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FROM:Sid Hemsley, Senior Law Consultant DATE: A ril !, "#$# RE: Le%ality o& ordinan'e ermittin% t(e 'arryin% o& t(e )army or na*y istol+ in t(e o en (and

,ou (a*e t(e &ollowin% -uestions: 1. Is the ordinance of the City, which prohibits the carrying of a variety of weapons with the intent to go armed, except the army and navy pistol in the open hand, legal? 2. Can the City repeal the ordinance? T(e &a'ts t(at %enerated t(is -uestion (a*e a erson 'arryin% a loaded istol in (is o en (and on a .usy street in t(e City/ T(e erson in -uestion (ad a 'arry ermit/ nswers to !"estions T(e answer to #"estion 1 is not 'lear/ 0 will dis'uss t(e reasons &or t(at 'on'lusion .elow/ Howe*er, it is ine*ita.le a erson 'arryin% a istol in (is o en (and, 'arry ermit notwit(standin%, is almost ine*ita.ly %oin% to .e at least detained and (is wea on tem orarily sei1ed/ His detention and t(e tem orary sei1ure o& (is wea on is su orted .y statute and 'ase law/

T(e answer to #"estion " is t(at wit( res e't to t(e City, t(e ordinan'e 'an .e re ealed/ 2it( res e't to t(e %eneral ro.lem t(at ot(er 'ities in Tennessee mi%(t (a*e su'( ordinan'es, it a ears to me t(at le%islation in*alidatin% su'( ordinan'es mi%(t .e a ro riate/ T(e state law ro(i.itin% t(e 'arryin% o& 'ertain wea ons, )e3'e t t(e army or na*y istol w(i'( s(all .e 'arried in t(e o en (and+ was amended in t(e 'om re(ensi*e re*ision o& t(e state4s 'riminal statutes in $565, to eliminate t(at e3'e tion/ 7ut, as will .e seen .elow, a statute reser*es muni'i al %un 'ontrol ordinan'es 8and resolutions9 ena'ted .e&ore A ril :, $56:/

$ %&'I' () !*+',I($ 1 -eneral history of the army and navy pistol exception in state law T(e ordinan'e in -uestion, &ound in ; $$<:#" o& t(e Muni'i al Code, ro*ides t(at: 0t s(all .e unlaw&ul &or any erson to 'arry in any manner

w(ate*er, wit( t(e intent to %o armed, any ra1or, =ni&e, .la'=>a'=, .rass =nu'=s, istol, re*ol*er, or any ot(er dan%erous wea on or instrument e3'e t t(e army or na*y istol w(i'( s(all .e 'arried o enly in t(e (and//// T(at same or similar ro*ision was &ound in t(e $5?@ MTAS sam le 'ode, and ossi.ly MTAS sam le 'odes .e&ore t(at date/ 0t was remo*ed &rom MTAS sam le 'odes sometime su.se-uent to $56", ro.a.ly around $56! or $56:/ Howe*er, it is ro.a.ly 'ontained in some muni'i al 'odes in Tennessee to t(is dateA o.*iously your City4s .ein% amon% t(em/ T(at ordinan'e (ad some .asis in an old statute datin% .a'= to t(e $6?#s, and is t(e su.>e't o& at least one Tennessee 'ase in $5"6/ T(e .asis o& t(e statute was w(at is now Arti'le 0, ; ": o& t(e Tennessee Constitution, and 'ases t(at (a*e inter reted it, datin% .a'= to t(e $6@# Tennessee Constitution/ Arti'le $, Se'tion ": o& t(e $6?# 8t(e resent9 Tennessee Constitution ro*ides t(at: T(e 'iti1ens o& t(is State (a*e a ri%(t to =ee and to .ear arms &or t(eir 'ommon de&enseA .ut t(e Le%islature s(all (a*e ower, .y law to re%ulate t(e wearin% o& arms wit( a *iew to re*ent 'rime/ T(e addition o& t(e ro*ision %i*in% t(e state le%islature t(e ri%(t to 'ontrol t(e wearin% o& arms was an addition to t(e ri%(t to .ear arms ro*ision o& t(e Tennessee Constitution/ 0n its ori%inal $?5: te3t, t(e ri%(t to .ear arms ro*ision read: )T(at t(e &reemen o& t(is state (a*e a ri%(t to =ee and to .ear arms &or t(eir 'ommon de&ense/+ 8T(e $6@B ri%(t to .ear arms ro*ision ro*ided: )T(at t(e &ree w(ite men o& t(is State s(all (a*e a ri%(t to =ee and to .ear arms &or t(eir 'ommon de&ense/+9 7ut t(e ri%(t o& t(e state le%islature to re%ulate t(e )'arryin%+ o& arms was esta.lis(ed well .e&ore t(e resent $6?# Tennessee Constitution was ado ted/ 0n Aymette */ State, "$ Tenn/ $B$ 8$6B#9, a state statute ro(i.ited t(e o en or 'on'ealed wearin% o& a 7owie =ni&e 8Ar=ansas toot( i'=9/ T(e de&endant 'on*i'ted o& *iolatin% t(at statute '(allen%ed (is 'on*i'tion, ar%uin% t(at t(e ri%(t to .ear arms ro*ision o& t(e $6@B Tennessee Constitution %a*e (im t(e ri%(t to 'arry t(e =ni&e any way (e '(ose/ 7ut in u (oldin% (is 'on*i'tion, t(e 'ourt de'lared t(at: T(e le%islature, t(ere&ore, (a*e a ri%(t to ro(i.it t(e wearin% or =ee in% o& wea ons dan%erous to t(e ea'e and sa&ety o& t(e 'iti1ens, and w(i'( are not usual in 'i*ili1ed war&are, or would not 'ontri.ute to t(e 'ommon de&ense/ CAt $!:<!?D T(e 7owie =ni&e, said t(e 'ourt, did not meet t(at standard/ 7ut in Andrews */ State, !# Tenn/ $:! 8$6?$9, a 'ase inter retin% t(e ri%(t to .ear arms ro*ision o& t(e $6?# Tennessee Constitution, t(e 'ourt %a*e some 'lues a.out w(at wea ons t(e le%islature 'ould ro(i.it, and w(i'( it 'ould re%ulate .ut not ro(i.it/ T(at 'ase in*ol*ed t(e a li'ation o& an $6?# state statute under w(i'( it was unlaw&ul )&or any erson to u.li'ally or ri*ately 'arry a dir=, sword, 'ane, S anis( stiletto, .elt or

pocket pistol or revolver/+ CMy em (asisD T(e de&endant was indi'ted &or 'arryin% a istol, .ut t(e indi'tment did not s e'i&y w(at =ind o& istol/ T(e state attorney %eneral ar%ued t(at t(e $6?# amendment to t(e ri%(t to .ear arms ro*ision o& t(e Tennessee Constitution %a*e t(e state le%islature t(e ) ower to ro(i.it a.solutely t(e wearin% o& all and e*ery =ind o& arms, under all 'ir'umstan'es/+ CAt $6#D T(e 'ourt (eld t(at as &ar as t(e statute ro(i.ited 'iti1ens &rom Aeit(er u.li'ally or ri*ately to 'arry a dir=, sword 'ane, S anis( Stiletto, .elt or o'=et istols,E t(e statute was 'onstitutional/ CAt $6:D 7ut as to istols desi%nated re*ol*ers, )2e =now t(ere is a istol o& t(at name w(i'( is not ada ted to t(e e-ui ment o& t(e soldier, yet we also =now t(at t(e istol =nown as t(e re eater is a soldier4s wea on7s=ill in t(e use o& w(i'( will add to t(e e&&i'ien'y o& a soldier/+ CAt $6?D As to t(e latter =ind o& istol, t(e statute was un'onstitutional/ Howe*er, t(e 'ourt de'lared t(at t(e le%islature 'ould e*en re%ulate t(e manner o& wearin% military wea ons, as lon% as t(e re%ulation was related to t(e re*ention o& 'rime/ )0& t(e Le%islature t(in= ro er,+ said t(e Court, )t(ey may .y a ro er law re%ulate t(e 'arryin% o& t(is wea on u.li'ally, or a.road, in su'( a manner as may .e deemed most 'ondu'i*e to t(e u.li' ea'e, and t(e rote'tion and sa&ety o& t(e 'ommunity &rom lawless *iolen'e/+ CAt $66D Fu.li' A'ts $6?5, C(a ter $6:, a ears to (a*e statutorily made t(e military re*ol*er t(e )army or na*y istol/+ T(at A't amended t(e re*ious a't t(at re%ulated t(e 'arryin% o& wea ons in Tennessee, and ro*ided t(at: C0Dt s(all not .e law&ul &or any erson to 'arry, u.li'ally or ri*ately any dir=, ra1or 'on'ealed a.out (is erson, sword 'ane, S anis( stiletto, .elt or o'=et istol, re*ol*er, or any =ind o& istol, except the army or navy pistol, usually used in warfare, which shall be carried openly in the hand, or loaded 'ane, slin%<s(ot, .rass =nu'=s//// 2it( sli%(t modi&i'ations, t(at statute remained essentially t(e same until t(e 'riminal laws o& t(e state were e3tensi*ely amended and reor%ani1ed .y Fu.li' A'ts $565, C(a ter !5$/ 2it( res e't to ille%al wea ons, t(at A't 'ontains no re&eren'e to t(e Aarmy or na*y istol/E Fresently, Tennessee Code Annotated, Title @5, C(a ter $?, Fart $@ re&le'ts t(e ro(i.itions on t(e ossession and 'arryin% o& wea ons, Tennessee Code Annotated, ; @5<$?<$@#$ de&ines *arious wea ons &or t(e ur oses o& t(at art, Tennessee Code Annotated, ; @5<$?<$@#" 'ontains a list o& ro(i.ited wea ons, and Tennessee Code Annotated, se'tion @5<$?<$@#?8a98$9 ro*ides t(at )A erson 'ommits an o&&ense w(o 'arries wit( t(e intent to %o armed a &irearm, a =ni&e wit( a .lade len%t( e3'eedin% &our in'(es 8B+9, or a 'lu./+

,he army and navy pistol exception in m"nicipal ordinances T(e ri%(t o& Tennessee muni'i alities to re%ulate wea ons is ro(i.ited .y Tennessee Code Annotated, se'tion @5<$?<$@$B, wit( one ma>or e3'e tion:

No 'ity, 'ounty, or metro olitan %o*ernment s(all o''u y any art o& t(e &ield o& re%ulation o& t(e trans&er, owners(i , ossession or trans ortation o& &irearms, ammunition or 'om onents o& &irearms or a 'om.ination t(ereo&A ro*ided, t(at t(e ro*isions o& t(is se'tion s(all .e ros e'ti*e only and shall not affect the validity of any ordinance or resolution lawfully enacted before April 8, 1986. ,ou may re'all t(at Metro Le%al O inion "##5<#@ o ines t(at Metro was aut(ori1ed to ro(i.it t(e 'arryin% o& %uns in ar=s .y *irtue o& an ordinan'e ena'ted in $5:: t(at ro(i.ited 'arryin% %uns in su'( la'es/ ,our City4s ordinan'e a ears to .e t(e rodu't o& Ordinan'e ?$<:, w(i'( resuma.ly indi'ates t(e ordinan'e was ado ted in $5?$/ As &ar as 0 'an determine, t(e -uestion o& w(et(er a muni'i ality 'ould, .e&ore t(at date, ena't wea ons 'arryin% limitations .y ordinan'e (as 'ome u only on'e, somew(at indire'tly/ 0n Glass'o'= */ City o& C(attanoo%a, $$ S/2/"d :?6 8Tenn/ $5"69, a C(attanoo%a 'ity ordinan'e made it a misdemeanor )to 'arry on or a.out t(e erson any pistol, sword 'ane, 7owie =ni&e, S anis( stiletto, dir= or ot(er deadly wea on/+ CAt :?6D Citin% Andrews */ State, t(e 'ourt o*erturned t(e 'on*i'tions on t(e %round t(at t(e state statute %o*ernin% t(e 'arryin% o& arms allowed t(e 'arryin% o& t(e army and na*y istol, usually used in war&are, w(i'( s(all .e 'arried o enly in t(e (and/+ CAt :?6D No issue was raised in t(at 'ase a.out t(e le%ality o& t(e 'ity4s 'on*ersion o& t(e state law on t(e 'arryin% o& wea ons to a muni'i al ordinan'e/ 0ndeed, t(e 'ourt itsel& indi'ates t(at i& t(e 'ity ordinan'e tra'=ed t(e state law, and (ad t(e indi'tment in t(e 'ase indi'ated t(at t(e istol 'arried .y t(e de&endants was not t(e army or na*y istol, t(e 'on*i'tion would (a*e stood/ T(e 'ity (ad also ar%ued t(at t(e inade-ua'y t(e 'ourt &ound in t(e 'ity4s ordinan'e on t(e 'arryin% o& istols in t(e 'ity was 'ured .y anot(er ordinan'e w(i'( read: )Any erson doin% or 'ausin% to .e done in t(is City, an a't or a'ts, w(i'( .y t(e laws o& Tennessee are (olden to .e a misdemeanor said erson s(all .e 'onsidered a *iolator Co&D t(is ordinan'e and on 'on*i'tion s(all .e unis(ed a''ordin% to t(is Ordinan'e////+ CAt :?6D T(e 'ourt re>e'ted t(at ar%ument, de'larin% t(at )T(e 'ity warrants under w(i'( t(e de&endants .elow were rose'uted only '(ar%ed t(e 'ommission o& t(e o&&en'e o& unlaw&ully 'arryin% a istol/ T(is is an inade-uate '(ar%e under se'tion ::B$, T(om son4s<S(annon4s Code, if said section be a part of the law of Chattanoo a/+ CAt :?5D T(e 'ourt t(en 'on'luded t(at, )0t &ollows t(at none o& t(e de&endants .elow were '(ar%ed wit( any o&&ense denoun'ed .y a *alid ordinan'e/////+ CAt :?5D Fresuma.ly (ad t(e ordinan'e e3em ted t(e army or na*y istol it would (a*e .een a *alid ordinan'e 8alt(ou%( t(e indi'tment would (a*e still .een de&e'ti*e9/ Glass'o'= (as not .een 'ited in any re orted or unre orted 'ases in Tennessee/ 0n &a't, 0 'an &ind no ot(er re orted or unre orted 'ases in*ol*in% a muni'i al ordinan'e re%ulatin% t(e ossession or 'arryin% o& wea ons/ 0 =now o& no reason t(at t(e oli'e o&&i'ers o& t(e City 'ould not ta=e any '(ar%e

o& 'arryin% an ille%al wea on under Tennessee Code Annotated, ; @5<$?<$@#? to t(e state, rat(er t(an t(e muni'i al, 'ourt, in w(i'( 'ase t(e -uestion o& w(et(er t(e wea on is an army or na*y istol would not .e an issue/ Furt(ermore, under t(e Muni'i al Court Re&orm A't o& "##B as amended, 'odi&ied in Tennessee Code Annotated, ; $:<$6<@#$ et se-/, muni'i alities are entitled to 'on*ert to *iolations o& muni'i al ordinan'es t(ose state o&&enses t(at are Class C misdemeanors and &or w(i'( t(e muni'i ality res'ri.es a ma3imum enalty o& H!#, .ut only i& t(e ordinan'e )mirrors, substantially duplicates or incorporates by cross reference the lan ua e of a state criminal statute ////+ CTennessee Code Annotated, ; $:<$6<@#"8a9 8"9/D A stron% ar%ument 'an .e made t(at ; $$<:#" o& t(e Muni'i al Code does not mirror or su.stantially du li'ate Tennessee Code Annotated, ; @5<$?<$@#?, .e'ause it 'ontains an e3'e tion &or t(e army and na*y istol t(at was remo*ed &rom t(at state statute in $565/ 0t is true t(at Tennessee Code Annotated, ; @5<$?<$@$B reser*es muni'i al ordinan'es on %un 'ontrol in e&&e't on A ril 6, $56:, .ut t(e Muni'i al Court Re&orm A't o& "##B is o.*iously t(e latter statute/ 0t a ears to me t(at t(ere is an irre'on'ila.le 'on&li't .etween Tennessee Code Annotated, ; @5<$?<$@#? and Tennessee Code Annotated, ; $:<$6<@#", at least as to 'ity4s reser*ation o& its 'arry re%ulations/ T(e irre'on'ila.le 'on&li't arises &rom t(e &a't t(at t(at ordinan'es 'annot .e reser*ed t(at 'annot .e ado ted or maintained ast t(e time t(at t(e state 'riminal law u on w(i'( t(e ordinan'e is .ased is '(an%ed to t(e e3tent t(at t(e ordinan'e does not mirror or su.stantially tra'= t(e state 'riminal law/ Under t(e rules o& statutory 'onstru'tion, a later statute 'an .y im li'ation re eal an earlier statute to t(e e3tent t(e two statutes 'on&li't/ Re eals o& statutes .y im li'ation are not &a*ored, .ut an irre'on'ila.le 'on&li't .etween t(em re'o%ni1ed re eal .y im li'ations as a matter o& ne'essity/ CState */ Lewis, "?6 S/2/"d 6$ 8$5!!9A State, De artment o& Re*enue */ Moore, ?"" S/2/"d @:? 8Tenn/ $56:9A 7rown */ Ino3 County, @5 S/2/@d !6! 8Tenn/ Ct/ A / "###9/ Harman */ Moore4s Juality Sna'= Food, 0n'/, 6$! S/2/"d !$5 8Tenn/ Ct/ A / $55$9/D 0n addition, Tennessee Code Annotated, ; @5<$?<$@#?8a98$9 ma=es t(e 'arryin% o& t(e wea ons enumerated t(erein, )wit( intent to %o armed,+ an o&&ense/ Su.se'tion 8"98A9 o& t(at statute, ma=es t(e &irst o&&ense a Class C/ misdemeanor, &or w(i'( it res'ri.es a enalty o&, )in addition to ossi.le im risonment as ro*ided .y law,+ a &ine not to e3'eed H!##/ Su.se'tion 8"9879 o& t(at statute ma=es t(e se'ond o&&ense o& t(at statute a Class A misdemeanor, and su.se'tion 8"98'9 ro*ides t(at, )except that it is a violation of subdivision !a"!1" is a Class A misdemeanor if the person#s carryin of a hand un occurred at a place open to the public where one !1" or more persons were present/+ E*en i& it is assumed t(at t(e City 'ould (a*e 'on*erted Tennessee Code Annotated, ; @5<$?<$@#?8a98"98A9 into a muni'i al ordinan'e *iolation 8&or w(i'( it 'ould le*y a &ine o& only H!#, w(en t(e state statute ro*ides &or otential im risonment and today a &ine o& u to H!##9, it 'ould not (a*e 'on*erted su.se'tions 8a98"9879 or 8a98"98'9 into su'( *iolations, t(ey .ein% Class 7 and Class A misdemeanors, res e'ti*ely/ 0t 'an also .e ar%ued t(at t(e re%ulation o& t(e 'arryin% o& wea ons is stri'tly a &un'tion o& t(e General Assem.ly t(at 'annot .e dele%ated to muni'i alities/ Arti'le 0, Se'tion ": o& t(e Tennessee Constitution says as mu'(, s ea=in% o& t(e ri%(t o& Tennessee 'iti1ens to =ee and .ear arms &or t(eir 'ommon de&ense, ).ut the $e islature s(all (a*e ower, .y law, to re%ulate t(e .earin% o& arms wit( a view to prevent crime.% 0 am not sure (ow su'( an ar%ument would .e resol*ed .y t(e 'ourts/ Tennessee Attorney General4s O inion #5<$!6 o ines t(at t(e General Assem.ly (as

t(e aut(ority under Arti'le 0, Se'tion ": o& t(e Tennessee Constitution to allow muni'i alities to o t in and o t out o& t(e )%uns in ar=s+ laws, w(ile t(e S(el.y County Attorney in a le%al o inion to t(e S(el.y County Mayor, dated Kuly $#, "##5, disa%rees/ 0t a ears to me t(at t(e S(el.y County Attorney (as t(e more solid le%al ar%ument/ T(e -uestion o& w(et(er t(e General Assem.ly (as t(e aut(ority, in t(e &a'e o& Arti'le 0, Se'tion ": o& t(e Tennessee Constitution, to reser*e %un 'ontrol ordinan'es ena'ted .e&ore A ril :, $56:, raises -uestions similar to t(ose 'ontained in t(ose o inions/ For t(at reason, 0 will atta'( t(ose o inions rat(er t(an re'ite t(eir ar%uments/ A ro*ision in t(e Tennessee 'arry ermit statute and 'ase law dealin% wit( t(e ri%(t o& t(e oli'e to tem orarily detain armed 'iti1ens and to tem orarily sei1e t(eir wea ons are ertinent (ere/ Tennessee Code Annotated, ; @5<$?<$@#6 'ontains se*eral de&enses to Tennessee Code Annotated, ; @5<$?<$@#?, in'ludin% w(en t(e 'arryin% is )8"9 7y a erson aut(ori1ed to ossess or 'arry a &irearm ursuant to ; @5<$?<$@$! or ; @5<$?<$@!$/+ Se'tion @5<$?<$@$! in*ol*es 'arryin% .y oli'e and ot(er o&&i'ers, .ut ; @5< $?<$@!$ in*ol*es 'arryin% .y ersons w(o (a*e a 'arry ermit/ Under Tennessee Code Annotated, ; @5<$?<$@!$8t9, t(e erson w(o (as a 'arry ermit is su.>e't to .ein% tem orarily disarmed .y a oli'e o&&i'er, w(et(er t(e %un &or w(i'( (e (as a 'arry ermit is loaded or unloaded: Any law en&or'ement o&&i'er o& t(is state or o& any 'ounty or muni'i ality may, wit(in t(e realm o& t(e o&&i'er4s law&ul >urisdi'tion and w(en t(e o&&i'er is a'tin% in t(e law&ul dis'(ar%e o& t(e o&&i'er4s o&&i'ial duties, disarm a permit holder at any time when the officer reasonably believes it is necessary for the protection of the permit holder, officer or other individual or individuals. &he officer shall return the hand un to the permit holder before dischar in the permit holder from the scene when the officer has determined that the permit holder is not a threat to the officer, to the permit holder, or other individual, or individuals, ro*ided t(at t(e ermit (older (as not *iolated any ro*ision o& t(is se'tion and ro*ided t(at t(e ermit (older (as not 'ommitted any ot(er *iolation t(at results in t(e arrest o& t(e ermit (older/

0t seems atently o.*ious t(at any.ody w(o is 'arryin% a (and%un in (is o en (and down t(e street o& a 'ity anyw(ere in Tennessee is li=ely %oin% to .e sto ed .y a oli'e o&&i'er 'on'erned a.out t(e sa&ety o& t(e 'ity4s residents and (is own sa&ety, until (e determines t(at t(e erson is not a t(reat to (im, or to any ot(er erson, as e*iden'ed .y a le%itimate 'arry ermit/ 0t is ro.a.ly a *ery s(ort distan'e .etween t(e o&&i'er4s o.ser*ation o& a erson wit( a istol in (is o en (and, to t(e o&&i'er4s )reasona.le .elie&+ t(at t(e erson s(ould .e disarmed &or t(e rote'tion o& t(e oli'e o&&i'er, or ot(er ersons/ 2(ere a oli'e o&&i'er o.ser*es a erson eit(er 'arryin% a wea on, or ot(erwise ossessin% a wea on, in lain si%(t, t(e oli'e o&&i'er4s ri%(t to tem orarily detain t(e erson and sei1e t(e wea on endin% an in*esti%ation a ears *ery .road/ 0t is said in

t(e U/S/ Si3t( Cir'uit 'ase o& United States */ 7is(o , @@6 F/@d :"@ 8 "##@9, t(at T(e Fourt( Amendment ro(i.its unreasona.le sear'(es and sei1ures/ CCitation omitted .y me/D 0n delineatin% t(e 'ontours o& t(e Fourt( Amendments warrant and ro.a.le 'ause re-uirements &or sear'(es and sei1ures, t(e Su reme Court (as re'o%ni1ed se*eral e3'e tions t(at a'=nowled%e t(e need &or oli'e o&&i'ers to rote't t(emsel*es and t(e u.li' &rom *iolen'e in 'ir'umstan'es w(ere it would not .e ra'ti'al to re-uire t(e o&&i'er to se'ure a warrant and w(ere ro.a.le 'ause may .e la'=in%/ CCitations omitted .y me/D //// As t(is Court (as noted: )O.*iously, t(e Constitution does not limit t(e %o*ernment o&&i'er4s ri%(ts to rote't t(emsel*es &rom assault w(en t(eir &ear is reasona.ly .ased on o.>e'ti*e &a'ts/+ CCitation omitted .y me/D CAt :":D )T(e Si3t( Cir'uit,+ 'ontinued t(e 'ourt: (as twi'e a ro*ed o& oli'e sei1ure o& a wea on t(at was not o.*ious 'ontra.and .ased on an o&&i'er4s reasona.le .elie& t(at t(e wea on osed a t(reat to o&&i'er sa&ety/ 'nited (tates v. Chapman inter reted &erry as ermittin% a oli'e o&&i'er e3e'utin% a sear'( warrant to tem orarily sei1e a wea on t(at was in lain *iew .ut was not o.*ious 'ontra.and ro*ided t(e sei1ure was >usti&ied .y a le%itimate 'on'ern &or oli'e sa&ety/ CCitation omitted .y me/D CAt :":<"?D 7is(o , a.o*e, in*ol*ed a Tennessee de uty s(eri&& ma=in% a sei1ure o& a (and%un inside a 'ar and t(e arrest o& its owner w(en it was not initially a arent t(at t(e (and%un was 'ontra.and/ T(e Court de'lared t(at: 2e &ind t(at t(e %un .e'ame 'ontra.and and su.>e't to sei1ure w(en De uty Kulian dis'o*ered t(at it was loaded/ Tennessee law ermits t(e trans ortation o& a (and%un in a *e(i'le ro*ided t(at is Csi'D unloaded and not 'on'ealed on or a.out t(e erson ossessin% or 'arryin% it, and t(e ammunition &or t(e wea on is not in t(e immediate *i'inity o& t(e erson or wea on/ Tenn/ Code Ann/ ; @5<$?<$@#68a9 8$9/ T(e distri't 'ourt (eld t(at De uty Kulian (ad no reason to assume t(at t(e (and%un indi'ated 'riminal a'ti*ity .e'ause t(e (and%un 'ould (a*e .een law&ully ossessed at t(e time under Tennessee4s (and%un ermit law/ 2e disa%ree/ Tennessee law entitles a (and%un 'arry ermit (older to 'arry a loaded (and%un on (is or (er erson ro*ided t(at t(e (and%un is le%ally owned or ossessed .y t(e ermit (older and t(e ermit (older (as t(e ermit in t(e (older4s immediate ossession at all times w(en 'arryin% t(e (and%un/ )d ; @5<$?<$@!$8n9/ A

reasona.le o&&i'er 'ould .elie*e t(at Tennessee law is *iolated i& a (and%un ermit (older lea*es a loaded (and%un unattended in a *e(i'le/ CAt :"6D E*en t(ou%( 7is(o in*ol*ed t(e sei1ure .y t(e de uty o& a (and%un in a 'ar, t(at 'ase 'learly stands &or t(e ro osition t(at a oli'e o&&i'er w(o sees a erson wal=in% down t(e street wit( a (and%un 'arried in (is o en (and %enerally (as a reasona.le &ear &or (is own sa&ety and t(e sa&ety o& ot(ers before (e as'ertains w(et(er t(e erson (as a *alid 'arry ermit/ For t(at reason, t(e o&&i'er %enerally (as a ri%(t to tem orarily detrain t(at erson and sei1e (is wea on until (e 'an determine t(at t(e 'arrier (as su'( a ermit 7is(o says as mu'(, 'on'ludin%, t(at: 0n sum, we (old t(at a oli'e o&&i'er w(o dis'o*ers a wea on in lain *iew may at least tem orarily sei1e t(at wea on i& a reasona.le o&&i'er would .elie*e, .ased on s e'i&i' and arti'ula.le &a'ts, t(at t(e wea on osed an immediate t(reat to o&&i'er or u.li' sa&ety//// CAt :"6D Also see t(e unre orted 'ase o& Cross */ City o& C(attanoo%a, "##! 2L "B!:5?? 8E/D/ Tenn/9 $ %&'I' () !*+',I($ 2 0 =now o& no reason t(at t(e City 'ould not sim ly re eal t(e muni'i al ordinan'e in -uestion/ T(ere is not(in% in t(e lan%ua%e o& Tennessee Code Annotated, ; @5<$?< $@$B or any ot(er state %un re%ulation t(at 0 'an &ind t(at im oses on any muni'i ality (a*in% su'( ordinan'es t(e o.li%ation to retain t(em, or t(at ot(erwise limits t(e ower o& t(e 'ity to ass, .ut not re eal, t(e ordinan'e/ Generally, t(e ower o& a muni'i ality to re eal an ordinan'e is .y ne'essary im li'ation as .road as its ower to ass it/ CS'(ulten.rand */ City o& Ino3*ille, ?66 S/2/"d 6$" 8Tenn/ Ct/ A / $5659D T(ere are some e3'e tions to t(at %eneral rule, su'( as w(en t(e ordinan'e is 'ontra'tual in nature, or w(ere t(e ordinan'e is assed under a %rant o& aut(ority to do one t(in%/ CFatton */ Mayor o& Le3in%ton, :": S/2/"d ! 8Tenn/ $56$9D Neit(er e3'e tion a lies to t(e ordinan'e at issue under w(i'( t(e City re%ulated t(e 'arryin% o& &irearms/