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- Preparation of a BOQ for building elements-

Acknowledgement

I take this opportunity to thank all those who have assisted to us and guided, encouraged in so many ways in our course and Assignment. I am grateful and also my class-mates for their kind support of British College of Applied Studies for helping us to obtain the information to carry out this assignment successfully. I extend my grateful and sincere to thank my lecturer Ms L.N.Kariyawasam for guiding us throughout our subject duration and for all valuable suggestions given to us during the subject time to complete the assignment. I have to thank all librarians who have helped to do this assignment. Finally I thank to my family and my friends for their valuable support and encouragement extended to me. I also thank gratefully for every individuals whom I forgot to name them and thank them.

-Thank you very much-

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- Preparation of a BOQ for building elements-

Introduction

The title of this assignment is Preparation of Bill of Quantity (BOQ) for Building elements. This assignment mainly consists of the measurements works and it describes the important of standard method of measurements (SMM7). The main target of this assignment is give basics knowledge of technology that used to take off quantities and how to preparing the Bill of Quantity that most important part of Quantity Surveyors. We must have the maximum knowledge about preparing BOQ and the method of take off. Standard method of measurements (SMM7) is the important thing to measuring works. Main purpose of SMM7 is to provide uniform basics for measuring construction works. Bill of Quantity also depends on that. Quantity Surveyors are key professionals in the construction industry. They are responsibility in cost management. The role of Quantity Surveyors is cost planning, cost management and measuring works. They can be involved in cost planning, cost management, procurement contract administration, feasibility studies and asset financial management and all activities related to making the financial operation of the property and construction industries.

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- Preparation of a BOQ for building elements-Task 011.1 Identify the need for a standard method of measurements (SMM7) for measurement of building work.
-IntroductionThe standard method of measurement (SMM7) is used for the measurement of construction works. In such a case the builder is expected to do and the employer to pay for neither more or less than the quantities given, an arrangement which is fare to both parties. Thus it will be seen how important accuracy is in the preparation of the bill. If however, the bill of quantities needs such as standard measurement of building work. Because of that as quantity surveyors are using standard method of measurement (SMM7) for the building works like references. SMM7 was produced by Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS). This is very important to preparing Bill of Quantity (BOQ) and also important to the construction industry. As Quantity Surveyors, We must have the full knowledge of the standard method of measurements. The standard method of measurements provides uniform basics for measuring building works and embodies the essentials of good practice. It gives guidelines as to what should be measured for various parts of the construction process. It allows for estimators to measure works in a standard format for easy preparation of a Bill of Quantities and easy comparison of tenders. SMM7 is used throughout the world by the quantity surveyors. It represents a consistent method for measuring construction works. This key source is also essential resource for trainees and students studying surveying. Every quantity surveyors and building surveyors have to use the standard method of measurement for the Bill of Quantity, take off list and abstracting.

Needs for the standard method of measurement (SMM7) Page 3

- Preparation of a BOQ for building elements The standard method measurement is very common construction industrial book. Every construction professionals can understand this books method in world wide.

Standard method of measurement (SMM7) is considered as a general method that is used for measuring building works. In this world every one can use different methods for measuring building works as they own style. But that work cannot be understood by everyone. Because of that it will become very difficult situation. So this problem will be cleared by standard method of measurement.

It gives a perfect method to measuring work.

Standard method of measurement has proper methods to do the calculations of the building project. It shows how to do measurement properly for each part of building works. Required details for measurements are given and explained here easily. Because of this basic method, everyone can understand this.

It is very helpful to do prizing very easily.

When constructing a building by following the measuring rules and methods according to the standard method of measurement (SMM7) book, prizing system will become easier and also helpful for the preparation of the Bill of Quantity and abstracting. As well the prizing building material will become very easier.

We can identify the correct amount to build the building.


Without the SMM7, the contractor cannot identify the correct amount to build the building. So, this amount may be more or less. Because of that, it is very difficult to the client to pay the money. If the consultant quantity surveyor and contractor quantity surveyor use SMM7, the wasting money will be less and also satisfaction of the client will become more.

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- Preparation of a BOQ for building elements-

It is very helpful for preparing Bill of Quantity (BOQ), take off sheet, abstract sheets
and other documents.

Each contractor will receive an identical set of documents including Bill of Quantities, drawings and specifications. If these common arrangements of work section has been adopted. All of these documents will cross-reference to each other.

Advantages of the standard method of measurements. 1. Very common measuring methods in all over the world. 2. Very easy to measuring building material. 3. Helpful to prepare Bill of Quantity, take off, abstracting and other documents. 4. Easy to identify the correct amount of the project. 5. Easy to clear all doubts and it is very safety too for the documents. 6. Provide a very strong basis for financial administration. 7. Easily understand every construction professionals. 8. Client and constructor can save the money and time. 9. Easy reference.

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- Preparation of a BOQ for building elements-

1.2 Explain the types/classification of measurement rules in SMM.


There are mainly four rules given in the standard method of measurements (SMM7). There are.. Measurement rules Definition rules Coverage rules Supplementary information Lets see the brief detail about these rules. Measurement rules Measurement rules implemented when work shall be measured and the method by which quantities shall be computed. If there are any problems when calculating measurements, measurements rules make way to solve it. Example 01: D Groundwork D20 Excavating and filling
CLASSIFICATION TABLE MEASUREMENT RULES
1.Commencing level stated where > 0.25 m below existing ground level M3 The quantities given are the bulk before excavating and no allowance is made for subsequent variations to bulk or for extra space for working or to accommodate earth work support M4 Excavating ground beams between piles for not is

2.Excavating

1.topsoil preservation

1.Avarage depth stated

M2

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- Preparation of a BOQ for building elementsmeasured under 2.5 & 6.*.*

(Table 01) Definition rules Definition rules explain the extent and limits of the work represented by a word or expression used in the rules and in a bill of quantities prepared in accordance with the rules. These rules give the definition for every building work according to the SMM7. Example 02: F Masonry F10 Brick/Block walling
CLASSIFICATION TABLE DEFINITION RULES
1. Walls 1.Thickness stated 1.Vertical M2

1.Building against other work 2.Bonding to other work 3.Used as formwork, details of temporary strutting stated 4.Building overhand

D5 Battering walls are sloping walls with

parallel sides D6 Tapering walls are walls of diminishing thickness D7 Thickness stated for tapering walls is mean thickness D8 Isolated piers are isolated walls whose length on plan is < four times their expect caused by

thickness, where opening

(Table 02) Coverage rules Coverage rules draw attention to particular incidental work which shall be deemed to be included in the appropriate items in a bill of quantity to the extent that such work is included

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- Preparation of a BOQ for building elementsin the tender documents. Where the coverage rules include materials they shall be mentioned in the item descriptions.

Example 03: F Masonry F10 Brick/Block walling


CLASSIFICATION TABLE
1. Walls 1.Thickness stated 1.Vertical M2

COVERAGE RULES
1.Building against other work 2.Bonding to other work 3.Used as formwork, details of temporary strutting stated 4.Building overhand
C2 Brickwork and blockwork bonded to another material is deemed to include extra material for bonding

(Table 03) Supplementary information Supplementary information Contains rules covering any additional information that is required.
Within the supplementary rules everything above the horizontal line, which is immediately below the classification table heading, is applicable throughout that table. Example 04: L Windows/Doors/Stairs L20 Doors/Shutters/Hatches CLASSIFICATION TABLE
1.Doors 1.Dimensioned diagram nr 1.Appriximate weight stated

SUPPLEMENTRY INFORMATION
S1 Kind and quantity of materials and if timber whether sawn

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- Preparation of a BOQ for building elementsor wrote S2 Preservatives treatment applied as part of the production process

(Table 04)

1.3 Identify and describe major parts of a Bill of Quantity.


-IntroductionThe Bill of Quantity (BOQ) is a set of document which describes the details of the building materials, quantities and their cost from take off. It also describes the terms and conditions of the construction or repair contract and itemizes all work to enable a contractor to price the work. Bill of quantities are prepared by the quantity surveyor.

Taking off

Abstracting
-Steps in Preparation of a Bill of Quantity-

BOQ

In the first step of bill of quantities, the measurements are taken off from the drawing and entered on measurement sheet (taking off sheet). The measurement to be taken out would depend upon the unit of measurement. In the second step all the items along with the net result obtained in the first step transferred from measurement sheets to specially ruled sheets for abstracting. The third step is to enter the confirmed quantities for the particular work sections into standard bill sheets for the purpose of tendering. Major parts of a bill of quantity Preliminaries Preamble Prime cost sum Provisional sum
Sectional trade bills

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- Preparation of a BOQ for building elements General summary

Bill of Quantity

Measured works Eg: Concrete Walls Roof (Table 05) Preliminary

Non- Measured works Preliminaries Provisional sum Prime sum

The preliminary includes for the unseen works which cannot be mentioned while taking off. These

preliminaries cover many important financial matters that relate to the contract as a whole and this preliminary is not confined for any particular section. This part includes temporary works that are needed for construction works. Eg: 01. Electricity 02. Transports 03. Communication 04. Water 05. Safety nets

Preamble

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- Preparation of a BOQ for building elementsThis is written at the head of each sectional bill. It describes quality of the materials and workmanship. Preambles are clauses usually inserted at the head of each work section bill and normally contain Quality and description of the materials to be used Standards of workmanship. Pricing instructions & other information to the contractors.

In practice, the full requirements of the SMM are frequently given in descriptions and the remaining information is contained in preambles, thus reducing length of billed item descriptions. Most of the preambles are of a specification type, and there is an advantage in inserting it in the bills of quantities, which is always a contract document, whereas the specification is not. Example: Excavating topsoil: Clearing site vegetation and topsoil excavation to be done area covered by the 500mm from the external girth of the external foundation. Mechanical or Manual excavation shall use appropriately. Prime cost sum Prime Cost Items (PCs) are items that either have not been selected or whose price is not known at the time the contract is entered into, and for which the cost of supply and delivery the builder has made allowance for in the contract price. Typical examples of a PC include white goods such as cook-tops & ovens , bath-ware such as vanities, baths and taps, door & door furniture such as handles and locks and floor coverings such as tiles and carpets. Provisional sum

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- Preparation of a BOQ for building elementsA Provisional Sum Item (PS) is often confused with PCs. PSs have a much wider application and are used where there is a mixture of items and labour (installation). A PS is not to be used where the relevant item is for supply only. A PS is used for work (including labour and materials) for which the builder, after making reasonable inquiries, cannot give a definite price at the time the contract is signed. Common examples include landscaping, tiling and concreting.

Sectional trade bills This sectional trade bill describes quality, quantity, scope of the work. Sectional trade bills have divided in to the section in accidence with section given by SMM. Example: General summary The simplest approach is to provide monetary collections at the end of each group of work sections, such as D: Groundwork and E: In-situ concrete/Large precast concrete, the totals of which are then transferred to the General Summary. Ground work In situ concrete / Large precast concrete Masonry work

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1.4 Write item descriptions for three different types of items in preliminaries bill of the above project.
Preliminaries are in section of non-measured items. In standard method of measurement (SMM7), section A describes about preliminaries. This is very difficult part of bill of quantity (BOQ) to prizing. There are some preliminaries bill, which will be appeared in bill of quantity.

The contractor provides temporary name board, water supply, telephone facility, fire protection and all necessary electrical supply and temporary wiring and meters.

Contractor accepts to contract, furnish equip and maintain contractors office accommodation stores and temporary sheds for workers.

Contractor supplies all tool items, measuring tools, compacting equipment, all necessary items for the work and well trained workers because they knows how to manage the machines.

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1.5 Write specifications for selected two work items of your choice for given project for task 02.
Earth work in excavation in foundation Excavation Foundation trenches shall be dug out to the exact width of foundation concrete and the sides shall be vertical. If the soil is not good and does not permit vertical sides, the sides should be sloped back or protected with timber shoring. Excavated earth shall not be placed within 1 m of the edge of the trench.

Finish of trench The bottom of foundation trenches shall be perfectly levelled both longitudinally and transversely and the sides of the trench shall be dressed perfectly vertical from bottom up to the least thickness of loose concrete so that concrete may be laid to the exact width as per design. The bed of the trench shall be lightly watered and well rammed. Excess digging if done through mistake shall be filled with concrete at the expense of the contractor. If rocks or boulders are found during excavation, these should be removed and the bed of the trenches shall be levelled and made hard by consolidating the earth. Foundation concrete shall not be laid before the inspection and approval of the trench by the engineer-in-charge.

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- Preparation of a BOQ for building elements Finds Any treasure and valuables or materials found during the excavation, shall be property of the Government.

Water in foundation Water, if any accumulates in the trench, should be baled or pumped out without any extra payment and necessary precautions shall be taken to prevent surface water to enter into the trench.

Trench filling After the concrete has been laid masonry has been constructed the remaining portion of the trenches shall be filled up with earth in layers of 15 cm (6") and watered and well rammed. The earth filling shall be free from rubbish and refuse matters and all clods shall be broken before filling. Surplus earth not required, shall be removed and disposed, and site shall be levelled and dressed.

Measurement The measurement of the excavation shall be taken in cu m (cu ft) as for rectangular trench bottom width of concrete multiplied by the vertical depth of foundation from ground level and multiplied by the length of trenches.

Doors and windows Timber shall be of the kind of as specified, may be teak, shisham, sal, deodar, etc. The timber shall be of the best quality, well seasoned and free from sap, knots, warps, cracks and other defects. All wood work shall be planned and neatly truly finished to the exact dimensions. All joints shall be neat and strong, truly and accurately fitted, and glued before being fitted, and glued before being fitted together.

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- Preparation of a BOQ for building elements Chaukhats The chaukhats shall be properly framed and joined by mortise and tenon joint with hard wooden pins, and the joints shall be coated with white lead before being fitted together. The chaukhats shall be of section as per drawing may be 7.5 10 cm , 10 10 cm , 8 12 cm or similar section. For double leaves the chaukhats shall be of 8 12 cm section. Concealed faces of chaukhats shall be painted with two coats of coaltar or solignum and other faces shall be painted with a prime coat before fixing in position.

Shutters or leaves (Joinery) The shutters may be panelled, glazed, part planned and part glazed battened, or venetian as specified. The thickness of shutters shall be 3cm to 5cm as specified. The styles, fails and panels shall be planed and neatly and truly finished to the exact dimensions. The styles and rails shall be framed properly and accurately with mortise and tenon joint and fixed with wooden pins. Panels shall be of one piece without any joint and shall be fixed with 12mm insertions into the rails and styles provided with mouldings as per design. The thickness of panels shall be 12mm to 25mm as specified. All rail over 15cm in width shall have double tenon. No tenon shall exceed one-fourth of thickness of the plank. For glazed windows sash bars shall not be less than 40mm 40mm and glasses shall be fixed with nails and putty or with wooden beadings over felt as specified. All joints shall be glued before being fitted.

Fittings All doors shall be provided with handles on both sides and all windows with handles on the inner site. One of the doors of each room shall be provided with sliding bolts on the outer side for locking. Necessary hinges, tower bolts, hook bolts, stops for keeping the leaves open and also wooden blocks to prevent leaves striking the jambs of wall etc. shall be provided. The fittings may be of iron, brass or oxidized as specified of approved quality. Screws shall Page 16

- Preparation of a BOQ for building elementsbe of suitable length and correct diameter and shall be fixed with screw driver not by hammering.

Painting The surface of shutters and chaukhats shall be painted with two coats of approved paint over a coat of priming. Faces of chaukhats in contact with masonry shall be painted with two coats of solignum or coaltar or other preservative before fixing. A prime coat of painting with primer paint shall be applied on the remaining before fixing in position.

Measurement The rate shall be for the complete work including hanging and fixing in position. The chaukhats shall be measured in cu m under wood work for the finished work, and the length of tenons, horns, etc shall be added to right lengths. The measurement of shutters not be measured. The painting shall be excluded if specified, and the fittings supplied by the department or owner, but the fixing of the fittings and hanging in position shall be included the rate.

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1.6 Differentiate provisional sums and prime cost sums as against the measured work and illustrate the same with example from the above project.

Prime cost sums Prime cost sum, the term is a sum in the contract specifications for construction or services by a designated subcontractor performed for or goods or materials included to be purchased from a supplier named. These amounts do not include any profit by the general contractor is required and it is expected that its addition to the general sum of the following costs and the presence of the general contractor, subcontractors commissioned as a planned element in which it is preliminary. They can be captured at fixed time or expense. The cost is determined by customer advisors and dyed in the tender documents. The contractor may also be asked to perform the work covered in some cases.

Provisional sums If the work is not described and, in accordance with applicable SMM7 it should be given as a provisional sum and identified as the work is defined or undefined. Be identified in the work item, a description and an indication of how much work can be given, and the contractor will Page 18

- Preparation of a BOQ for building elementsmake due allowance as programming, planning and preliminary pricing have. If this information is not submitted, the job is as vague and the contractor is not considered to be no consideration in the preliminary programming, planning and pricing will have.

Different between the prime cost sum and provisional sum

Provisional amounts are to be made before work begins. But the prime cost sums are to be taken when doing any work. Provisional sums are not exclusive to the benefit of the general contractor. But the prime costs are considered income exclusive of the general contractor.

Preliminary figures for the work, the actual price is not defined. But the limits of prime cost has been defined medium businesses purchased materials.

A total cost is an amount for labour or services to be performed by a designated subcontractor or for materials or goods to be obtained from a designated provider. But are temporary are included in the bills of quantity of items of work that cannot be fully described or measured in accordance with the rules of the measurement method at the time of tender.

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Conclusion
In quantity surveying studies, building measurement is one of the important subject. After this assignment we can get the good knowledge of measurement. Now, we can identify the need for the standard method of measurement, we can explain the types of classification rules in a SMM, we can describe major parts of Bill of Quantity, we can know about preliminaries, specifications, provisional sums and prime cost sums. In construction industry, building measurement should be done properly. By this method as mentioned in task 1, many problems can be avoided. Therefore only profit can be obtained without any losses. When measurement is taken about building, all required parts should be added according to SMM. Some undefined work also should be considered properly. In this measurement, major parts of BOQ should be applied properly. Then only accurate estimation can be obtained. That is why the importance of building measurement is felt in all countries including Srilanka. Otherwise money will be wasted for building work.Therefore when measurement is done for building works, more care should be taken on each part.

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References
Christopher J. Willis and Don Newman (1935) Elements of Quantity Surveying. 8th ed. Oxford Blackwell scientific publications.(pp 5-6). Sandra lee, William Trench and Andrew Wills (2005) Williss Elements of Quantity Surveying. 10th ed. Blackwell publishing. (pp 4-5). Ivor H. Seeley (1999) Building Quantities Explained. 5th ed. Activair. (pp 2-3) Standard Method of Measurement of Building Works.1998. 7th Edition. Designed and set by NBS Services Ltd, Specification book (pp 565-566 , 584-585) (Author, year, publisher unknown) Lecture notes of 1st semester.

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