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(Lamb wave)

Optical and acoustical properties of band gap materials.

ABSTRACT

This thesis deals with the propagation properties of the electromagnetic and the elastic waves in artificial crystals which are called photonic and phononic crystals, respectively. In the first part, the three dimensional photonic crystals formed by microspheres with Ag nano particles coating are studied. The light can be reflected by crystals due to the partial band gap of the photonic crystals arranged in face-centered cubic structure. The results reveal that the reflectance is wavelength dependant and can be enhanced by suitable Ag coating on the microspheres. In the second part, the bulk elastic waves propagating in two-dimensional and three-dimensional phononic crystals are studied experimentally and theoretically. The two-dimensional phononic crystals are constructed using steel cylinders. The cylinders are arranged periodically in water. The three-dimensional phononic crystal consists of close-packed periodic arrays of spherical beads of steel embedded in an epoxy matrix. The forbidden band gap can be observed in the experimental measurement of the transmission spectra. The results agree with the theoretical calculations. The defect modes in two-dimensional phononic crystals are also studied. The results show that the bulk elastic waves could be well controlled and confined by the phononic crystal structures. The propagation of acoustic waves in a square-lattice phononic crystal slab consisting of a single layer of spherical steel beads in a solid epoxy matrix is studied experimentally and theoretically. The transmission and the field image of acoustic wave are investigated. The transmission attenuation caused by absorption and band gap effects is measured as a function of frequency and propagation distance. We also demonstrate experimentally that the acoustic waves are well confined and propagate inside a line-defect waveguide.

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Mr. BAHRAM DJAFARI-ROUHANI Abdelkrim Choujaa Abdelkrim Khelif Vincent Laude Choujaa Khelif Laude
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Hichem Karim

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Contents

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v List of Figures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvi 1 Introduction to photonic and phononic crystals 2 Introduction to photonic and phononic crystals 1 4

2.1 History and development of photonic crystals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1.1 Photonic crystals in Nature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1.2 Defects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.1.3 Photonic crystal fiber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.1.4 Colloidal microsphere base photonic crystal . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.2 History and development of phononic crystals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.3 Elastic wave propagation in materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2.4 Theoretical methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2.4.1 Finite-Difference Time-Domain method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.4.2 Finite element method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 3 Optical properties of metallodielectric opals 34

3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 3.2 Plane Wave Expansion (PWE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 3.3 Fabrication of opals and experimental samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

3.3.1 3.3.2 3.4 4

Experiment setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Experimental results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41 43 46

Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Bulk waves in two dimensional water-steel and three dimentional epoxy-steel phononic crystals 4.1 4.2 Introduction to this chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two-dimentional water-steel phononic crystals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 The geometric and elastic properties of the structure . . . . . . . Experimental setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Triangular lattice structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Honeycomb lattice structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Discussion of complete band gap in triangular and honeycomb lattice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 4.4 Line defect waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Three-dimensional epoxy-steel phononic crystals . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.5 Structure and experimental setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Complete band gaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 69 75 75 78 81 83 83 84 84 87 89 90 93 49 49 50 50 53 55 63

Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Square lattice steel-epoxy phononic crystal slab 5.1 5.2 Introduction to this chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction to the experiment method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.3 5.4 Fabrication and properties of the structures . . . . . . . . . . . . Optical characterization setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principle of laser interferometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Complete band gap characterization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Attenuation behavior versus propagation distance . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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5.5 5.6 5.7 6

Line defect waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Unusual refraction effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 106 109

General Conclusion

Bibliography

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List of Figures
2.1 From left to right diagram, PCs are in one, two, and three dimensions. The red and yellow colors indicate the different refraction index. (http://abinitio.mit.edu/photons/) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Somewhere in a beam of sunlight in the Amazon basin, the three-inch wings of a morpho buttery glow with deep blue iridescence. Then the morpho shifts its wings and, as if a switch ipped, shows its other self, dull brown. [1] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 High-resolution SEM images showing the ne structure of the scales with rounded ends: (a) blue (BL) male, blue region; (b) blue (BL) male, blueviolet region; (c) brown (BR) male.[2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 (a)Sea mouse, (b) its iridescent threads (c) SEM cross-section of a spine.[2] 7 2.5 2.6 The opal is the example of photonic band structures in mineral worlds.[2] Cross-sectional micrograph of the 2D PC. The holes were formed in a 1.85m thick Si core layer. The SiO2 layer was 2m thick. [3] 2.7 . . . . . 9 8 6 6 5

(a) Scanning electron micrograph top view of 38 period triple-line-defect linear waveguide. The defect hole diameter is 0.8 times of lattice constant (352nm). The rectangular boxes indicate the interfaces between the ridge and the photonic band gap waveguide. (b) Scanning electron micrograph image of the Y-splitter sample, which consists of a 120o Y- splitter and two 60o bends (indicated by the red circles). (c) Infrared camera image of the two Y-splitter outputs at = 1650nm. They are both Gaussian-like and equally bright, indicating a near 50/50 splitting ratio.[4] . . . . . . . 11

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2.8

Five photonic crystal cavities coupled together lithographically by arrangement in the same slab.[5] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

2.9

Scanning electron microscope image of the end of a photonic crystal ber, showing the central core where a hole has been omitted. [6] . . . . . . . 13

2.10 Scanning electron micrograph image of the inner cladding and core of the airsilica microstructure ber. [7] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.11 Optical spectrum of the continuum generated in a 75-cm section of microstructure ber. The dashed curve shows the spectrum of the initial 100-fs pulse. [7] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 14

2.12 SEM image of a 6 10m2 region of the surface of a sample made from 415 nm spheres. [8] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

2.13 SEM images of the photonic crystals after different heating durations. (A) More than 15 layers of microspheres were orderly packed. (B) The thickness of the opals is about 17m. (C) The thickness of the opals is about 78m. (D) The thickness of the opals would be more than 200m. (E) This shows that the surface of the photonic crystals in (D) is well packed in the FCC structure. [9] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.14 Band structure for a period array of aluminum cylinders in nickel background. The inset shows the unit cell [10]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 17

2.15 Dark and white represent positive and negative vibrations, respectively. (a) Experimentally observed patterns of liquid surface waves. Black areas in the middle stands for the slab of copper cylinders. (b) Simulated results. Parameters used in simulations are the same as in experiment. Red dots denote copper cylinders. [11] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.16 Radiation amplitude eld distribution over the phononic crystal: (a)by experiment and (b) by simulation. [12] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.17 The diagram of the computational space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 31 25

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3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7

SEM picture of pure PMMA microspheres. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SEM picture of PMMA microspheres with 10wt% Ag nanoparticles. . . . SEM picture of PMMA microspheres with 20wt% Ag nanoparticles. . . . The diagram of the rst Brillouin zoom of FCC structure. . . . . . . . . . Photonic band structure of the PMMA microspheres in fcc lattice. . . . . The setup of supercontinuum source. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The spectrum of light is indicated by red line. Blue line indicates the dark noise. The unit of intensity axis is arbitrarily unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38 39 39 40 41 41

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3.8

The experiment setup of (a) 10o to 45o (b) normal incident opal reective spectra measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 44 44 45 45 46

3.9

The reection spectrum of sample with incident angle 0o .

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3.10 The reection spectrum of sample with incident angle 10o . . . . . . . . . 3.11 The reection spectrum of sample with incident angle 25o . . . . . . . . . 3.12 The reection spectrum of sample with incident angle 35o . . . . . . . . . 3.13 The reection spectrum of sample with incident angle 45o . . . . . . . . . 3.14 (a)Reection peak wavelength and (b) the coefcient of the microspheres for different incident angles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 4.2 Two-dimensional phononic crystal used in the experiments. . . . . . . . . The denition of the lattice directions. K and M are the two highest

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symmetric directions in (a) the triangular and (b) the honeycomb structure. 52 4.3 Gap maps for (a) the triangular lattice and (b) the honeycomb lattice as a function of the cylinder radius to lattice constant ratio. . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 4.5 The experimental setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signal intensity in the time domain with (blue dash line) and without (red solid line) a phononic crystal structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 Reference spectra of two tranducers couples with central frequency is 450kHz (blue line) and 900kHz (red line). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x 55 54 53 53

4.7

Band structure of the innite triangular-lattice phononic crystal composed of steel cylinders in water, plotted along the -K-M- path of the rst irreducible Brillouin zone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

4.8

(a) Real part of the pressure eld in water for the eigen mode labeled A in Fig.4.7. (b) and (c) are the real part of x and y displacement eld respectively in the steel cylinders for the eigen mode labeled B in Fig.4.7. 57

4.9

The M direction transmssion spectrum of triangular lattice with 5, 6 and 7 layers. The insert at the doen left is the denition of layer. . . . . . . . 58

4.10 (a) Experimental (thick red solid line) and theoretical (thin blue solid line) transmission through a triangular-lattice phononic crystal of steel cylinders in water, along the M direction. (b) Band structure of the innite phononic crystal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.11 Real part of the pressure eld in water for the eigenmode labeled C in the band structure. The arrow shows the direction of incidence of waves launched by the transducer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 59

4.12 The K direction transmssion spectrum of triangular lattice with 5, 6 and 7 layers. The insert at the doen left is the denition of layer. . . . . . . . 61

4.13 (a) Experimental (thick red solid line) and theoretical (thin blue solid line) transmission through a triangular-lattice phononic crystal of steel cylinders in water, along the K direction. (b) Band structure of the innite phononic crystal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.14 (c) Real part of the pressure eld in water for the eigenmode labeled D in the band structure. The arrow shows the direction of incidence of waves launched by the transducer. This mode belongs to a deaf band and is not excited by a plane-wave transducer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.15 K direction transmission spectrum for the honeycomb lattice with 5, 6 and 7 layers. The inset at the down left is the denition of the layer. . . . 64 62 61

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4.16 (a) Experimental (thick red solid line) and theoretical (thin blue solid line) transmission through a honeycomb-lattice phononic crystal of steel cylinders in water, along the K direction. (b) Band structure of the innite phononic crystal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.17 Real part of the pressure eld in water for the eigenmode labeled E in the band structure. The arrow shows the direction of incidence of waves launched by the transducer. This mode belongs to a deaf band and is not excited by a plane-wave transducer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.18 The M direction transmssion spectrum of honeycomb lattice with 5, 6 and 7 layers. The insert at the doen left is the denition of layer. . . . . . 4.19 (a) Experimental (thick red solid line) and theoretical (thin blue solid line) transmission through a honeycomb-lattice phononic crystal of steel cylinders in water, along the M direction. (b) Band structure of the innite phononic crystal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.20 Real part of the pressure eld in water for the eigenmode labeled F in the band structure. The arrow shows the direction of incidence of waves launched by the transducer. This mode belongs to a deaf band and is not excited by a plane-wave transducer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.21 The (a) 1 line, (b) 2 lines and (c) 3 lines defect waveguides in triangular lattice. The red dash circles indicate the position of steel cylinders that was removed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.22 The experimental transmission spectra (solid line) of 1 line defect waveguide with length 15mm, 25mm and 35mm. The dash line shown the transmission spectrum for the triangular lattice K direction for the perfect structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 70 68 67 67 66 65

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4.23 The experimental transmission spectra (solid line) of 2 line defect waveguide with length 15mm, 25mm and 35mm. The dash line shown the transmission spectrum for the triangular lattice K direction for the perfect structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.24 The experimental transmission spectra (solid line) of 3 line defect waveguide with length 15mm, 25mm and 35mm. The dash line shown the transmission spectrum for the triangular lattice K direction for the perfect structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.25 The experimental (red solid line) and theoretical (blue dash line) transmission spectra of (a) 1 line, (b) 2 lines and (c) 3 lines defect waveguide. . 4.26 Experiment setup of acoustic wave eld inside waveguide. . . . . . . . . 4.27 The acoustic wave real part images of (a) 2 lines and (b) 3 lines defect waveguides. The frequency of the wave is 950kHz. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.28 Structure orientation with [100] and [111] direction. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.29 The picture of the 3-D phononic crystal with top surface perpendicular to (a) [100] and (b) [111] directions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.30 Experimental set-up used to measure the transmission spectra of phononic crystals using acoustic transducers in acoustical contact with the phononic crystal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.31 The transmission of [100] direction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.32 Transmission in the [111] direction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.33 Transmission in the [110] direction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1 Pictures of the structures which edge is parallel to (a) X and (b) M direction. (c) Denition of the lattice direction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 The fabrication process of the phononic crystal slab structure. . . . . . . . 85 86 78 79 80 80 77 75 76 74 75 73 72

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5.3

Sketch of the experiment. Waves are excited in the phononic crystal slabs using an ultrasonic transducer through a prism with an incidence angle of 30 degrees. The phononic crystal slab is formed by a one layer thick array of spherical steel beads with a diameter of 4 mm arranged according to a square lattice in an epoxy matrix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 89

5.4 5.5

Principle of the laser interferometer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (a) Scanning region position. (b) Measured transmission spectrum (left

hand side) and computed band structure (right hand side) in the X direction 91 5.6 (a) Scanning region position. (b) Measured transmission spectrum (left hand side) and computed band structure (right hand side) in the M direction 92 5.7 Dependence of the displacement amplitude with frequency and propagation distance measured for (a) the X and (b) the M oriented phononic crystal slabs. The white lines in the gray maps on the left mark the complete band gap frequency range, while the black cycles indicate the position of steel beads. The illustrations in the left side of these two color maps indicate the scanning region. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.8 The graphs (a) and (b) are extracted from the data in Fig. 5.7(a) and 5.7(b), respectively, and show line scans at three particular frequencies. The chosen frequencies lie before the complete band gap, inside it, and above it. The blue cycles indicate the position of steel beads. . . . . . . . 5.9 Dependence of the displacement amplitude with frequency and propagation distance measured for the pure epoxy slabs with 4mm thickness. . . . 5.10 The picture of the line defect waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 97 95 93

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5.11 Experimental transmission through a line defect waveguide managed along the X direction of the phononic crystal slab and the corresponding theoretical band diagram. On the left, the transmission spectrum of waveguide is shown with a red line, while the transmission spectrum of the perfect phononic crystal slab in X direction is shown in blue line. The right hand side is theoretical band diagram of the waveguide. The complete band gap frequency range is located between the two gray areas. The illustrations in the left side indicates the scanning region. . . . . . . . . . 5.12 Spatial scanning region of displacement eld of acoustic waves in the line defect waveguide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 5.13 Real part of the displacement eld of acoustic waves frequency within complete band gap in the defect line waveguide. The wave frequencies at 275 kHz, 300 kHz and 325 kHz, respectively. The white circles indicate the positions of the steel beads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 5.14 Real part of the displacement eld of acoustic waves in the defect line waveguide at a frequency of 135 kHz. The white circles indicate the positions of the steel beads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 5.15 (a)Experimental set up for negative refraction. (b) Illustration of the negative refraction effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 5.16 Real part of the displacement eld with frequenies (a) 133 kHz and (b) 380 kHz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 99

5.17 Real part of the displacement eld with frequencies (a) 280 kHz and (b) 300 kHz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

5.18 Real part of the displacement eld with frequencies (a) 333 kHz and (b) 340 kHz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

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List of Tables
2.1 4.1 Band-structure-related properties of three periodic cyctem. [10] . . . . . Material constants of the phononic crystal constituents. cS and cL are the velocities for shear and longitudinal waves, respectively, is the mass density, and ZL is the acoustic impedance for longitudinal waves. . . . . . 4.2 Material constants of the phononic crystal constituents. cS and cL are the velocities for shear and longitudinal waves, respectively, is the mass density, and ZL is the acoustic impedance for longitudinal waves. . . . . . 5.1 Material constants of the phononic crystal constituents. cS and cL are the velocities for shear and longitudinal waves, respectively, is the mass density, and ZL is the acoustic impedance for longitudinal waves. . . . . . 87 78 52 19

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Chapter1

General Introduction

Since the rst experiment of X-ray refraction experiment is observed in 1962, the theories of solid state were developed rapidly. In the solid state theories, the electrons are considered as rather wave than particle. In the crystalline solid, the periodic potential applied to the electron wave and causes some energy gaps. The electron waves with frequencies within those gaps can not existence inside the solid. The same methods can be applied to traditional waves as electromagnetic waves or acoustic waves. The rst concept was presented in 1987 for electromagnetic waves and in 1993 for acoustic waves. The analogy energy gaps in traditional wave are called forbidden band gaps or complete band gaps. The structures, which can generate complete band gaps for electromagnetic and acoustic waves, are called photonic and phononic crystals, respectively. The electromagnetic or acoustic wave with frequencies with in the complete band gaps can not propagate inside the crystals. As the crystalline solid with periodic potential, the photonic and phononic crystals are periodic structure geometrically. The optical and elastic parameters are periodically varying inside the photonic and phononic crystals, respectively. This thesis presented the studies in photonic and phononic crystals. The works are cooperated by Department of Optics and Photonics, National Central University, Taiwan and Institude FEMTO-ST, Universit de Franche-Comt, France. Three major subjects are presented in this thesis. First subject focuses on the optical properties of threedimensional photonic crystal. Second subject includes the studies of the acoustic bulk waves in two and three-dimensional phononic crystals. Finally, the third subject includes the studies of Lamb wave mode in phononic crystal slab which is consisted of plate and plannar periodic structure is studied. We presented in the studies of three-dimensional photonic crystals a method to enhance the reectance of the articial opal. The experiment is demonstrated by coating 1

Ag nanoparticles on the polymethylmethacrylate microspheres to form a metallodielectric articial opal. The diameter of microspheres is 320nm. The angle-resolved reection spectra of the metallodielectric opals are studied. The experimental results are veried by the three dimensional theoretical band structures which can predict the band gap frequency range corresponding to different incident directions. By a suitable coating of Ag nanoparticles on the microspheres, the reectance of the opals is enhanced without changing the reection wavelength. This metallodielectric material can be used as the high reectance mirror. The device works in visible light wavelength range. In the chapter of acoustic bulk waves, two-dimensional phononic crystals with triangular and honeycomb lattices are investigated experimentally and theoretically. The structures used in our experiment are composed of arrays of steel cylinders immersed in water. The geometrical parameters of these two structures are the same. The measured transmission spectra revealed the existence of complete band gaps but also of deaf bands. Band gaps and deaf bands are identied by comparing band structure computations, obtained by a periodic-boundary nite element method, with transmission simulations, obtained using the nite difference time domain method. The appearance of at bands and the polarization of the associated eigenmodes is also discussed. Triangular and honeycomb phononic crystals with equal cylinder diameter and smallest spacing are compared. As previously obtained with air-solid phononic crystals, it is found that the rst complete band gap opens for the honeycomb lattice but not for the triangular lattice, thanks to symmetry reduction. Three-dimensional epoxy-steel photonic crystals are studied experimentally also in this chapter. The structures used in our experiment are composed of face-center cubic package spherical steel beads embedded in an epoxy matrix. The complete band gaps are identied by measuring the transmission in different orientations of structure. A large complete band gaps for longitudinal waves are observed. The 60% relative width of the band gap is larger than expected based on the contrast in material properties. The cou-

pling between shear and longitudinal polarizations is proposed to be the mechanism for enlarging the band gap by comparing with the steel beads in water matrix case. Finally, the propagation of acoustic waves in a square-lattice phononic crystal slab consisting of a single layer of spherical steel beads in a solid epoxy matrix is studied experimentally. The acoustic wave, which is guided between two surfaces of slab, is plate mode, also called Lamb wave mode. The three dimensional connement and control of acoustic waves is achieved by the single layer periodic structure and the two face of slab, so this kind of structure is also called quasi-three dimensional phononic crystal structure. Acoustic waves are excited by an ultrasonic transducer and fully characterized on the slab surface by laser interferometry. The transmission and eld image of acoustic wave are investigated. A complete band gap is found to extend around 300 kHz, in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The transmission attenuation caused by absorption and band gap effects is obtained as a function of frequency and propagation distance. Well conned acoustic wave propagation inside a line-defect waveguide is further observed experimentally. An unusual refraction effect is observed in the wave frequencies near the higher band edge of complete band gaps.

Chapter2

Introduction to photonic and phononic crystals

2.1

History and development of photonic crystals The wave propagation inside periodic structure can be traced to X-ray refraction ex-

periment. The rst experiment of X-ray diffraction by crystal is observed. The experiment of X-ray introduced the concept of forbidden band. After, the theories of solid-state and semi-conductor were developed widely. The concept was applied to the case of electromagnetic waves and elastic waves. The concepts of photonic crystals and photonic band gap were rst presented by Eli Yablonovitch and Sajeev Jhon in Physical Review Letters [13, 14] in 1987. They purposed to suppress spontaneous emission and to achieve localization of light. Recently, photonic crystals attracted much attention of researchers in not only optics but also chemistry, physics, and microelectronics beacuse of the potential of light control. Photonic crystals are potent to control the ows of photons. The purpose could be achieved by designing the band gap frequency range properly. Photonic crystals (PCs) are dielectric materials in which the refraction index is periodically modulated. The validity of Bloch-Floquet theorem for Maxwell equations implies the existence of photonic bands, in analogy to electrons in crystalline solids. Photonic crystal structures can produce complete band gaps of electromagnetic wave, in analogy to energy gaps of electrons. The electromagnetic wave with frequencies within band gaps range can not propagate inside photonic crystal structure. By introducing some defects or deformations inside structures, the photonic crystals can be used to control the propagation direction and properties of light in many approaches.

Figure 2.1: From left to right diagram, PCs are in one, two, and three dimensions. The red and yellow colors indicate the different refraction index. (http://abinitio.mit.edu/photons/) The photonic crystals types could be divided into one, two and three dimensional. Fig. 2.1 indicates the three type of structure. In one dimensional structure, the refraction index is periodically modulated along one dimension, as multilayer structure. Two dimensional structure could be achieved by arranging dielectric cylinders in air [15, 16, 17] periodically or inverse [17, 18]. Three dimensional structure could be fabricated by packaging dielectric cylinders or spheres. There are various techniques for the fabrication of three dimensional PCs [19]. For instance, silicon micromachining [20], wafer fusion bonding [21], holographic lithography [22], self-assembly [23, 24], angled etching [25], micromanipulation [26], glancing angle deposition [27] and autocloning [28]. 2.1.1 Photonic crystals in Nature

Photonic crystals structure is not only articial. It existed in nature also, in many plants, animals and mineral. These photonic crystals periodic structures in nature cause the surface of materials to gleam colors when the light incident on them. The colors do not result from the existence of pigment. Here are some examples of the photonic crystals in nature. Fig. 2.2 shows the iridescent colors of buttery wings caused by the periodic structures. The SEM picture of buttery wings are shown in Fig. 2.3. [1, 2] 5

Figure 2.2: Somewhere in a beam of sunlight in the Amazon basin, the three-inch wings of a morpho buttery glow with deep blue iridescence. Then the morpho shifts its wings and, as if a switch ipped, shows its other self, dull brown. [1]

Figure 2.3: High-resolution SEM images showing the ne structure of the scales with rounded ends: (a) blue (BL) male, blue region; (b) blue (BL) male, blue-violet region; (c) brown (BR) male.[2] Fig. 2.4 (a), (b) and (c) shows the colorful spine pf sea mouse and the SEM picture of cross-section of a spine, respectively.[1, 29] Sea mouse is a marine worm and living in moderately deep water. [1, 29, 30] Scientists discovered that the spine of sea mouse consisted of an array of regularly arranged hollow cylinders (Fig. 2.4 (c)), and this simple 6

structure gives rise to a spectacular iridescence. [30]

Figure 2.4: (a)Sea mouse, (b) its iridescent threads (c) SEM cross-section of a spine.[2] Fig. 2.5 shows the picture of opal. This is the oldest and best-known example of photonic crystals structure in mineral word. The colorful surface of opal is caused by the photonic crystals structure also. 2.1.2 Defects

Electromagnetic waves with frequencies within the photonic crystal band gaps are forbidden to propagate in the photonic crystal. However, suitable defects introduced into the photonic crystal can act as waveguides or cavities for those electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic waves can be controlled (guided or conned) by those defects. The combination of those defects can act as the novel planar light wave circuit with higher efciency than traditional methods. Some briey introductions of the waveguide and cavity defects in photonic crystal are presented in follow. Meade et al [31] presented the waveguides and cavities in two dimensional photonic crystal structure theoretically. Compare the results to conventional struc7

Figure 2.5: The opal is the example of photonic band structures in mineral worlds.[2] tures, the results of photonic crystal defects shown lower bend losses and higher Q values than conventional bending waveguides and cavities, respectively. Mekis et al [32] demonstrated highly efcient transmission of light around sharp corners in photonic bandgap waveguides theoretically. The transmittance is higher than 95 %. High transmission is observed even for 90o bends with zero radius of curvature, with a maximum transmission of 98% as opposed to 30% for analogous conventional dielectric waveguides. Tokushima et al [3] demonstrated 1.55m wavelength lightwave propagation through a 120o sharply bent waveguide formed in a triangular-lattice two-dimensional photonic crystal which was fabricated in a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer with the top silicon layer of the wafer used as a core layer. Fig. 2.6 shows the cross sectional micrograph of the structure. C. Martijn de Sterke et al [33] studied the the modes of coupled photonic crystal waveguides. Li et al [34] employed a highly efcient transfer-matrix method to investigate the propagation loss in a photonic crystal waveguide without complete wave connement because of limited cladding wall thickness. An anomalous loss phenomenon is found where the loss for guided modes near the upper band edge can be several orders of 8

Figure 2.6: Cross-sectional micrograph of the 2D PC. The holes were formed in a 1.85m thick Si core layer. The SiO2 layer was 2m thick. [3] magnitude smaller than that for modes in the middle of the band gap, and it is attributed to a different localization degree of the guided mode at different frequency domains. Gersen et al [35] presented a real-space observation of fast and slow pulses propagating inside a photonic crystal waveguide by time-resolved near-eld scanning optical microscopy. For a specic optical frequency, a localized pattern associated with a at band in the dispersion diagram. During at least 3 ps, movement of this eld is hardly discernible: its group velocity would be at most c/1000. They also measured the eigeneld distribution and the band structure of a photonic crystal waveguide with a phase-sensitive near-eld scanning optical microscope [36]. Bloch modes are visualized in the waveguide. In the band structure, multiple Brillouin zones due to zone folding are observed, in which positive and negative dispersion is seen. The negative slopes are shown to correspond to a negative phase velocity but a positive group velocity. Chien et al [37] introduced the point-defect coupling under the tight-binding approximation to describe the behavior of dispersion relations of the guided modes in a single photonic crystal waveguide and two coupled identical photonic crystal waveguides. Some optical devices consisted of photonic crystal waveguides were presented also. 9

Lin et al [4] reported a successful experimental realization of a photonic-crystal Y splitter operating at 1.6m with a large splitting angle of 120o and a miniature size of 3mX 3m. The device is based on a triple-line-defect in 2D photonic crystal slab structure. The material of light-guiding layer is GaAs. Fig. 2.7 shows the SEM picture of the devices. Sharkawy et al [38] presented an electro-optical switch implemented in coupled photonic crystal waveguides theoretically. The device is designed in a square lattice of silicon posts in air as well as in a hexagonal lattice of air holes in a silicon slab. The switching mechanism is a change in the conductance in the coupling region between the waveguides and hence modulating the coupling coefcient and eventually switching is achieved. Wavelength-selective operation of an optical lter (add/drop) based on a contra-directional photonic crystal waveguide coupler is demonstrated by Qiu et al [39] experimentally and theoretically. The waveguides are dened as line defects in a twodimensional triangular photonic crystal fabricated in an InP/GaInAsP heterostructure. Chien et al [40] demonstrated a dual-wavelength demultiplexer with a coupling length of only two wavelengths and output power ratio as high as 15 dB. The fundamental mode of the two coupled photonic crystal waveguides can be odd parity in a triangular photonic crystal and their dispersion curves do intersect. Thus, the photonic crystal waveguides are decoupled at the crossing point. The optical cavity with high Q value could be used to conne light and is useful to fabricate laser or other optical devices. Tayeb et al [41] analyzed diffraction by a nite set of parallel cylinders to study the inuence of defects in a photonic crystal. They describedl the near-eld map, scattered eld, and energy ow of the electromagnetic eld and also localized resonant modes. Scherer et al [5] presented some examples of high-Q value optical nanocavities in InGaAsP experimentally. The structures can be used to fabricate surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode (LEDs) and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. The photonic crystal cavity are shown in Fig. 2.8 Robinson et al [42] theoretically demonstrate a mechanism for reduction of mode vol-

10

Figure 2.7: (a) Scanning electron micrograph top view of 38 period triple-line-defect linear waveguide. The defect hole diameter is 0.8 times of lattice constant (352nm). The rectangular boxes indicate the interfaces between the ridge and the photonic band gap waveguide. (b) Scanning electron micrograph image of the Y-splitter sample, which consists of a 120o Y- splitter and two 60o bends (indicated by the red circles). (c) Infrared camera image of the two Y-splitter outputs at = 1650nm. They are both Gaussian-like and equally bright, indicating a near 50/50 splitting ratio.[4] ume in high index contrast optical microcavities to below a cubic half wavelength. The principle can be applied to nearly every existing microcavity resonator to enhance not only 11

Figure 2.8: Five photonic crystal cavities coupled together lithographically by arrangement in the same slab.[5] light emission but also nonlinear effects. Englund et al [43] observed a large spontaneous emission rate modication of individual InAs quantum dots in a 2D photonic crystal with a modied, high-Q single-defect cavity. The emission rate increase of up to 8 times than quantum dots in a bulk semiconductor. Chaloupka et al [44] shown how to construct circular photonic crystals and variable-size circular photonic crystals cavities, which can support well-localized modes with high-quality factors by local density of states Istrate et al [45] presented a method which can obtain the equivalent of the Fresnel coefcients for photonic crystals by the band structure and Bloch modes. They used these coefcients to derive the reection of light from a photonic crystal of nite size and the resonant modes of photonic crystal cavities. Xu et al [46] presented theoretically a nanowire-array-based optical microcavity high Q values and small Vef f can nd applications in elds such as microlasers, compact nonlinear frequency conversion, alloptical signal processing, and quantum information processing. The material is consist of III-V and II-VI semiconductor. OBrien et al [47] presented experimentally tunable optical delay in a coupled resonator structure consisting of a chain of three heterostructure nanocavities. The speed of light in the device is varied over a range from c/75 to c/120 using effective pump powers below 100W .

12

2.1.3

Photonic crystal ber

Optical ber is a traditional and useful optical device. It is applied to optical communication, optical measurement, laser and many other categories. Many works presented that by adding the photonic crystal structure in the core of optical ber, the novel application and phenomena could be observed. In 1996, Knight et al [48] presented the photonic crystal ber consists of a pure silica core surrounded by a silica-air photonic crystal material with a hexagonal symmetry. The ber supports a single robust low-loss guided mode over a very broad spectral range of at least from 458 to 1550 nm. Birks et al [6] presented an all-silica optical ber by embedding a central core in a two-dimensional photonic crystal with a micrometer-spaced hexagonal array of air holes. An effective-index model conrms that such a ber can be single mode for any wavelength. The SEM picture of ber is shown in Fig. 2.9.

Figure 2.9: Scanning electron microscope image of the end of a photonic crystal ber, showing the central core where a hole has been omitted. [6] Ranka et al [7] demonstrated experimentally air-silica microstructure optical bers can exhibit anomalous dispersion at visible wavelengths. The output spectra of ber 13

extending from the violet to the infrared, by propagating pulses of 100-fs duration and kilowatt peak powers through a microstructure ber near the zero-dispersion wavelength. Fig. 2.10 shows the Electron micrograph picture of ber Fig. 2.11 shows the optical spec-

Figure 2.10: Scanning electron micrograph image of the inner cladding and core of the airsilica microstructure ber. [7] trum of ber. Also shown is the spectrum of initial pulse. Jhonson et al [49] presented

Figure 2.11: Optical spectrum of the continuum generated in a 75-cm section of microstructure ber. The dashed curve shows the spectrum of the initial 100-fs pulse. [7] present the light-propagation characteristics of OmniGuide bers, which guide light by 14

concentric multi-layer dielectric mirrors having the property of omnidirectional reection. The multi-layer dielectric acts one-dimensional photonic crystal structure. Shephard et al [50] discussed the damage threshold and practical limitations of current hollow-core bers for the delivery of short optical pulses. Coen et al [51] presented the generation of a spatially single-mode white-light supercontinuum has been observed in a photonic crystal ber pumped with 60-ps pulses of subkilowatt peak power experimentally. 2.1.4 Colloidal microsphere base photonic crystal

Recently, three-dimensional photonic crystal fabricated by microspheres attracted much attenuation. The structure is also called articial opal. The advantages of photonic crystal based in colloidal microspheres are fabricated easily and with small size which can be used to high frequency range. In 1996, Tarhan et al [52] studied the photonic band structure of a polystyrene colloidal fcc crystal by transmission measurements. Mguez et al [8] investigated the optical properties of packed monodisperse silica submicron spheres by means of optical transmission measurements. The lattice parameters of these structures can be easily tuned through the sphere size form 200 to 700 nm thus covering the whole visible and near infrared spectrum. Fig. 2.12 shows the SEM picture of the structure. In almost the same time, Bogomolov et al [53] reported on the photonic band gap phenomenon in the visible range in a three-dimensional dielectric lattice formed by close-packed spherical silica clusters experimentally. Manifestations of the photonic pseudogap have been established for both transmission and emission spectra. Li et al [54] investegated the full band gap of inverse-opal (air-spheres in host) theoretically. They also found that, in the presence of disorder such as variations in the radii of air spheres and their positions, the band gap reduces signicantly. This imposes a severe requirement on the uniformity of the crystal lattice. Lpez Tejeira et al [55] analyzed the symmetry properties of eigenstates along the high-symmetry directions of close-packed

15

Figure 2.12: SEM image of a 6 10m2 region of the surface of a sample made from 415 nm spheres. [8] bare opals according to the group theory. The results shows that some bands cannot be coupled with an external plane wave along several directions, because of symmetry reasons, and is not expected to provide any observable features in the transmittance Wang et al [56] studied the effect of different stacking sequences on the optical properties of inverted opal photonic crystals composed of close-packed air spheres embedded in high dielectric matrix of GaAs by electromagnetic wave multiple scattering technique. Chen et al [57] presented theoretically a method to reduce the propagation loss of Si-based photonic crystal slab waveguides. The transmission are enhanced to twice by stacking silica and polystryrene microspheres on the top of waveguides. Next year, they [9] proposed a technique to fabricate a free-standing three-dimensional colloidal crystal by selfassembling the colloidal microspheres with controllable thickness from the air and liquid interface. The structures can be used for nano-photonic circuits, white-light LEDs or as a photocatalyst. Fig. 2.13 shows the opal with different thicknesses. Pavarini et al [58] presented a theoretical approach for the interpretation of reectance spectra of opal photonic crystals with fcc structure and (111) surface orientation. It is based on the calculation of photonic bands and density of states corresponding to a specied angle of incidence in air and yield a clear distinction between diffraction in the direction of light propagation by (111) family planes and diffraction in other directions 16

Figure 2.13: SEM images of the photonic crystals after different heating durations. (A) More than 15 layers of microspheres were orderly packed. (B) The thickness of the opals is about 17m. (C) The thickness of the opals is about 78m. (D) The thickness of the opals would be more than 200m. (E) This shows that the surface of the photonic crystals in (D) is well packed in the FCC structure. [9] by higher-order planes. The theoretical results were veried by reectance measurements on articial opals made of self-assembled polystyrene spheres 2.2 History and development of phononic crystals A phononic crystal is an articial crystal which is composed of a nite-size periodic array of sonic scatterers embedded in a homogeneous host material. The host material may be solid [59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69] or uid [61, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76]. Phononic crystals can produce full band-gaps, or complete band-gaps, where any sound wave is not allowed to propagate into the crystal. The theory of phononic crystals is similar to that of photonic crystals. The analogy between behaivors of the electromagnetic wave in photonic crystals and acoustic wave in phononic crystals were well discussed by Miyashita [77]. 17

The concept of the phononic crystal is rst presented by Kushwaha et al. [10] and Economou and Sigalas [78] in 1993. They discuss classical wave propagation in periodic structures. Classical waves include electromagnetic waves and elastic (acoustic) waves. Kushwaha et al. list a comparison of ordinary crystals, dielectric composites and elastic composites (Tab. 2.1). Tab. 2.1 clearly shows the analogy and difference between quantum, electromagnetic and acoustic waves. Kushwaha also studied theoretically the acoustic band gap of straight, innite cylinders embedded in an elastic background. First, the cylinder is made by Ni and the background is made by Al. In the second structure, the materials of cylinders and background are exchanged. The band structure of the second structure is displayed in Fig. 2.14. This is the rst "band gap" results for acoustic waves. Kushwaha and Halevi [79] then presented the acoustic band gap in periodic, binary composites of long, elastic cylinders that form a hexagonal lattice. They concluded several general rules for the occurrence of acoustic band gaps. First, the wave velocity in the inclusion should be lower than that in the matrix material. Second, The diamond and FCC structure are preferable, especially the FCC structure. Third, the difference between acoustic wave velocity in inclusion and matrix should be large. Fourth, the difference between the velocity of transverse and longitudinal wave should be as small as possible. Lastly, The material density is also a key point to decide band gap effects. Further works have shown that these rules are not absolute. The geometric parameters of phononic crystals are directly dependent on the acoustic wave length. For long wave length (low frequency), the size of unit cell (for example: the inset of Fig. 2.14) could be very large. The rst experimental result of the acoustic band gap measure is achieved by Martinez-Sala et al [80]. The experiment sample is a sculpture in Juan March Fundation at Madrid. The sculpture is consisted of square array steel cylinders with diameter 2.9cm. The acoustic wave frequency is 2 kHz. Afterwards, many different composite materials were studied, for instance, carbon/epoxy and water/mercury

18

Table 2.1: Band-structure-related properties of three periodic cyctem. [10] Property Material "Electronic" Crystal Crytalline "Photonic" Crystal "Phononic" Crystal

Constructed of two di- Constructed of two electric materials elastic materials Mass densities, sound speeds of constituents Mesoscopic or macroscopic

Parameters

Universal

constants, Dielectric constants of constituents 0.1 m - 1cm

atomic numbers Lattice Constant Waves 1-5

de Broglie (electrons) Electromagnetic light (photons) E,B

or

Vibrational or sound (phonons) u

Polarization

Spin ,

Transverse: D = Coupled trans.-longit. 0( E = 0) ( u = 0, D = 0)


2 ui t2 1 l = { x ( u )+ xl i

Differential equation Free particle limit Band gap

h 2 + V (r) = 2 E ( E ) = 2 m

ih t W =
2 k2 h 2m

(r ) 2 E c2 t2

i [( u xl xl

ul )]} xi

= cl,t k

Increases with crystal Increase with | potential; no electron states

a b

| Increase with | a b | ; no phonons, no vibration; no sound

; no photons, no light

Spectral region

Radio

wave,

mi-

Microwave, optical

1GHz

crowave, optical, x ray

[81, 82]. The rst experiment result of a bulk acoustic wave complete band gap was presented by Sanchez-Perez et al [73]. The results presented the complete band of twodimensional periodic array of rigid cylinders in air with square and triangular geometrical congurations. The authors also observed the deaf band effect. Deaf bands are acoustic 19

Figure 2.14: Band structure for a period array of aluminum cylinders in nickel background. The inset shows the unit cell [10]. branches which exist in the band structure. But the modes of these branches cannot be excited depending on the symmetry of the mode with respect to the source, hence they do not transport acoustic energy through the crystal. At almost the same time, Montero de Espinosa et al [83] presented the complete band gap effect of mercury cylinders in aluminum matrix without deaf band. Different kinds of material were also presented. For example, Wen et al [84] presented the band structure of exural waves in a periodic binary straight beam with different cross sections. It is worth to mention that Liu et al [85] presented the locally resonant material for which the size is 12 times smaller than the wave length. These results can be extended to the large wave length range. The size of the unit cell can also be reduced.

20

So far, the results were presented here are all in the case of acoustic bluk wave. The acoustic bulk wave is an elastic wave propagating in an innite solid material. Generally, the studies of three-dimensional phononic crystals or two-dimensional phononic crystals with the periodic structure in x-y plane and innite in z-axis fall in this category.

Phononic crystals for surface acoustic waves and Lamb waves


In contrast to the bulk wave, there are some kinds of acoustic waves that are conned at the surface or the interface of a material. Tanaka et al [86] present the theoretical elucidation of surface acoustic waves characteristics in 2D phononic crystals. They studied the wave propagating on the surface perpendicular to the axes of elastic cylinders (z-direction) forming a 2D lattice. The system occupying z>0 is periodic within the at surface (z=0), which is taken to be the x-y plane and homogeneous in the z direction. They also compare the acoustic stop bands of surface and bulk modes in two-dimensional phononic crystal [87]. Some examples of the acoustic surface wave researchs include different materials and measurement techniques will be introduced below. Meseguer et al [88] studied the surface-elastic waves attenuation by a periodic array of cylindrical holes. The experiments were performed in a marble quarry by drilling cylindrical holes. The attenuation spectra of the surface waves show the existence of absolute band gaps for elastic waves in these semi-innite two-dimensional crystals. Viens et al [89] presented the frequency gap of surface acoustic wave in phononic structures multilayers which consisted of slots cut in an aluminum substrate lled with a polymer. The complete band gap of surface acoustic wave in water is presented by Jeong et al [90]. Dhar et al [91] studied the frequencies dispersion of surface acoustic modes in aluminum-coated glass plates with square-wave surface relief. The relief is fabricated by laser-based transient grating method. Profunser et al [92] persented the imaging of ripples in one-dimensional phononic crystal consists of of a grating of alternate copper and silicon oxide lines of thickness both deposited on a silicon substrate by ultrafast optical pump and probe technique. The phononic crystal 21

devices using surface acoustic wave are received much attenuation also [93, 94, 95]. The functions included the applications in high frequency wave, lter devices and acoustic mirrors or transducers. Lamb waves have also received much attenuation recently, They can be generated in the elastic plate with nite thickness in the direction perpendicular to the propagation surface. The vibration exists on the two faces of the plate and the acoustic energy distributes inside all the plate, not just near the surface. Like the surface acoustic wave, the propagation direction of the Lamb wave is already xed in the direction parallel to the material surface. The wave can be further controled by adding a structure varying periodically along the surface of material with phononic crystal effect. It means that the inuence of two-dimensional phononic crystals for surface acoustic waves or Lamb waves is like the inuence of three-dimensional phononic crystals for the bulk waves. Below are some examples of phononic crystals for Lamb waves. Hsu et al [96] studied theoretically the propagation for the lower bands of Lamb waves in two-dimensional phononic-crystal plates consisting of square array of crystalline gold cylinders in the epoxy matrix. The theory is based on Mindlins plate theory and on the plane wave expansion method. Zhang et al [97] studied experimentally a new type of phononic crystal produced by patterning holes on thin metal plates with optical characterization. Khelif et al [98] examined theoretically the propagation of elastic waves in a phononic crystal slab consisting of piezoelectric inclusions placed periodically in a host material by nite element method. The system is composed of a square lattice of quartz cylinders embedded in an epoxy matrix. Gao et al [99] presented numerically the propagation of Lamb waves in one-dimensional quasiperiodic composite thin plates made of tungsten and silicon resin arranged according to a Fibonacci sequence. The propagation of Lamb waves in silicon plates coated by a very thin two-dimensional phononic lm was presented by Bonello et al [100] by using a laser ultrasonics technique. All the studies above considered a one dimensional structure or a two dimenstional

22

structure with cylindrical inclusions. A phononic crystal slab with two dimensional spherical inclusions will be presented later in chapter 3.

Guide and Cavity


To achieve acoustic wave control, the complete band gap effect can be extended to guiding or connement the acoustic energy by adding specic defects. Further, various applications can be developed by studying the interaction between these defect states. The rst study of a defect state of a phononic crystal was presented theoretically by Sigalas[101] and Torres et al [102]. There are many theoretical and experimental studies of different defects in numerous kinds of phononic crystals. Generally, the theoretical methods used in these studies are based on the plane wave expansion or the nite difference time domain methods [103, 104]. The defect band in the band structure could be calculted by plane wave expansion. The transmission can be predicted by nite difference time domain methods. Some examples are introduced here. Chandra et al [105] presented the acoustic wave propagation along waveguides in three-dimensional phononic crystals by nite difference time domain methods. The phononic crystal is constituted of lead spherical inclusions on a face-centered cubic lattice embedded in an epoxy matrix. The cavity mode and sharp bending waveguide transmission were studied by khelif et al [106, 107] in a two dimensional phononic crystal constituted by a square array of circular parallel steel cylinders in water. Sharp bending and the coupling phenomenon of joined parallel phononic crystal waveguides in two-dimensional steel/epoxy phononic crystal was presented by Sun et al [108, 109]. Pennec et al [110] studied the coupling effect between two continuum waveguides and two cavities inserted in a phononic crystal composed of steel cylinders in water. Based on these researches, functional and tunable phononic devices can be developed. Waveguides with stubs which induce zeros of transmission were studied by Khelif et al [62]. The device have potential applications in ltering and wavelength demultiplexing 23

phenomena. A waveguide with tunable narrow pass bands is studied by khelif et al [63] and Pennec et al [111]. Kafesaki et al [112] showed that the transmittivity (T) in the waveguide as a function of frequency has an oscillating behavior with regions of T 1 and regions of T 0. Wang et al [113] studied a quasi-one-dimensional waveguide with periodical double stubs with tunable complete spectral gaps in the band structure.

Negative refraction in phononic crystal


Negative refraction received great attention in photonic crystal in recent years. The same effect is studied in phononic crystal also. The negative refraction effect can be used to realize perfect imaging and superlenses. There are many theoretical studies based on the multiple-scattering method. Li et al [114] presented the negative refraction effect in two dimensional square lattice, rubber-coated tungsten cylinders placed in water. Zhang et al [115] presented the All-Angle-Negative-Refraction (AANR) in phononic crystals with steel cylinders in air background and water cylinders in mercury background. Far-eld images of two-dimensional, hexagonal arrays of steel cylinders in air, phononic crystal superlens are presented by Qiu et al [116]. Experimental observation of negative refraction of acoustic wave was realized by Feng et al [117] in two-dimensional triangular sonic crystal constituted by drilling triangular array of holes on aluminum plate. Hu et al [11] observated directly the point source imaging in liquid surface waves. The phononic crystal is constituted by square lattice copper cylinders. Fig. 2.15 shown the simulated and experimental results. Fig. 2.15 (a) shown the patterns of liquid surface waves with different frequencies. The black areas inside these gures marked the position of phononic crystal. The acoustic point source is placed at the left side and near to the phononic crystal. Fig. 2.15 (b) shown the simulated results with the same parameters as in experiment. Ke et al [118] observed negative refraction behavior and imaging effect in a twodimensional phononic crystal which consists of a triangular array of steel rods immersed 24

Figure 2.15: Dark and white represent positive and negative vibrations, respectively. (a) Experimentally observed patterns of liquid surface waves. Black areas in the middle stands for the slab of copper cylinders. (b) Simulated results. Parameters used in simulations are the same as in experiment. Red dots denote copper cylinders. [11] in water. The same effect was observed in three dimensional phononic crystals consist of tungsten carbide beads surrounded by water, with the beads close packed in a face centered cubic crystal structure, by Yang et al [119].

Other applications and studies


There are many other kinds of studies in phononic crystal. For instance, the tunneling effect, high frequency phononic crystal and highly directional acoustic sources based on phononic crystals. The tunneling effect is one of the most striking phenomena in quantum mechanics. Since the theory of photonic and phononic crystals is deduced from the "electric" crystal, the existence of tunneling effect with classical waves is possible. Yang et al [120] studied experimentally and theoretically the tunneling effect in 3D phononic crystals, consisting of fcc arrays of close-packed tungsten carbide beads in water. Qiu et al [121] found that the resonant tunneling of longitudinal waves can be distinguished from those of transverse waves in two-dimensional double phononic potential barriers.

25

High frequency phononic crystals consisting of micro structures are achieved by micro fabrication processes or nano structures. Gorishnyy et al [122] demonstrated a new method for fabrication and characterization of hypersonic phononic crystals by combination of interference lithography and Brillouin light scattering. The frequency range extends to the GHz range. Lin et al [123] studied the characteristics of a nanoacoustic mirror and a nanophononic cavity by femtosecond optical pulse. The rst phononic band gap frequency is centered at 280 GHz. Recently, there have been some researches for highly directional acoustic wave sources which can be applied as acoustic transducers. Qiu et al [124] demonstrated a highly directional acoustic source with a large radiation enhancement, operating at the band-edge frequency of the phononic crystal by placing a line acoustic source inside a phononic crystal with a square lattice. Wu et al [125] presented an optimal amplitude magnication which is more than 86.5 times in comparison with the amplitude of the original source freely radiating based on the planar resonant cavity of two-dimensional phononic crystals. Fig. 2.16 displayed the experiment results which were presented by Ke et al [12]. The structure they used is steel rods in water arranged in a square lattice. The results shown a highly directional radiation with a half-power angular width of 6o . 2.3 Elastic wave propagation in materials This section is a brief introduction to acoustic wave propagation inside elastic materials [126]. The propagation of acoustic waves affects the deformation of materials. The displacement vector at each point of a material is presented by the vector u. The straindisplacement relation can be expressed by: 1 2 ui uj + xj xi

Sij =

(2.1)

The displacements of a material are accompanied with restoring forces which are 26

Figure 2.16: Radiation amplitude eld distribution over the phononic crystal: (a)by experiment and (b) by simulation. [12] called the stress eld T. The inertial and elastic restoring forces in a free vibrating medium are thus related through the translational equation of motion: 2u t2

T=

(2.2)

Hookes Law states the strain is linearly proportional to the stress, or conversely, that the stress is linearly proportional to the strain. In general, the stress can be expressed by :

27

Tij = cijkl Skl

(2.3)

Where i, j, k, l = x, y, z and with implied summation over the repeated subscripts k and l. The "microscopic spring constants" cijkl are called elastic stiffness constants. These stiffness constants are not all independent since

cijkl = cjikl = cijlk = cjilk and

(2.4)

cijkl = cklij Therefore, the stress eld can be writen as: uk xl

(2.5)

Tij = cijkl In isotropic material, The stress reduces to:

(2.6)

Tij = ull ij + 2uij where (r) and (r) are so-called Lam coefcients.

(2.7)

The relations above describe elastic wave propagation in media. The theoretical methods for calculating wave propagation inside inhomogeneous media are based on these relations. 2.4 Theoretical methods This section introduces some theoretical calculation methods for phononic crystas. The methods include the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method and Finite Element Methods (FEM). In our study, The FDTD method is used to compute the transmis-

28

sion of phononic crystals; FEM is used to compute the band structure. FEM also is used to calculate the eigen-modes of acoustic branches in the band structure. 2.4.1 Finite-Difference Time-Domain method

The Finite-Difference Time-Domain method used in phononic crystals was rst developed by Sigalas and Garca [103, 104]. The FDTD method can handle inhomogeneous mixed system cases such as uids in solids or the converse. It is a code for the temporal integration of incident wave packets for the full elastic equation that converges well in all cases investigated. Compared to other methods, the FDTD method can calculate the wave varying in the structure with time. The simulation is suited to nite dimension structures and can be made most similar to the real experiment environment. The propagation of elastic waves in isotropic inhomogeneous media is described by:

2 ui 1 Tij = 2 t xj Tij = ull ij + 2uij 1 ui uj Sij = + 2 xj xi

(2.8) (2.9) (2.10)

where ui is the ith component of the displacement vector u(r), Tij is the stress tensor, (r) and (r) are the so-called Lame coefcients, and (r) is the density. The FDTD method uses discretization of the elastic wave equations in both the spatial and time domains, sets appropriate boundary conditions, and explicitly calculates the evolution of the displacement vector u in the time domain. More specically, real space is discretized into a cubic grid. The separation distance between grids is x, y or z . Propagation time is also discretized into many temporal steps with interval t. For example, a function (x) is discretized using the method above. The differential of (x) with respect to x can be expressed as:

29

(x) (x + x, y, z ) (x, y, z ) = x x

(2.11)

For elastic wave equations, the displacement vector u can be expressed by ux x + uy y + uz z . The components ux , uy and uz are spatially interlaced by half a grid cell; they can be approximated by center differences in both space and time. The equation for the ux displacement becomes:

ux (l, m, n, k + 1) = + +

t2 2ux (l, m, n, k ) ux (l, m, n, k 1) + (l, m, n)x 1 1 [Txx (l + , m, n, k ) Txx (l , m, n, k )] 2 2 2 1 1 t [Txy (l, m + , n, k ) Txy (l, m , n, k )] (l, m, n)y 2 2 2 t (l, m, n)z 1 1 (2.12) [Txz (l, m, n + , k ) Txz (l, m, n , k )] 2 2

where the Txx component of the stress tensor is given by

1 1 1 1 Txx (l + , m, n, k ) = [(l + , m, n, k ) + 2(l + , m, n, k )] 2 x 2 2 [ux (l + 1, m, n, k ) ux (l, m, n, k )] (l + 1 , m, n, k ) 1 1 1 1 2 [uy (l + , m + , n, k ) uy (l + , m , n, k )] + y 2 2 2 2 1 (l + 2 , m, n, k ) + z 1 1 1 1 [uz (l + , m, n + , k ) uz (l + , m, n , k )] (2.13) 2 2 2 2 where k is the index for the time step. In a similar way one can get the other components of the stress tensor. The y component of the displacement vector is calculated at the (l + 1 ,m+ 1 , n) grid point and the z component at the (l + 1 , m, n + 1 ) grid point. That 2 2 2 2 way, we can get second order accuracy in our nite difference scheme. 30

Figure 2.17: The diagram of the computational space The computational space is sketched in Fig. 2.17. The computational cell contains the phononic crystal structure in its central part. The structure consists of inclusions embedded in a matrix of a different material. The inclusions form a lattice which we want to study. On the left and right sides of the composite, we put a homogeneous material, indentical to the matrix material of the composite. The acoustic wave is launched in the homogeneous (excitation) region in the left of composite and propagates along the z axis. The components of the displacement vector as a function of time are collected in the other homogeneous (detection) region on the other side of the composite. Periodic boundary conditions have been used at the edges of cell along x and y directions. In order to close the space along the z axis, Murs rst order absorbing boundary conditions are applied at two edges in z direction which are given by the following expression:

31

ux (l, m, 1, k + 1) = ux (i, m, 2, k ) +

c0 t x c0 t + x [ux (l, m, 2, k + 1) ux (i, m, 1, k )]

(2.14)

for n = 1; c0 is the longitudinal sound velocity of the matrix material for ux , uy and uz . The time series results collected at the detection region are converted into the frequency domain using a fast Fourier transform. By normalizing these results relative to the incident wave, one can nd the transmission coefcient. 2.4.2 Finite element method

The nite element method has more accuracy than the other methods in phononic crystals with sharp spatial changes of impedance, e.x. air/solid. In our studies, it is the major tool to calculate the band structures of bulk waves and Lamb waves in phononic crystals. In the nite element method, the phononic crystal is assumed to be innite and arranged periodically along the surface. The whole domain is split into successive unit cells containing one hole surrounded with the matrix material. Each unit cell is indexed by m , p. The unit cell is meshed and divided into nite elements connected by nodes. According to the Bloch-Floquet theorem, all elds obey a periodicity law, yielding for instance the following relation between the mechanical displacements ui for nodes lying on the boundary of the unit cell:

ui (x + ma1 , y + pa2 ) = ui (x, y, z )exp[j (kx ma1 )] exp[j (kx pa2 )] (2.15)

where kx and ky are the components of the Bloch wave vectors in the x and y directions, respectively. a1 and a2 are the pitches of the array. Considering the periodical 32

boundary conditions above allows us to reduce the model to a single unit cell which can be meshed using nite elements. A mechanical displacement and electrical potential nite element scheme is used. Considering a monochromatic variation of mechanical and electrical elds with a time dependence in exp(jt), where is the angular frequency, the general piezoelectric problem with no external applied force can be written:

Kuu 2 Muu Ku Ku K

0 0

(2.16)

where Kuu and Muu are the stiffness and mass matrices of the purely elastic part of the problem, Ku and Ku are piezoelectric-coupling matrices, and K accounts for the purely dielectric problem. u and represent, respectively, all displacements and electrical potential at the nodes of the mesh, gathered together in vector form. As the angular frequency is a periodical function of the wave vector, the problem can be reduced to the rst Brillouin zone. The dispersion curves are eventually built by varying the wave vector on the rst Brillouin zone for a given propagation direction. The full band structure is then deduced using symmetries. For our case, there are no piezoelectric-coupling and dielectric problems. The problem can be reduced to:

Kuu 2 Muu (u) = 0

(2.17)

The band diagram is obtained by solving an eigenvalue problem inside the rst irreducible Brillouin zone.

33

Chapter3
3.1 Introduction

Optical properties of metallodielectric opals

Photonic crystals (PCs) are structures with a periodically modulated dielectric constant. The light propagating in a PC experiences multiple scattering leading to the formation of Bloch waves and photonic band gaps. Three-dimensional (3D) PCs are intensively studied with the goal of achieving control of light propagation and a complete photonic band gap in all directions[13, 14]. Recently, opals with 3D structures have attracted much attention as photonic crystals from both fundamental and practical view points, because concepts such as photonic band gaps have been predicted and various applications of photonic crystals have also been proposed.[9] For example, recently, our group proposed a method to reduce the propagation loss of two-dimensional 2D photonic crystal slab waveguides by using the 3D photonic crystal structure formed by sedimentation of microspheres articial opal on and below the 2D PC slab waveguide [57]. The transmission of the PC slab waveguides can be enhanced to be around twice that without microspheres. For the articial opals, the closed-packed face-centered cubic (fcc) structure is the representative structure. The opal can be formed by dielectric microspheres or by the inverse structures which consist of the air holes in the dielectric materials.[9] The optical properties of fcc colloidal photonic crystals have been intensively studied.[127, 52, 128, 53, 8, 54, 129, 55, 56, 58]. The studies has already introduced in chapter 1. Recently, the opals consisting of two kinds of materials have attracted much attention such as the coated spheres [130] and the metallodielectric material.[131] The theoretical investigation results show that diamond and zinc-blende photonic crystals with small metal inclusions can have several complete photonic band gaps between the second and third, fth and sixth, and eighth and ninth bands. The second to third complete photonic band gap is 34

most important, because it is the most stable against disorder. In this chapter, the synthesis and the angle-resolved reectance spectra of metallodielectric opals by coating the Ag nanoparticles onto the dielectric micro-spheres are presented. The opals are made by polymethylmethacrylate(PMMA). With the suitable concentration of the Ag nanoparticles, the reectance of the opals can be enhanced without changing the photonic band gap of the PC structures. The results are presented experimentally and theoretically. The theoretical band structure of microspheres is calculated by plane-wave expansion method. It shows the relation between band gap frequency range and light incident angle. The experimental one is measured the angle-resolved reectance spectra directally. The experiment setup will be presented in a later section. 3.2 Plane Wave Expansion (PWE) Plane wave expansion [132] is widely adapted to calculate to band structure of photonic crystals. In order to verify to our experimental results, the band structure of our opal are calculated by PWE also. Band structure is the dispersion relation of the periodically arranged dielectric structure. The band gap frequency range, phase and group velocity can be extracted from band structure. A brief introduction of PWE is presented in follow paragraph. 1 B (r, t) (r) H (r, t) = c t c t

E (r, t) =

(3.1)

H (r, t) =

1 D(r, t) 0 (r) E (r, t) = c t c t

(3.2)

where E is the electric eld, H is the magnetic eld, D is the electric displacement and B the magnetic induction.

35

The time-indepent form could be get by set E , H , D and B as follow: E (r, t) = E (r)eit H (r, t) = H (r)eit D(r, t) = D(r)eit B (r, t) = B (r)eit (3.3) (3.4) (3.5) (3.6)

The magnetic permeability of the photonic crystal is equal to that in free space, i.e., (r) = 0 . The electric constant is assumed real, isotropic, and spatial periodically, i.e., (r) = (r + ai ), i = 1, 2, 3, where a is the lattice vector of the photonic crystal. According the description above, the equations 3.1 and 3.2 can be rewrite as:

2 1 ( E (r)) = 2 E (r) (r) c ( H (r, t) 2 ) = 2 H (r) (r) c

(3.7) (3.8)

This is the Helmholtz equation of electromagnetic wave. The Blochs theorem is applied to the equation above. Blochs theorem indicated that The eigenfunctions of the wave equation for a periodic potential can be expressed as: (r) = uk (r)eikr , where uk (r) = uk (r + a) and a is the lattice vector of the lattice of periodic potential. Because of (r) is periodical. Thus the Blochs theorem can be applied to the Helmholtz equation of electromagnetic wave. The electric eld and magnetic eld are thus characterized by a wave vector k in rst Brillouin zone and band index as:

E (r) = Ekn (r) = ukn (r)eikr H (r) = Ekn (r) = vkn (r)eikr where ukn (r) and vkn (r) are periodic vectorial function. 36

(3.9) (3.10)

ukn (r + ai ) = ukn (r) vkn (r + ai ) = vkn (r) for i = 1, 2, 3.

(3.11) (3.12)

Because of the spatial peridodicity of E (r), H (r) and (r). They can be expanded in Fourier series as follow:

Ekn (r) =
G

Ekn (G)ei(k+G)r Hkn (G)ei(k+G)r


G

(3.13) (3.14) (3.15)

Hkn (r) = 1 = (r)


G

(G)ei(k+G)r

Substituting equations 3.13, 3.14 and 3.15 into 3.7 and 3.8, The Helmholtz equation become the following eigenvalue equations:

(G (G )(k + G ) ((k + G ) Ekn (G ) = (G (G )(k + G ) ((k + G ) Hkn (G ) =


G

2 kn Ekn (G) c2 2 kn Hkn (G) c2

(3.16) (3.17)

Where kn denotes the eigen-angular frequency of Ekn (r), Hkn (r). The dispersion relation of the eigenmodes, photonic band structure, can be obtained by solving the two equations above. 3.3 Fabrication of opals and experimental samples Highly uniform polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microspheres were prepared by the emulsier-free emulsion polymerization.[9] Potassium persulfate (KPS) was used as the 37

initiator. Methylmethacrylate was served as the monomers. In this emulsier-free system, KPS was rstly dissolved in deionized water and then a calculated amount of monomer was added to form the microsphere latex after polymerization at 70 o C for 24 hours. The microspheres were dialyzed for 108 hours and the solid contain was ca. 20 wt % before for application. Ag nanoparticles of 10 and 20wt% are added in two prepared microsphere latices, respectively. The microspheres are deposited on glass slides by sedimentation. The microspheres are diffused in water solution and drop on the surface of glass. Stable heat air ow is used to drying water and controlling the thickness of spheres bulk. Fig. 3.1, Fig. 3.2 and Fig. 3.3 show the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the pure PMMA microspheres, PMMA microspheres with 10wt% Ag nanoparticles, and PMMA microspheres with 20wt% Ag nanoparticles, respectively. Fig. 3.1, the opal in fcc lattice can be observed. The diameter of the microspheres is around 320 nm. The corresponding lattice constant for fcc structure is 452 nm.

Figure 3.1: SEM picture of pure PMMA microspheres. In Fig. 3.2, we can observe that the Ag nanoparticles are coated on the PMMA microspheres. The lattice structure of microspheres is still in fcc lattice. In Fig. 3.3, with the higher Ag concentration of 20wt%, the picture shows that more Ag nanoparticles are coated on the microspheres. However, as we can observe, too much coating leads to the 38

Figure 3.2: SEM picture of PMMA microspheres with 10wt% Ag nanoparticles.

Figure 3.3: SEM picture of PMMA microspheres with 20wt% Ag nanoparticles. fact that the microspheres are adhered to each other disorderly. This may deteriorate the optical properties of the opal. The band structure of FCC package PMMA microspheres is calculated by explanewave expansion method. Fig. 3.4 shows the rst Brillouin zoom of FCC structure. The point located at the origin of axes. The normal direction of the sample surface is L 39

direction. The refractive index of PMMA is 1.5.

Figure 3.4: The diagram of the rst Brillouin zoom of FCC structure. Fig. 3.5 shows the band structure of microspheres. The photonic band gap in L direction exists between the normalized frequency of 0.614 and 0.649. With the diameter of the microspheres of 320 nm, the corresponding peak wavelength in the reection spectrum of the opal from the normal incidence can be estimated to be around 679-737 nm. In Fig. 3.5, we can observe that as increasing the incident angle i from L direction (normal direction i = 0o ) toward U direction (i = 57.02o ), the normalized frequency of the forbidden band gap increases, i.e., the peak wavelength of the reection spectra decreases. The widths of band gap decrease with the incident angle increasing.

40

Figure 3.5: Photonic band structure of the PMMA microspheres in fcc lattice. 3.3.1 Experiment setup

For characterizing the reection spectra of the metallodielectric opals, a supercontinuum light source built by a photonic crystal ber and a 1064 nm solid-state laser is used. The light source setup is sketched in Fig. 3.6. The laser beam of solid-state laser is collimated by an aspherical lens and coupled into photonic crystal ber by an objective lens (20X NA=0.4). The repetition rate of laser is 100MHz and duration time is 10ns. The wavelength range of the light source is from 400 to 1700 nm.

Figure 3.6: The setup of supercontinuum source. Fig. 3.7 shows the spectra of pure light source and dark noise. The dark noise is the spectrum without any input light. Compare the spectra of light source to dark noise, in 41

band gap wavelength range, the signal is strong enough to measuring the reective effect of our opals. The operating wavelength range extends from 200nm to 850nm. Although the wavelength range of light source extends from 400 to 1700 nm, the intensity decrease with the rise of wavelength in the spectrum.

Figure 3.7: The spectrum of light is indicated by red line. Blue line indicates the dark noise. The unit of intensity axis is arbitrarily unit. The experiment setup of angle-resoluved reective spectra measurement is illustrated in Fig. 3.8. In Fig. 3.8(a), the mirror and sample are mounted on the rotatable stages. The incident angle are tunable by rotating the stages. The position of the mirror along the direction of light path is variable. This conguration supports to vary the incident angle from 10o to 45o . For normal incidence, the measurement setup is shown in Fig. 3.8(b). The model of monochromator which be used in our experiment is Triax 550. The operating wavelength range extends from 300nm to 2000nm.

42

Figure 3.8: The experiment setup of (a) 10o to 45o (b) normal incident opal reective spectra measurement 3.3.2 Experimental results

The experimental reection spectra of the pure PMMA microspheres and those of the PMMA microspheres with 10 and 20 wt% Ag are shown in Fig. 3.9 to Fig. 3.13. The incident angle of each spectrum is marked at the title of gure. In all gures, red line indicated that the reection spectrum of pure PMMA microspheres. The spectra of PMMA microspheres with 10 and 20 wt% are indicated by green and blue lines respectively. In the spectra of incident angle smaller than 25o , the peak positions and reection coefcients of pure PMMA microspheres are similar to that of PMMA microspheres with 43

Figure 3.9: The reection spectrum of sample with incident angle 0o .

Figure 3.10: The reection spectrum of sample with incident angle 10o . 10wt% Ag nanoparticles. Although the reection coefcient of the PMMA microspheres with 20wt% Ag nanoparticles spectra is the strongest, the reection peak is wider than the others, i.e., the band gap effect is not clear. After the incident angle larger than 25o , the proles of spectra of pure PMMA microspheres and with 10wt% Ag nanoparticles are similar to each other but the reection coefcients of these with 10wt% Ag nano particles are strongly enhanced. The proles of spectra of PMMA microspheres with 20wt% Ag nanoparticles are different to the other two spectra, the peak width is wider and the peak 44

Figure 3.11: The reection spectrum of sample with incident angle 25o .

Figure 3.12: The reection spectrum of sample with incident angle 35o . position is shifted to longer wavelength. This result implies that the periodical structure is not deteriorated by coating 10wt% Ag nanoparticles but is deteriorated by coating 20wt% Ag nanoparticles. The width of peak in the reection spectra of pure PMMA microspheres and PMMA microspheres with 10wt% nanoparticles increase with the rise of incident angle, as the prediction of band structure calculation. For futrher discussion, the wavelengths and reection cofcients of reective peaks in spectra were extracted. Fig. 3.14 shows the peak position and the reection intensity 45

Figure 3.13: The reection spectrum of sample with incident angle 45o . of the pure PMMA opals and metallodielectric opals for different incident angles. In Fig. 3.14(a), as predicted in Fig. 3.5, the peak position decreases as the incident angle increases. The peak position of the pure PMMA opals is similar to that of the opals with 10wt% Ag nanoparticles. For the opals with 20wt% Ag nanoparticles, since the periodical structure is deteriorated, the shift of the wavelength can be observed. In Fig. 3.14(b), by comparing with the reection coefcient of the pure PMMA opals, we can observe that the reection coefcient of the opals with Ag is enhanced. Due to the closed-packed structure of the opal with 10wt% Ag nanoparticles, the enhancement for the 10wt% Ag nanoparticles is higher than that of the 20wt% Ag nanoparticles. 3.4 Conclusion In this chapter, the reection spectra of the PMMA microspheres with different concentrations of Ag nanoparticles were demonstrated. The diameter of the PMMA microspheres is 320 nm. The suitable coating of Ag nanoparticles without changing the periodical structure of the opals would enhance the reection intensity of the opals. More coating would disturb the packing of the microspheres leading to reduce the reectance

46

Figure 3.14: (a)Reection peak wavelength and (b) the coefcient of the microspheres for different incident angles. and shift the peak wavelength. Due the simplicity of the deposition of the metallic periodical structure on substrates, further applications of the metallodielectric microspheres

47

would be the plasmonic effect on LEDs to enhance the extraction rate of the light and on biochips to enhance the coupling of light between the labeling dye and the pumping sources.

48

Chapter4

Bulk waves in two dimensional water-steel and three dimentional epoxy-steel phononic crystals

4.1

Introduction to this chapter In this chapter, we investigate the transmission of ultrasonic acoustic waves through

two-dimensional phononic crystals consisting of steel cylinders immersed in water and also three dimensional phononic crystals consisting of steel beads embedded in epoxy. The results of these two structures are separated into two sections and discussed respectively. In our two dimensional phononic crystals, the steel cylinders arrangement is a triangular lattice with one or two scatters in the unit cell, the latter case being referred to as the honeycomb lattice. It has been shown that complete band gaps can be enlarged by decreasing the lattice symmetry [73, 75, 107, 133]. Our purpose is to compare the band gap effects of the triangular lattice and the honeycomb lattice which has less symmetry than the triangular one. We investigate experimentally the transmission of ultrasonic acoustic waves in these two cases and compare it to the acoustic band structure obtained by a periodic-boundary nite element method. The choice of steel and water as the composite materials is based on the strong contrast in their densities and elastic constants and has proven useful for the fabrication of square-lattice phononic crystals.[106, 107]. It is observed that, for both the triangular and the honeycomb case, deaf bands appear in addition to band gaps, in accordance with the results of Sanchez- Perez et al. for air/solid triangular sonic crystals[73]. Deaf bands are acoustic branches of modes that cannot be excited depending on the symmetry of the mode with respect to the source, hence they 49

do not transport acoustic energy through the crystal. In the usual case that a plane wave is normally incident on the phononic crystal, a mode that is anti-symmetric with respect to the propagation direction will be deaf. We show that band gaps and deaf bands can be identied by comparing band structure computations for the innite structure, obtained by a periodic-boundary nite element method, with transmission simulations for the nite structure, obtained using the nite difference time domain method. The transmission of line defect waveguides is also studied. The waveguides are formed by removing some cylinders in the triangular lattice structure along one of the highest symmetric directions. We studied the transmission spectra for different widths of line defects and compared them to the theoretical transmission simulation, obtained using the nite difference time domain method. Beside, the amplitude of the acoustic wave eld distribution inside the waveguide is observed experimentally. Because of added theoretical and experimental complexity, three dimensional phononic crystals have been less studied than two dimensional structures. Acoustic bulk waves in two-dimentional structures could be conned and controled two-dimentionally only. To achieve three-dimentional control, our study is extended to three-dimentional phononic crystals. We describe the experimental results for ultrasonic waves propagating through a three dimensional phononic crystal. The crystal used in our experimental consists of a close-packed periodic array of spherical beads of steel embedded in an epoxy matrix. The complete band gap is identied by measuring the transmission in three different directions in the crystal. 4.2 4.2.1 Two-dimentional water-steel phononic crystals The geometric and elastic properties of the structure

Fig. 4.1 displays a picture of the two-dimensional phononic crystal structure used in our experiments. Triangular-lattice phononic crystals were constructed using steel cylin-

50

ders with a diameter around 1.2 mm and a length of 150 mm. The nearest distance between the centers of two steel cylinders is around 1.5 mm. Alignment of the cylinders is obtained by using two supporting plates in which a periodic array of holes has been machined. The honeycomb lattice is simply formed from the triangular one by removing one steel cylinder of the central hexagonal unit cell.

Figure 4.1: Two-dimensional phononic crystal used in the experiments. Because of the isotropy of elastic wave propagation in the materials considered, complete band gaps can in principle be identied experimentally from the transmission spectrum measured along the two highest symmetry directions. These two directions correspond to the K and the M directions of the rst irreducible Brillouin zone, respectively. The experimental arrangement for measuring the transmission along these two directions is depicted in Fig. 4.2. The nearst distance between the centers of two cylinders is a. The diameter of the steel cylinder is d. As mention before, a and d are around 1.5mm and 1.2 mm respectively. Tab. 4.1 lists material acoustic properties including the the velocities for shear and longitudinal waves and the mass densities we used in theoretical calculation. The contrast 51

Figure 4.2: The denition of the lattice directions. K and M are the two highest symmetric directions in (a) the triangular and (b) the honeycomb structure. of the acoustic impedance is around 30.4. Table 4.1: Material constants of the phononic crystal constituents. cS and cL are the velocities for shear and longitudinal waves, respectively, is the mass density, and ZL is the acoustic impedance for longitudinal waves. cS (m.s1 ) Steel Water 3200 n.a. cL (m.s1 ) (kg.m3 ) ZL (MRayles) 5800 1480 7780 1000 45.124 1.48

Fig. 4.3 shows the relation between the ratio of r/a and the band gaps frenquency range, where r is the radius of steel cylinders and a is the nearest distance between the centers of two steel cylinders (refer to Fig 4.2). In our case, a is 1.5mm. The results is obtained by the nite element method. Fig. 4.3 (a) and (b) refer to triangular lattice and the honeycomb lattice respectively. The red lines in both gures mark the condition of our experimental structures, r/a = 0.41. For this particular value, there are two gaps around 1000 kHz and 1830 kHz for the triangular lattice. For the honeycomb lattice, two gaps exist from 250 to 400 kHz and around 600kHz. The result predicted that band gaps frequency range of the honeycomb lattice are lower and larger than that of the triangular lattice. 52

Figure 4.3: Gap maps for (a) the triangular lattice and (b) the honeycomb lattice as a function of the cylinder radius to lattice constant ratio. 4.2.2 Experimental setup

Figure 4.4: The experimental setup Fig. 4.4 displays the experimental setup used in the transmission spectra measurement. The measurement procedure is based on the ultrasonic immersion transmission technique. The transducer and the structure are immersed in water. The transmission for a specic direction is obtained by arranging this direction parallel to the Y axis. In the technique, two couples of wide-bandwidth transmitter/receiver acoustic transducers are used. The 53

operating frequencies of these transducers are around 450kHz and 900kHz respectively and the bandwidths are around 600kHz. By overlapping transmissions, the whole measuremed spectrum runs from 100kHz to 1200kHz. The transducers models are Panametrics immersion transducers type Videoscan V301, with diameter 15mm, and V303, with diameter 30mm. A pulser/receiver generator (Panametrics model 5800) produces a short duration (about 4s) pulse which is applied to the source transducer launching the probing longitudinal waves. The signal detected by the receiving transducer aligned with the source transducer is acquired by the pulser/receiver, post amplied, and then digitized by a digital sampling signal analyzer with a temporal resolution of 2.5 ns.

Figure 4.5: Signal intensity in the time domain with (blue dash line) and without (red solid line) a phononic crystal structure. Fig. 4.5 shows an example of a temporal signal. The temporal reference signal is displayed with a red solid line. The measurement setup is depicted in Fig. 4.4 but without the phononic crystal structure. The temporal signal with phononic crystal structure is displayed with a blue dash line. The signal is extend temporally. To reduce random errors, 256 measurements are averaged before a fast Fourier trans54

Figure 4.6: Reference spectra of two tranducers couples with central frequency is 450kHz (blue line) and 900kHz (red line). form is performed to obtain the transmission spectrum. The system is rst calibrated with no sample present; a reference signal is digitized and its spectrum is used to normalize the subsequent transmission spectra. Fig. 4.6 presents the reference spectra of two transducer couples. The spectra are measured by the method in Fig 4.4 without structure. The blue line refers to the spectrum of the 450kHz central frequency transducer couple, and the red line refers to the 900kHz one. 4.2.3 Triangular lattice structure

Band structure and at band eigenmodes


Fig. 4.7 displays the complete band structure for the triangular lattice. This plot shows the frequency versus the reduced wave vector along the rst irreducible Brillouin zone which is displayed in the inset. We observe the existence of two complete bandgaps 55

inside which neither vibration nor propagation are allowed for all directions. The rst and the second complete band gaps extend from 884 to 1029 kHz, and from 1761 to 1963 kHz, respectively. Only the rst one is observable in our experiments. We also note the existence of two at bands. Modes associated with a at band should have a group velocity equal or close to zero and exhibit strong spatial localization. In practice, such localized modes are often created by inserting a defect in a periodic structure, which constitutes a cavity. However, this is not the case of our purely periodic structure.

Figure 4.7: Band structure of the innite triangular-lattice phononic crystal composed of steel cylinders in water, plotted along the -K-M- path of the rst irreducible Brillouin zone. In order to check the localization of these modes, the eigenmodes associated with the frequency-wave vector points labeled A and B in the band structure of Fig. 4.7 are displayed in Figs. 4.8. Fig. 4.8(a) is the real part of the pressure eld in water for the eigen mode labeled A in Fig.4.7. Fig. 4.8 (b) and (c) displayed the real part of x and y displacement eld respectively in the steel cylinders for the eigen mode labeled B in Fig.4.7 respectively. It can be seen from Fig. 4.8(a) that the rst at band is associated 56

with a pressure mode that is localized in the water matrix and that degenerates with the fourth band at the point. Displacements inside the steel rods are zero to numerical errors. However, as illustrated by Fig. 4.8 (b) and 4.8(c), the at band above the second complete band gap is associated with a mode localized inside each individual steel rod. This mode has in-plane elastic displacements in the steel rod, but the pressure eld in the water matrix vanishes to numerical errors. The rods do not interact with each other through the water matrix and hence cannot be excited by a wave incident from water. The resonance frequency scales with the inverse of the radius of the rod.

Figure 4.8: (a) Real part of the pressure eld in water for the eigen mode labeled A in Fig.4.7. (b) and (c) are the real part of x and y displacement eld respectively in the steel cylinders for the eigen mode labeled B in Fig.4.7.

Transmission properties in the M direction


57

The transmission properties of the triangular-lattice M direction were rst evaluated experimentally by performing the transmission measurement through the phononic crystal arranged such that the entrance surface of the phononic crystal is perpendicular to the M direction. Fig. 4.9 shows the experimental transmission spectra of triangular lattice M direction with different transmission thicknesses. The thickness is indicated in the title of each gure. The lattice direction is sketched in the insert with the arrow display direction and the gray block indicating the denition of one layer. Two strong attenuations are observed around 500 kHz and around 1000 kHz in all cases. The attenuation bands are marked between those gray areas. The lattice direction is sketched in the insert by the arrow and the gray block indicates the denition of one layer. As the thickness increasing, the attenuation becomes stronger but maintains in the same frequency ranges.

Figure 4.9: The M direction transmssion spectrum of triangular lattice with 5, 6 and 7 layers. The insert at the doen left is the denition of layer. Fig. 4.10(a) displays a comparison of experimental and FDTD computation spectra in the triangular lattice M direction. For experimental results, as mentioned before, a 58

strong attenuation is observed from 461 to 612 kHz and from 914 to 1078 kHz, in good agreement with the FDTD computation. Two band gaps are also clearly apparent in the band structure which is shown in Fig. 4.10(b). The FDTD computation predicts a transmission that is larger than the measured one in between the two band gaps (transmission due to the second acoustic branch) and above the second gap (transmission due to the third and the fourth branches). However, these branches are not found to be deaf with the FEM computation.

Figure 4.10: (a) Experimental (thick red solid line) and theoretical (thin blue solid line) transmission through a triangular-lattice phononic crystal of steel cylinders in water, along the M direction. (b) Band structure of the innite phononic crystal. For instance, Fig. 4.11 displays the pressure eld associated with the point labeled C on the second branch of the band structure. The arrow inside the color map refers to the M direction. This mode is symmetrical with respect to the M propagation direction.

Transmission properties in the K direction


Fig. 4.12 shows the experimental transmission spectra of triangular lattice K direction with different transmission thicknesses. The thickness is marked at the title of each gure. Again, the lattice direction is sketched in the insert by the arrow and the gray block 59

Figure 4.11: Real part of the pressure eld in water for the eigenmode labeled C in the band structure. The arrow shows the direction of incidence of waves launched by the transducer. indicates the denition of one layer. One strong attenuation is observed between 550 kHz and 1000 kHz in all cases. The attenuation bands are marked between those gray areas in these three gure. It is worth noticing that the attenuation between 550kHz and 900kHz is not as strong as that between 900kHz and 1000kHz. The prole of spectrum in 900kHz to 1000kHz is at and strongly attenuated. But the prole of the spectrum in 550kHz to 900kHz is not at and the transmission is stronger than that in 900kHz to 100kHz. Fig. 4.13(a) displays a comparison of experimental and FDTD computation spectra in the triangular lattice K direction. A strong attenuation is found from 555 to 1097 kHz, both in the measurements and in the FDTD computation. However, the band structure suggests that the band gap is responsible for the attenuation only in the frequency range from 950 to 1097 kHz. In the frequency range 550 to 950 kHz, the second acoustic branch is in principle present but is actually deaf. A similar observation for triangular

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Figure 4.12: The K direction transmssion spectrum of triangular lattice with 5, 6 and 7 layers. The insert at the doen left is the denition of layer.

Figure 4.13: (a) Experimental (thick red solid line) and theoretical (thin blue solid line) transmission through a triangular-lattice phononic crystal of steel cylinders in water, along the K direction. (b) Band structure of the innite phononic crystal.

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lattice air-solid sonic crystals was made in Ref. [73] and conrmed in Ref. [74] by using a phase-shift analysis. In order to verify that the second branch of the band structure is acturally deaf, the pressure eld associated with the point labeled D is displayed in Fig. 4.14. The arrow indicated to the K direction. This eigenmode is antisymmetric with respect to the propagation direction. Then a line integral taken along the direction perpendicular to the propagation direction vanishes, and the coupling with the incident plane wave is zero. A similar computation shows that the fourth branch is also deaf. However, the third at branch is not, and a retransmission at its frequency is observed in the transmission spectrum.

Figure 4.14: (c) Real part of the pressure eld in water for the eigenmode labeled D in the band structure. The arrow shows the direction of incidence of waves launched by the transducer. This mode belongs to a deaf band and is not excited by a plane-wave transducer. Although the second acoustic branch is deaf and can not be excited by symmetric source, there is still some energy leakage in the experimental spectrum but not in the the-

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oretical spectrum. In the theoretical computation, the acoustic wave source is ideally symmetric with respect to the propagation direction. The experimental source is not exactly aligned to the K direction and causes a slight excitation of deaf band mode. Therefore, in the experimental transmission spectra, the attenuation is not as strong as that in the real band gap range.

Complete band gap for the triangular lattice


Overlapping the transmission spectra in Figs. 4.10 and 4.13, and without consideration of the band structure, it would be tempting to conclude that two complete band gaps exist between 555 and 612 kHz and between 914 and 1078 kHz. However, the former is actually a combination of a band gap in one direction and of a deaf band in the other, and hence is not a true complete band gap. For instance, a defect-based waveguide managed in the triangular-lattice phononic crystal would only operate in the upper band gap, and would be leaky in the rst. The band structures in Figs. 4.10 and 4.13 appear to be rather similar. One striking difference, however, is that the rst branch folding does not open a band gap along the K direction. The rst and the second branch yield eigenmodes that are not interacting. As a consequence, the rst complete band gap does not open with the triangular lattice. 4.2.4 Honeycomb lattice structure

Transmission properties in the K direction


The transmission properties of the honeycomb phononic crystal were then evaluated following the same procedure as for the triangular phononic crystal. Fig. 4.15 shows the experimental transmission spectra of honeycomb lattice K direction with different thicknesses. The thickness is indicated in the title of each gure. The lattice direction is indicated in the insert by an arrow and the gray block denes of one layer. Attenuations 63

exist around 400kHz, 600kHz, 800kHz and 1050kHz and are marked between the gray areas. The positions of attenuation ranges in all case are almost the same. As the thickness increases, the wave attenuation inside these ranges increase. The attenuations of the other ranges do not change.

Figure 4.15: K direction transmission spectrum for the honeycomb lattice with 5, 6 and 7 layers. The inset at the down left is the denition of the layer. Fig. 4.16(a) displays a comparison of experimental and FDTD computation spectra for the honeycomb lattice K direction. The results agree with each other. Fig. 4.16(b) shows the band structure in the K direction. The band structure gives insight in the band gap properties. There are three band gaps between the rst and the second band, from 258 to 466 kHz, between the third and the fourth band, from 538 to 674 kHz, and between the seventh and the eighth bands, from 1050 to 1100 kHz. In addition, the fth band is deaf, which causes an attenuation in the transmission between 724 and 776 kHz. The pressure eld associated with the point labeled E on the fth band is displayed in Fig. 4.17. As usual, the arrow indicates the propagation direction. It shows clearly that 64

Figure 4.16: (a) Experimental (thick red solid line) and theoretical (thin blue solid line) transmission through a honeycomb-lattice phononic crystal of steel cylinders in water, along the K direction. (b) Band structure of the innite phononic crystal. this eigenmode is antisymmetric with respect to the propagation direction. It can be noted that the folding of the fth to the sixth band does not create a band gap. The attenuation between 724 and 776kHz is caused by a deaf band effect.

Transmission properties in the M direction


Fig. 4.18 shows the experimental transmission spectra for the honeycomb lattice M direction with different transmission thicknesses. The thickness is indicated in the title of each gure. The lattice direction and the layer denition are sketched in the insert. The attenuation ranges are marked between the gray areas. As the case of K direction, the positions of attenuation ranges in all case are almost the same. The attenuation increases with the thickness. The experimental, theoretical spectrum and band structure are shown in Fig. 4.19 (a) and (b). There are four band gaps in the band structure, between the rst and the second band, from 244 to 440 kHz, between the third and the fourth band, from 573 to 626 kHz, between the fth and the sixth band, from 760 to 830 kHz, and between the seventh and 65

Figure 4.17: Real part of the pressure eld in water for the eigenmode labeled E in the band structure. The arrow shows the direction of incidence of waves launched by the transducer. This mode belongs to a deaf band and is not excited by a plane-wave transducer. the eighth bands, from 980 to 1000 kHz. Again, the attenuation from 660 to 760 kHz which exists in spectra corresponds to the deaf fth band of the band structure and not to a band gap. The pressure eld associated with the point labeled F on the fth band is displayed in Fig. 4.20. This eigenmode is antisymmetric with respect to the propagation direction which is indicated by the arrow inside color map. The fth band is found be deaf.

Complete band gap for the honeycomb lattice


Overlapping the results for the K and the M directions, we nd there are two complete band gaps between 258 and 440 kHz, and between 573 kHz and 626 kHz. The widths of these complete band gaps are 182 kHz and 53 kHz, respectively.

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Figure 4.18: The M direction transmssion spectrum of honeycomb lattice with 5, 6 and 7 layers. The insert at the doen left is the denition of layer.

Figure 4.19: (a) Experimental (thick red solid line) and theoretical (thin blue solid line) transmission through a honeycomb-lattice phononic crystal of steel cylinders in water, along the M direction. (b) Band structure of the innite phononic crystal.

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Figure 4.20: Real part of the pressure eld in water for the eigenmode labeled F in the band structure. The arrow shows the direction of incidence of waves launched by the transducer. This mode belongs to a deaf band and is not excited by a plane-wave transducer. 4.2.5 Discussion of complete band gap in triangular and honeycomb lattice

Comparing the triangular and the honeycomb phononic crystals, we note that the complete band gaps in the honeycomb case appear at lower frequencies than in the triangular case. To be more specic, we consider reduced band gap frequencies by multiplying the frequency with the lattice constant and dividing with the velocity of longitudinal waves in water. The lattice constant in the triangular case is the distance between the centers of two nearest steel cylinders. In the honeycomb case, the lattice constant is the distance between the centers of two nearest hexagonal cells. This means that the lattice constant of the honeycomb case is 3 times the lattice constant of the triangular case. The complete band gaps of the honeycomb structure show up in the reduced frequency range from 0.45 to 0.77 (fractional bandwidth 52%), and from 1 to 1.09 (fractional bandwidth 9%) and 68

that of the triangular case show up from 0.92 to 1.08 (fractional bandwidth 17%). We have already noted that the complete band gap between the rst and second branches in the triangular case does not open because the second branch is deaf in the K direction. When steel cylinders are removed from the triangular lattice to form the honeycomb lattice, the symmetry reduces and the rst complete band gap opens, as mentioned in [133] in the case of the air/solid composition. 4.3 Line defect waveguide We have already presented the transmission properties of the triangular lattice. A complete band gap was identied. The complete band gap effect can be used not only to lter off the wave frequency inside the band gap but also to guide waves efciently. A guiding effect can be achieved by creating a line defect inside a phononic structure. Waves with a frequency in the band gap range can not propagate in the region outside of the defect and are thus conned inside the defect. The line defect waveguides we studied are formed by removing several lines of steel cylinders along the K direction in the triangular lattice. Fig. 4.21(a) sketches a 1 line defect waveguide structure. Two and three line defect waveguides are sketched in Fig 4.21(b) and (c). The dark blue circle indicates the steel cylinders and the red dash line circle indicates the position of steel cylinders which have been removed. We used the same experimental setup as in the last section to study the transmission of line defects. In Fig. 4.21(a), the emitting and receiving transducers are placed at the input and output of the waveguide structure. The tranducers and the structure are immersed in water. The pulse signal is incident into the waveguide and reveiced by the receiving transducer. As usual, the transmission spectrum is obtained by the fast Fourier Transform of the average of 256 measurements. Fig. 4.22 shows transmission spectra of the 1 line defect waveguide with length 15mm, 25mm and 35mm along the K direction. The corresponding length is indicated in the 69

Figure 4.21: The (a) 1 line, (b) 2 lines and (c) 3 lines defect waveguides in triangular lattice. The red dash circles indicate the position of steel cylinders that was removed. title of each gure. Also shown is the transmission spectrum for the triangular lattice K direction for the perfect structure, i.e. without defect. The complete band gap range is located between the two gray areas. Comparing the spectra of the waveguide with the perfect structure, the transmission inside the complete band gap range is strongly enhanced and the intensity is almost the same for three kinds of length. It means that the wave can be conned and propagated with slight propagation loss. In the left side of band gap, the deaf band range, the transmission is enhanced slightly and decreases with the length increasing. These results implies that the wave outside the band gap range can not be conned and propagates in the waveguide even in deaf band but with leakage. For the wave frequency in the transmission band, the intensity is stronger than that in perfect 70

Figure 4.22: The experimental transmission spectra (solid line) of 1 line defect waveguide with length 15mm, 25mm and 35mm. The dash line shown the transmission spectrum for the triangular lattice K direction for the perfect structure. phononic crystal because the material inside the waveguide is pure water. The propagation loss is less than with the perfect crystal. Fig. 4.23 and Fig. 4.24 show the spectra of 2 and 3 line defect waveguides with lengths15mm, 25mm and 35mm respectively.An enhancement of guiding is observed with increasing width. The inuence of the deaf noise of the low frequency side decreases because diffraction becomes less important as the waveguide width increases. Fig. 4.25 (a), (b) and (c) show the experimental and theoretical spectra of 1, 2 and 3 lines defect waveguide, respectively. The red lines display the transmission of each kins of waveguide with 25mm length. The blue lines shown the theoretical spectra computed by FDTD method. The experimental results for each kind of waveguide agree with the theoretical results. For the 1 and 3 lines defect waveguide, the transmission inside 71

Figure 4.23: The experimental transmission spectra (solid line) of 2 line defect waveguide with length 15mm, 25mm and 35mm. The dash line shown the transmission spectrum for the triangular lattice K direction for the perfect structure. the band gap frequency range is almost at, There appear a drop peak in 2 lines defect waveguide. This is the signature of a mini-gap between at least two modes guided by the defect line.

Displacement eld inside waveguide


For investigating acoustic wave propagation inside the waveguide, the receiver transducer is replaced by a wideband, minimal spatial averaging receiver transducer. The model of needle receiver is HP series High Performance Hydrophone Measurement System. The frequency range is from 10kHz to 60MHz. The receiver system consists of a interchangable needle probe, a submersible pre-amplier and a booster amplier. The diameter needle probe we used is 0.5mm. The signal received by the receiver can be output 72

Figure 4.24: The experimental transmission spectra (solid line) of 3 line defect waveguide with length 15mm, 25mm and 35mm. The dash line shown the transmission spectrum for the triangular lattice K direction for the perfect structure to the pulser/receiver as before. Spatial scanning can be achieved by moving the needle receiver step by step. The experimental setup is shown in Fig. 4.26. The emitting transducer is placed at the left side of the waveguide structure. The needle receiver transducer is slightly inserted from the top of the waveguide to receive the acoustic energy in every position inside waveguide. The acoustic wave pulse is launched by the emitting transducer and detected by the receiver. In order to increase the accuracy, 256 measurements are averaged before a fast Fourier Transform is performed. The results of fast Fourier Transform give the information of the acoustic wave intensity and phase at the position of the receiver. The receiver was mounted on a three axial electrical motion stage for two dimentional spatial scanning. The spatial resolution in each direction is 0.5mm. The acoustic wave real part 73

Figure 4.25: The experimental (red solid line) and theoretical (blue dash line) transmission spectra of (a) 1 line, (b) 2 lines and (c) 3 lines defect waveguide. eld image inside the waveguide can be obtained by combining all informations of these scanning points. Fig. 4.27 (a) and (b) display the acoustic wave real part images of 2 lines and 3 lines defect waveguide, respectively. The wave frequency is 950kHz (inside the band gap range). The results show that the acoustic energy distribution and the modal shape inside waveguides. The propagation modes are not very stable. The disturbance is caused by material and size of the needle receiver. The material of the needle receiver is metallic and is silmilar to steel cylinders. Besides, the size of needle receiver is almost equal to radius of steel cylinders.

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Figure 4.26: Experiment setup of acoustic wave eld inside waveguide.

Figure 4.27: The acoustic wave real part images of (a) 2 lines and (b) 3 lines defect waveguides. The frequency of the wave is 950kHz. 4.4 4.4.1 Three-dimensional epoxy-steel phononic crystals Structure and experimental setup

The three dimensional crystals used in our experimental setup consist of close-packed periodic arrays of spherical beads of steel embedded in an epoxy matrix. The lattice and 75

the scatterers (apart from their diameter) are essentially the same as in Ref. [120], but a solid epoxy matrix (Epotecny E501) is considered instead of a water matrix. The fcc array was assembled by placing the beads carefully by hand and the layers were stacked vertically in sequence to form slabs with face centered cubic structure. The beads were very monodisperse. The diameter of beads was 4 mm. Two kinds of structures were used in our experiment with different orientations. Fig. 4.28 shows the lattice directions of [100] and [111]. The steel beads were staked in side plastic mold along [100] and [111] direction respectively. The mold size can just x the rst layer of beads. Epoxy was inltrated inside the mold after the arrangement of beads. Finally, the plastic mold was removed by mechanical polishing.

Figure 4.28: Structure orientation with [100] and [111] direction. Fig. 4.29 (a) shows the structure with top surface perpendicular to the [100] direction. The top surface of the structure in Fig. 4.29 (b) is perpendicular to the [111] direction and the side surface of the structure is perpendicular to direction [-110]. Therefore, the transmission of [100], [111] and [-110] directions can be identied in these two structures.

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Figure 4.29: The picture of the 3-D phononic crystal with top surface perpendicular to (a) [100] and (b) [111] directions. The mass density, shear and longitudinal velocities for acoustic waves in steel, epoxy and water are displayed in Tab. 4.2. The choice of steel and epoxy as the composite materials was originally based on the strong contrast in their densities and elastic constants. Expressed using the acoustic impedance for longitudinal waves, this contrast is approximately 16.4. If instead of epoxy, a water matrix is used, this contrast would be even higher, approximately 30.5. The measurement apparatus is sketched in Fig. 4.30. It is similar to the setup we used previously for measurements of two dimensional phononic crystals. As mentioned before, ultrasonic pulse propagation through the crystal was measured by placing the crystal between a couple of wide-bandwidth transmitter/receiver acoustic transducers. The structure and transducers is not immersed in water but in air. Contact between the transducers and the structure surface was obtained using an ultrasonic lubricant. It is useful to note that the transducers are designed to generate longitudinal waves, so that only the trans-

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Table 4.2: Material constants of the phononic crystal constituents. cS and cL are the velocities for shear and longitudinal waves, respectively, is the mass density, and ZL is the acoustic impedance for longitudinal waves. cS (m.s1 ) cL (m.s1 ) (kg.m3 ) Steel Water Epoxy 3200 n.a. 1100 5800 1480 2500 7780 1000 1100 ZL (MRayles) 45.124 1.48 2.75

Figure 4.30: Experimental set-up used to measure the transmission spectra of phononic crystals using acoustic transducers in acoustical contact with the phononic crystal. mission for longitudinal waves could be measured, and not that for shear waves. As usual, to reduce the random error, the results is obtained by average of 256 times measurement. 4.4.2 Complete band gaps

The complete band gap was identied by measuring the transmission of phononic crystals both in the [100] , the [-110] and the [111] directions. The [100] and [111] di78

rections correspond respectively to the X and the L directions of the rst irreducible Brillouin zone. With the fcc lattice and considering isotropic scatterers and matrix, measurements along these three directions are sufcient to evaluate the existence of a complete band gap. For measuring the transmission of [100] direction, the emitting transducer contact with the top surface of structure in Fig. 4.29 (a). The receiving transducer contact with the backside of the structure. Fig. 4.31 displays the transmission in the [100] direction. The acoustic transmission spectrum clearly shows a strong attenuation extending from 240 to 680 kHz.

Figure 4.31: The transmission of [100] direction. The transmissions in the [111] and [-110] directions are identied by the same method as for the [100], but with the structure which is shown in Fig. 4.29 (b). The transmissions in the [111] and [-110] directions are displayed in Fig. 4.32 and Fig. 4.33, respectively. For [111] direction, the attenuation range extends from 350 kHz to 680kHz. For the [110] direction, the attenuation range extends from 280kHz to 680kHz. The attenuations in the [111] and the [-110] directions are stronger than that in [100] direction because the 79

thickness of the structure is larger.

Figure 4.32: Transmission in the [111] direction.

Figure 4.33: Transmission in the [110] direction. Overlapping the transmission spectra in these three directions, we nd that a complete band gap exists between 350 and 650 kHz. The relative bandwidth of the band gap is equal 80

to 60%. However, in the case of same fcc structure of steel beads in uid (water) matrix, in which the contrast of the longitudinal acoustic is enhanced, the relative bandwidth doesnt exceed 25% [120]. Our experimental observation is then in apparent contradiction with the usual belief that the width of the band gaps of phononic crystals increases with the contrast in the material properties of the two constituents, provided the geometric parameters otherwise remain the same. A related effect was observed theoretically by Sigalas and Garca [134] in a twodimensional phononic crystal consisting of aluminum rods in mercury. In that case, they observed that a complete band gap could be found, whereas it was absent if the aluminum rods were replaced by a liquid with an equivalent acoustic impedance. They concluded that shear waves excited in the scatterers were essential in the opening of the band gaps, although they were not present in the matrix material. In our 3D phononic crystal, there are not only shear waves in the scatterers but also in the solid matrix. Although the transducers we use only generate longitudinal waves, shear waves appear by diffusion by the scatterers. We propose that this coupling between longitudinal and shear waves strongly enhances the elastic band gaps. 4.5 Conclusion In this chapter, the studies of bulk acousitc wave propagation in two and three dimensional phononic crystals were reported. In two dimensional phononic crystals, we have investigated experimentally and theoretically the band gap properties of triangular and honeycomb two-dimensional phononic crystals made of steel cylinders immersed in water. The same geometric parameters have been used to allow for a fair comparison of the two lattices. Using a combination of transmission measurements and band structure calculations, we have identied the lowest complete band gaps in both kind of lattice, but also the appearance of deaf bands that lead to a reduced attenuation in transmission without implying a band gap. As previously obtained with air-steel phononic crystals, it 81

is found that the rst complete band gap opens for the honeycomb lattice is wider and lower than for the triangular lattice. The results also show that a complete band gap between the rst and the second acoustic branches is opened for honeycomb lattice not for the triangular lattice. These difference is caused by lattice symmetry reduction. Line defect waveguides have been also investigated. Theoretical and experimental transmissions agree with each other. The results shown strong enhancement and connement of the acoustic energy. The connement and propagation of acoustic wave inside waveguides was further veried by the measurement of the displacement eld. For three dimensional phononic crystals, we have investigated experimentally the existence of a large complete elastic band gap in a three-dimensional phononic crystal consisting of a face centered- cubic array of close-packed steel beads in an epoxy matrix. A 60% relative bandwidth complete band gap is observed in transmission. We have observed the importance of the coupling between shear and longitudinal components for enlarging the band gap by comparing to the an equivalent steel/water phononic crystal structure.

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Chapter5

Square lattice steel-epoxy phononic crystal slab

5.1

Introduction to this chapter There has been a growing interest in phononic crystals slabs, whose thickness is nite

in the direction perpendicular to the propagation surface [109, 96, 98]. For simplicity, we refer in the following to this direction as the vertical direction. The slab geometry is naturally well suited for making waveguides where guided modes are strongly conned vertically between two interfaces. This is especially true for solid slabs in air as we consider experimentally in this work. Since slabs can in principle be made as thin as required, it is expected that a two dimensional periodic structuration will produce a three dimensional connement of waves inside a complete band gap. This effect has however not been demonstrated experimentally up to now, to the best of our knowledge. Some recent theoretical studies of phononic crystals slabs have considered cylindrical inclusions in a host material with a strong contrast of acoustic properties [109, 96, 98]. Experimental studies have focused on the one dimensional phononic crystal slab constituted by an arrangement of thin layers and on one or two face free guide metallic slabs with a two dimensional array of air holes [97, 135, 99]. All these structures presented band gaps for some propagation direction or some kind of modes, but no complete band gap was observed. More specically, lamb wave can be generated in the slab structure and conned by the two surfaces of slab. The propagation direction of wave thus can only be parallel to the surface of slab. Three dimentional connement could be achieve by adding a two dimensional periodic structure inside the slab, as phononic crystal. This work is devoted

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to the experimental demonstrate of a complete band gap in a phononic crystal slab and to the investigation of the propagation of acoustic waves within it. The system we have chosen is a nite thickness, solid/solid and two face free phononic crystal slab. This system lends itself to numerical simulation by a nite element method developed previously [98]. Furthermore, by using a combination of ultrasonic electrical transduction and optical detection by a laser interferometer, we can obtain a map of the propagation of waves at any monochromatic frequency. The complete band gap effect is identied by transmission measurement along the two highest symmetric directions of periodic structure. Because of the advantage of optical detection, attenuation varying with the propagation distance inside phononic crystal is studied. Besides, wave guiding inside line defect waveguide is also studied. The waveguide effect is demonstrated by the transmission properties and the displacement eld distribution. In order to achieve displacement eld measurement, The large surface auto-scanning technique is developed with a C++ control program. We also extended our study to wave propagation inside phononic crystal with unusual refraction effects. The refraction effect in band gap edge is similar to negative refraction effect. We compare the normal refraction to unusual refraction by observing the diffraction of an acoustic point source by the phononic crystal slab directly. 5.2 5.2.1 Introduction to the experiment method Fabrication and properties of the structures

The structures used in our experiment consist of two dimensional square lattice arrays of spherical steel beads embedded in an epoxy matrix. The model of epoxy matrix is Epotecny 501 which is mixed by two liquid solutions. The mixed liquid epoxy will become solid after 72hours. The shape of the epoxy can be xed by molding. Fig. 5.1(a) and (b) show pictures of the phononic crystal slab structures with different orientations.

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Figure 5.1: Pictures of the structures which edge is parallel to (a) X and (b) M direction. (c) Denition of the lattice direction. The beads are very monodisperse with a diameter of 4 mm and the thickness of the epoxy matrix slab is around 4 mm. The lattice constant of the square lattice is also 4 mm, i.e., each bead is in contact with four of its neighbors. Fig. 5.1(c) illustrates the denition of lattice direction. M and X are the two highest symmetrical directions of the square lattice. The edge of the phononic crystal structure in Fig. 5.1(a) is parallel to the X direction and the edge of the phononic crystal in Fig 5.1(b) is parallel to the M direction. The transmissions along these two highest symmetrical directions were measured in this two structures respectively. The fabrication process is sketched in Fig. 5.2. Two dimensional square lattice steel beads arrays were assembled by placing the beads carefully by hand inside a mold. The base of mold is a teon plate and four sides are plastic boards. After the steel beads are well arranged, the mold is lled with liquid epoxy. The process generates much heat and causes the roughness of the surface of epoxy so the mold was placed inside a colling 85

Figure 5.2: The fabrication process of the phononic crystal slab structure. system. The epoxy does not stick to teon and thus can be separated easily. Although epoxy sticks with the plastic boards, the contact surface between epoxy and plastic is small and can be separated easily also. The next step is the polishing of the epoxy surface for optical detection. The thickness and the surface of the slab can be modied and smoothed by polishing. Then, a 200nm Al layer is deposited on the epoxy surface as a reection layer. The elastic properties used in theoretical computations, including mass density, shear and longitudinal velocities of acoustic waves in steel and epoxy, are listed in Tab. 5.1. The choice of steel and epoxy as the composite materials was originally based on the strong contrast in their densities and elastic constants, as is generally the case when complete band gaps are sought for. Expressed using the acoustic impedance for longitudinal waves, 86

this contrast is approximately 16.4. Table 5.1: Material constants of the phononic crystal constituents. cS and cL are the velocities for shear and longitudinal waves, respectively, is the mass density, and ZL is the acoustic impedance for longitudinal waves. cS (m.s1 ) cL (m.s1 ) (kg.m3 ) ZL (MRayles) Steel Epoxy 3200 1100 5800 2500 7780 1100 45.124 2.75

5.2.2

Optical characterization setup

The laser interferometer optical detection experimental setup is sketched in Fig. 5.3. The ultrasonic wave signal is incident into the phononic crystals by a wide-bandwidth acoustic transducer. The transducer is a Panametrics immersion transducer type Videoscan V301 as we mentioned in the previous chapter. An acoustic prism is inserted between the transducer and the phononic crystals slab. The acoustic prism is made of plastic. Because of the prism, acoustic wave incident into the slab with an incidence angle of 30 degree. This angle was chosen experimentally in order to excite efciently propagation modes that are propagating parallel to the surfaces rather than perpendicular to it. An acoustic glue is applied to the interface between the tranducer and the acoustic prism, and between the prism and the phononic crystal slab. The acoustic glue has elastic properties similar to water and can enhance the transmission efciency of acoustic energy. A 200 nm thick aluminum layer is deposited on the surface of the phononic crystal slab in order to obtain a uniform reectivity at any position. The probe beam position of the interferometer is xed. The phononic crystal slab, the transducer and the acoustic prism are all mounted on a vertical motion stage and a two axis tilt stage. Reection of the probe beam can be optimized by regulating the vertical position and the tilt angle of the slab. All the setup above is based on a two directional electric motion stage (Micro-Controle IP28). The two 87

motion directions of the stage are axes X and Y depicted in Fig. 5.3. The X axis is parallel to wave propagation direction and Y axis is perpendicular to X axis. The detection at different positions on the structure surface can be achieved by moving the electric motion stage.

Figure 5.3: Sketch of the experiment. Waves are excited in the phononic crystal slabs using an ultrasonic transducer through a prism with an incidence angle of 30 degrees. The phononic crystal slab is formed by a one layer thick array of spherical steel beads with a diameter of 4 mm arranged according to a square lattice in an epoxy matrix. It is worth noticing that the laser interferometer is sensitive to the vertical displacements of the surface of the slab. In isotropic materials, there exist lamb waves with pure transverse displacement. The polarization direction in this case is purely parallel to the surface which can not be detected by interferometer. In the phononic crystal slab, because of the periodic structure, the pure transverse almost do not exist. Heterodyning in the interferometer gives access to amplitude and phase information. The probe beam size of the laser interferometer is around 10 m, much smaller than the acoustic wave length. The size is small enough to detect acoustic wave properties at any point on the surface of a phononic crystal slab with sub wavelength resolution. Experimentally, the electrical signal is generated by the signal generator/receiver (Agilent Technologies / Hewlett-Packard hp3577b Analyzer). The position dependent trans88

mission is obtained by varying the frequency of the electrical signal which is sent to the emitting transducer and by recording the information from the interferometer synchronously. The available frequency range is between 100 kHz to 500 kHz. The number of sampling points in the frequency domain is 401, i.e. the frequency resolution is 1 kHz. The integration time for each frequency is 25 ms. 5.2.3 Principle of laser interferometer

The interferometer is based on Michelson interferometry [136, 137]. The principle is sketched in Fig. 5.4. The laser source is a He-Ne laser. The laser beam passes thourgh a beam splitter and separated into two beams. The reference beam is reected by a reference mirror to beam splitter and then detected by the photodiode. The probe beam incident on the surface of the sample then is reected through the beam splitter to the photodiode. The interference pattern of the reference and probe beams is detected by the photodiode.

Figure 5.4: Principle of the laser interferometer. The electric eld of reference beam can be expressed by:

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ER (r, t) = ER0 ei k R r ei(t+R ) The probe beam can be expressed by: ES (r, t) = ES 0 ei k S r ei(t+S +(t))

(5.1)

(5.2)

where ER0 and ES 0 are the maximum amplitude of reference and probe beam respectively. R is the phase of the reference beam. S + (t) is the phase of probe beam, where (t) is caused by the vibration of sample surface and is a function of time. The light intensity Id detected by photo diode can be writen by: I d (r, t) = |ES 0 |2 + |ER0 |2 +2ES 0 ER0 cos k R k S R + (S R ) + (t) (5.3)

where the k R k S and (S R ) is constant and the vibration function (t) of the sample can be obtained by measuring the variation of the light intensity. 5.3 Complete band gap characterization The complete band gaps can in principle be identied experimentally from the transmission spectra measured along the two highest symmetry directions in square lattice. These two directions are X and M marked in Fig. 5.1(c) respectively. The acoustic wave transmission properties of both directions were rst measured in an area covering one period of the phononic crystal slab, i.e. one bead. The spatial scanning area is indicated inside the red dash square in Fig. 5.5(a) and Fig. 5.6(a). In both directions, the blue dash square indicates the position of the acoustic source. The origin of the X axis is dened at the edge of acoustic source, while the origin of Y axis is dened at the center of the acoustic source. The range of spatial scanning area in X axis is from 12 mm to 16 mm and in Y axis is from -2 mm to 2 mm. The spatial resolution is 0.4mm. There are 90

25 points in the scan area. The shown transmission spectra are the average of the measurements at these 25 points. The measurement transmission spectra in the X and M directions are shown on the left hand side of Fig. 5.5 (b) and Fig. 5.6 (b) respectively with black solid lines. Also shown is the reference transmission spectrum for a pure epoxy slab with a thickness of 4 mm (blue solid lines). The reference spectrum is obtained with exactly the same procedure as the transmission spectra of the phononic crystal samples. The shown data are unnormalized and displayed with a logarithmic scale. The gray areas indicate the attenuation frequency ranges in the transmission spectra. The right hand sides of Fig. 5.5(b) and Fig. 5.6(b) display the theoretical band structures for the X and M directions, obtained using the nite element method with periodic boundary conditions [95, 98]. The phononic crystal is assumed to be innite and arranged periodically along the surface. The whole domain is split into successive unit cells, consisting of a single steel bead surrounded by the square cubic epoxy matrix. The unit cell is meshed and divided into elements connected by nodes. Bloch-Floquet periodic boundary conditions are applied at the boundaries of the unit cell. The principles have been introduced in chapter 1.

Figure 5.5: (a) Scanning region position. (b) Measured transmission spectrum (left hand side) and computed band structure (right hand side) in the X direction In the X direction, Fig. 5.5(b), the gray area marks the frequency band where at91

Figure 5.6: (a) Scanning region position. (b) Measured transmission spectrum (left hand side) and computed band structure (right hand side) in the M direction tenuation observed in experiment. The position of the attenuation band corresponds to the band gap in the band structure. The transmission spectrum exhibits a strong attenuation from 255 kHz to 350 kHz (marked by the gray area). The band gap extends from 238 kHz to 350 kHz in the theoretical band structure. These two ranges are almost concordant. There is no signicant attenuation in the reference spectrum of pure epoxy at this range. Therefore, the attenuation is caused by the band gap appearance. In the M direction, Fig. 5.6(b), the experimental attenuation frequency range extends from 225 kHz to 340 kHz (marked by the gray area), while in the theoretical band structure, the band gap extends from 237 kHz to 344 kHz. In the reference transmission spectrum, there is no signicant attenuation in this frequency range also. Again, there is a rather good agreement between theory and experiment. Considering the frequency range where a band gap is simultaneously apparent for both directions, the experimental complete band gap extends from 255kHz to 340kHz. The theoretical complete band gap extends from 238 kHz to 344 kHz and thus is a little wider than the experimental one. The discrepancy can be explained by at least two arguments. The rst one is the fabrication inaccuracy of the thickness of the epoxy matrix. in order to avoid reection from the edge between epoxy and air, the epoxy area is made larger 92

than the periodic structure. Thus, it is difcult to make the thickness is perfectly uniform through all the structure. Since the band diagram depends strongly on the slab thickness, some dispersion may result. The second argument is that the elastic properties of steel and epoxy considered in the theoretical calculation may differ slightly from the actual values. 5.4 Attenuation behavior versus propagation distance

Figure 5.7: Dependence of the displacement amplitude with frequency and propagation distance measured for (a) the X and (b) the M oriented phononic crystal slabs. The white lines in the gray maps on the left mark the complete band gap frequency range, while the black cycles indicate the position of steel beads. The illustrations in the left side of these two color maps indicate the scanning region. As already mentioned, the interferometer probe beam size is small enough to detect 93

the spectrum of a single point on the surface of the phononic crystals slab. This advantage can be used to investigate the variation of the attenuation with the propagation distance. For this purpose, the spatial scanning areas in the X and the M directions are chosen as the red dash square in the left-hand side of Fig. 5.7(a) and (b). Again, the acoustic source position is shown by a blue dash square. In the propagation direction (along the X axis), the scan starts at the origin of the X axis, i.e. at the edge of acoustic source, and the total scan length is 40 mm. The scan step is 1 mm. In the Y direction, as for the measurement of the complete band gap, the scan area ranges from -2 mm to 2 mm, i.e. covers one bead, and the scan step is 1 mm also. The transmission at each X position (different propagation distances) is obtained as the average over the 5 samples along the Y axis in the same X position. The right-hand sides of Figs. 5.7(a) and 5.7(b) display the measurement results for the X and the M directions, respectively. The color maps show the variation of the amplitude in logarithmic scale as a function of frequency (horizontal axis) and propagation distance (vertical axis). The blue cycles at the left side of each color map indicate the actual position of steel beads inside the scanning region. The white lines delimit the complete band gap frequency range. In both directions, the attenuations inside the frequency range are stronger than the other range. The acoustic energy at frequencies from 100 kHz to 250 kHz extend to 40mm propagation distance. The attenuations inside the band gap in the X direction is stronger than that in the M direction. All the frequencies higher than 350 kHz are attenuated in both directions. In order to precisely verify the attenuation behavior in two directions, several specic frequencies are chosen for the discussion. In the following discussion of the results shown in Fig. 5.8, it is useful to separate the frequency range in three parts: frequencies lower than, inside, and higher than the complete band gap. Figs. 5.8(a) and 5.8(b) show line scans in these three regions that are extracted from the color map of Figs. 5.7(a) and 5.7(b), respectively. For both the X and the M directions, the attenuation in the frequency range below

94

Figure 5.8: The graphs (a) and (b) are extracted from the data in Fig. 5.7(a) and 5.7(b), respectively, and show line scans at three particular frequencies. The chosen frequencies lie before the complete band gap, inside it, and above it. The blue cycles indicate the position of steel beads. the band gap is weak. In Figs. 5.8(a) and (b), the attenuation at a frequency of 150 kHz is a quite smooth function of the propagation distance in both directions and does not depend on the orientation of the lattice. In the range of frequency inside the band gap, the amplitude of the waves decays rapidly with distance. In the X and the M directions, the wave amplitude decays most rapidly around 280 kHz and 270 kHz, respectively. This decay is larger than 35 dB after a propagation distance of 12 mm for the X direction and 17 mm for the M direction. It is worth noticing that the distances of amplitude decay to vanishing are equal to 3 periods in both cases. The period in the M direction is about 17 mm, i.e. is is 2 times larger than the period in X direction, which is 12 mm. Though the attenuation is dependent on the orientation of the lattice, the attenuation per period is then similar in both cases. The variation of the attenuation with the propagation distance in the frequency range above the band gap is less expected. The two chosen representative frequencies in Fig. 5.8 for the X and the M directions are 380 kHz and 430 kHz, respectively. These frequencies are chosen such that the attenuation is minimum. For both directions, the amplitude 95

remains approximately constant for the rst two periods, then decays to the minimum detection level (-60 dBm) in 25 mm approximately. Comparing with other practical arrangements of phononic crystal samples, we remark that a decay for frequencies above the complete band gap was not observed for bulk acoustic waves in the experiments of Refs. [107, 106], for instance.

Figure 5.9: Dependence of the displacement amplitude with frequency and propagation distance measured for the pure epoxy slabs with 4mm thickness. The attenuation as a function of frequency and propagation distance in pure epoxy plate is measured with the same method as for the X and the M direction. The result is displayed in Fig. 5.9. The natural propagation loss of epoxy is not likely to be the only origin of the attenuation above the band gap. Indeed, in the pure epoxy slab (Fig. 5.9), the propagation loss of high frequency waves is not as strong as that in the phononic crystal slab. It may be remarked that above the band gap, almost all branches of the dispersion diagrams of Fig. 5.6 and Fig. 5.6 are rather at, and hence represent slab modes with low group velocity. This could result in enhanced dissipation of energy. It is also worth noticing that the attenuation in the frequency range between 400kHz 96

and 500kHz for X direciton is stronger than that in M direction. In the band diagram for the X direction, there is a band gap expend from 400kHz to 475kHz with a at band at frequency 425kHz. The bands higher than 475kHz are atter than that in M direction. This is the reason for the different attenuation behavior between these two directions in this frequency range. 5.5 Line defect waveguide

Figure 5.10: The picture of the line defect waveguide The waveguide is an important application of phononic crystals. The forbidden wave can not propagate in the phononic crystal structure and be conned in a defect created on purpose. A waveguide was formed by removing exactly one line of steel beads along the X direction in our experiment. The picture of the line defect structure is displayed in Fig. 5.10. In the transmission measurement, the spatial scanning region is sketched at the left side of Fig. 5.11. The region starts at a distance of 24 mm, i.e. 6 periods, away from the 97

top edge of acoustic source. This distance from the source was chosen so that the wave propagation inside the waveguide is stable. The measurement setup is the same as that sketched in Fig. 5.3. The total scan distance along the X axis is 20 mm (5 periods) and the scan step is 1 mm. In the Y direction, the scan width is across all the waveguide width, i.e., 4 mm (one period). The scan step is 1 mm also. The transmission spectrum of the waveguide in Fig. 5.11 (red line) is obtained by averaging all samples in the scan area. The blue line in Fig. 5.11 is the transmission spectrum of the perfect phononic crystal in the X direction. Also shown is the band diagram of the waveguide computed with the nite element method using a super cell technique. In the simulation by the nite element method, the meshed region includes one period in the X direction and 3 beads on both sides of the waveguide in the Y direction (for a total width of 28 mm). Periodical boundary conditions are applied at the facets orthogonal to the X and Y directions. As usual with the super cell technique, it is assumed that for frequencies within the complete band gap there are only evanescent waves in the Y direction, so that the simulation of guided modes propagating in the X direction is accurate. Outside the complete band gap, eigenmodes of the phononic crystal with the supercell lattice are obtained instead of eigenmodes of the waveguide. For this reason, the band structure in Fig. 5.11 is only displayed for frequencies within the complete band gap. The comparison of the spectra of the waveguide and the perfect phononic crystal in Fig. 5.11 clearly shows that acoustic wave transmission inside the complete band gap range is enhanced by a factor of 15 dBm approximately in the waveguide case. The greatest enhancement occurs at a frequency of 275 kHz. This transmission enhancement is not uniform for all frequencies. Indeed, the band diagram shows that propagation is highly multimodal, with many defect bands inside the complete band gap range. The transmission as a function of frequency then depends in a non obvious manner on the excitation of the different guided modes and their respective velocities.

98

Figure 5.11: Experimental transmission through a line defect waveguide managed along the X direction of the phononic crystal slab and the corresponding theoretical band diagram. On the left, the transmission spectrum of waveguide is shown with a red line, while the transmission spectrum of the perfect phononic crystal slab in X direction is shown in blue line. The right hand side is theoretical band diagram of the waveguide. The complete band gap frequency range is located between the two gray areas. The illustrations in the left side indicates the scanning region. An other method to identify the connement of wave in waveguide structrure is observing directly the displacement led of acoustic wave distribution. To achieve this goal, high resolution and large area spatial scanning is necessary. We developed an auto-spatial scanning program by C++ which can synchronize the electric motion stage and signal generator/receiver and save acoustic wave amplitude and phase information automatically. Base on the auto-scanning technique, The spatial scanning region is chosen to cover slightly more than the inside of the waveguide. The scanning region is sketched in Fig. 5.12. As in the transmission spectrum experiment, for the X axis, the region starts 24mm away from the edge of the acoustic source. The total scanning distance is 20mm. For the Y axis, the width of scanning area is 13.6mm. For both axes, the spatial resolution is 0.4mm. The displacement eld of acoustic waves can be plotted by combine the amplitude intensity and phase at all sample points. Fig. 5.13 and Fig. 5.14 display the real part of 99

Figure 5.12: Spatial scanning region of displacement eld of acoustic waves in the line defect waveguide.

Figure 5.13: Real part of the displacement eld of acoustic waves frequency within complete band gap in the defect line waveguide. The wave frequencies at 275 kHz, 300 kHz and 325 kHz, respectively. The white circles indicate the positions of the steel beads. the vertical displacement eld inside the scanning region. The acoustic wave frequency in Fig. 5.13 is within the complete band gap, and that in Fig. 5.14 is outside the complete band gap. In all cases, the signals were launched from the bottom of the gure. 100

Figure 5.14: Real part of the displacement eld of acoustic waves in the defect line waveguide at a frequency of 135 kHz. The white circles indicate the positions of the steel beads. In Fig. 5.13, for frequencies at 275 kHz, 300 kHz and 325 kHz, the acoustic wave energy is seen to be highly conned laterally inside the waveguide and to propagate with a stable modal shape. In Fig. 5.14, for frequency at 134 kHz, well below the lower band gap edge, the acoustic wave is mostly propagated according to a plane wave modal shape and acoustic energy is not conned inside the waveguide. This observation is an indirect conrmation of the existence of the complete band gap, since leakage would be observed if it were not present. 5.6 Unusual refraction effect The negative refraction effect has received great attention in photonic and phononic crystals. There are many methods to observe the negative refraction effect experimentaly. Chapter 1 has already presented some researhes of negative refraction. Fig. 5.15(a) sketchs the experimental setup for the observation of negative refraction in our experiment. The setup is similar to that used in transmission measurements, but the acoustic prism was replaced by an acoustic lens. The transducer, acoustic lens and structure are all mounted on a set of stages. As mentioned before, the set of stages are 101

composed by a two axis tilt stage, a vertical motion stage and a two directional electric motion stage. The acoustic lens is made of a plastic cone. The diameter at the top of the cone which is in contact with the phononic slab is around 2mm. The acoustic energy is focused by the acoustic lens and enters the slab as a point source. The epoxy slab area is made larger than the periodic structure. The periodic structure is surrounded by the pure epoxy slab. The position of the point source is located in the pure epoxy region and near the periodic structure. The circular wave front generated by the acoustic point source spreads out in the pure epoxy region. Fig. 5.15 (b) displays the illustration of negative refraction. If the refractive effect of the periodic structure is negative, the wave front will converge after propagation through the interface between pure epoxy and the periodic structure. The shape of wave front can be observed by investigating the displacement eld distribution of the acoustic wave.

Figure 5.15: (a)Experimental set up for negative refraction. (b) Illustration of the negative refraction effect. Experimentally, the spatial scanning region is choosen as a 32mm-side square. The spatial resolution is 0.4mm. The color maps in Fig. 5.16 displays the displacement eld at frequencies 133 kHz and 380 kHz. The point source is located at X= 32mm and Y=16mm which is marked by a red point. The black circles inside the color maps correspond to the exact positions of he steel beads. The two considered frequencies, 133 kHz and 380 kHz, are located below and above band gap, respectively. The acoustic wave front spreading 102

from the source is circular. At both frequencies, the wave front remain a concave face to right after entering the phononic slab.

Figure 5.16: Real part of the displacement eld with frequenies (a) 133 kHz and (b) 380 kHz. Fig. 5.17 displays the displacement eld distribution for frequencies within the complete band gap. The frequencies we chose are 280 kHz and 300 kHz. The acoustic wave did not enter the periodic structure region,in agreement with the results of complete band gap effect.

Figure 5.17: Real part of the displacement eld with frequencies (a) 280 kHz and (b) 300 kHz. Fig. 5.18 displays the displacement eld distribution with frequencies at 333 kHz and 340kHz. These frequencies are located at the top edge of the band gap. The color maps 103

shown clearly that the shapes of wave front inside the periodic region converge face to left and depicted by Fig. 5.15(b). The results in our experiment do not show the wave front converging to a single point inside the periodic structure. This is caused by the contact interface between the acoustic lens and phononic crystal slab is very samll. The incident acoustic energy is not strong enough. Besides, the attenuation is very strong because of the wave frequencies are located at the edge of gap.

Figure 5.18: Real part of the displacement eld with frequencies (a) 333 kHz and (b) 340 kHz.

5.7

Conclusion We have studied experimentally and theoretically the properties of acoustic wave

propagation in a nite thickness phononic crystal slab. The phononic crystal slab is constituted by a square lattice array of steel beads embedded in an epoxy matrix. A complete band gap was identied by measuring the transmission spectrum along the two most symmetric directions of the Brillouin zone by laser interferometry. The measured transmission spectra and the theoretical band structure obtained by a nite element method are in agreement and show that the complete band gap ranges from 255 kHz to 340 kHz. The dependence of the attenuation on the propagation distance was studied. Little attenuation is observed below the complete band gap and a clear exponential decay is observed within 104

it. Unexpectedly, a pronounced unexpected decay is observed for frequencies above the complete band gap, unlike observations for bulk acoustic waves [107, 106]. A defect line waveguide was formed in the X direction. The transmission through the waveguide was measured and the wave eld was imaged. The observations show that the waveguide conne the acoustic energy within the complete band gap. An unusual refraction effect similar to negative refraction was also observed at frequencies near the top edge of the complete band gap. The effect is observed by investigating the variation of the wave front shape passing through the interface between pure epoxy and the periodic structure. The acoustic wave front generated by point source in pure epoxy slab was observed re-converge after rrefraction by the interface.

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Chapter6

General Conclusion

The studies presented in this thesis were devoted to study experimentally and theoretically the properties of photonic and phononic crystals. In rst subject, we demonstrated the angle-resolved reection spectra of the articial opal. The opal is formed by closed-packed face-centered cubic PMMA microspheres with different concentrations of Ag nanoparticles. The diameter of the PMMA microspheres is 320 nm. The reection intensity would be enhanced by suitable casting of Ag nanoparticles. The packing of PMMA microspheres would be disturbed by more coating of Ag nanoparticles. The reectance would reduce and the peak wavelength would shift. The metallodielectric opals technic could be applied to other kinds of articial opals with different materials or geometrical parameters. The opals could be deposited on various substrate and works in various wavelength ranges. By controlling the deposition thickness of opals, the application could be further extend to the plasmonic effect on LEDs to enhance the extraction rate of the light and on biochips to enhance the coupling of light between the labeling dye and the pumping sources. The experiment and theoretical simulation in the subject is supported by Department of Optics and Photonics, National Central University. In the second subject, the propagation of bulk acoustic waves in two-dimensional phononic crystal, we have investigated experimentally and theoretically the band gap properties of triangular and honeycomb two-dimensional phononic crystals. The structure consists of steel cylinders immersed in water. The same geometric parameters have been used to allow for a fair comparison of these two lattices. Using a combination of transmission measurements and band structure calculations, we have identied the lowest complete band gaps in both kind of lattice, but also the appearance of deaf bands that lead to a reduced attenuation in transmission without implying a band gap. As previously ob106

tained with air-steel phononic crystals, it is found that the rst complete band gap opens for the honeycomb lattice but not for the triangular lattice thanks to symmetry reduction. The line defect waveguides with different widths in the K direction of triangular lattice have been demonstrated. The transmission of acoustic wave with frequency inside band gap range has been strongly enhanced by the waveguide. The modes of propagation have been demonstrated also. The complete band gap of three-dimensional phononic crystal consist of spherical steel beads embedded in epoxy matrix has been investigated. The packing of spherical steel beads is face-centered cubic structure. A large band gap for longitudinal has been observed. The relative bandwidth of complete band gap is 60% larger than expected. The enlargement of band gap width was due to the coupling between share and longitudinal waves. In the chapter of photonic crystal slab, the propagation of acoustic waves in phononic crystal slabs constituted by a square lattice array of steel beads embedded in an epoxy matrix has been studied experimentally and theoretically. We demonstrated the threedimensional connement and control of acoustic energy by the combination of slab structure and planar periodic structure. A complete band gap was identied by measuring the transmission spectrum with laser interferometry. The measured transmission spectra and the theoretical band structure obtained by a nite element method are in agreement and show that the complete band gap ranges extends from 255 kHz to 340 kHz. The dependence of the attenuation on the propagation distance was studied also. The attenuation behavior inside complete band gap strongly related to the orientation of lattice. Unexpectedly, a pronounced unexpected decay is observed for frequencies above the complete band gap. Finally, a line defect waveguide was formed in the X direction. The transmission through the waveguide was measured and the wave eld was imaged. These observations show that the waveguide efciently connes acoustic energy within the complete band gap. An unusual refrac-

107

tive effect has been observed in the higher edge of complete band gaps. The refractive behavior acted as the negative refraction. The phononic crystals measurement and theoretical methods were supported by the Institude FEMTO-ST, France. The studies of bulk acoustic wave phononic crystals and lamb wave modes phononic crystals could be further extended widely. In this thesis, the properties of both phononic crystals have been presented only the complete band gaps and line defect waveguides. Many different defect modes could be further studied, for instence, the cavity mode, the coupling between cavities and bending waveguide with various bending angles. The acoustic wave device based on phononic crystals could be achieved by combining those defects. The frequency range of complete band gaps is proportional to the geometrical size of phononic crystals. By changing the geometrical size of structure, phononic crystals could be applied to hypersonic or long wavelength categories, for instance, the medical application or earthquake application. Finally, since the devices of photonic and phononc crystal could be achieved. The combination of these two kinds of devices is realizable.

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