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Grammaire Franais Countable nouns M. F.

Le La Les Un Une Des

Definite singular Definite plural Indefinite singular Indefinite plural

1. Le livre est sur la table. Les enfants veulent les lire. 2. Un garon se promne avec une fille. Elles ont des parapluies. Uncountable nouns Singular Plural Negative form + noun c&unc. Adverb of quantity + noun c&unc. M. Du/ De l Des De (d) De F. De la

1. Je veux boire du lait et manger de la viande et des pinards 2. Je ne veux pas de lait. (Exception verbe tre : Cest une pomme. Ce nest pas une pomme.) 3. Il y a beaucoup de lait. 4. Kada pridev prethodi neodredjenoj imenici u mnozini, des prelazi u de : J'ai des amis. J'ai de jeunes amis. Kada pridev prethodi nebrojivoj imenici U mn, des prelazi u de : J'ai mang des pinards. - J'ai mang de bons pinards

1. The partitive articles in French correspond to "some" or "any" in English. There are four forms of the French partitive article: du masculine singular de la feminine singular de l' m or f in front of a vowel or h muet des m or f plural

After adverbs of quantity, use de instead of the partitive article. Il y a beaucoup de th. There is a lot of tea. J'ai moins de glace que Thierry. I have less ice cream than Thierry.

In a negative construction, the partitive article changes to de, meaning "(not) any": J'ai mang de la soupe. > Je n'ai pas mang de soupe. I ate some soup. > I didn't eat any soup. 2. The plural partitive article des refers to something that is uncountable but plural in French Il a mang des pinards. He ate some spinach. Peux-tu me donner des conseils ? Could you give me some advice? 3. The plural indefinite article des refers to more than one countable thing in an indefinite sense. Il a des livres intressants. He has some interesting books. J'ai achet des chaussettes. a. If the verb is tre, the article remains the same: C'est une poire, ce n'est pas une pomme. It's a pear, it's not an apple. C'est de la viande. - Ce n'est pas de la viande. It's meat. - It's not meat. b. You can keep the article in order to stress thenegative aspect: Je n'ai pas de sous - Je n'ai pas un sou. I don't have any money - I don't have a (single) cent. Il ne veut pas de bb. - Il ne veut pas un bb. He doesn't want a baby. - He (really) doesn't want a baby.

5. When the plural indefinite or partitive article is used with an adjective that precedes a noun, des changes to de. J'ai des amis. - J'ai de jeunes amis. I have some friends. - I have some young friends. (Note: J'ai un jeune ami. - I have a young friend.) J'ai mang des pinards. - J'ai mang de bons pinards. I ate some spinach. - I ate some good spinach. (Note: J'ai mang de la bonne sauce des pinards. - I ate some good spinach sauce.)

Adverbs of Quantity, Containers, Adjectives, Prepositional Phrases Difference: unspecific (de, d) vs specific (des, de la, du, de l)
Unspecific Il y a beaucoup de problmes. There are a lot of problems. Specific Beaucoup des problmes sont graves. A lot of the problems are serious. (specific or previously mentioned problems) Peu des tudiants de Thierry sont ici. Few of Thierry's students are here. (not students in general, but specifically Thierry's students) Le repas que Lucie a prpar est dlicieux, mais j'ai mang moins de la soupe que toi. The meal that Lucie made is delicious, but I ate less of the soup than you. (soup from this previously mentioned meal) J'aimerais un verre de jus. I'd like a glass of juice. J'aimerais un verre du jus que tu as apport. I'd like a glass of the juice that you brought. (specifically what you brought) La chambre est pleine des vtements de David. The bedroom is full of David's clothes. (specifically his clothes)

Peu d'tudiants sont ici. Few students are here.

J'ai mang moins de soupe que Lucie. I ate less soup than Lucie.

La chambre est pleine de vtements. The bedroom is full of clothes. (clothes in general) Les tables sont couvertes de gteaux.

Les tables sont couvertes des gteaux dont je t'ai parl. The tables are covered in the cakes that I told you about.

The tables are covered in cakes. (a (specifically those cakes) bunch of cakes) J'ai achet du jus au lieu de vin. I bought juice instead of wine. J'ai achet du jus au lieu du vin que tu as recommand. I bought juice instead of the wine you recommended. (specifically that wine)

Descriptive vs Possessive de
1. To show possession of a noun, use de + the definite article* le livre de l'tudiant / le livre des tudiants the student's / students' book (belongs to the student / students) le panier du chien the dog's basket (belongs to the dog)

*Of course, a proper noun would not need a definite article: le livre de Michel Michel's book 2. To describe a noun with the de + descriptive noun construction, use de. le livre d'tudiant student book (book for or about students) le panier de chien dog basket (basket for a dog) 3. If the descriptive noun is modified in order to distinguish a certain group of the given noun, use de+ definite article. Note that these can then appear either descriptive or possessive. This construction is often used in advertising. le livre de l'tudiant tranger the foreign student book (book for foreign students) or the foreign student's book (this book belongs to the student from Botswana) le panier du chien dlicat the discriminating dog's basket > this is the basket for discriminating dogs or > there are two dogs, and this basket belongs to the discriminating one

VERBS AND EXPRESSIONS FOLLOWED BY DE/DU/DE LA/ DES


When verbs and expressions must be followed by the preposition de (see list of verbs withde), the de vs du, de la, des rules are similar to those for the descriptive vs possessive de. 1. When de introduces an unmodified noun, use de. Il faut changer de train ici. You have to change trains here. Nous avons besoin d'argent. We need money. 2. If the noun that follows de is modified and refers to a specific noun (the word "the" may be needed in English), use de + definite article Nous voulons profiter des nouveaux accords. We want to take advantage of the new agreements. Il s'agit de la rforme agraire. It's a question of land reform. 3. If the noun is preceded by an adjective but does not refer to a specific noun (the word "the" is not needed), use only de. J'ai besoin de nouvelles chaussures.

I need new shoes. Il se moque de mauvaises ides. He makes fun of bad ideas. VERBS REQUIRING DE s'agir de to be a question of to approach to notice to arrive from (Paris, Canada)o

s'approcher de s'apercevoir de

arriver de (Paris, Canada) avoir besoin de avoir envie de to need to want

changer de (train) dpendre de douter de

to change (trains)

to depend on

to doubt to grab to be amazed by to congratulate to inherit

s'emparer de s'tonner de fliciter de hriter de jouer de jouir de

to play (an instrument) to enjoy to lack to distrust, beware of to make fun of to be busy with

manquer de

se mfier de se moquer de s'occuper de partir de

to leave to do without

se passer de penser de

to have an opinion about to complain about

se plaindre de

profiter de punir de

to make the most of

to punish for to reward for

recompenser de remercier de

to thank to realize

se rendre compte de rire de to laugh at

servir de

to put to use as to use to care about to remember

se servir de se soucier de

se souvenir de tenir de

to take after, resemble to mistake

se tromper de vivre de

to live on

Notes: Remember that de plus a noun can be replaced by the adverbial pronoun en. For example, j'en ai besoin - I need it.