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Chapter 12

On The Original Expectancy Theory


By Victor H.Vroom
1. keyword
Expectancy =
a.aa:.a.a..J:lJla.+..ur:....ra.a....-a.u|aa...:.!"#$
Valence = :.a...a:a..:....a.a.a..:aa.r.a Reward
Instrumentality = !"#a.a..J:.a.... Outcome
:......a:::...:lJ-+..ur:....l:..a:r-.:
2. Diagram
2.1 Expectancy theory helps us understand the thought process behind how people choose to behave
- Maximize pleasure
- Minimize suffer
- Behavior is rational

2.2 Motivation = Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence

(Expectancy Performance) (Performance Outcome) (Valence)

Effort Performance Outcome
2.3 Outcome at work take several forms: Such as

- Achievement
- Affiliation +/-
- power

2.4 For managers, expectancy, theory has a number of implications
Expectancy Performance Select, training
Performance Outcome measure, increase employee, confidence
Outcome changing reward contingency,
substitutes reward
2.5 Effort-to-performance expectancies and performance to outcome expectancies, together with
outcome valence, determine our motivation force
(performance outcome)

Motivation = Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence
3. Review Theory
-.J::ra.ra.a. a..J:.. Expectancy Theory !"#$ VIE Theory !"# Victor H. Vroom
laa:u:..:.a..:a.- Work and Motivate !"#$%&'()*+ 4 part
Introduction, Academic Root, Motivation and Expectancy Theory, Epilogue
12.1 Introduction
!"#$%&'( )*$+$ work and motivate r..aal:... why people choose the kinds of work they do, the
satisfaction that they derive from that work, and the quality of their work performance
12.2 Academic Root
a.a.r..r|a.J:....r.aa:+.r Victor Vroom aa r George Williams
College !"#$%&''()*+),!"#$%!&'() Canadair Ltd. !"#$%&$'()*+,-.-,$'/)01%01 characterizing
individual .u.aJ_: Employee turn over !"#$%#&'()*"+, Lee Cronbach (1957) R-R psychology
.l-l:a..aJ_:...r:J.aa.+r.aa: ...:lJ-a.-..Expectancy
Theory !"#$%&'()*!"#$%&'!( prototype
-:.:ra.aal:.aa:a.r.-a:a.+...a.J.
personality characteristics and situational variables might be found in moderating the effects of other
situational variables such as the job content, reward systems, and work group characteristics.
....u:.:aar instrumentality for the satisfaction of each motive $%& expectancy that
actions will lead to the attainment of the incentives
!"#$%&'()*# Ja....a.-.u:r..:. personality dispositions and shift- work properties
...:.-. .-.a.r.a+aa-a. rr:a.-.u:r..:. Expectancy, instrumentality
valence .......:a. Work and Motivation.
12.3 Motivation and Expectancy Theory
r|:lar:.....:a.aa.:aa..J:-:-a_rrl:.aa....lau|aa...
!"# Vroom .:::aa..u.+r...aa.|r. (Choice)
a...ar...ar.-.:lJ-+.a:.r::....ra.a..ar-a...
r|:la.:rru..aa .:. Kurt Lewin !"#$%& !"#$%&'()*%+,!"#$$%ra.J: function of
person and environment was a clear !"#$%&'()* Lewins the force operating on a person to move in
a particular direction was assumed to be a function of the valence of a region in the life space and of
the psychological distance of that region from the person
-ar:l:r|a.aa:.. Vroom
laaa:lJ......a.aaa.:.a.al:.......ll:a.r.:l:J...a:..
occupational choice, job satisfaction, and job performance !"#$%&'&()* variables
'#()|.a.a.a.r:.u..a..aa:a.l-r|a.:
(1) Expectancy that increased effort will lead to high performance;
(2) Valence of high performance (independent of its instrumentality);
(3) Instrumentality of high performance for other rewards; and
(4) Valence of these other rewards. al:a.J..aal-r|+:.:..a.!"#$%& intervention to
increase performance ...a..a.J.:...l:-aa..a:a.a.a..ul:..a+a
!""#$%&'()*+(,$-(-(,