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-Nilotpal Debbarma -M.

Tech Hydrology -Enrolment No - 10537018

Canal -- An artificial waterway or artificially improved river used for travel, shipping, or irrigation. A canal conveying water from the headworks has to run for large distances and has to maintain the water levels accurately, as designed along its length. The alignment therefore invariably meets a number of natural streams(or drains), roads , railways and sometimes have to cross valleys.

Cross-drainage works are the structures which make such crossings possible. They are generally very costly, and should be avoided if possible by changing the canal alignment and/or diverting the drains.

An aqueduct is one such cross-drainage structure where the canal flows over the drainage and the flow of the drainage in the barrel is open channel flow.

-- Here the flood level of the drainage is below the bed level of the canal. -- Small drainages may be taken under and the canal and banks by a concrete or masonry barrel. -- in case of stream crossings, it is economical to flume the canal over the stream using a concrete trough.

Relative position of canal bed level and high flood level of stream/drainage

-- When the HFL of the drainage is higher than the canal bed level or both the canal and drain meet more or less at same level , the drainage may be passed through an inverted siphon aqueduct, underneath the canal. -- flow through siphon aqueduct is always under pressure. -- Siphon aqueduct are of two types.

Trough type aqueduct

-- normal canal section is reduced to a rectangular section and carried across the natural drainage

Barrel type aqueduct --- normal canal section is continued across the natural drainage but the drainage section is flumed to pass through barrels or rectangular passages .

Type I Aqueduct -- In this type of aqueduct (or siphon

aqueducts) the cross-section of the canal remains unchanged. -- Original cross-section with normal side slopes of canal is retained. -- length of barrel through which drainage passes is maximum -- suitable for small drainages of width less than 2.5 m. Type II Aqueduct --- outer slopes of canal banks are discontinued and replaced by retaining walls -- Length of barrel is less -- Suitable for moderate drainage width of 2.5 m to 15 m Type III aqueduct --- entire earth section of the canal is discontinued and replaced by concrete or masonry trough over the drainage. Suitable for drainage width more than 15 m.

Hydraulic datas required for aqueduct design:

Canal - i) Full supply discharge , Q ii) Bed width iii) Full supply depth iv) Water surface slope v) Bed level vi) Bed slope vii) Full supply level viii) Top of bank level ix) Cross-section of canal showing natural ground level x) Sub-soil water level xi) Nature of Bed material and value of n for mannings equation.

Drainage Channel

i) Extent and nature of drainage area (catchment area) ii) Maximum annual rainfall and the period (years) of data iii) Maximum intensity of rainfall with year Maximum observed flood discharge at site iv) Maximum flood level v) Water surface slope vi) Site plan of proposed crossing including contours vii) Type of bed load viii) Longitudinal section of the stream upstream and downstream ix) Cross-section of the drainage channel for a distance of 100m to x) Waterways provided in roads and railway bridges or other

300m hydraulic structures on the drainage channel xi) Spring water level at the crossing site in May & October xii) Silt factor.

Design flood
Broad guidelines for estimating design discharge -- For large aqueducts , where the failure of the structure may lead to disruption of canal supplies over along period , the design flood should be taken equal to Standard Project flood (S.P.F.) --For moderate type of aqueducts, the waterway is usually determined for the flood of 50 years recurrence interval , but for the foundation and freeboard , the flood of 100 years recurrence interval are taken. -- For small aqueducts , the design flood is usually taken as 10 to 25 years flood including increased afflux.

Cross-section of barrel type aqueduct

Section through a syphon aqueduct

Thank You for Attention