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# CIVIL 2

1(a). ORIENTATION
The bearing of a line is it’s orientation with respect to the north grid. This may be
found for an initial line by starting at a station with known coordinates and orientating the
Total Station with respect to another point with known National Grid coordinate.
Before starting any plot, the extent of the survey should be taken into account such
that the plotted survey will fall centrally on to the sheet. This implies the purpose of
orientation is to ensure that the stations are plotted to the best fit on the plotting sheet.
In case of an arbitrary north, in order to ensure a good fit a bearing of 900 or 2700 is
assigned to the longest side. This line is then positioned parallel to the longest side of the
sheet so that the survey will fit the paper properly. In conclusion we use two datum rays when
opening a traverse such that the plot will fit centrally on the sheet. e.g. a datum referring to
900. This is done to save paper and for convenience.

(b)
(i) TRIANGULATION: Here a network of of single or overlapping triangles is established from
basic shapes of a simple triangle, braced quadrilateral, or centre point polygon.
C D C E D
C
F

B A B A B
Triangle braced quadrilateral Centre point polygon
The vertices of the triangles represent control points normally referred to as triangulation
stations. All the angles of the triangles are measured and at least one baseline measured. If
the coordinates of the A and B are known, the sine rule can be applied to baseline AB and
the measured angles to get co-ordinates of the triangulation stations.
i.e. sin C/AB=sin A/BC= sin B/AC

(i)RESECTION
This is a method of locating a point by taking angle observation from at least 3 known
stations in a network. It is known as the 3-point resection
B a C
γ Φ
P
α β
C b

PROCEDURE
Setup at P and orient instrument at C. Turn it to B and measure the angle. Repeat procedure
Generally the procedure is carried out in the field by observing the angles subtended at the
unknown point by at least 3 unknown stations. However it should be noted that if point A,B,C
and P lie in the circumference of the same circle, the procedure is indeterminate.
The condition is present when α +γ+ β=180o

## One method of solving this involves the following function

α + γ + β + Φ+ δ=180o or γ = [360- (α +γ+ β)] – Φ= R- Φ where R can be deduced.
In triangles ABP and APC DAP = c.sin γ/sin α =b.sin Φ/sin β
It is the deduced that sin γ/sin Φ =bsin α /csin β = constant which is the evaluated.
Substituting γ =R- Φ giving a further expression for the constant.
=sin(R- Φ)/sin Φ =(sinRcos Φ-cosRsin Φ)/sin Φ = sinRcot Φ-cosR
Therefore cot Φ=(constant+cosR)/sinR

(c)

A=(45530mE,12560.2mE)

WCB
LINE DISTANCE ∆E ∆N δE δN ∆E ∆N E N STTN

2702’24’’
AB 122 55.4 108.7 0.046 -0.046 55.45 108.654 45585.4 12668.9 B

151059’46’’
BC 155.95 73.2 -137.7 0.059 -0.059 73.26 -137.76 45658.7 12531.1 C

197059’35’’
CD 64.95 -20.1 -61.8 0.025 -0.025 -20.08 -61.825 45638.6 12469.3 D

249059’52’’
DE 60 -56.4 -20.5 0.023 -0.023 -56.38 -20.523 45582.2 12448.8 E

334052’57’’
EF 123.16 -52.3 111.5 0.047 -0.047 -52.25 111.453 45530.O 12560.2 A

## Σ 526.06 -0.2 0.2 0.2 -0.2 0 0

Errors computed using Bowditch’s method
δE or δN = - eE (or- eN) X Length of traverse leg/Total length of traverse.
eE =-0.2, eN =0.2 e=√(0.22+(-0.2)2)=0.28
Fractional misclosure= ΣD/e =526.06/0.28.The fractional misclosure is 1 in 1800m.
WHOLE CIRCLE BEARINGS

B 151059’46’’
C
197059’35’’
A 2702’24’’

D
E 249059’52’’
334052’57’’

2. BOOKING SHEET

SPOT
BS IS FS HOC RL HEIGHT REMARKS

## 0.651 123.594 10.561 POINT 18

Σ=1.423 Σ=0.651

0.772
Lowest reduced level =121.033m

## RL,Formation level = 121.033-8=113.033m

SKETCH
REDUCED LEVELS

FORMATION
LEVEL

Depth above the formation level = Reduced levels- Reduced level of Formation level.
Total Volume = ∆/4(Σsingle depths+2Σdouble depths+ 3Σtriple depths+ 4Σquadriple depths)+δv
∆= 20X20=400m2
Σsingle depths = 9.789+10.112+9.658+10.561+9.806
= 49.926m
Σdouble depths=8.802+10.208+9.048+9.76+9.772+9.423+8.0+9.61
=74.623
Σtriple depths = 9.811