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DELTA terminology

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abstract noun

noun that names an idea, quality, feeling or action that is not necessarily objectified, e.g. fear, justice, pleasure, hope, awe conversational turns that go together, such as "guess what?" "what?"; often q&as adverbial functioning as the internal structure of a sentence, e.g. as soon as sound produced by stopping the air and then releasing it with friction, e.g. ch in "chair", j in "joy" any various acoustically different forms of the same phoneme e.g. /p/ in pin and spin pronoun referring to a previously mentioned noun when articulators move towards each other but not close enough to cause audible friction, e.g. /r/, /l/, /y/, /w/ a process by which a sound becomes similar to an adjacent sound, e.g. "ten boys" sounds like "tem boys" (the /n/ sound changes to the bilabial /m/ to make it easier to transition to the also bilabial /b/) a method of second language learning that emphasises the teaching of speaking a listening over reading and writing, discourages the use of the mother tongue, uses dialogues and drills, contrastive analysis to perform a task without having to pay too much attention to it sequence of two+ words belonging to the same grammatical category, having some semantic relationship and joined by and/or, e.g. chalk and cheese (irreversible) a matter of listeners first decoding (or understanding) the smallest elements, e.g. words or sounds, building into sentences, paragraphs/prose, eventually looking at non-linguistics later pronoun referring to a noun mentioned later in the text the joining of a consonant sound at the end of a word with a vowel sound at the beginning of the next with no noticeable pause between the two sounds, e.g. "an apple" is pronounced /anapple/ a reading test where every nth word is removed and replaced by a space

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coordinating conjunction coda (tail) cohesive devices

links two or more items of equal syntactic importance, e.g. and, but, so, for anything after the tonic syllable. holds the completion of the pitch movement elements that bind writing together as a whole; transitional words and phrases as well as repetition of key words and the use of reference words that 'point back' to ideas in the text, e.g. pronouns a test's validity in comparison to a widelyaccepted standard refers to the implied or suggested meanings associated with a word beyond its dictionary definition, positive/negative the degree to which a test actually assesses what it claims to assess the degree to which the content of a test is representative of the language skills and structures it's supposed to cover a form of 'oppositeness', where there is a reciprocal relationship, e.g. buy and sell / lend and borrow changing a word class without changing the form, e.g. "to google sthg" verb that joins subject and predicate, e.g. "he IS happy" sth incorrect that looks fine on the surface, eg. "I am here for 3 weeks" but they mean to say "I have been there for 3 weeks" rule is taught to the learner which they then must apply the way words are formed i.e. through affixation and compounding, e.g. adding 'able' means sthg is possible as in "reliable" noun/pronoun receiving the action of a verb, e.g. "Jack gave the FLOWERS to me" spoken or written language, including literary works; the four traditionally classified modes of ____________ are description, exposition, narration, and persuasion adverbial which stands apart from the sentence, e.g. attitude - not surprisingly omission of sounds or syllables in speech, often occurs in consonant clusters ("sanwich") words are omitted as they are already mentioned, e.g. "Where are you going?", "To town."

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adjacency pairs adjunct affricate

18.

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4.

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allophone anaphoric reference approximant

concurrent validity connotation

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6.

7.

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construct validity content validity converses

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8.

assimilation

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conversion copula verb (linking) covert error

9.

audiolingualism

25.

26.

10.

automaticity binomial

27.

deduction derivational morphology direct object discourse

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28.

29.

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bottom-up processing

30.

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cataphoric reference catenation

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disjunct elision ellipsis

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32.

33.

15.

cloze test

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endophoric reference epenthesis

refers to something within the text, anaphoric (referring back) or cataphoric (referring forwards) the insertion of a vowel or consonant into a word to make its pronunciation easier e.g. helep references something outside of the text but which is nevertheless understood in context. e.g.: THE government. often socio-politicalcultural. extent to which a test seems on its surface to be measuring what it purports to measure verb clause marked for tense, person and number, dependent or independent the premature stabilisation of a learner's interlanguage believed to be resistent to correction sound produced by forcing air through a constricted passage, e.g. f, s, z, or th in "thin" and "then" test where chosen words are removed and replaced by a space focus on reader-text relationship; after analysing an example, under guidance, learner produces a text, emphasis on authenticity error that causes confusion of the intended message or meaning from the first stressed syllable to the tonic syllable a word spelled exactly like another word, but having a different meaning, e.g. bat=animal, bat=to hit... when X is a type of Y e.g. mango is a ______ of fruit the speaker's intent/purpose: often there is more implied than what appears on the surface, e.g. a promise or undercover critique to/for whom the action verb is done e.g. "Jack gave the flowers to ME" learner is given an task and expected to work out the rules independently the way words, such as verbs, are formed in order to convey different grammatical meanings, e.g. past tense 'ed' / comparatives with 'er' and 'est' / third person 's' the pattern or melody of pitch changes in connected speech, especially the pitch pattern of a sentence. It is a suprasegmental feature of pronunciation

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lateral

35.

where the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth, e.g. /l/ thematically-related group of words, e.g. tree, carols, fireplace, lights are all connected with Christmas when a sound is introduced at word boundaries after words ending in a vowel sound, as in 'law and order', where a /r/ sound is inserted between law and order adverb that connects clauses, sentences, paragraphs, e.g. on the other hand error that only affects one element of the sentence, doesn't interfere with the intended meaning and is easily recognised where X is a part of Y, e.g. wheel is a ______ of a car language used to describe, analyse or explain another language, e.g. grammatical terms (noun, pronoun, etc), rules of syntax substituting the name of an attribute or feature for the name of the thing itself, e.g. 'they counted heads' words that differ in sound by just one phoneme, e.g. "ship" and "sheep" sth said incorrectly despite S knowing the rule the smallest linguistic unit that has meaning or grammatical function, e.g. play, play+s, play+er+s, un+play+able (adding _________ changes the meaning) the area of grammar concerned with the formation of words sets of items, using one of which excludes the others in the set: e.g. closed- Monday, Tuesday..., open-ended- cars, bus, lorry, van...

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lexical / semantic field

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exophoric reference

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liaison (intrusion)

37.

face validity finite clause fossilisation

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linker

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fricative

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local error

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gap fill genre approach

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meronym metalanguage

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global error head homonym

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metonymy

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hyponym illocutionary force indirect object induction inflectional morphology

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minimal pairs

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mistake morpheme

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morphology multiple taxonomy/incompatibles

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intonation

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nasal nominalisation

a consonant produced when air escapes through the nose conversion of a word/phrase into a noun, e.g. good --> goodness, develop --> development contains a verb in -ing ,infinitive form, past participle, or is verbless; always subordinate, not in main clause when a feature becomes salient for the learners and as a result consciousness of that feature is raised the first stressed syllable in a tone unit the use of corresponding grammatical or syntactical forms used to create cohesion, e.g. "Women are mean. Women are stubborn. Women are bad drivers." non-finite verb form used to modify a noun/noun phrase e.g. "a running tap never stops" the smallest identifiable unit of speech represented by an IPA symbol the smallest sound unit recognisable as speech rather than as random noise, cannot be replacted by another sound without a change in meaning the study of a language's sound system that distinguishes meaning from verbal noise consonant sound produced by closure of the oral passage and subsequent release with a burst of air (as 'p' and 'd' in "pit" or "dog") when a word has more than one meaning, e.g. foot the study of the appropriate use of language in different contexts any unstressed syllables before the first stressed syllable adjective that describes the subject and follows a linking verb, inc. smell, look, feel, taste etc a procedure in which Ss create a text by planning, drafting, revising, editing and then publishing or sharing it with others. developing composing controlled/semi-controlled exercises on a given model; end result similar to the model, echoes PPP stress, rhythm, intonation, tempo, volume and quality of speech pronoun preceeded by its antecedent within the same clause, e.g. "I see MYSELF"

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stative verb

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a verb used primarily to describe a state or situation as opposed to an action or process, e.g. love, know, think where a word is replaced by another, more general word, e.g. "Which ice-cream?", "the pink one" an 'umbrella' word which subsumes a range of more specific items, e.g. fruit is the _________ of apple, orange, pear pitch, intonation, stress, duration, rhythm, juncture; independent of and of longer duration than single segments a repeated error made because S is unaware of the rule movement of pitch: rise and fall sub-division of an utterance containing a tonic syllable the stressed/prominent syllable where the main pitch movement in an utterance takes place understanding beginning with the listener's background knowledge of the non-linguistic context, working down towards the individual sounds

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substitution

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non-finite clause noticing

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superordinate

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suprasegmental

69. 70.

onset parallelism

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systematic error tone tone unit (tone group) tonic syllable (nucleus) top-down processing

89. 90.

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participle

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phone phoneme

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phonology plosive

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polysemy pragmatics pre-head predicate

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process approach

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product approach prosodic features reflexive pronoun

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