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A vempace

Avec

Fayal Benkrizi
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AVEMPACE
Cest vers 822 que Zyriab fait son entre dans Cordoue, sous le rgne du monarque andalou Abderrahmane II qui lui rserve le meilleur acceuil et lui tmoigne un grand intrt. Zyriab passera environ trente cinq ans sur le sol andalou, dveloppera et codifiera un systme musical qui, sa mort, sera repris et enrichi par de nombreux disciples. Cest ce systme qui donnera naissance plus tard la Mousika andaloussiya. De son vrai nom Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn Nafi (789-857), surnomm Zyriab (le merle), lve du clbre Issak El Maoussili, musicien de la cour Abasside, il commence lapprentissage de la musique Bagdad, et vers 815, construit son propre luth, diffrent de ceux de lpoque, en lui ajoutant une cinquime corde. Il excute alors devant le calife Haroun Rachid une composition personnelle et sera flicit chaleureusement par le commandeur des croyants, mais provoquera la colre de son matre. Il dcidera ensuite de sexiler au Maghreb, puis en Andalousie. Aprs la chute des tawaifs (petites royauts andalouses), les musulmans dEspagne migreront au Maghreb, emportant avec eux leur culture. La musique andalouse, entre autre, fut paticulirement prise et sauvegarde, notamment par les confrries religieuses et la communaut juive. Transmise oralement de gnrations en gnrations, elle a t lobjet de nombreuses dperditions et dformations. De nos jours, elle est connue au Maroc sous le nom de Moussika El Ala, de Gharnata Tlemcen, de Sanaa Alger et de Malouf de Constantine jusquen Lybie. Ces diffrentes dnominations prouvent quel point il y a eu interpntration entre la musique autochtone et la musique de Zyriab. Le systme musical de Zyriab est bas sur le double concept du Tab et le chant sur celui de la nouba. Le Tab caractre, temprament traduit lchelle modale et tonale de cette musique qui repose sur les sentiments, le temprament du compositeur. 24 Tab furent conus lorigine, limage des 24 heures du jour et de la nuit, et donneront naissance
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linterprtation des noubas. La nouba est une suite ou une srie de mouvements (pices potiques et instrumentales) qui se droule selon un ordre bien dtermin. Elle ressemble trangement une pice de thtre, un oratorio profane, qui comprend des actes et des scnes qui senchanent selon un ordre logique. Des 24 noubas dorigine, vu les alas de la transmission orale, il nen reste aujourdhui que 12 (dans le style dexcution Sanaa dAlger). Ces 12 noubas ont chacune une dnomination distincte : 1) Twe sia ou ouverture musicale : sans pice potique, elle sxecute selon un rythme 4/4. 2) Msaddar : Premire pice potique. Le rythme est solennel, sur un mouvement 4/4. 3) B tahi : Seconde partie chante lgrement plus rapidement que la prcdente. 4) Darj : Plus alerte que les prcdentes. 5) Insiraf : Changement de rythme, 5/8 boiteux. 6) las : ou finale sur un rythme 6/8. Il est possible pour les orchestres de jouer, la place de la Twe sia, un morceau qui ne fait pas partie de la nouba, appel Inqilab. La musique andalouse a donn naissance dautres styles, plus populaires et connus en Algrie sous les noms de Aroubi, Haouzi et Zendani. Ces derniers nobissent pas aux rgles cites prcdemment et utilisent une posie contemporaine, contrairement la nouba qui puise dans le muwashah et le zedjzel, posie structure obissant une mtrique propre. La formation Avempace, qui a emprunt son nom au clbre musicien et philosophe Ibnou Badja expose ici les nombreuses facettes du patrimoine musical algrien. La premire partie est consacre lexcution dextraits de noubas, la seconde au patrimione Aroubi et Haouzi. Dr Fodil Benkrizi

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La formation Avempace a t cre en 1933 Mostaganem, elle est compose de musiciens et de chanteurs professionnels ayant enseigns dans les diffrentes associations de musique andalouse de la ville. Les membres du groupe sont tous issus de la prestigieuse cole Nadi El Hillel Ettakafi (Cercle du Croissant) fonde et dirige par matre Moulay-Ahmed Benkrizi. Le chef dorchestre, Dr F.Benkrizi, est le fils an du fondateur du Cercle, participe au 3me festival de musique classique algrienne en 1972, devient chef dorchestre en 1973, obtient le 2me prix du festival national de musique et participe au festival de Tlemcen de 1974 1988 ainsi quau festival du malouf de Constantine depuis sa cration en 1981 jusquen 1988. Il est le fondateur de lassociation Nadi Le Hillel et en devient prsident en 1991. Il fait partie de lorchestre pilote de la Radio et de la Tlvision Algrienne depuis 1977, participe au Festival de la Jeunesse Arabe de Damas en 1981, se produit au Maroc, Paris, (o il accompagne notamment le chanteur Lili Boniche) ainsi quen Italie lors de festivals de musique traditionnelle comme Brechia et Gardonne Val Trompia. Le chanteur, Fayal Mustapha Benkrizi (n le 19/02 1972) dbute trs tt lapprentissage musical sous la houlette de son pre, professeur de musique andalouse au Conservatoire de Mostaganem.Il joue du violon et de la mandoline huit ans et participe au Festival de Musique Andalouse dAlger. Il obtient le premier prix national de la jeunesse en 1988 au palais de la culture dAlger et accompagne son frre an lors de tournes internationales, notamment lors du spectacle donn au sige de lU.N.E.S.C.O Paris. Il a acquis une grande matrise du piano et des instruments comme le luth, le kanoun et le rebeb. Grce aux encouragements et leons prises avec son professeur Mohamed Khaznadji, il compte aujourdhui dans son rpertoire lexcution de 12 noubas de lcole Sanaa et un nombre apprciable de morceaux indits et rests inconnus auprs des connaisseurs de cette musique. En marge de la musique classique, grand nombre de mlodies Haouzi, Aroubi et mme de Chir el melhoune font partie de la panoplie musicale de ce jeune talent.

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Inqilab Raml Maya Mon amour ! Laisse venir les vnements comme bon leur semble Ncoute pas les mdisances et reste vigilant Patience, car on ne peut rcolter que ce que lon a sem La consolation de Dieu est proche Cest Lui qui nous rserve mlancolie et joie Le destin est trac, et celui du Tout Puissant est invitable Accorde-moi ta patience car la peine nest quphmre Ainsi est faite la vie : tantt promu tantt destitu La consolation de Dieu est proche Cest Lui qui nous rserve mlancolie et joie Patiente donc jusqu ce quil soit dcid. Istikhbar Raml Maya Je te lgue mon tre et tout ce que je possde Et si mes biens viennent manquer je sacrifierai mon me Je ne cesserai de chanter tes louanges puisque De ma vie je nai vu semblable beaut. Darj Raml Maya Mentira celui qui prtendra souffrir damour comme je souffre pour vous Votre baiser est si exaltant que je suis envot Nombreux sont ceux qui prtendent votre amour, rendant ma souffrance plus pnible Mais existera-t-il une personne parmi celles-l qui pourra mgaler ? Mon amour sera vainqueur condition que ma bien-aime me fasse la faveur dune rencontre.
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Insiraf Raml Maya Je nai pu trouver le sommeil cause de mon amour pour toi Toutes mes prires nont engendr que bouderie et ddain Dsormais je madresserai Dieu, puisse-t-il exaucer ma demande ! Alors, retrouvant mon assurance jorganiserai un bal en son honneur Oh mes amis, je pris par lamour innocent que je porte ma bien-aime. las Raml Maya (1) Eh chanson ! remplis la coupe celle qui possde des joues roses Ton breuvage exquis a enchant ma bien-aime, sers nous encore Aprs le ddain, ma bien-aime ma gratifi de sa visite Que dagrables moments passs en ta compagnie, reine de la beaut Ivre ou conscient, la grce de ses mouvements la rende plus sduisante encore. las Raml Maya (2) Oh compagnon ! apporte moi donc la bonne nouvelle Aie piti de moi ma desse, toi qui incarne tantt le soleil, tantt le croissant lunaire Mes amis et toutes les toiles du ciel sont tmoins de lamour que je te porte Tu es lastre royal et moi lastronome, telle est la mtaphore de mon amour pour toi. las Raml Maya (3) Rveille toi compagnon et admire ce parterre jonch de feuilles damandiers La brise du matin les a balayes dans cette haie tandis que la rose les a bouscules Les feuilles naissantes du noyer apparaissent, salues par le messager du bonheur Le jardin multicolore menvote en cette saison Oh ami ! allons donc savourer ces moments merveilleux Viens voir les amoureux et remplis ma coupe Tandis que le parfum des fleurs embaument la nature
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Les colombes roucoulent au dessus dans les branches, me rappelant que je ne suis pas le seul amoureux Seule la reine de la beaut menchante, surtout lorsquelle devient consentante Oh ami ! allons donc savourer ces merveilleux moments. Inqilab Aroubi Ya Raoud Rani Oh jardin ! je suis plein de venin et ma patience est bout oh colombe ! Jai hlas got aux fleurs de lamour Mon secret est bien gard et nul ne le percera oh colombe ! Redoutant que la bien-aime ne me revienne plus Je ten conjure, par Dieu, donne-moi de ses nouvelles oh colombe ! Elle me boude sans aucune raison Oh jardin ! je me plains toi de toutes mes blessures oh mon amour ! oh jardin ! si tu avais endur mes souffrances aurais-tu compati ? Mon amour pour elle date de ma plus tendre enfance oh colombe ! Ni le prince de Kola ni le vizir de la casbah nont pu la sduire De ma vie je nai pu obtenir delle oh colombe ! Que trois nuits pleines de gaiet Je me suis dlect de son haleine au got de grenade oh colombe ! Plus dlicieuse que le miel et tous les fruits exotiques Oh jardin ! je me plains toi de toutes mes blessures oh mon amour ! oh jardin, si tu avais endur ma souffrance aurais-tu compati ? Mes ennemis nattendent que mon exil oh colombe ! oh comme lamour est beau !
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Insiraf Aroubi ily snine adida Voil dj plusieurs annes que je taime Oh ma gazelle je te prie de raccourcir la dure de lexil Ma reine ! Comme ton orgueil me pse Celui qui taime est attach ta grce Oh ma reine ! Comme ton orgueil me pse Le gentilhomme que je suis tadore depuis bien longtemps, il a consenti lunion pour toujours Errant et malheureux, toujours plaintif. Si tu le dsires je pourrai te le dcrire Amaigri par lamour, malade, ne parvenant mme plus accompir ses obligations envers Dieu Ecoutes mon pangyrique oh toi qui surpasses en beaut toutes les autres ! Comme ta mine est superbe, et superbes tes sourcils qui mettent si bien tes yeux en valeur ! Oh ma reine ! Comme ton orgueil me pse Tu as subjugu mon cur, conquis mon esprit et tu me refuses une rencontre Tu mas ensorcel, tre au visage si rose, au cou clair, au front tincelant Aux cils et sourcils dhindoue, semblables deux pes qui me dfient mort Cesse dtre hautaine jeune femme tu as conquis mon cur par la flche de ton regard Ton baiser est doux comme le miel et tes dents, collier de perles, avivent lclat de ton visage Oh ma reine ! Comme ton orgueil me pse.

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Haouzi de Mohamed Ben Msayeb - ya ouchak zine Oh vous qui aimez le beau ! Aidez donc mon cur mlancolique Mes joues sont ravines par des larmes intarissables La flamme de mon amour dnonce lloignement de celle que jaime Oh celui qui compatit ! Je ne puis supporter le refus plus longtemps Face une telle beaut, comment rester indiffrent ? Beaut unique au monde, ingalable dans la grce Mon amour est bien gard et nul ne lui nuira Oh celui qui compatit ! Je ne puis supporter le refus plus longtemps Les gens me jalousent, me voyant pris de toi Ses yeux ensommeills la font ressembler une gazelle Ignorant, celui qui comparera sa beaut celle dune autre Oh celui qui compatit ! Je ne puis supporter le refus plus longtemps Oh reine de beaut, ton amour ma sduit Je suis devenu fou de toi et personne ngalera ta dmarche De par le monde, jamais il ny eu damour comme celui que jai pour toi Oh celui qui compatit ! Je ne puis supporter le refus plus longtemps Je nai pu trouver la quitude car mon esprit est proccup Pouvais-je esprer cause de ma passion pour toi Dautres rsultats que celui de dlaisser mes prires et de jouir de ton amour ?

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Haouzi de Mohamed Ben Msayeb - Mal hbibi malou Qua-t-elle ma bien-aime Alors que nous tions ensemble Qua-t-elle ma bien-aime Oh compagnons ! elle me boude Qua-t-elle ma bien-aime Alors que lattente fut longue Languissant mme de son ombre Bless et fltri lorsque je la vois Sa grce et sa beaut menvotent Et chantent les prmices dune idylle Qua-t-elle ma bien-aime Qua-t-elle ma bien-aime Oh compagnons ! elle me boude Elle me boude Et de surcrot sans raison Elle mabandonne mon sort Puis elle mattendra Celle qui a la taille du peuplier Qua-t-elle ma bien-aime Alors que nous tions ensemble Qua-t-elle ma bien-aime Oh compagnons ! elle me boude

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Ma bien-aime me boude Et mon secret est trahi Je nai que ce que je mrite Et que ce que Dieu a voulu quil arrive Je ne pardonnerai pas A celle qui ma trahit Qua-t-elle ma bien-aime Alors que nous tions ensemble Qua -t-elle ma bien-aime Oh compagnons ! elle me boude Elle me gratifia dune nuit Elle qui possde une beaut incomparable La lune la envie Ainsi que le soleil son lever Reconnaissable par sa beaut Parmi toutes les reines.

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AVEMPaCE
Zyriab arrived in Cordoba around 822, under the reign of Abderrahmane the Andalucian monarch. The monarch gave him a warm welcome and showed great interest in the musician. Zyriab spent some thirty five years in Andalucia. During those years he developed and codified the musical system which upon his death would be taken up and enriched by his numerous disciples. This musical system gave rise to what would become Mousika Andaloussiya. Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn Nafi (789-857), nicknamed Zyriab (the lark), studied with the famous Issak El Maoussili, a musician from the Abassidian court. Around 815 Zyriab built his own lute that differed from those of his time, with a fifth string. He played one of his own compositions on this lute for the caliph Haroun Rachid and was congratulated by the leader. However, Zyriabs actions sparked his teachers anger. Zyriab chose to exile himself in the Maghreb and then in Andalucia. After the fall of the tawaifs (small Andalucian royalty), the Muslims of Spain emigrated to the Maghreb, bringing their culture along with them. Andalucian music, among others, was especially liked and preserved, especially by religious brotherhoods and the Jewish community. This music was passed down by oral tradition from generation to generation and hence underwent many changes. Today, this music is known in Morocco as Moussika El Ala, in Tlemcen (Algeria) as Gharnata, in Algiers as Sanaa and from Constantine to Libya as Malouf. These different names testify to the intense mingling between the local music and Zyriabs music. The musical system is based on the Tab concept and the songs are based on the nouba. The Tab, meaning character or temperament, reflects the modal and tonal scale of this music which depends on the feelings and temperament of the composer. Originally, twenty-four Tab were written, one for each hour of the day and night, which eventually gave rise to the interpretation of the nouba. The nouba is a suite or a series of movements (poetic and instrumental pieces) which followed a well-determined order. The nouba is very similar to a play, or a profane oratorio, with acts and scenes that follow a logical order. Of the 24 original noubas, and as a consequence of oral transmission, there are now only
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12 nouba left. (in the Sanaa style of Algiers). Each of these twelve nouba have a distinct name: 1) Tswsia or musical overture: no poetry, on a 4/4 beat 2) Msaddar : First poem. The rhythm is solemn, on a 4/4 beat 3) B tahi : second song on a slightly faster rhythm 4) Darj : More lively 5) Insiraf : Change in rhythm, lopsided 5/8 6) Slas : or finale on a 6/8 beat. The orchestra can choose to replace the Tswsia by an Inqilab, which is not a part of the nouba. Andalucian music gave rise to other styles that are more popular and better known in Algeria, such as Aroubi, Haouzi and Zendani. These do not follow the rules as described above. They also use modern lyrics, contrary to the nouba which delves into the muwashah and the zedjzel, a poetry which follows a strict metric system. The Avempace group named itself after the famous musician and philosopher Ibnou Badja and offers a sampling of the numerous facets of the Algerian musical heritage. The first part is devoted to noubas and the second to the Arouba and Haouzi style. Dr. Fodil Benkrizi

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Avempace was founded in 1933 in Mostaganem. It is made up of professional musicians and singers who have taught in the various schools of Andalucian music in this city. The members of the group were all trained at the prestigious Nadi El Hillel Ettakafi school (The Crescent Circle) founded and directed by the master Moulay-Ahmed Benkrizi. The conductor, Dr. F. Benkrizi, is the oldest son of the founder of the Circle. He took part in the Algerian classical music festival in 1972 and became conductor in 1973 and received the second prize in the national music festival. He participated in the Tlemcen music festival from 1974 to 1988 as well as in the malouf festival of Constantine from its creation in 1981 and until 1988. He founded the Nadi Le Hillel organisation of which he became chairman in 1991. He has been a member since 1977 of the orchestra owned by the Algerian Radio and Television. He took part in the Arab Youth Festival in Damascus in 1981. He has given concerts in Morocco, Paris (accompanying in particular the singer Lili Boniche) as well as in Italy, in traditional musical festivals such as Brechia and Gardonne Val Trompia. The singer, Fayal Mustapha Benkrizi (born February 1972) began his musical apprenticeship quite young, guided by his father, a professor of Andalucian music at the Mostaganem conservatory. At eight years old he played both the violin and the mandolin and was part of the Andalucian music festival of Algiers. He won first junior prize in 1988 at the Algiers cultural center and accompanied his brother on international road shows, in particular the concert given at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris. He is a skilled player of the piano as well as of instruments such as the lute, the qanun or the rebab. Thanks to encouragement and lessons taken with his teacher Mohamed Khaznadji, he includes in his repertoire the 12 noubas of the Sanaa school and a large number of unpublished pieces which are still unknown even to the amateurs of this type of music. Outside of classical music, he also interprets pieces from the Haouzi, Aroubi and even Chir el melhoune repertory.

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Inqilab Raml Maya My Love! Let things happen the way they will Dont listen to gossip, stay alert Be patient, as we can only harvest what we sow The consolation of God is near He is the one who reserves melancholy and joy for us Destiny is already decided, and the desires of the Almighty are inevitable Be patient with me as pain is only a passing feeling This is life: sometimes promoted, sometimes demoted The consolation of God is near He is the one who reserves melancholy and joy for us Be patient and wait for him to decide. Istikhbar Ral Maya I bequeath to you myself and everything I own And if my belongings came to want then I would sacrifice my soul I will never cease to sing your praise since In all my life I have never seen such beauty. Darj Raml Maya He who claims to suffer as I do for you is a liar Your kiss is so exalting that I am spellbound Many are those who claim your love, making my suffering that much greater But can there be any among them who is equal to me? My love will win as long as my loved one grants me a visit. Insiraf Raml Maya
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I cant sleep for my love for you All my prayers have only led to your pouting and disdain From now on I will address myself to God, let him grant my wish! Then, once I regain my self-confidence I will organise a ball in her honor Oh my friends, I am dying from innocent love Klass Raml Maya (1) Hey wine bearer! fill the cup of the red-cheeked girl Your exquisite drink has enchanted my loved one, serve us again After disdain, my love has granted me a visit What wonderful moments spent with you, queen of beauty Drunk or sober, the grace of her movements make her even more attractive? Klass Raml Maya (2) Oh friend! Bring me the good news Have pity on me my goddess, you who represent both the sun and the moon My friends and all the stars in the sky are witness to my love for you You are the royal star and me the astronomer, this is the metaphor of my love for you. Klass Raml Maya (3) Wake up friend and admire the ground that is scattered with almond leaves The morning breeze swept them to this hedge while the dew shuffled them The new leaves are emerging on the walnut, saluted by the messenger of happiness. The multicolored garden has me spellbound in this season Oh friend! let us savour these marvellous moments. Come see the lovers and fill my cup While the perfume of flowers fills the air
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The doves are cooing above in the branches, reminding me that I am not the only one in love The queen of beauty is the only one I care for, especially when she is consenting Of friend! let us savour these marvellous moments. Inqilab Aroubi Ya Raoud Rani Oh garden! I am full of venom and I am at wits end, oh dove! Unfortunately I have tasted the flower of love My secret is well kept and no one will break it, oh dove! I fear that my loved one will not come back Please, by God, give me some news of hear, oh dove! She is sulking without any reason. Oh garden! I lament on my wounds, oh my love! oh garden! had you endured my suffering would you feel for me? My love for her dates back to my tender years, oh dove! Neither the prince of Kolea, nor the vizir of the casbah could seduce her In all my life all that I could get from her were, oh dove! Three nights full of joy I revelled in her breath that smelled of pomegranates, oh dove! More delicious than honey and all exotic fruits. Oh garden! I complain to you of all my wounds, oh my love! oh garden! had you endured my suffering would you feel for me? My enemies are waiting for my exile, oh dove! oh how beautiful is love!

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Insiraf Aroubi ily snine adida I have loved you for several years now Oh my gazelle please shorten your exile My queen! How your pride weighs on me The one who loves you is fond of your grace Oh my queen! How your pride weighs on me. The gentleman that I am has adored you for a long time, he accepts to unite forever Wandering and unhappy, always lonesome. I can describe him if you want Thin from love, sick, so weak he cant even fulfil his duties to God. Listen my panegyric, you who surpasses all others in beauty! How beautiful is your complexion, and how beautiful your eyebrows that set off your eyes to well! Oh my queen! What a burden your pride is on me. You have brought my heart into subjection, conquered my spirit and you refuse to meet me You have cast a spell on me, you with your face so rosy, your white neck, and sparkling brow With your Hindu lashes and eyebrows, like two swords who defy me to death Stop being haughty young woman you have conquered my heart with the arrow of your look Your kiss is sweet as honey, your teeth, a necklace of pearls, make the shine of your face more intense Oh my queen! What a burden your pride is on me.

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Haouzi by Mohamed Ben Msayeb (ya ouchak zine) Oh you who love beauty! Help my sad heart My cheeks are eroded by never-ending tears The flame of my love cries out against the departure of my loved one Oh whoever sympathizes with me! I can not stand this refusal any longer. How can one be indifferent in the face of such beauty? Unique beauty, unequalled by its grace My love is well kept and none will hurt it Oh whoever sympathizes with me! I can not stand this refusal any longer. Oh beauty queen, your love has seduced me I am mad about you and no one will come close to your gait In all the world, never has there been love like mine for you Oh whoever sympathizes with me! I can not stand this refusal any longer. I could not find serenity as my mind was preoccupied Could I hope for a different result, because of my passion for you, than to abandon my prayers and enjoy your love?

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Haouzi by Mohamed Ben Msayeb (mal hbibi malou)

What is the matter with my love We were together What is the matter with my love Oh friends! she has turned from me What is the matter with my love While the wait was long Languishing even in her shadow Wounded and drooping when I see her Her grace and beauty enchant me And tell of a new romance What is the matter with my love What is the matter with my love Oh friends! she has turned from me. She has turned from me And without any reason She has left me on my own And shell wait for me The one with the poplars waist What is the matter with my love We were together What is the matter with my love Oh friends! she has turned from me. My love has turned from me And my secret is betrayed I have only what I deserve And what God wanted to happen
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I will not forgive she who betrayed me What is the matter with my love We were together What is the matter with my love Oh friends! she has turned from me. She granted me one night She who graced with incomparable beauty The moon was envious, As was the sun upon rising Recognizable for her beauty Among all the queens.

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Musique classique algrienne / Classical music of Algeria

Avempace

avec Fayal Benkrisi


Fayal Benkrizi : Kanun, alto, violon 3/4, chant - Fodil Benkrizi : Alto, direction dorchestre Medjber Maria : Kouitra - Omar Berber : Ud - Slamani : Derbouka - Yahia Benbernou : Tar Mohamed Hamaidia : Banjo, mandoline, alto - Rezia Adda : violoncelle.

1re partie : extrait de la Nouba Raml Maya Inqilab Raml Maya Istikhbar Raml Maya Darj Raml Maya Insiraf Raml Maya Khla Raml Maya (1) Khla Raml Maya (2) Khla Raml Maya (3) Inqilab Aroubi Ya Raoud Rani Insiraf Aroubi ily snine adida 2me partie : Hawzi de Mohamed Ben Msayeb Ya ouchak zine 3me partie : Hawzi de Mohamed Ben Msayeb Mal hbibi malou

Enregistr Mostaganen (Algrie) en Aot 1995, au studio Znith, prise de son : Foued.
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