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Design of SyphonAqueduct

Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology 1


AQUEDUCT
Chapter 1: Introduction 3-10
Chapter 2: Hydraulic Particulars 11
Chapter 3: Selection of type of aqueduct 12
Chapter 4: Design of canal trough 13
Chapter 5: Design of drainage water way 14-15
Chapter 6: Check for loss of head in the canal due to 16-19
Fluming of canal water way through the
Trough
Chapter 7: Fixing of M.F.L of drainage 20-22
Chapter 8: Design of side walls of canal trough 23-26
Chapter 9: Design of bottom slab of canal trough 27-30
Chapter 10: Design of tail channel 31-32
Chapter 11: Design of canal transitions 33-36
Chapter 12: Design of abutments 37-40
Chapter 13: Design of piers 41-44
Chapter 14: Design of wing walls 45-48
Chapter 15: Design of return walls 49-50
Chapter 16: Design of canal aprons 51-52
Design of SyphonAqueduct
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Chapter 17: Checking the depth of foundation of 53
Drainage returns by scour depth
Chapter 18: Design of inspection track 54
Chapter 19: Design of pier cap 55-58
Chapter 20: Design of pile foundation 59
Chapter 21: Design of foundation of abutment and piers 60-61
Chapter 22: Design of anchorage arrangements 62
Chapter 23: Drawings 63
Design of SyphonAqueduct
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Chapter 1
Introduction
Cross Drainage Works
Definition:
A cross drainage work is a structure carrying the discharge from a natural stream across a canal
intercepting the stream.
Canal comes across obstructions like rivers, natural drains and other canals.
The various types of structures that are built to carry the canal water across the above mentioned
obstructions or vice versa are called cross drainage works.
It is generally a very costly item and should be avoided by
Diverting one stream into another.
Changing the alignment of the canal so that it crosses below the junction of two streams.
Types of cross drainage works
Depending upon levels and discharge, it may be of the following types:
(a) Cross drainage works carrying canal across the drainage:
the structures that fall under this type are:
1. An Aqueduct
2. Siphon Aqueduct
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Aqueduct:
When the HFL of the drain is sufficiently below the bottom of the canal such that the drainage
water flows freely under gravity, the structures known as Aqueduct. An aqueduct is a water
supply or navigable channel constructed to convey water. In modern engineering, the term is
used for any system of pipes, ditches, canals, tunnels, and other structures used for this purpose.
In a more restricted use, aqueduct (occasionally water bridge) applies to any bridge or viaduct
that transports water instead of a path, road or railway across a gap. Large navigable aqueducts
are used as transport links for boats or ships. Aqueducts must span a crossing at the same level as
the watercourses on each end. The word is derived from the Latinaqua ("water") and ducere ("to
lead").
In this, canal water is carried across the drainage in a trough supported on piers.
Bridge carrying water
Provided when sufficient level difference is available between the canal and natural and
canal bed is sufficiently higher than HFL.
Design of SyphonAqueduct
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Classification of aqueduct and siphon aqueduct:
Depending upon the nature of the sides of the aqueduct or siphon aqueduct it
may be classified under three headings:
Type I:
Sides of the aqueduct in earthen banks with complete earthen slopes. The
length of culvert should be sufficient to accommodate both, water section of
canal, as well as earthen banks of canal with aqueduct slope.
Sides of the aqueduct in earthen banks, with other slopes supported by
masonry wall. In this case, canal continues in its earthen section over the
drainage but the outer slopes of the canal banks are replaced by retaining wall,
reducing the length of drainage culvert.
Type II:
Sides of the aqueduct made of concrete or masonry. Its earthen section of the
canal is discontinued and canal water is carried in masonry or concrete trough,
canal is generally flumed in this section.
Siphon Aqueduct:
In case of the siphon Aqueduct, the HFL of the drain is much higher above the canal bed, and
water runs under siphonic action through the Aqueduct barrels.
The drain bed is generally depressed and provided with pucci floors, on the upstream side, the
drainage bed may be joined to the pucca floor either by a vertical drop or by glacis of 3:1. The
downstrean rising slope should not be steeper than 5:1. When the canal is passed over the
drain, the canal remains open for inspection throughout and the damage caused by flood is rare.
However during heavy floods, the foundations are succeptible to scour or the waterway of drain
may get choked due to debris, tress etc.
Design of SyphonAqueduct
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The structures that fall under this type are:
Super passage
Canal siphon or called syphon only.
Super passage:
The hydraulic structure in which the drainage is passing over the irrigation canal is
known as super passage. This structure is suitable when the bed level of drainage is
above the flood surface level of the canal. The water of the canal passes clearly below the
drainage
A super passage is similar to an aqueduct, except in this case the drain is over the canal.
The FSL of the canal is lower than the underside of the trough carrying drainage water.
Thus, the canal water runs under the gravity.
Reverse of an aqueduct
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Canal Syphon:
If two canals cross each other and one of the canals is siphoned under the other, then the
hydraulic structure at crossing is called canal siphon. For example, lower Jhelum canal
is siphoned under the Rasul-Qadirabad (Punjab, Pakistan) link canal and the
crossing structure is called L.J.C siphon
In case of siphon the FSL of the canal is much above the bed level of the drainage trough,
so that the canal runs under the siphonic action.
The canal bed is lowered and a ramp is provided at the exit so that the trouble of silting is
minimized.
Reverse of an aqueduct siphon
In the above two types, the inspection road cannot be provided along the canal and a
separate bridge is required for roadway. For economy, the canal may be flumed but the
drainage trough is never flumed.
Selection of suitable site for cross drainage works:
The factors which affect the selection of suitable type of cross drainage works are:
Relative bed levels and water levels of canal and drainage
Size of the canal and drainage.
The following considerations are important
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When the bed level of the canal is much above the HFL of the drainage, an
aqueduct is the obvious choice.
When the bed level of the drain is well above FSL of canal, super passage is
provided.
The necessary headway between the canal bed level and the drainage HFL can
be increased by shifting the crossing to the downstream of drainage. If,
however, it is not possible to change the canal alignment, a siphon aqueduct
may be provided.
When canal bed level is much lower, but the FSL of canal is higher than the
bed level of drainage, a canal siphon is preferred.
When the drainage and canal cross each other practically at same level, a level
crossing may be preferred. This type of work is avoided as far as possible.
Factors which influence the choice / Selection of Cross Drainage Works
1. The considerations which govern the choice between aqueduct and siphon aqueduct are:
2. Suitable canal alignment
3. Suitable soil available for bank connections
4. Nature of available foundations
5. Permissible head loss in canal
6. Availibility of funds
Compared to an aqueduct a super passage is inferior and should be avoided whenever possible.
Siphon aqueduct is preferred over siphon unless large drop in drainage bed is required.
Uses:
Historically, agricultural societies have constructed aqueducts to irrigate crops. Archimedes
invented the water screw to raise water for use in irrigation of croplands.
Another use for aqueducts is to supply large cities with drinking water. Some of the Roman
aqueducts still supply water to Rome today. In California, United States, three large aqueducts
Design of SyphonAqueduct
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supply water over hundreds of miles to the Los Angeles area. Two are from the Owens River
area and a third is from the Colorado River.
In more recent times, aqueducts were used for transportation purposes to allow canalbarges to
cross ravines or valleys. During the Industrial Revolution of the 18th century, aqueducts were
constructed as part of the boom in canal-building.
In modern civil engineering projects, detailed study and analysis of open channel flow is
commonly required to support flood control, irrigation systems, and large water supply systems
when an aqueduct rather than a pipeline is the preferred solution.
In the past, aqueducts often had channels made of earth or other porous materials but significant
amounts of water are lost through such unlined aqueducts. As water gets increasingly scarce,
these canals are being lined with concrete, polymers or impermeable soil. In some cases, a new
aqueduct is built alongside the old one because it cannot be shut down during construction.
Design of SyphonAqueduct
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DESIGN STEPS:
1) Hydraulic particulars of canal & Drainage
2) Selection of type of aqueduct
3) Design of canal trough
4) Design of drainage water way
5) Check for loss of head in the canal due to fluming of canal water way
Through the trough
6) Fixing the M.F.L of the drainage
7) Design of side walls of canal trough
8) Design of bottom slab of canal trough
9) Design of tail channel
10) Design of canal transitions
11) Design of abutments
12) Design of piers
13) Design of wing walls
14) Design of return walls
15) Design of aprons
16) Checking the depth of foundations of drainage returns by scour depth
17) Design of inspection track
18) Design of pier cap
19) Reinforcement in pier
20) Pier foundation
21)Design of pier foundation
22)Design of foundations of abutments and piers
Design of SyphonAqueduct
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Chapter -2
Hydraulic particulars
Canal:
Discharge = 35 m
3
/s
Bed width = 20 m
Bed level = +40.00
F.S.L = 42.00
Ultimate bed level = 39.75
Ultimate full supply level = 42.50
Top width of left bank = 5m
Top width of right bank = 2m
T.B.L = +43.50
Slope of canal banks = 2:1
Drain:
Catchment area = 8 km
2
Maximum discharge = 60 m
3
/s
Bed level = 38.00
Average ground level = +38.00
Maximum flood level of drain at the site of crossing = +39.75
Hard soil for foundation is available at = +37.00

Design of SyphonAqueduct
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Chapter-3
Selection of type of aqueduct
The above data of hydraulic particulars, a type-3 aqueduct is designed. It is only purely from an
economical aspect that we go in for the type-3 aqueduct. For major drains it will be
uneconomical to go in for a type-3 aqueduct as the extra cost of barrel with a large number of
vents will be more than the cost of other works necessary for a type-3 aqueduct.
So, whenever an aqueduct are to be actually constructed, comparative costs are to be
worked out for a type-2 and a type-3, and whichever is economical is to be chosen and adopted.
In the case of a type-3 aqueduct, the canal will be flumed and taken through a masonry or
reinforced concrete trough supported on piers and abutments. The maximum velocity through the
trough is generally taken as twice the normal velocity or 1.5m/s whichever is less.
Design of SyphonAqueduct
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Chapter - 4
Design of canal trough
Discharge, Q = 35 m
3
/s
Average velocity = 0.83 m
3
/s
Design velocity = 2% average velocity = 2*0.83=1.66 m/s
But the maximum design velocity = 1.5 m/s
Adopt design velocity = 1.5 m/s
Q= A x v
35= Ax1.5
A=23.3 m
2
Depth of flow, y= F.S.D= F.S.L B.L= 42.00-40.00=2m
Bottom level = Ultimate bed level of canal = 39.75
Top level = Ultimate F.S.L + 0.5 = 42.50 + 0.50 = 43.00
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Chapter - 5
Design of drainage water way
Let us provide 3 vents of 2.5 m wide length of water way, l=3X2.50=7.5 m
Sill level of canal trough = 39.75 m (given)
Thickness of bottom slab = 250 mm (assume)
Thickness of wearing coat = 80 mm (assume)
Bottom level of the canal trough = sill level- thickness of wearing coat-
Thickness of bottom slab
= 39.75-0.08-0.025=39.64 m
Bottom level of slab = 39.75-0.25 = 39.50
Average bed level of the drain = 38.00
Since the M.F.L of the drain = ultimate bed level of the canal
Let us adopt depressed bed level of the drain = 37.00
Depth of water = y
1
= Bottom level of the canal trough slab- depressed B.L
Of drain=39.45-37=2.45 m
Let the design velocity in the drain, V
1
= 3.25 m/s (assume)
Discharge in the drain, Q
1
= 60 m
3
/s
Q1=A
1
X V1,
60= A
1
X 3.25
A
1
=18.46 m
2
A
1
=L X y
1
18.46 = L X 2.45
L = 7.54 m
Length of barrel = B+ 2X (thickness of side wall)
= 12 + 2X (0.3) =12.60 m
Design of SyphonAqueduct
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Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology
Check for loss of head in the canal due to fluming of canal water way
In a type-1 or type-2 aqueduct, the canal water way is not reduced and is taken over the drain as
it is. Hence, there is no loss of head
However, in case of a type
resulting in an increase in velocity through the trough. Unless there is a difference in water levels
before entry and after exit, attainment of increased velocity in the trough is not possible.
In aqueduct of short lengths, by limiting the velocity to twic
the loss of head may be very small or almost negligible and hence it is generally ignored. The
assumption is that the upstream water surface will in course of time assume a flatter slope to the
extent required to drive the flow
However, in large and longer aqueducts it is not so. In order to economies in cost of the canal
trough, we may be forced to increase the velocity through the trough. In addition, the length of
the trough is an additional factor. These two factors combine to indicate a significant loss of
head, which will have to be provided for, while formulating the canal hydraulic particulars.
Structures constructed ignoring this aspect will not function properly.
In the present case, to illustrate this aspect, the loss of head in the canal is computed.
Consider section A-A
Canal bed level = +40.00
Full supply level = +42.00
Average velocity, V
1
= 0.83 m/s
Velocity head = V
Design of Syphon
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology
Chapter - 6
Check for loss of head in the canal due to fluming of canal water way
through the trough
2 aqueduct, the canal water way is not reduced and is taken over the drain as
it is. Hence, there is no loss of head in the canal.
However, in case of a type-3 aqueduct, the canal water-way is flumed or reduced,
n an increase in velocity through the trough. Unless there is a difference in water levels
before entry and after exit, attainment of increased velocity in the trough is not possible.
In aqueduct of short lengths, by limiting the velocity to twice the normal canal velocity,
the loss of head may be very small or almost negligible and hence it is generally ignored. The
assumption is that the upstream water surface will in course of time assume a flatter slope to the
through the trough with that bit of extra velocity.
However, in large and longer aqueducts it is not so. In order to economies in cost of the canal
trough, we may be forced to increase the velocity through the trough. In addition, the length of
is an additional factor. These two factors combine to indicate a significant loss of
head, which will have to be provided for, while formulating the canal hydraulic particulars.
Structures constructed ignoring this aspect will not function properly.
present case, to illustrate this aspect, the loss of head in the canal is computed.
Canal bed level = +40.00
Full supply level = +42.00
= 0.83 m/s
V
1
2
/2g = 0.83
2
/2x9.81 = 0.037 m
Design of SyphonAqueduct
16
Check for loss of head in the canal due to fluming of canal water way
2 aqueduct, the canal water way is not reduced and is taken over the drain as
way is flumed or reduced,
n an increase in velocity through the trough. Unless there is a difference in water levels
before entry and after exit, attainment of increased velocity in the trough is not possible.
e the normal canal velocity,
the loss of head may be very small or almost negligible and hence it is generally ignored. The
assumption is that the upstream water surface will in course of time assume a flatter slope to the
through the trough with that bit of extra velocity.
However, in large and longer aqueducts it is not so. In order to economies in cost of the canal
trough, we may be forced to increase the velocity through the trough. In addition, the length of
is an additional factor. These two factors combine to indicate a significant loss of
head, which will have to be provided for, while formulating the canal hydraulic particulars.
present case, to illustrate this aspect, the loss of head in the canal is computed.
Design of SyphonAqueduct
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Total energy line at A-A = F.S.L + (V
1
2
/2g) = 42.00+0.037 = 42.037
Consider section B-B
Canal width = 20 m
Depth of water, y =F.S.L- Bed level = 42.00 40.00 = 2.00
At B-B the canal is rectangle in cross section, area of flow a= 20x2 = 40 m
2
Discharge, Q = 35 m
3
/s
Velocity of flow, V
2
= Q/a = 35/40 = 0.87 m/s
Head loss from A-A to B-B due to change in the velocity V1 to V2
Head loss = (V
2
2
-V
1
2
)/2g
= (0.875
2
-0.83
2
)/2x9.81
= 0.004
On the U/S end the transition is abrupt and not smooth. So the entire eddy
Loss is taken in to consideration.
The T.E.L at B-B = T.E.L at A-A eddy loss = 42.035 0.004 = 42.031
Section at the entrance of trough C-C
Width of the canal = 12 m (assume)
Depth of canal, y = 2 m
A
3
= 12x2 = 24 m
2
Velocity, V
3
=

A3
=
35
24
= 1.46 m/s
There is a gradual change in c/s from B-B to C-C. There is a loss of head from
B-B to C-C due to change in velocity.
Head loss = 0.25 x ( V
3
2
- V
2
2
)/2g = 0.25 x (1.46
2
-0.875
2
)/2 x 9.81
= 0.018
T.E.L at C-C with reference to section B-B = 42.035 0.018 = 42.017
Design of SyphonAqueduct
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Consider section D-D
From C-C to D-D, there is a uniform velocity. The loss of head in the trough is only
friction loss which manifests itself as surface fall to sustain the velocity.
This loss of head is calculated using mannings formula, using the value of 0.014 for n
Length of R.C trough = (3x 2.5) + (2x1) + (2x0.5) = 10.5 m
Sectional area in the trough A
4
= 12x2 = 24 m
2
Velocity developing =
35
24
= 1.46 m/s
Wetted perimeter = p = (2x2) + 12 = 16 m
Hydraulic mean depth = R =
A4
p
=
24
16
= 1.5 m
Mannings formula, V =
1
N
(R)
2/3
(S)
1/2
1.46 =
1
0.014
(1.5)
2/3
(S)
1/2
S =
1
4110
Head loss = S x length =
1
4110
x 10.5 = 0.003 m
T.E.L at D-D = T.E.L at C-C Head loss = 42.017 0.003 = 42.014 m
Consider section E-E
Neglecting the frictional loss in the exit transition the eddy loss in the transition is
calculated as follows
Q = 35 m
3
/s
A
5
= (B +n y) y
Here B = 20 m, y = 2 m, n =
1
2
A
5
= (20 +
1
2
2) 2 = 42 m
2
V
5
=

A5
=
35
42
= 0.83 m/s
There is a gradual change in the section from D-D to E-E. There is a change in the
velocity.
Design of SyphonAqueduct
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Head loss = 0.25 x (V
4
2
- V
5
2
)/2g = 0.25 x (1.46
2
- 0.83
2
)/2 x 9.81= 0.018 m
T.E.L at E-E = T.E.L at D-D Head loss = 42.014 0.018 = 41.99 m
Velocity head = V
5
2
/2g = 0.83
2
/ 2x 9.81 = 0.0351 m/s
T.E.L at E-E = H.F.L at TEE + Velocity head
41.996 = HFL at TEE + 0.0351
HFL at TEE = 41.961 m
F.S.L at A-A = 42.00 m
Total loss of head = loss of head from A-A to E-E
= TEL at A-A TEL at E-E
= 42.037 41.961 = 0.039 m
Total head loss from A to E = 0.004 + 0.0175 + 0.003 + 0.018 = 0.0425
The total head loss is very small. Hence it can be neglected.
Design of SyphonAqueduct
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Chapter - 7
Fixing the M.F.L of the drainage
The MFL of the drain in rear of the siphon barrel is 39.75. So, the barrel flows full under
maximum flow conditions. The necessary afflux required to push through 60 m
3
/s with a velocity
of 3.25 m/s is calculated by unwins inverted syphon formula,
Afflux, d = (1+f
1
+f
2
L
R
)
v2
2g
Here v= velocity in the drain = 3.25 m/s
g= 9.81 m/s
2
L = length of drain = 12.60 m
C/S area = 3 x 2.5 x 2.45 = 18.375 m
2
Wetted perimeter = p = 3 x (2 x (2.5+2.45)) = 29.7 m
R= hydraulic radius =
A
P
=
18.375
29.7
= 0.62 m
f
1
= 0.0505
f
2
= a (1+ 0.3
b
R
) = 0.003 (1+ 0.3
0.1
0.62
) = 0.003145
d = (1+0.505+ 0.00315
12.60
0.62
) (
3.25 X 3.25
2 X 9.81
) = 0.85 m
M.F.L on U/S = D/S M.F.L + afflux = 39.75 + 0.85 = 40.60 m
Design of SyphonAqueduct
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Afflux at the drop of bed
Bed level of drainage = 38.00
At crossing with canal, bed level of drainage = 37.00
Drop in the bed level = 38 37 = 1
M.F.L of the drain = 39.75 m
Bottom level of the canal trough = 39.45 m
Afflux required = 39.75 39.45 = 0.3 m
Here drop is 1 m then it is treating it as a drowned weir (submerged weir)
For submerged weir, q = 3.54 y
2
d
1
0.5
+ 1.77 d
1
3/2
y
2
= depth of water = 2.60 m
q =

B2
=
60
11
= 5.45 m
2
/s
B
2
= width of drainage b/w wing walls
5.45 = 3.45 (2.60) d
1
0.5
+ 1.77 d
1
3/2
5.45 = 8.97 d
1
0.5
+ 1.77 d
1
d
1
0.5
5.45 = d
1
0.5
(8.97+1.77 d
1
)
5.45
2
= d
1
(8.97+1.77 d
1
)
2
29.70 = d
1
(80.46+3.14 d
1
2
+31.75 d
1
)
3.14 d
1
3
+ 31.75 d
1
2
+ 80.46 d
1
29.70 = 0
d
1
= 0.326
M.F.L over the drop = U/S M.F.L + afflux = 40.60 + 0.32 = 40.92 m
Design of SyphonAqueduct
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Design of SyphonAqueduct
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Chapter - 8
Design of side walls of canal trough
Bottom level of the side wall = bottom level of the canal trough
Top level of the side wall = U/S F.S.L + 0.5 = 42.50 + 0.5 = 43.00
Depth of water h = U/S F.S.L Sill level = 42.50 39.75 = 2.75 m
Let top thickness = 2 m
It is designed as a cantilever wall
of water = 10 KN/m
3
Water pressure = p = x h = 10 x 2.75 = 27.5 KN/m
2
Let us consider 1 m length of side wall
Total pressure, p= Area of pressure diagram x length of wall
=
1
2
x 27.5 x 2.75 x 1 = 37.81 KN
Centre of pressure,y =

3
=
2.75
3
= 0.917 m
Bending moment, m = p x y = 37.81 x 0.917 = 35KN-m
M
u
= 1.5 x 35 = 52.17 KN-m
Adopting M-20 grade concrete & Fe-415 grade steel
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x u mux
d
= 0.48
D = 300 mm, b = 1000 mm, d
1
= 40 mm, d = D - d
1
d = 300 40 = 260 mm
M
u, limit
= 0.36
x u mux
d
bd
2
f
ck
(1 0.42
x u mux
d
)
= 0.36 x 0.46 x 1000 x 260
2
(1 0.42 x 0.48)x20
= 186.6 KN-m
M
u
< M
u, limit
(O.K)
Design of steel reinforcement
(a) Main steel :
1) Minimum area of steel,
A
st, min
= 0.12% of gross area
=
0.12
100
x 1000 x 300
= 360 mm
2
2) Maximum area of steel ,
A
st, max
= 4% of gross area
=
4
100
x 1000 x 300
= 12,000 mm
2
3) M
u1
= 0.87 f
y
A
st
d (1
Ast ]
b d ]ck
)
52.17 x 10
6
= 0.87x415x260x A
st1
x
(1--
Ast X 415
1000X 260X 20
)
555.75 = A
st1
- A
st1
2
(7.98 x 10
-6
)
A
st1
= 582.86 mm
2
, 11947.25 mm
2
A
st1
< A
st1, max
(O.K)
A
st1
> A
st1, min
(O.K)
For A
st1
= 11947.25 mm
2
X u
d
=
0.87 X ] X A st
0.36 X ] ck X b X d
=
0.87 X 415 X 11947.25
0.36 X 20 X 1000 X 260
= 2.304
X u mux
d
= 0.48
X u
d
>
X u mux
d
(Not O.K)
Design of SyphonAqueduct
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology 25
For A
st1
= 583 mm
2
X u
d
=
0.87 X 415 X 583
0.36 X 20 X 1000 X 260
= 0.112
X u
d
<
X u mux
d
(O.K)
A
st1
= 583 mm
2
Let us adopt 12 mm dia bars,
1
= 12 mm
Area of one bar, A =
3.14
4
x 12
2
= 113 mm
2
Number of bars, n
1
=
Ast1
A
=
583
113
= 5.16
Spacing, S
1
=
1000
n1
= 193.8 mm
Adopt 12 mm @ 180 mm C/C
Check for shear design
Nominal shear force,
v
=
v
bd
=
37.81 X 103
1000 X 260
= 0.145 N/mm
2
Percentage of steel provided =
100 As
bd
=
100 X 583
1000 X 260
= 0.224%
As per IS 456 2000
For, M-20,
100 X As
bd
= 0.224% then
c
= 0.81 N/mm
2

v
<
c
(O.K)
As per IS 456 2000, For M-20 grade concrete

c
,
max
= 2.8 N/mm
2

v
<
c
,
max
(O.K)
Hence provide minimum shear reinforcement,
as per IS-456-2000, S
v
is the least of
1)
As
bs
=
0.4
0.87 ]
Let us adopt 4 legd stirrups of 8 mm dia
A
sv
= 4 x
3.14
4
x 8
2
= 200 mm
2
Design of SyphonAqueduct
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology 26
200
1000 X S
=
0.4
0.87 X 415
S
v
= 180 mm
2) 0.75 X d = 0.75 x 260 = 195 mm
3) 300 mm
S
v
= 180 mm
Adopt 4 legd vertical stirrups @ 8 mm dia @ 150 mm C/C
Distribution steel
Providing steel on both faces
1) Area of steel , A
st2
=
A st mn
2
=
360
2
= 180 mm
2
2) Let us adopt dia of bar,
2
= 8 mm
Area of one bar, A
2
=
3.14
4
x 8
2
= 50 mm
2
Number of bars, n
2
=
Ast2
A
=
180
50
= 3.6
Spacing, s
2
=
1000
n2
=
1000
3.6
= 277.7 mm
Adopt 8mm dia @ 250 mm C/C

Design of SyphonAqueduct
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology 27
Chapter - 9
Design of bottom slab of canal trough
It is designed as a continuous slab.
Let us consider 1m wide slab
Thickness of wearing coat = 8 cm
Weight of wearing coat =
8
100
x 24 = 1.92 KN/m
2
Thickness of slab = 25 cm
Weight of slab =
25
100
x 25 = 6.25 KN/m
2
Depth of water = 2.75 m
Weight of water = 2.75 x 10 = 27.5 KN/m
2
Total load on the slab = 1.92 + 6.25 + 27.5
= 35 KN/m
2
Effective span (l) = clear water way + effective thickness of slab
= 2.5 + 0.26 = 2.76 m
Maximum B.M = M
3
=
wI2
10
=
35 X 2.76 X 2.76
10
= 26.67 KN-m
M
u3
= 1.5 x M
1
= 40 KN-m
M
u, limit
= 0.36
x u mux
d
bd
2
f
ck
(1 0.42
x u mux
d
)
= 0.36x0.48x (1 0.42 x 0.48) x1000x260 x 20
= 186.6 KN-m
M
u3
<M
u,limit
(O.K)
Design of SyphonAqueduct
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology 28
Design reinforcement
a) Main steel
1) Minimum area of steel , A
st, min
= 0.12% of gross area
=
0.12
100
x 1000 x 300
= 360 mm
2
2) Maximum area of steel ,A
st, max
= 4% of gross area
=
4
100
x 1000 x 300
= 12,000 mm
2
3) M
u3
= 0.87 f
y
A
st
d (1
Ast ]
b d ]ck
)
40 x 10
6
= 0.87 x 415 x A
st3
x 260 x (1
Ast3 X 415
1000X 260X 20
)
426.10 = A
st3
- A
st3
2
(7.98 x 10
-5
)
A
st3
= 441.66 mm
2
= 12089 mm
2
A
st3
= 442 mm
2
A
st3
<A
st, max
(O.K)
A
st3
>A
st,min
(O.K)
Let us adopt 12mm dia bars,
3
= 12 mm
Area of one bar, A
3
=
3.14
4
x 12
2
= 113 mm
2
Spacing, s
3
=
1000
n3
=
1000
3.91
= 255.6 mm
Adopt 12 mm dia bars @ 250 mm c/c
b) Distribution steels
Providing steel on both faces
Area of steel, A
st4
=
A st mn
2
=
360
2
= 180 mm
2
Adopt 8mm dia @ 250 mm c/c.
Check for shear design
Shear force, V =
wI
2
=
35 X 2.76
2
= 48.3 KN
Nominal shear force,
v
=

bd
=
48.3 X 10 X 10 X 10
10X 10X10X260
= 0.185 N/mm
2
As per IS-456-2000, for M-20 grade ,
c, max
=2.8 N/mm
2

v<

c, max
(O.K)
Percentage of steel,
100 As
bd
=
100 X 442
10X10X10X260
= 0.17%
Design of SyphonAqueduct
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology 29
As per IS-456-2000, for M-20 grade,
100 As
bd
= 0.17% then

c
= 0.3 N/mm
2

v<

c
(O.K)
Minimum shear reinforcement is provided.
S
v
is least of
1)
As
bs
=
0.4
0.87 ]
200
10X10X10Xs
=
0.4
0.87 X 415
S
v
= 180 mm
2) 0.75 d = 195 mm
3) 300 mm
S
v
= 180 mm
Adopt 4 legd vertical stirrups @ 8 mm dia @ 180 mm c/c

Design of SyphonAqueduct
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology 30
Design of SyphonAqueduct
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology 31
Chapter -10
Design of tail channel
Tail channel will be always straight, its length will be 50 to 60m on either side of roads
Top level = M.F.L of drain
= 39.75m
Bottom level = bed level of the drain at crossing = 37.00m
Depth of flow, Y
3
= 39.75-37.00 = 2.75m
Let us assume velocity of flow, V = 1.5m/sec
Q = AV
60 =1.5A
A = 40m
2
Slope =
1
2
H: 1V (assume)
A = (B+ny) y
40 = (B+0.52.75)2.75
B = 13.17m
Adopt B = 14m
Slope of channel,
Mannings formula, V =
1
N
(R)
2/3
(S)
1/2
Here, V = 1.5m/sec, N = 0.015 (assume)
A = (B+ny)y
= (14+0.52.75)
A = 42.3m
2
Wetted perimeter, P = B+2(n
2
+1) .y
= 14+2((u.S)
2
+1 )2.75
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology
= 20.15m
R = = = 2.1m
V = (R)
2/3
(S)
1/2
1.5 = (2.1)
2/3
(S)
1/2
S =
Design of Syphon
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology
Design of SyphonAqueduct
32
Design of SyphonAqueduct
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology 33
Chapter - 11
Design of canal transitions
Transitions are wing walls
Upstream side transitions for canal:
The bottom of foundation is same as that of the abutments. Assuming 60cm depth of concrete
foundation. The top of foundation is kept at 37.00m
Top level = ultimate full supply level + 0.5m
= 42.50 + 0.50 = 43.00m
Bottom level = hard soil level = 37.00m
Height of the wall = 43.00 37.00
= 6.00m
Thickness of foundation = 0.6m
Top thickness = 0.5m
From top level to the ultimate bed level of the canal the front face is vertical
Height of wing wall from ultimate bed level=43.00-39.75=3.25m.
Width of wing wall @ ultimate bed level=0.4Xheight
=0.4X3.25
=1.3m
Let us provide width ofwing wall @ ultimate bed level=1.75m
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology
From ultimate bed level to top of foundation is vertical on earth phase
Height=top level-bottom level
=43.00-37.00
=6.00m
Bottom width=0.4Xheight
=0.4X6
=2.4m
Let us provide width of
Design of Syphon
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology
From ultimate bed level to top of foundation is vertical on earth phase
om level
Let us provide width of wing wall=2.5m
Design of SyphonAqueduct
34
Design of SyphonAqueduct
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology 35
Downstream side transition for canal:
In order to minimize the eddy losses, a suitable exit transition is necessary after the R.C trough
Top level = ultimate F.S.L + 0.5m
= 42.50m + 0.5m
= 43.00m
Bottom level = 37.00m
Thickness of foundation = 0.6m
Bottom level of foundation = 37.00 0.6
= 36.40m
Height = top level bottom level
= 43 37
= 6m
Top width = 0.50m
The downstream side wing wall is sloping at
1
2
: 1 up to the bed level, then it is vertical
Height of wing wall from ultimate bed level=43.00-39.75=3.25m.
Width of wing wall @ ultimate bed level=0.4Xheight
=0.4X3.25
=1.3m
Let us provide width ofwing wall @ ultimate bed level=2.125m
From ultimate bed level to top of foundation is vertical on earth phase
Height=top level-bottom level
=43.00-37.00
=6.00m
Bottom width=0.4Xheight
=0.4X6
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology
=2.4m
Let us provide width ofwing wall=2.125
Design of Syphon
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology
wing wall=2.125m
Design of SyphonAqueduct
36
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology
Top level = bottom level of central tough = 39.42m
Bottom level = hard soil level = 37.00m
Bearing of canal tough = 0.5m
Top width = 2 length of bearing
= 2 0.5 = 1m
Height of wall = top level bottom leve
= 39.42 37.00
= 2.42m
Bottom width = 0.4 height
= 0.4 2.42
= 0.968m
Adopt bottom width = 2m
Front batter = 1 in 8
Design of Syphon
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology
Chapter -12
Design of abutments
Top level = bottom level of central tough = 39.42m
Bottom level = hard soil level = 37.00m
Top width = 2 length of bearing
bottom level
Design of SyphonAqueduct
37
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology
Check for stability of abutment:
Let us consider 1m length of wall
Unit weight of RCC = 24 KN/m
3
Weigh of triangular portion 1, V
1



X
1
= ( + 0.5) = 0.2m from point B
M
1
= V
1
X
1
= 8.71 0.2 = 1.74 KN
Weigh of triangular portion 2, V
2



Design of Syphon
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology
Check for stability of abutment:
Let us consider 1m length of wall
3
1
= unit weight volume
= 24 (0.5bhl)
= 24 (0.50.32.421)
= 8.71KN
+ 0.5) = 0.2m from point B
= 8.71 0.2 = 1.74 KN-m
2
= unit weight volume
= 24 (bhl)
= 24 (12.421)
= 58.08 KN
Design of SyphonAqueduct
38
Design of SyphonAqueduct
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology 39
X
2
= (0.3 + 0.5) = 0.8m from point B
M
2
= V
2
X
2
= 58.08 0.8 = 46.46 KN-m
Weigh of triangular portion 3, V
3
= unit weight volume
= 24 (0.5bhl)
= 24 (0.50.72.421)
= 20.32 KN
X
3
= (0.3+1+
1
3
u.7) = 1.53m from point B
M
3
= V
3
X
3
= 20.32 1.53 = 31.15 KN-m
Reaction from canal tough, V
4
=
wI
2
=
35.62.5
2
= 44.58 KN
X
4
= (0.3+
1
2
u.S) = 0.55m from point B
M
4
= V
4
X
4
= 44.58 0.55 = 24.51 KN-m
Total vertical force, V = V
1+
V
2+
V
3+
V
4
= 8.71+58.08+20.32+44.58
= 131.69KN
Earth pressure, p = K
a
H
K
a
=
1
3
, of earth = 20 KN/m
3
p =
1
3
202.42 = 16.13 KN/m
2
Total pressure P = area of pressure diagram length
= (
1
2
16.13 2.42 1)
= 19.51KN
Y =
1
3
2.42 = 0.81m
M
5
= P Y
Design of SyphonAqueduct
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology 40
= 19.51 0.81
= 15.8 KN-m
Overturning moment, M
o
= 15.8 KN-m
Net moment, M = M
R
M
O
= 103.86 15.8 = 88.06 KN-m
Lever arm, a =
M
V
=
88.06
131.69
= 0.66m
Eccentricity, e = (
b
2
- a ) = (
2
2
0.66 ) = 0.34m
Max stress,
max
=
V
B
( 1 +
6c
B
)
=
131.69
2
( 1 +
60.34
2
)
= 133 KN/m
2
Min stress,
min
=
V
B
( 1 +
6c
B
)
=
131.69
2
( 1 -
60.34
2
)
= -1.31N/mm
2
(tension occurs)
Factor of safety against overturning =
Mr
Mo
=
103.86
15.8
= 6.57 > 1.5 ( ok )
Factor of safety against sliding =
V
P
=
0.6131.69
19.51
= 4.04 > 1 ( ok )
Allowable compressive stress in foundation concrete = 4 N/mm
2
(for M-15 grade)
= 4000 KN/m
2

max
is less than 4000 KN/m
2
( ok )
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology
Top level = bottom level of central tough = 39.42m
Bottom level = hard soil level = 37.00m
Bearing of canal tough = 0.5m
Top width = 2 length of bearing
= 2 0.5 = 1m
Thickness of foundation = 0.6m
Height of wall = top level bottom level
= 39.42 37.00
= 2.42m
Bottom width = 0.4 height
= 0.4 2.42
= 0.968m
Adopt bottom width = 2m
Front batter = 1 in 8
Design of Syphon
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology
Chapter -13
Design of piers
Top level = bottom level of central tough = 39.42m
Bottom level = hard soil level = 37.00m
Top width = 2 length of bearing
bottom level
Design of SyphonAqueduct
41
Design of SyphonAqueduct
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology 42
Check for stability of piers:
Width of pier = 1m
Length of pier = width of canal tough = 12m
Clear spacing between piers = 2.5m
Length of canal tough on one pier = 2.5 + 1 = 3.5m
On pier there is water pressure from 3.5m wide.
Weight of pier, V
1
= unit weight volume
= (24122.421)
= 696.96 KN
It is acting at a distance, X
1
= 0.5 12 = 6m from D
M
1
=V
1
X
1
= 696.96 6 = 4181.76 KN-m
Weight of canal tough, V
2
= Wwidth of canal toughlength of canal trough in consideration
= 35.67123.5
= 1498.14 KN
It is acting at a distance, X
2
= 0.5 12 = 6m from D
Design of SyphonAqueduct
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology 43
M
1
=V
2
X
2
= 1498.14 6 = 8988.84 KN-m
Total vertical force, V = V
1
+ V
2
= 696.96 + 1498.14
= 2195.11 KN
Resisting moment, M
R
= M
1
+ M
2
= 4181.76 + 8988.84
= 13170.6 KN-m
Weight of water =
w
= 10KN/m
3
Water pressure, p =H =102.42 = 24.2 KN/m
2
Total pressure, P = area of pressure diagram width of water way
= (
1
2
24.22.42) (3.5)
= 102.5 KN
It is acting at a distance y =
1
3
X 2.42
= u.81 m
M
3
= p y = 1u2.S u.81 = 8S KN H
Overturning moment, m
o
= m
3
= 8S KN H
Net moment , m = ( m
r
m
o
) = 13170.6 83
= 13087.6 KN-M
Lever arm, a =
m

=
13087.6
2195.1
= 5.9 m
Eccentricity, e = (
b
2
o ) = [
12
2
S.9 = u.1m

max
=
v
B
[ 1 +
6c
b
=
2195.1
121
[ 1 +
60.1
12

= 192.u7 KNm
2

min
=
v
B
[ 1
6c
B
=
2195.1
12
[ 1
60.1
12
= 192.u7 KNH
2
Factor of safety against over turning =
mR
M
c
=
13170.6
83
Design of SyphonAqueduct
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology 44
= 1S8.6871 (ok)
Factor of safety against sliding =

p
=
0.62195.1
102.5
= 12.84 (ok)
Allowable compressive stress in foundation concrete = 4Nmm
2
= 4uuu knm
2

max
< 4000 KN/m
2,

min
>0 (ok)
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology
DESIGN OF DRAINAGE WING WALL
U/S Wing wall :
The wing wall as two portions
1) Slopping wing wall
2) Level wing wall
The slopping wing wall is slopping from top of wing wall for canal to the level
Let us assume M.F.L of drain = 41.50 m
1) Slopping wing wall :
a) Wing wall at junction of trough :
Top of wing wall (or) top level = 43.00
Top of foundation (or) bottom level = 37.00
Height = top level bottom level
= 43 - 37 = 6 m
Thickness of foundation = 0.6 m
Bottom level of foundation = 37.00

Top width = 0.5 m
Bottom thickness
Front batten
Design of Syphon
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology
Chapter 14
DESIGN OF DRAINAGE WING WALL
The slopping wing wall is slopping from top of wing wall for canal to the level of M.F.L.
Let us assume M.F.L of drain = 41.50 m
Wing wall at junction of trough :
Top of wing wall (or) top level = 43.00
Top of foundation (or) bottom level = 37.00
bottom level
37 = 6 m
ess of foundation = 0.6 m
Bottom level of foundation = 37.00 - 0.6
= 36.40 m
Design of SyphonAqueduct
45
of M.F.L.
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology
b) Wing wall at + 41.50 level
Top level = 41.50
Bottom level = 37.00
Thickness of foundation = 0.6
Bottom level of foundation = 37

Height = top level bottom level
= 41.50 37.00
= 4.50 m
Top width = 0.5 m
Bottom width
Front batten
2) Level wing wall :
Top level = 41.50
Bottom level = 37.00
Thickness of foundation = 0.6
Bottom level of foundation = 37

Height = top level bottom level
= 41.50 37.00
= 4.50 m
Top width = 0.5 m
Design of Syphon
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology
Wing wall at + 41.50 level :
Thickness of foundation = 0.6
Bottom level of foundation = 37 0.6
= 36.40 m
bottom level
37.00
Top level = 41.50
foundation = 0.6
Bottom level of foundation = 37 0.6
= 36.40 m
bottom level
37.00
Design of SyphonAqueduct
46
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology
Bottom width
Front batten
D/S Wing wall :
The sloping wing wall is slopping from top of wing wall for canal to level of 40.50 m
1) Slopping wing wall :
a) Wing wall at junction of trough
Top of wing wall (or) top level = 43.00
Top of foundation (or) bottom level = 37.00
Height = top level bottom level
= 43 - 37 = 6 m
Thickness of foundation = 0.6 m
Bottom level of foundation = 37.00

Top width = 0.5 m
Bottom thickness
Front batten
Design of Syphon
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology
The sloping wing wall is slopping from top of wing wall for canal to level of 40.50 m
Wing wall at junction of trough
Top of wing wall (or) top level = 43.00
dation (or) bottom level = 37.00
bottom level
37 = 6 m
Thickness of foundation = 0.6 m
Bottom level of foundation = 37.00 - 0.6
= 36.40 m
Design of SyphonAqueduct
47
The sloping wing wall is slopping from top of wing wall for canal to level of 40.50 m
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology
2) Level wing wall :
Top wing wall = 40.50 m
Bottom level = 37.00 m
Height of wall = 3.50 m
Thickness of foundation = 0.60 m
Top width = 0.5 m
Bottom width
Front batten = 1 in 8
Design of Syphon
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology
Thickness of foundation = 0.60 m
Design of SyphonAqueduct
48
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology
U/S Return wall :
Top level = 41.50
Bottom level = 37.00
Thickness of foundation = 0.6
Bottom level of foundation = 37

Height = top level bottom level
= 41.50 37.00
= 4.50 m
Top width = 0.5 m
Bottom width
Front batten
Design of Syphon
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology
Chapter -15
Design of return wall
Thickness of foundation = 0.6
Bottom level of foundation = 37 0.6
= 36.40 m
bottom level
37.00
Design of SyphonAqueduct
49
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology
D/S return wall :
Top wing wall = 40.50 m
Bottom level = 37.00 m
Height of wall = 3.50 m
Thickness of foundation = 0.60 m
Top width = 0.5 m
Bottom width
Front batten = 1 in 8
Design of Syphon
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology
Top wing wall = 40.50 m
Bottom level = 37.00 m
Height of wall = 3.50 m
Thickness of foundation = 0.60 m
Top width = 0.5 m
Front batten = 1 in 8
Design of SyphonAqueduct
50
Design of SyphonAqueduct
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology 51
Chapter -16
Design of canal apron
In between the canal wings, concrete is laid as a apron to prevent water percolating by the side
of the abutment exert pressure under the drainage apron. The uplift is maximum when the canal
is full and drainage is empty.
In this case, the gross head causing uplift at F.S.L
Before the water creeps to the bottom of the drainage aprons, some head is lost .assuming that
the canal apron is laid sloping from the top of trough slab +39.75 to a level +38.00 (ground level
) for a length of L meters, as shown in fig the vertical creep is neglected.
The canal wing upstream and downstream will be splayed such that by the time the end of apron
is reached, the distance between their faces is equal to the theoretical bed width of
canal,i.e.,20.00 meters. This decides the splay of canal wings.
The apron is to be laid from canal sill level to natural ground level
Gross uplift head = canal F.S.L-foundation level
= 42.00-37.00
= 5m
Let us provide the canal apron sloping from top of the trough slab +39.75 to a level (ground
level) = 38.00
Design of SyphonAqueduct
Sri Sunflower College of Engineering & technology 52
Let us provide 60cm thick mass concrete for drainage floor
Thickness = residual head/(P-1)
0.6 = residual head/(2.40-1)
Residual head =0.84m
Net uplift head = gross uplift head -residual head
= 5.0-0.84
= 4.16
Let us assume exit gradient
GE= 1 in 4 =
nct upI]t cud
L
=
1
4
4.16
L
=
1
4
Therefore L = 17m
Length of apron(L)=17m.
Design of SyphonAqueduct
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Chapter -17
Checking the depth of foundation of drainage returns by scour depth
Upstream side
Maximum flood discharge = 60 m
3
/sec
Maximum flood level = 40.94m
Length of apron retaining wall = 14m (assume)
Discharge per meter length of apron retaining wall
q = 60/14 = 4.3m
2
/sec
Depth of scour = 1.374 (q
2
/f)
1/3
= 1.374 ((4.3)
2
/1)
1/3
= 3.562m
The foundations of returns and apron retaining wall are to be taken down to 40.36-3.56
= 37.38
However the foundations have been taken down to +36.40 and are quite safe.
On D/s side also, the foundations are taken down to +36.40 and as the distance between the
returns is also more or less same . The foundations adopted are safe.
Design of SyphonAqueduct
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Chapter -18
INSPECTION TRACK
The inspection track on the left embankment of canal also has to be taken across the drain by
means of a bridge just by the side of the canal trough.
The width of roadway between kerbs may be kept large enough to meet the demands of traffic
proposed on the canal banks. In this case, it is kept as 3.65 meters (12 feet wide). Depending on
the traffic, the road bridge may be designed. In the present case, the roadway is carried over plain
concrete arches since there is enough headroom above water level. The springings of arches are
kept above water level in the drain.
Semi-circular arches or reinforced concrete deck slabs can be adopted.
In this case the thickness of 50 cms adopted for the arches is quite enough and the detailed
design of arch is not attempted.
Keep the springing level of arches a little above the rear M.F.L., i.e., +40.00.
Bottom level of arch (intrados) is 40.00 +
2.5
2
= 41. 25.
Thickness of arch = 0.50 m.
Therefore, top of arch (extrados) = 41.75.
This top level of road surface may be kept at +43.00. The space in between the road level and
top of arch is covered with earth to act as cushion over the arches.
The road width between kerbs is kept at 3.65 meters with suitable parapets. The inspection
track over the arches is suitably connected to the canal banks by canal transitions.
Design of SyphonAqueduct
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Chapter -19
Design of pier-cap
i. Thickness of cap = 600mm (assume)
ii. Projection on each side = 600mm (assume)
Reinforcement detailing
1. Minimumarea of steel, ast
1min
=0.12% gross area
= (0.12/100)*600*1000
= 720mm
2
2. Maximum area of steel, ast
1max
= 4% of gross area
= (4/100)*600*1000
= 24,000mm
2
Load on the pier V =2195.11 KN
Number of pier = 2
Load on each pile = 2195/2
V= 1097.5 KN
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Shear force v =
wI
2
1097.5 =
w X 1.8
2
W= 1220 KN/m
Here the beam is considerd as a continuous beam
Max bending moment =
wI2
12
=
1220 X 1.8 X 1.8
12
= 329.25 KN-m
Factored moment = M
u
= 1.5 X M = 1.5 X 329.25 = 493.875 KN-m
Check for thickness
M
u, limit
= 0.36
x u mux
d
bd
2
f
ck
(1 0.42
x u mux
d
)
for Fe-415 grade steel
x u mux
d
= 0.48
Here b= 1000 mm
D= 600 mm
d
1
= 50 mm
d = D - d
1
= 600 50 = 550 mm
f
ck
= 20 N/mm
2
M
u, limit
= 0.36 X 0.48 X 1000 X 550
2
X 20 (1 0.42 X 0.48)
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= 834 KN-m
M
u
< M
u, limit
(O.K)
Thickness is satisfied.
(a)Main steel
M
u=
438 KNm
M
u
=0.87f
y
astd (1- (Ast f
y
/b d fck ) )
= 164.62 1u6
= u.87 41S 2Su (1 ((Ast 41S)(1uuu SSu 2u)))
48SS = Ast Ast
2
(S.77 1u S)
Ast = 6396 mm
2
Ast = 20109 mm
2
Adopt Ast = 6396 mm
2
X
u
/d = 0.87f
y
Ast/0.36fckbd = 0.42 ;
(x
umax
/d) > (x
u
/d) (ok)
Ast = 20109 mm
2
X
u
/d =2.96 (not ok)
Ast = 6396 mm
2
Let us adopt =16 mm
A

=

4
* 16
2
= 201mm
2
n =
Ast
A
==
2240
201
= 11
s =
1uuu
11
= 89.7Smm
Adopt 16mm @75mm c/c on both sides
(b)Distribution steel:-
Ast=
Ast1mIn
2
=
760
2
= 380mm
2
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Adopt = 10mm
A

=

4
* 10
2
= 78.53mm
2
n =
Ast
A
==
380
78.53
= 4.8
s = 206mm
Adopt 10mm @ 200mm c/c on both sides
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Chapter -20
Design of pile foundation
Pier cap size 2.4 wide *4.2m length
Adopt 6 numbers 450mm piles
Pier cap thickness 1.2m
20 mm dia @ 150mm c/c in top and bottom
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Chapter -21
Design of foundation of abutment and piers
Foundation of piers and abutments are to be taken down to hard ground. As per data, hard
ground is available below +37.00.
So the foundation of piers level of foundation is +37.00.
As seen in the plan the drainage sill is kept at +37.00 and with a depth of drainage floor as 60
cms, the bottom level of the drainage apron also is at +36.40.
So, the drainage apron, foundation of piers and abutments will all be laid as one block of
concrete of 60 cms. thick (for the drainage barrel portion) as shown in the plan.
This distributes the load of the structure evenly on the soil below and drainage apron will also be
capable of acting as an inverted arch to take care of the extra uplift pressure.
Where the soil of enough bearing capacity is met with at a deeper level, the foundation will be
taken deeper and the drainage apron will be at higher levels. in such cases, the actual pressure
under the foundation of abutments will have to be checked and verified so that they do not
exceed the safe bearing capacity.
The drainage apron in such cases, not being monolithic with the foundation of the abutments and
piers will not be able to take care of the any uplift pressure by arch action. The uplift pressure
that can be resisted is only due to the weight of the concrete apron.
In the present case, for safety the thickness of the pier adopted is 1.00 meter. Abutment under the
road arches has a bottom width of 1.75 meters and top width of 1.00 meter .the abutment under
the road arches has a bottom width of 2.25 meters and a top width of 1.25 meters. The abutment
has a uniform face better 1 in 8.
These abutments, in actual construction, will have to be carefully checked for the stability taking
into account the earth pressures, surcharge, etc. acting on them. The maximum pressures on the
soil have to be checked so that they do not exceed the safe bearing pressure on the foundation
soil.
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Arc lengths to fix the lengths of drainage wings
Downstream side of drain:
Canal F.S.L +42.00
Drainage bed +37.00
Difference +5.00 m
Arc length =5 meters.
Upstream of drain:
Canal F.S.L +42.00
Drainage bed +38.00
Difference +4.00 m
Arc length along which creep may occur =4X4=16 meters.
Since the downstream transitions of canal will be lined with masonry even beyond the canal
wings, the creep length is fixed from the end of canal aprons upstream and the arch length along
which creep occurs is shown in the plan.
In the drawing, keeping the distance between the returns as 14 meters both upstream and
downstream and keeping the lengths till the hydraulic gradient cuts the proposed drain bed level,
the actual arc lengths along which the creep occurs are more than the required. Hence the
proposed splays as in the drawing are adopted.
Solid apron in the drainage bed will be provided up to the end of the end of the drainage wings.
The length of the drainage wings is limited by a hydraulic gradient as shown in dotted line in the
drawing.
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Chapter -22
Design of anchorage arrangements
Since the barrel is flowing full and the drain M.L.F. on both sides is above the bottom level of
the roof slab there will be an upward thrust acting on the roof slab there will be an upward thrust
acting on the roof slab.so the roof slab have to be well anchored to the piers and abutments to
prevent the upward movement of the R.C. slab.
The uplift is maximum when the barrel is full and canal empty. The worst condition is at
upstream end of roof slab. M.F.L. just upstream of R.C. trough
Bottom level of the trough
Difference =1.14
Thickness of roof slab
Roof slab will counteract
meters of uplift head
Net uplift head
Say 0.50 meters.
So, necessary anchoring arrangements are provided as holding-down bolts fixed on the piers
through R.C slab.
Design of anchor bolts:
Clear span of the slab =2.50m
Upward thrust acting on one span along the entire width of slab
= 2.5 X 12.60 X 0.5 X 1000 = 15750 kg.
Assuming 20 mm dia.rod, the thrust that can be registered by one holding-down bolt
= 1260 X 3.14 = 3956 kg.
No bolts required =
15750
3956
= 4 Nos (approx.)
So provide 4 holding-down bolts on each pier.it is enough to provide half the number on the
abutment, but in this case provide 3 bolts, one at each end of trough and one in the middle.
Design of SyphonAqueduct
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DRAWINGS
Design of SyphonAqueduct
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