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Food Safety Training

(Hygiene and Sanitation)

Concept paper
Contact address Sandocan Debebe Tell : +251911537691 +251911421729 E-mail: sandocan@ibc.gov.et

P.o.box: 70574 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Team profile :
Sandokan Debebe (M.Sc): Addis Ababa Science and T echnology University (food science and Nutrition) Anteneh Tamirat (M.Sc): Ethiopian Biodiversity Institute (Microbiologist) Dagim Alemayehu (M.Sc): Hawasa University Lecturer and Hotel Manager Asegid kibret (B.Sc): Hotel manager Bruk lemma (B.Sc): Ethiopian Biodiversity Institute (Biologist)

What is food safety problem? An adequate supply of safe, wholesome and healthful food is essential to the health and well-being of humans. However, at times, food itself can pose a health threat. Food can be contaminated by chemicals, natural toxins, foreign matter or microorganisms. It is estimated that more than 250 foodborne pathogenic organisms exist in the
world so far. The consumption of contaminated or unsafe foods may

result an illness, also referred to as foodborne disease. Foodborne diseases remain a major public health problem across the globe. The problem is severe in developing countries due to difficulties in securing optimal hygienic food handling practices. In developing countries, up to an estimated 70% of cases of diarrheal disease are associated with the consumption of contaminated food. Reliable statistics on foodborne diseases are not available due to poor or nonexistent reporting systems in most developing countries. Food Safety Problem Status in the World
In countries where disease surveillance is well established, foodborne diseases are well monitored. There were about 737 outbreaks of foodborne diseases with a total of 52,011 cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Thirty three percents of these outbreaks were related to food consumption in restaurants, cafeterias, and delicatessens. In England and Wales, the majority of cases, about 58%, were associated with food prepared and served in restaurants, hotels, clubs, and other food establishments.

Food Safety Problem Status in Ethiopia

In Ethiopia, data on sanitary conditions and ensuing harmful effects on health are very limited. Few studies have been actually conducted in Addis Ababa, Awassa, and Zeway indicated the prevailing poor sanitary conditions in mass catering establishments. It is reported that up to 60 percent of the current disease burden in Ethiopia is attributable to poor sanitation where 15 percent of total deaths are from diarrhea, mainly among the large population of children under five. More than 250,000 children die in Ethiopia every year from sanitation and hygiene related diseases.

Various factors such as lack of adequate knowledge and skill, refuse management systems, psychological problems, general sanitary standards of the house, improper use of sanitation facilities, improper
waste management, hand washing lavatories, and dishwashing

facilities affect food safety in food establishments. Food handling, food preparation and servicing, purchasing, transporting practices are other important factors in determining the safety of food. Conditions of cooking utensils, food storage systems (time and temperature) as well as food handlers knowledge and practices similarly affect food safety directly or indirectly. What are the hidden reasons for food contamination? Food businesses must make sure that all food handlers and their supervisors and managers have the right skills and knowledge in food safety and food hygiene for the work they do.

It is a legal requirement and part of your Food Safety Program; who has anything to do with food or a surface that is likely to come in contact with food ie. tables, fridges or chopping boards. It covers staff who manufacture, process, prepare, (such as chopping, cooking, thawing), serve, deliver, transport or package food in your business. Even staff who clean your premises and equipment are involved in food handling practice indirectly. Anyone who is likely to have contact with food or a food surface can affect the safety of the food. How will the skills and knowledge requirement help your business? Making sure that food handlers have the right food safety skills and knowledge is not only about meeting your legal requirements but it also makes good business sense (i.e profit u by attracting many customers). Your customers today are well informed and aware of unsafe condition. They expect safe food. If they observe unsafe food handling they may not complain but often will not come back again. Assure your customers that you take food safety seriously.

What is the difference between skills and knowledge? A skill is being able to do something. It means that food handlers and their supervisors are able to do the things at their work that keep food safe. Knowledge is know about or understanding something. It means that food handlers and their supervisors know what must be done to keep food safe.

What is the use of food safety training to your business? Food safety is safety discipline which describes how to handle, prepare and store food in a protective manner and consequently is used for prevent us from various harmful food related diseases. And it is also a legal requirement that all individuals operating within a food environment should be trained in the correct disciplines of food safety and food hygiene to ensure safety measures and safety standards are consistent and adhered to at all time.

Therefore, staff training is an essential and indispensable part of Human Resource Management and the importance and value of staff training has long been recognized. Consider the popular and often repeated quotation, Give a person a fish and you feed him for a day. Teach a person to fish and you feed him for a lifetime. (Mcclelland 2002,) This understandable and far-sighted saying was from a famous ancient Chinese thinker and philosopher Confucius. This saying has explained clearly how important it is to train an employee to conquer his/her work than just give him/her a job of income.

Course outline
Course = Food Safety and Hygiene Credit =

1. Sanitation and its challenges 1.1. 1.2. Providing safe food and its risks Sanitary programs HACCP and SAFE

2. Microworld 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. Types of microorganisms and their characteristics Growth and multiplication of (Microbial Growth) Factors affecting the growth of Microorganisms Prevention and Control of Microbial growth in Catering Practice 2.5. Distribution of Microbial and their effects on humans

3. Food Contamination and Spoilage 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. 3.5. 4. Sources of Contamination and Spoilage Food Adulteration Perishability of foods (Shelf-life) Food poisoning (Food intoxication) and its categories Food infection and its categories

Customer handling System and How to Satisfy Customers

5. Personal Hygiene and Grooming

5.1. Necessity for personal hygiene: Safe Food handler 5.2. The Healthy Employee: Attitude and Personal appearance 5.3. Sanitary Practices 5.4. Prohibited Habits and Actions 5.5. Proper Working Uniform (Grooming) 5.6. Rest, Exercise and Relaxation 6. Hygienic Food Handling 6.1. 6.2. 6.3. Purchasing and Receiving Food Food Storage Sanitary Procedures while preparing, cooking and holding food 6.4. 7. Serving and Displaying of Food (Service Hygiene)

Sanitation of Premises (Environmental Hygiene) 7.1. 7.2. 7.3. 7.4. 7.5. 7.6. The Premises Equipment Working Facilities (Sanitary facilities) Cleaning and Sanitary Solid Waste Disposal Pest Control

8. 9.

Nutrition /Cooking and nutrients Sanitary regulations and Standards in Ethiopia