. In a bright environment, the LED emits light.

3. (a)

(i) Give one function of a transistor. [1 mark] (ii) Arrange the components in Figure 5 in a circuit so that the LED emits light in a bright environment. [1 mark] (iii) State the reason why the LED emits light in a bright environment. [2 marks]

(b) Suggest a way to modify the circuit so that the LED emits light in a dark environment [1 mark] (c) The circuit in (a)(ii) is to be modified into a fire alarm system. (i) State one electronic component which needs to be replaced. Explain your answer. [2 marks] (ii) Give one more electronic component which must be used to replace the unsuitable component in (a)(ii). [1 mark] (iii) Draw a circuit diagram for the new circuit. [2 marks]

4. Figure 6 shows an overhead view of a security system. When a person crosses the infrared beam at night, the sensor will send a signal to a logic gate. As a result, the alarm will sound. The alarm uses a 240 V a.c. supply and will work only at night.

The circuit in Figure 7 is proposed for the security system.

(a) Given that the potential difference across H is 4 V, what is the potential difference across the infrared sensor? [1 mark] (b) Component G is an LDR. Give one characteristic of G. [1 mark] (c) Component J is a switch that connects to the alarm circuit. (i) Name component J. [1 mark] (ii) State one electrical device that can be found in J. [1 mark]

(d) The truth table below shows the inputs and outputs of the logic gate.

(i) Complete the above truth table based on the given keys. (ii) Name the logic gate in Figure 7. [1 mark] (iii) Sketch the symbol for the gate stated in (d)(ii). [1 mark]

[4 marks]

A factory producing a chemical solvent employs a logic system to ensure the volume of chemical solvent in containers is within the predetermined range. Figure 8 shows the set up of the system. Two radioactive detectors, P and Q detect the levels of radiation penetrating the containers.

5. (a) Detectors P and Q give an input 0 when they detect a low level of radiation and an input 1 when they detect a high level of radiation. (i) State the level of the solvent in the container if input P is 0. Give a reason for your answer. [2 marks] (ii) State the level of the solvent in the container if input Q is 1. Give a reason for your answer. [2 marks] (b) Figure 9 shows two combinations of logic gates, A and B, which are suggested for the 6. logic system.

7. 8. (i) Name the logic gate K.

[1 mark]

9. (ii) Complete the following truth tables for A and B. [4 marks]

10. 11. (c) When the output is 1, it shows that the volume of the solvent in the container is within 12. the predetermined range. When the output is 0, it shows that the volume of the solvent in the container is outside the predetermined range. (i) Based on the outputs of the truth table in (b)(ii), choose the combination of logic gates which b. are suitable for use in the factory. [1 mark] 13. (ii) State two reasons for your answer in (c)(i). [2 marks] 14. 6 In order to construct a p-type semiconductor or n-type semiconductor, a doping process is performed on a pure silicon crystal. When a p-type semiconductor is combined with an ntype semiconductor, a diode is formed which acts as a rectifier.

(a) Explain 15. (i)p-type semiconductors. [2 marks] 16. (ii) doping process. [2 marks]

17. (b) Draw a circuit showing the arrangement of four diodes used as a full-wave rectifier. 18. Explain how the rectifier works and sketch the output wave. [7 marks] 19. Describe the working of an automatic light control switch. Include also a circuit in your description. [7 marks] 20. Give two advantages of an integrated circuit (IC). [2 marks] 21. 7 In a television set, a cathode-ray tube is used to produce pictures on the screen. Electron guns in the tube produce cathode rays which hit the fluorescent screen. (a) (i) What are cathode rays? 22. With the help of a diagram, explain how cathode rays can be generated. [6 marks] 23. (ii) State four properties of cathode rays. [2 marks] 24. (b) (i) State the energy changes of electrons in cathode rays. Write down the corresponding equation. [2 marks] 25. (ii) State three differences between an electromagnetic wave and a cathode ray. [3 marks] 26. (c) Describe how a CRO can function as a voltmeter to measure 27. d.c. voltage, 28. root mean square value of an a.c voltage. [7 marks] 29. 8 Figure 10 shows a picture of a diode which is used frequently in many electronics devices.

30. 31. (a) (i) Draw the symbol for a diode. [1 mark] 32. A diode consists of a p-n junction. What is a p-n junction? [1 mark] 33. Explain the mechanism of current flow in a diode when voltage from a dry cell is applied across the p-n junction when forward biased and reverse biased. Plot a graph of current against voltage for the p-n junction. [8 marks] 34. (b) A semiconductor diode is also known as a rectifier. Explain the meaning of 'rectifier' with accompanying circuit diagrams. [4 marks] 35. (c) Draw a circuit showing how four semiconductor diodes can be arranged to produce fullwave rectification of an a.c. power supply. Explain how you can 'smooth' the rectified wave output. 36. [6 marks]

37. 9 Figure 11 shows a circuit for a combination lock. When a switch is pressed, it changes its input from 0 to 1.

38. 39. [4 marks]

(a) Construct a truth table showing the states of I, K, L and M for all combinations of P, Q and R.

40. (b) When the output M is 1, it opens the lock. What is the correct combination? 41. (c) Give one advantage and one disadvantage of the circuit. [2 marks]

[1 mark]

42. A comparator is a logic circuit that gives a '1' as its output only when the logic states of its inputs are the same. Figure 11 is a block diagram for such a circuit.

43. 44. Construct a truth table for a comparator. Use A and B to represent the two inputs and C to 45. represent the output. [2 marks] 46. Bill has designed a comparator using some logic gates. Figure 13 shows his design. However, there is a fault in his design.

47. 48. Construct a truth table for the logic circuit that Bill has designed. 49. Redesign the system so that it works correctly. [2 marks]

[2 marks]

50. Draw the symbol for one logic gate that can represent the answer in (e)(ii). [1 mark] 51. Write the Boolean algebraic expression for the answer in (f). [1 mark]

52. 10 A student conducts a series of experiments to determine the properties of a few logic gates. Table 5 shows the inputs and outputs for AND gate, X-OR gate and NOT gate.

53. 54. logic gate, 55. input, 56. output [3 marks]

(a) Define the meaning of

57. (b) Draw the symbols and write the Boolean algebraic expressions for each gate, [6 marks] 58. (c) Which of the above two gates when combined together form a universal gate? Give one reason 59. for your answer. [2 marks] 60. (d) Using two or more gates from Table 5, draw a , half-subtractor circuit together with a truth table. Write down Boolean algebraic expressions that represent this circuit [9 marks]