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Multicomponent Distillation Multicomponent Distillation

Introduction to multicomponent distillation Introduction to multicomponent distillation


Most of the distillation processes deal with
multicomponent mixtures
Multicomponent phase behaviour is much more
complex than that for the binary mixtures complex than that for the binary mixtures
Rigorous design requires computers
Short cut methods exist to outline the scope and
limitations of a particular process
Rigorous methods (Aspen
F
j
F
j
F
j j i j
T P h z F , , , ,
, j
Q
1 1
1 1 , 1
,
, , ,


j j
L
j j i j
T P
h x L
j j
V
j j i j
T P
h y V
,
, , ,
,
j
W
Short!cut methods"
#ens$e!%nderwood!&illiland
('(ir$bride
Introduction to multicomponent distillation Introduction to multicomponent distillation
Stage j
j j j j i j
T P h z F , , , ,
, j
Q
1 1
1 1 , 1
,
, , ,
+ +
+ + +
j j
V
j j i j
T P
h y V
j j
L
j j i j
T P
h x L
,
, , ,
,
j
U
Multicomponent distillation in tray towers Multicomponent distillation in tray towers
)b*ective of any distillation process is to recover pure products
In case of multicomponent mixtures we
may be interested in one+ two or more components
%nli$e in binary distillation+ fixing mole
fraction of one of the components in a
D
y
,
,y
2
,y
3
,y
4

fraction of one of the components in a


product does not fix the mole fraction of other
components
)n the other hand fixing compositions of all
the components in the distillate and the bottoms
product+ ma$es almost impossible to meet
specifications exactly
D
B
(ey components (ey components
In practice we usually choose two components
separation of which serves as a good indication
that a desired degree of separation is achieved
-hese two components are called key components
! light $ey ! light $ey
! heavy $ey
-here are different strategies to select these $ey
components
.hoosing two components that are next to each other
on the relative volatility" sharp separation
Distributed and undistributed components Distributed and undistributed components
.omponents that are present in both the distillate and
the bottoms product are called distributed components
! -he $ey components are always distributed components
.omponents with negligible concentration (/,0
!1
in one
of the products are called undistributed of the products are called undistributed
A B C D E G
key
components
heavy non-dst!"#ted components
$%&& end #p n "ottoms p!od#ct'
&ght non-dst!"#ted components
$%&& end #p n the ove!head p!od#ct'
.omplete design .omplete design
A m(t#!e o) 4* n-pentane, 4+* n-he(ane, ,+* n-heptane and -*
n-octane s dst&&ed at . atm/ 0he goa& s to !ecove! 12*o) he(ane and
.* o) heptane n the dst&&ate/ 0he )eed s "o&ng &3#d/
a' Desgn a dst&&aton p!ocess
n-pentane4 +/+4
5, 6)
condense!
"o&e!
n-pentane4 +/+4
n-he(ane4+/4+
n-heptane4 +/,+
n-octane4 +/+-
.++kmo&7h
.omplete design .omplete design
A m(t#!e o) 4* n-pentane, 4+* n-he(ane, ,+* n-heptane and -*
n-octane s dst&&ed at . atm/ 0he goa& s to !ecove! 12*o) he(ane and
.* o) heptane n the dst&&ate/ 0he )eed s "o&ng &3#d/
- Desgn a dst&&aton p!ocess
n-pentane4 +/+4
8hat s desgn o)
a co&#mn9
5, 6)
condense!
"o&e!
n-pentane4 +/+4
n-he(ane4+/4+
n-heptane4 +/,+
n-octane4 +/+-
.++kmo&7h
a co&#mn9
- : $p!ess#!e'
- ; $stages'
- < $!e)&#('
- D $damete!'
- a#(&a!y
e3#pment
$condense!, "o&e!'
.omplete short cut design .omplete short cut design
A m(t#!e o) 4* n-pentane, 4+* n-he(ane, ,+* n-heptane and -*
n-octane s dst&&ed at . atm/ 0he goa& s to !ecove! 12*o) he(ane and
.* o) heptane n the dst&&ate/ 0he )eed s "o&ng &3#d/
! :!ess#!e consde!aton4
- %hat ) yo# %e!e not gven :=.atm, ho% %o#&d yo# choose t9
- ho% do yo# va&date that :=.atm s app!op!ate9
- condense! #ses coo&ng %ate!
5, 6)
condense!
"o&e!
- condense! #ses coo&ng %ate!
$2+C'/ >et say the e(t %ate!
tempe!at#!e s 3+C/
- 0o mantan the tempe!at#!e de&ta
at .+C, the de% pont can not "e
&o%e! than 4+C/
- 0h#s, the de% pont o) the dst&&ate
has to "e at &east 4+C/
- ?) not, %&& need hghe! p!ess#!e
.omplete design .omplete design
A m(t#!e o) 4* n-pentane, 4+* n-he(ane, ,+* n-heptane and -*
n-octane s dst&&ed at . atm/ 0he goa& s to !ecove! 12*o) he(ane and
.* o) heptane n the dst&&ate/ 0he )eed s "o&ng &3#d/
- Desgn a dst&&aton p!ocess
n-pentane4 +/+4
>;@
5, 6)
condense!
"o&e!
n-pentane4 +/+4
n-he(ane4+/4+
n-heptane4 +/,+
n-octane4 +/+-
.++kmo&7h
2(
3(
A;@
>;@
.omplete short cut design .omplete short cut design
A m(t#!e o) 4* n-pentane, 4+* n-he(ane, ,+* n-heptane and -*
n-octane s dst&&ed at . atm/ 0he goa& s to !ecove! 12*o) he(ane and
.* o) heptane n the dst&&ate/ 0he )eed s "o&ng &3#d/
x F x Moles in D x Moles in B x Ki
! Bate!a& "a&ance consde!atons
x
F
F x
F
Moles in D x
D
Moles in B x
B
Ki
Pentane 0.04 4 3.62
Hexane 0.4 40 1.39
Heptane 0.5 50 0.56
Octane 0.06 6 0.23
100
2(
3(
A;@
>;@
.omplete short cut design .omplete short cut design
A m(t#!e o) 4* n-pentane, 4+* n-he(ane, ,+* n-heptane and -*
n-octane s dst&&ed at . atm/ 0he goa& s to !ecove! 12*o) he(ane and
.* o) heptane n the dst&&ate/ 0he )eed s "o&ng &3#d/
x F x Moles in D x Moles in B x Ki
! Bate!a& "a&ance consde!atons
x
F
F x
F
Moles in D x
D
Moles in B x
B
Ki
Pentane 0.04 4 3.62
Hexane 0.4 40 39.2 1.39
Heptane 0.5 50 0.5 0.56
Octane 0.06 6 0.23
100
2(
3(
A;@
>;@
.omplete short cut design .omplete short cut design
A m(t#!e o) 4* n-pentane, 4+* n-he(ane, ,+* n-heptane and -*
n-octane s dst&&ed at . atm/ 0he goa& s to !ecove! 12*o) he(ane and
.* o) heptane n the dst&&ate/ 0he )eed s "o&ng &3#d/
x F x Moles in D x Moles in B x Ki
- Sha!p sp&t4 components &ghte! than the >ght @ey $>@' %&& end #p comp&ete&y
n the ove!heads
! Bate!a& "a&ance consde!atons
x
F
F x
F
Moles in D x
D
Moles in B x
B
Ki
Pentane 0.04 4 4 3.62
Hexane
LK
0.4 40 39.2 1.39
Heptane
HK
0.5 50 0.5 0.56
Octane 0.06 6 0 0.23
100
2(
3(
A;@
>;@
.omplete short cut design .omplete short cut design
A m(t#!e o) 4* n-pentane, 4+* n-he(ane, ,+* n-heptane and -*
n-octane s dst&&ed at . atm/ 0he goa& s to !ecove! 12*o) he(ane and
.* o) heptane n the dst&&ate/ 0he )eed s "o&ng &3#d/
x F x Moles in D x Moles in B x Ki
! Bate!a& "a&ance consde!atons
x
F
F x
F
Moles in D x
D
Moles in B x
B
Ki
Pentane 0.04 4 4 0.092 3.62
Hexane
LK
0.4 40 39.2 0.897 1.39
Heptane
HK
0.5 50 0.5 0.011 0.56
Octane 0.06 6 0 0 0.23
100 D=43.7
2(
3(
A;@
>;@
.omplete short cut design .omplete short cut design
A m(t#!e o) 4* n-pentane, 4+* n-he(ane, ,+* n-heptane and -*
n-octane s dst&&ed at . atm/ 0he goa& s to !ecove! 12*o) he(ane and
.* o) heptane n the dst&&ate/ 0he )eed s "o&ng &3#d/
x F x Moles in D x Moles in B x Ki
! Bate!a& "a&ance consde!atons
i
F
i i
Dy Fx Bx =
x
F
F x
F
Moles in D x
D
Moles in B x
B
Ki
Pentane 0.04 4 4 0.092 3.62
Hexane
LK
0.4 40 39.2 0.897 0.8 1.39
Heptane
HK
0.5 50 0.5 0.011 49.5 0.56
Octane 0.06 6 0 0 0.23
100 D=43.7
2(
3(
A;@
>;@
.omplete short cut design .omplete short cut design
A m(t#!e o) 4* n-pentane, 4+* n-he(ane, ,+* n-heptane and -*
n-octane s dst&&ed at . atm/ 0he goa& s to !ecove! 12*o) he(ane and
.* o) heptane n the dst&&ate/ 0he )eed s "o&ng &3#d/
x F x Moles in D x Moles in B x Ki
- Sha!p sp&t4 components heave! than the Aeavy @ey $A@' %&&
end #p comp&ete&y n the bottoms
- Bate!a& "a&ance consde!atons
x
F
F x
F
Moles in D x
D
Moles in B x
B
Ki
Pentane 0.04 4 4 0.092 0 3.62
Hexane
LK
0.4 40 39.2 0.897 0.8 1.39
Heptane
HK
0.5 50 0.5 0.011 49.5 0.56
Octane 0.06 6 0 0 6 0.23
100 D=43.7 B=56.3
2(
3(
A;@
>;@
.omplete short cut design .omplete short cut design
A m(t#!e o) 4* n-pentane, 4+* n-he(ane, ,+* n-heptane and -*
n-octane s dst&&ed at . atm/ 0he goa& s to !ecove! 12*o) he(ane and
.* o) heptane n the dst&&ate/ 0he )eed s "o&ng &3#d/
x F x Moles in D x Moles in B x Ki
- Sha!p sp&t4 components heave! than the Aeavy @ey $A@' %&&
end #p comp&ete&y n the bottoms
- Bate!a& "a&ance consde!atons
x
F
F x
F
Moles in D x
D
Moles in B x
B
Ki
Pentane 0.04 4 4 0.092 0 0 3.62
Hexane
LK
0.4 40 39.2 0.897 0.8 0.014 1.39
Heptane
HK
0.5 50 0.5 0.011 49.5 0.879 0.56
Octane 0.06 6 0 0 6 0.107 0.23
100 D=43.7 B=56.3
2(
3(
A;@
>;@
Minimum reflux ratio analysis Minimum reflux ratio analysis
At the minimum reflux ratio
condition there are invariant 4ones
that occur above and below the
feed plate+ where the number of
plates is infinite and the liquid and
vapour compositions do not
y
y
.
vapour compositions do not
change from plate to plate
%nli$e in binary distillations+ in
multicomponent mixtures these
4ones are not necessarily ad*acent
to the feed plate location
(
6
)
6
)
(
B
(
D
y
B
(
;
Minimum reflux ratio analysis Minimum reflux ratio analysis
At the minimum reflux ratio condition
there are invariant 4ones that occur
above and below the feed plate+ where
the number of plates is infinite and the
liquid and vapour compositions do not
y
y
.
liquid and vapour compositions do not
change from plate to plate
%nli$e in binary distillations+ in
multicomponent mixtures these 4ones
are not necessarily ad*acent to the feed
plate location
(
6
)
6
)
(
B
(
D
y
B
(
;
Minimum reflux ratio analysis Minimum reflux ratio analysis
5, 6)
condense!
5, 6)
"o&e!
?nva!ant 6ones4 p!esence o) heavy and &ght non-dst!"#ted
components
Minimum reflux ratio analysis Minimum reflux ratio analysis
5, 6)
condense!
5, 6)
"o&e!
?nva!ant 6ones4 on&y &ght non-dst!"#ted
components
Minimum reflux ratio analysis Minimum reflux ratio analysis
5, 6)
condense!
5, 6)
"o&e!
?nva!ant 6ones4 on&y heavy non-dst!"#ted
components
Minimum reflux ratio analysis Minimum reflux ratio analysis
5, 6)
condense!
5, 6)
"o&e!
?nva!ant 6ones4 no non-dst!"#ted
components
(

he(ane >@
heptane A@
5eed stage
Distribution of components in Distribution of components in
multicomponent distillation process multicomponent distillation process
. 2 3 4 , - C 2 1 .+
octane
pentane
;on-dst!"#ted
heavy non-key
component
;on-dst!"#ted
>ght non-key
component
&illiland correlation" 5umber of ideal &illiland correlation" 5umber of ideal
plates at the operating reflux plates at the operating reflux &6 &6! !AA
#ens$e #ens$e equation for multicomponent equation for multicomponent
Distillations Distillations &6 &6! !77
5on $ey component distribution from 5on $ey component distribution from
the the #ens$e #ens$e equation equation &6 &6! !. .
Minimum reflux ratio analysis" Minimum reflux ratio analysis"
%nderwood equations %nderwood equations &6 &6! !D D
(ir$bride (ir$bride equation" #eed stage location equation" #eed stage location &6 &6! !88
Stage efficiency analysis Stage efficiency analysis &6 &6! !##
Stage efficiency analysis" )9.onnell (,:;1 Stage efficiency analysis" )9.onnell (,:;1
Stage efficiency analysis" <an =in$le (,:>? Stage efficiency analysis" <an =in$le (,:>?
.olumn diameter .olumn diameter &6 &6! !& &
&illiland correlation" 5umber of ideal &illiland correlation" 5umber of ideal
plates at the operating reflux plates at the operating reflux
|
|

\
|
+

=
+

1 1
min
D
Dm D
R
R R
f
N
N N
&illiland correlation" 5umber of ideal &illiland correlation" 5umber of ideal
plates at the operating reflux plates at the operating reflux
|
|

\
|
+

=
+

1 1
min
D
Dm D
R
R R
f
N
N N
;;
mn
<
mn
<=./,<
mn
;
#ens$e #ens$e equation for multicomponent equation for multicomponent
distillations distillations
Assumption" relative volatilities of components remain constant
throughout the column
ln
, ,
(
HK B LK D
x x
>@ D &ght component
A@ D heavy component
1
ln
ln
,
,
,
,
,
min

(

=
HK LK
HK D
HK B
LK B
LK D
x
x
x
x
N

A@ D heavy component
) (
) (
) (
,
T K
T K
T
HK
LK
HK LK
=
#ens$e #ens$e equation for multicomponent equation for multicomponent
distillations distillations
) (
) (
) (
,
T K
T K
T
HK
LK
HK LK
=
.hoices for relative volatility"
D
B
-
.' <e&atve vo&at&ty at sat#!ated )eed condton .' <e&atve vo&at&ty at sat#!ated )eed condton
) (
,
, F
F
HK LK
T
HK LK
=
2' Geomet!c mean !e&atve vo&at&ty
) ( ) (
, ,
, B
B
D
D
HK LK
T T
HK LK HK LK
=
3
,
) ( ) ( ) (
, , ,
B
B
D
D
F
F
HK LK
T T T
HK LK HK LK HK LK
=
%hy geomet!c mean9
5on $ey component distribution from 5on $ey component distribution from
the the #ens$e #ens$e equation equation
(
(

=
+
HK B
HK D N
HK i
i B
i D
x
x
x
x
,
, 1
,
,
,
min

HK
i
HK i
K
K
=
,

+
(


=
+
+
HK B
HK D N
HK i
HK B
HK D N
HK i i F
i D
Bx
Dx
Bx
Dx
Fx
Dx
,
, 1
,
,
, 1
, ,
,
min
min
1

Convnce yo#!se&) and


de!ve )o!
i B
Bx
,
Minimum reflux ratio analysis" Minimum reflux ratio analysis"
%nderwood equations %nderwood equations


=
i
HK i
i F HK i
x
q

,
, ,
) 1 (
x
V

5o! a gven 3, and the )eed composton
%e a!e &ookng )o! A sats)es ths e3#aton
$#s#a&&y s "et%een @
2(
and @
3(
'


= = +
i
HK i
i D HK i
m
x
D
V
R

,
, ,
1 Ence s )o#nd, %e can ca&c#&ate the
mnm#m !e)&#( !ato

Minimum reflux ratio analysis" Minimum reflux ratio analysis"


%nderwood equations %nderwood equations


=
i
HK i
i F HK i
x
q

,
, ,
) 1 (
Minimum reflux ratio analysis" Minimum reflux ratio analysis"
%nderwood equations %nderwood equations


=
i
HK i
i F HK i
x

,
, ,
0
./42
Minimum reflux ratio analysis" Minimum reflux ratio analysis"
%nderwood equations %nderwood equations


= = +
i
HK i
i D HK i
m
x
D
V
R

,
, ,
1
Minimum reflux ratio analysis" Minimum reflux ratio analysis"
%nderwood equations %nderwood equations


= = +
i
HK i
i D HK i
m
x
D
V
R

,
, ,
1
./42
2/33
(

he(ane >@
heptane A@
5eed stage
Distribution of components in Distribution of components in
multicomponent distillation process multicomponent distillation process
. 2 3 4 , - C 2 1 .+
octane
pentane
;on-dst!"#ted
heavy non-key
component
;on-dst!"#ted
>ght non-key
component
(ir$bride (ir$bride equation" #eed stage location equation" #eed stage location
206 . 0
2
,
,
,
,
(
(

|
|

\
|
|
|

\
|
=
D
B
x
x
x
x
N
N
HK D
LK B
LK F
HK F
S
R
, ,
(

\ \
D x x N
HK D LK F S
.omplete short cut design" .omplete short cut design"
#ens$e #ens$e! !%nderwood %nderwood! !&illiland method &illiland method
&iven a multicomponent distillation problem" &iven a multicomponent distillation problem"
a' ?dent)y &ght and heavy key components
"' G#ess sp&ts o) the non-key components and compostons
o) the dst&&ate and "ottoms p!od#cts
c' Ca&c#&ate

c' Ca&c#&ate
d' Fse 5enske e3#aton to )nd ;mn
e' Fse Fnde!%ood method to )nd <
Dm
)' Fse G&&&and co!!e&aton to )nd act#a& n#m"e! o) dea& stages
gven ope!atng !e)&#(
g' Fse @!k"!de e3#aton to &ocate the )eed stage
HK LK,

Stage efficiency analysis Stage efficiency analysis


?n gene!a& the ove!a&& e))cency %&& depend4
.' Geomet!y and desgn o) contact stages
2' 5&o% !ates and patte!ns on the t!ay
3' Composton and p!ope!tes o) vapo#! and
&3#d st!eams &3#d st!eams
Stage efficiency analysis Stage efficiency analysis
>
n
,(
n
>
o#t
,(
o#t
G
o#t
,y
o#t
G
n
,y
n
8hat a!e the so#!ces o) ne))cences9
5o! ths %e need to &ook at %hat act#a&&y happens
on the t!ay
>oca& e))cency
1
*
1
+
+

=
n n
n n
mv
y y
y y
E
Act#a& sepa!aton
Sepa!aton that
%o#&d have "een
acheved on an
dea& t!ay
:ont e))cency
Stage efficiency analysis Stage efficiency analysis
Dependng on the &ocaton on the t!ay
the pont e))cency %&& va!y
stagnaton ponts
0he ove!a&& p&ate e))cency can
"e cha!acte!6ed "y the B#!ph!ee
p&ate e))cency4
hgh concent!aton
g!adents
&o% concent!aton
g!adents
p&ate e))cency4
1
*
1
+
+

=
n n
n n
mV
y y
y y
E
8hen "oth the vapo#! and &3#d
phases a!e pe!)ect&y m(ed the p&ate
e))cency s e3#a& to the pont
e))cency
mv mV
E E =
Stage efficiency analysis Stage efficiency analysis
?n gene!a& a n#m"e! o)
emp!ca& co!!e&atons e(st
that !e&ate pont and p&ate
e))cences
Z
2
:ec&et n#m"e!
c e
L
Pe
t D
Z
N
2
=
&ength o) &3#d
)&o% path
eddy d))#svty
!esdence tme o) &3#d
on the t!ay
Stage efficiency analysis" )9.onnell (,:;1 Stage efficiency analysis" )9.onnell (,:;1
$Snnott'
Stage efficiency analysis" <an =in$le (,:>? Stage efficiency analysis" <an =in$le (,:>?
$Snnott'
Stage efficiency analysis Stage efficiency analysis
! ! AI.38 method AI.38 method
! ! #air #air! !.han .han
Chan, A/, H/</ 5a!,I :!edcton o) :ont E))cences )o! Seve 0!ays, ./ Bna!y SystemsI,
?nd Eng/ Chem/ /:!ocess Des/ Dev/, ?A, 2.4-2.1 $.124'
Chan, A/, H/</ 5a!, ,I :!edcton o) :ont E))cences )o! Seve 0!ays, ./ B#&t-component SystemsI,
?nd Eng/ Chem/ /:!ocess Des/ Dev/, ?A, 22+-22C $.124'
$Snnott'
Stage efficiency analysis Stage efficiency analysis
5na&&y the ove!a&& e))cency o) the p!ocess de)ned as
actual
l theoretica
O
N
N
E =
?) no access to the data4 E+=+/, $/e/ do#"&e the n#m"e! o) p&ates'
.olumn diameter+ etc .olumn diameter+ etc
Snnott,
Hm Do#g&as, Concept#a& desgn o) chemca& p!ocess
.olumn diameter+ etc .olumn diameter+ etc
.olumn diameter+ etc .olumn diameter+ etc
Multi!.omponent Distillation
Phase equilibrium For multi-components
7ubble point calculations
Gven the tota& p!ess#!e and &3#d mo&e
)!acton --J 0 and y
?te!ate ove! tempe!at#!e t&& so&#ton s )o#nd ca&c#&ate the vapo! mo&e )!acton )!om
component xi Ki xi
Butane
Pentane
Hexane
Heptane
0.4
0.25
0.2
0.15
1.68
0.63
0.245
0.093
6.857
2.571
1.0
0.38
2.743
0.643
0.2
0.057
Total 3.643
A liquid stream at 405.3 kPa with 40% butane, 25% pentane, 30% hexane and 15%
heptane is fed to a distillation column. Find the bubble point and the corresponding
vapor composition in equilibrium with the liquid.
Total 3.643
Using the K-value diagram we build this Table:
Let K-hexane be the reference component
Let T = 65 oC
A &3#d st!eam at 4+,/3 k:a and .++ mo&e7h %th 4+* "#tane $A', 2,*
pentane $B', 3+* he(ane $C' and .,* hepatne $D' s )ed to a dst&&aton
co&#mn/ 1+* o) B is recovered in distillate and 90% of C is the bottom,
calculate
$a' mo&e and composton o) dst&&ate and "ottom
$"' De% pont o) the dst&&ate and "#""&e pont o) the "ottom
$c' mnm#m stages )o! tota& !e)&#(
$d' mnm#m !e)&#( !ato
$e' n#m"e! o) theo!etca& stage %o!kng at ./,<m $e' n#m"e! o) theo!etca& stage %o!kng at ./,<m
$)' &ocaton o) )eed t!ay
$a' so&ve the mate!a& "a&ance
mo&e "a&ance on "#tane
2, = nBD + nBB
K nBD = 0.9(25 = 22.5 mole !!" nDD = 2.5 mole
mo&e "a&ance on he(ane
3+ = nCD + nCB
K ncB = 0.9(20 = #$ mole !!" nCD = 2 mole
Ass#me a&& % in distillate !!" n%D = &0 mole !!" n%B = 0
Ass#me a&& D in bottom !!" n%D = &0 mole !!" n%B = 0
:a!t "'
part ( c
&et B li'ht com(onent) &et C heav* com(onent
L
>D
= 2/,M L
>B
= 2/+4
part (d
So&ve "y t!a&-and-e!!o!
N = ./2+1-
pa!t $d'
+ = #.5+m = #.5(0.,95 = 0.59,
+-(++# = 0.,.2,
+m-(+m+# = 0.2$,
Fsng the cha!t ;m7; = +/41 ; = ;m7+/41 ; = ,/47+/41 = ..
pa!t $e'
;e7;s = ./.24
;eO;s = ..
;e = - M ;s = ,