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SEP 00

DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS AND STRUCTURES

GEMS A-1D22

TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE 1. 2. SCOPE ............................................................. REFERENCES ........................................................ 2.1 2.2 2.3 3. Purchaser Specifications .................................... Purchaser Drawings .......................................... Industry Codes and Standards ................................ 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9

DESIGN CONDITIONS ................................................. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 General ..................................................... Wind, Seismic, and Snow Loadings ............................ Steel Structures ............................................ Datums and Relative Elevations ..............................

4.

CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS AND STRUCTURES ............................... 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 General ..................................................... Foundations ................................................. Floors ...................................................... Area Paving ................................................. Precast Concrete Members .................................... Concrete Trenches ........................................... Hot Equipment Considerations ................................

5.

PILE FOUNDATIONS .................................................. 5.1 5.2 General ..................................................... Uplift Considerations .......................................

PAGE 1 OF 9 TEXACO GENERAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

SEP 00

DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS AND STRUCTURES

GEMS A-1D22

1.

SCOPE This specification defines minimum general requirements for design of concrete and pile foundations and steel and concrete structures.

2. 2.1

REFERENCES Purchaser Specifications This specification contains references to the following Purchaser specifications: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. GEMS GC, General Conditions - General Equipment and Material Specifications. GEMS A-1P, Construction of Concrete Structures (PIP STS03001). GEMS A-2P, Site Preparation (PIP CVS02100). GEMS B-1D, Design of Buildings. GEMS B-3D, Design of Blast Resistant Buildings. GEMS G-2D, Refinery Process Unit Layout (PNC00003). GEMS G-3D, Climatic Design Data. GEMS J-3D, Sewers, Drains, and Paving Arrangement. GEMS L-1D, Design of Electrical Systems and Equipment.

10. GEMS M-1D, Fireproofing. 11. GEMS S-1M, Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel. 2.2 Purchaser Drawings This specification contains references to the following Purchaser drawings: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 2.3 4S-3615, Typical Details - Crushed Stone Ring Tank Foundation. 4S-5134, Typical Details - Concrete Ring Tank Foundation. 4S-5848, Details - Construction and Expansion Joints - Concrete Structures and Slabs. 4S-5851, Details - Tower Skirt Drain. 4S-6465, Typical Details - Foundation for Product Suction Sump. 6S-6887, Minimum Platform Area Requirements for Horizontal Vessels. 6S-6892, General Platform Requirements - Vertical and Horizontal Vessels. 13S-181, Standard Fireproofing for Structural Steel.

Industry Codes and Standards This specification contains references to the following industry codes and standards: 2.3.1 American Concrete Institute (ACI) STD 318, Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete.

PAGE 2 OF 9 TEXACO GENERAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

SEP 00

DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS AND STRUCTURES

GEMS A-1D22

2.3.2

American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Standard 7-95, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures 1995 Edition.

2.3.3

Process Industry Practices (PIP) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. STC01015, Structural Design Criteria. STF05501, Fixed Ladders and Cages. STF05521, Angle Railing for Walking and Working Surface Details. STF05535, Vessel Circular Platform Details. STS02360, Driven Piles. STS02380, Application of ACI 336.1-94, Standard Specification for the Construction of Drilled Piers. STS02465, Augered Cast-In-Place Pile Specification.

3. 3.1

DESIGN CONDITIONS General 1. 2. 3. General conditions shall comply with GEMS GC. Buildings that require blast resistant design shall comply with GEMS B-3D. Except for top platform on vessels over 3 feet 0 inch in diameter, platforms on vertical vessels shall be circular. Platform loadings and details shall comply with PIP STF05535. Layout and location of platforms, walks, stairs, and ladders shall comply with GEMS G-2D and Drawings 6S-6887 and 6S-6892. Fixed ladders and cages shall comply with PIP STF05501. Railing details shall comply with PIP STF05521. Site preparation and earthwork shall be performed in accordance with GEMS A-2P.

4. 5. 6. 7. 3.2

Wind, Seismic, and Snow Loadings 1. 2. Wind, seismic, and snow loading shall be determined in accordance with GEMS G-3D. With ASCE Standard 7-95, Exposure C shall be used to determine wind load for all equipment and structures, except pipe racks inside process unit limits, which shall use Exposure B. Control buildings shall be classified in accordance with ASCE Standard 7-95, Category IV. Other buildings and non building structures shall be classified in accordance with ASCE Standard 7-95 according to building function or type of substance to be supported.

3.

3.3

Steel Structures 1. 2. 3. Clearances for steel structures shall comply with GEMS G-2D. Design of steel structures shall consider vat sizes of hot dip galvanizing facilities that may be economically used by fabricator. Structural steel members shall be fireproofed in accordance with GEMS M-1D.

PAGE 3 OF 9 TEXACO GENERAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

SEP 00

DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS AND STRUCTURES

GEMS A-1D22

4. 5.

Structural steel shall be fabricated and erected in accordance with GEMS S-1M. Back to back structural steel surfaces that are painted but not galvanized or seal welded shall not be permitted in locations subject to atmospheric corrosion.

3.4

Datums and Relative Elevations Unless specified otherwise by Purchaser, paving, structures, and equipment within plant shall be located in accordance with the following datums and relative elevations: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Paving design and layout shall comply with GEMS G-2D and J-3D. High point of finished concrete paving shall be used as datum and shall be set at an elevation of 100.0 feet. Plant bench mark corresponding to reference elevation of 100.0 feet shall comply with GEMS G-3D. Low point of finished paving shall not be less than 99.25 feet. Totally enclosed buildings (except control houses, which shall comply with GEMS L-1D): a. b. Base of columns, top of grade beams, and high point of floor shall be set at 100.5 feet. Top of foundations for pumps, compressors (unless required otherwise by complementary equipment), vessels, and other equipment shall be set at 101.0 feet.

6.

Open Sided Buildings a. Base of columns, top of foundations for pumps, compressors (unless required otherwise by complementary equipment), vessels, and other equipment shall be set at 100.5 feet. High point of floor at building perimeter shall be 100.0 feet.

b. 7.

Structures Other Than Buildings and Equipment Outside of Buildings a. b. Base of columns and top of foundations for pumps and vessels shall be set at 100.5 feet. Elevation of top of foundation for heat exchangers (varies) shall not be less than 100.5 feet. Heat exchanger foundations shall be set as low as possible with necessary clearance for piping.

4. 4.1

CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS AND STRUCTURES General 1. 2. 3. Unless specified otherwise, concrete foundations and structures shall be designed in accordance with PIP STC01015. Concrete foundations and structures shall be constructed in accordance with GEMS A-1P. If strength method of ACI 318 is used, load factors shall comply with ACI 318, except that load factors may be decreased in accordance with the following table, provided resultant section is not less than section required for other applicable load combinations:

PAGE 4 OF 9 TEXACO GENERAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

SEP 00

DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS AND STRUCTURES

GEMS A-1D22

Load Combination Test Test w/Wind Short Term Operational Upset 4.

Load Factor Reduction 16-2/3% 25% 16-2/3%

Design shall take into consideration constructability of structures, including use of cubing, circular shapes, precast members, and standardized shapes.

4.2

Foundations 4.2.1 General 1. 2. Minimum stability ratio of soil bearing foundations shall be 1.5 during construction and 2.0 during operation. Allowable bearing load on soil may be increased 33-1/3% for load combinations that include wind, seismic, hydrotest, or catalyst load. Unless specified otherwise, bottoms of soil bearing foundations shall extend to good soil below frost line and below expansive soil in region of wetting and drying. Bottoms of equipment foundations inside enclosed buildings do not need to extend below frost line. Bottoms of grade beams that span between column footings may be located above frost line and in expansive soils. Grade beams shall be designed for wall load plus load of any equipment to be handled across grade beam or for 2000 pounds at center, whichever is greater.

3.

4. 5. 6.

4.2.2

Foundations on Pavement Floors 1. Small pipe supports (jackscrew type), stairs, ladders, and light structural columns may be supported on concrete paving or concrete floors, provided differential settlement does not cause harmful effects. Flooring/paving that supports foundations shall be adequately reinforced. In absence of adequate soil data, maximum soil pressure under floors/paving shall not exceed 500 psf. Foundations on pavement/floors shall not be used over or near underground lines that will require excavation for inspection and maintenance. Foundations for electrical switchracks shall be independent and shall not be supported on pavement/floors. Design of equipment foundations that are supported by pavement/floors shall consider soil conditions.

2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 4.2.3

Adjacent Foundation Considerations 1. 2. Foundations shall be designed such that allowable soil pressure under adjacent lower foundation is not exceeded. In absence of adequate soil data, pressure underneath foundation shall be assumed to spread at a 45 degree angle down and away from its lower edge.

PAGE 5 OF 9 TEXACO GENERAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

SEP 00

DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS AND STRUCTURES

GEMS A-1D22

3.

Depth of foundations shall be established such that soil within 45 degree envelope is not disturbed due to excavation required for adjacent underground piping/sewers.

4.2.4

Vessel Foundations 1. Foundation piers that support fixed cradles on horizontal vessels shall be designed for all lateral load developed by vessel. Foundation piers that support cradles with slotted bolt holes shall be designed for friction load between cradle and pier. Lateral load on piers shall not be resisted by pavement around piers. Tower skirt drains shall comply with Drawing 4S-5851.

2.

3. 4. 4.2.5

Heavy Machinery Foundations 1. Foundation slabs shall have minimum thickness of 2 feet plus L/30, where L is longest horizontal dimension (in feet) of foundation slab. Foundations shall have minimum reinforcement of 84 pounds per cubic yard of concrete, except for foundation slab, which shall have minimum reinforcement of 50 pounds per cubic yard. Foundations for reciprocating machinery shall have the following characteristics: a. Soil bearing pressure underneath foundations shall not exceed 25% of net allowable static load. Pile foundations require no reduction in allowable pile capacity. Deflection (double amplitude) measured at any point on foundation shall be maximum of 0.003 inch or as suggested by equipment manufacturer, whichever is smaller.

2.

3.

b.

4.

Foundations for rotary machinery shall have the following characteristics: a. Foundation slabs for rotary machinery on elevated structures shall not weigh less than combined weight of upper table, columns, walls, and machines. Upper table and foundation slab shall be as rigid as possible. Machine loads shall be directly over vertical supports if possible. Deflection (double amplitude) measured at any point on foundation shall be maximum of 0.002 inch.

b. 4.2.6

Tank Foundations 1. 2. 3. Crushed stone ring tank foundations shall comply with Drawing 4S-3615. Concrete ring tank foundations shall comply with Drawing 4S-5134. Foundations for product suction sumps shall comply with Drawing 4S-6465.

PAGE 6 OF 9 TEXACO GENERAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

SEP 00

DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS AND STRUCTURES

GEMS A-1D22

4.3

Floors 1. 2. Concrete floors shall be at least 4 inches thick. Soil bearing floors in buildings shall be water proofed in accordance with GEMS B-1D.

4.4

Area Paving 1. 2. Area paving is paving that is provided around or beneath equipment or that which is used as work area or storage area. Area paving shall as a minimum be provided for: a. b. 3. Access or work space around equipment. Collection of contaminated water or other sewer liquids.

Area paving for open area shall be flexible asphalt. Congested areas and areas subject to drips or spills harmful to asphalt shall be paved with concrete. Concrete paving shall be at least 4 inches thick, reinforced with minimum 6 x 6 x 6 gage welded wire fabric placed at centerline of slab cross section. Paving in trucking areas and areas where live loads exceed 200 psf shall be 6 inches thick. Adequate paving thickness, reinforcement, and construction and expansion joints shall be provided where yard cranes and mobile equipment are required to handle such equipment as exchanger bundles, air cooler sections, heater tubes, and reactor catalyst. If uneconomical or impractical to pour concrete continuously, required construction joints shall: a. b. Comply with Drawing 4S-5848 and ACI 318. Be shown on drawings.

4.

5. 6.

7.

8. 9.

Surfaces of concrete paving subject to acid spillage shall be acid proofed with materials and procedures approved by Purchaser. Where more than one pipeline and/or sewer is installed under concrete paved areas, concrete surface shall be permanently scored with lines to define strip boundaries over such lines.

10. Additional paving requirements shall comply with GEMS J-3D. 4.5 Precast Concrete Members 1. 2. 3. Column joints on precast columns shall be located above paving. Connections between precast columns and their foundation shall be subject to Purchaser approval. Precast concrete beams that support piping shall have steel plate or structural shape as slide plate. Beams shall comply with Drawing 13S-181, Detail B. Inserts, such as Unistrut may be used in precast members to support miscellaneous small members, such as knee braces and hangers. End connections of struts between precast pipe bents shall be designed to minimize fireproofing requirements and shall be subject to Purchaser approval.

4.

5.

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DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS AND STRUCTURES

GEMS A-1D22

4.6

Concrete Trenches 1. Unless specified otherwise, walls and floors for concrete trenches, reinforced with minimum of 6 x 6 x 6 gage welded wire fabric, shall be: a. b. 2. 3. 4 inches thick up to 24 inches deep. 6 inches thick over 24 inches deep.

Trenches inside buildings shall be covered with removable steel grating sections designed for 150 psf. Trenches outside buildings shall be covered with removable checkered plate sections or removable concrete slabs where heavy loads are anticipated. Except for acid lines and subject to Purchaser approval, deep trench pipe lines for special conditions may be filled with sand and covered with 2 inches of grout suitably scored to define limits of the grout covering. Surface drainage to trenches with pipelines shall be avoided. Trenches with lines subject to vibration shall not be tied to building columns or grade beams. Exposed surfaces of concrete trenches for acid lines shall be acid proofed.

4.

5. 6. 7. 4.7

Hot Equipment Considerations 1. Concrete foundations/structures shall be isolated from hot equipment with spacers, lugs, rings, or heat resistant concrete such that temperature of concrete does not exceed 250F. Heat resistant concrete shall have compressive strength equal to that of structural concrete it protects.

2.

5. 5.1

PILE FOUNDATIONS General 1. Piles shall be designed in accordance with: a. b. c. d. e. 2. 3. PIP STS02360 for driven piles. PIP STS02380 for drilled piers. PIP STS02465 for augered cast in place piles. Recommendations of geotechnical report. Local experience.

Spacing and cutoff elevations of piles shall be subject to Purchaser approval. Top of piles shall penetrate 2 inches into bottom of large slab foundations, such as those for cooling towers, cooling boxes, and oil-water separators, or 4 inches into bottom of foundations for all other major equipment. Reinforcing bars in bottom of footings and slabs shall be minimum of 3 inches above pile cutoff. Allowable design loads on piles subject to lateral loads shall be subject to Purchaser approval. Timber piles shall not be spliced.

4. 5. 6.

PAGE 8 OF 9 TEXACO GENERAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

SEP 00

DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS AND STRUCTURES

GEMS A-1D22

7. 8.

Unless approved otherwise by Purchaser, foundations that use combination of piles and soil bearing shall not be used. Pile foundations shall be designed such that load on piles does not exceed their capacity. Pile capacity may be increased 33-1/3% for load combinations that include wind, seismic, hydrotest, or catalyst load. Top of pile caps shall be at elevation such that there is nominal clearance between top of caps and bottom of pavement, underground piping, electrical conduit envelopes, etc.

9.

5.2

Uplift Considerations 1. 2. Special details required for piles subject to uplift shall be shown on design drawings. Unless specified otherwise by Purchaser, uplift connections shall consist of hooks embedded in pile cap. Details of uplift hooks shall be subject to Purchaser approval prior to installation. All uplift forces shall be taken by hook. Uplift forces shall not be taken by bond between pile and pile cap. Hooks for timber piles shall be bolted through pile butt. Hooks and bolts for timber piles shall be hot dipped galvanized. Portions of hooks and bolts exposed below bottom of pile cap shall be doped with coal tar and encased in concrete with minimum cover of 4 inches. Reinforcing bars in concrete piles connected to uplift hook shall be extended to pile tip. Pile foundations shall be designed such that uplift on any part of foundation does not exceed uplift capacity of piles.

3. 4.

5. 6.

PAGE 9 OF 9 TEXACO GENERAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT