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EGLISH PHOETICS AD PHOOLOGY



SEMIAR MATERIALS



































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1. PRACTICE the vowel sounds
1. Name some distinctive features of the English vowels.
2. Are deal and dill a minimal? Why?
3. Are deal and did a minimal pair? Why?/Why not?
. !atch the words in the first column with those in the second one so as to o"tain
minimal pairs#

$olumn % $olumn %%
catch zip
pip fought
cheap lass
sap Sam
he mink
caught cap
lap Paul
pal she
say heap
sink lay

&. 'ind as many minimal pairs as possi"le (in all "asic position) for the following
vowel phonemes#
*i#+ vs. *i+, *u#+ vs. *u+, *+ vs. *#+, *e+ vs. *+, *o,+ vs. *a#+, *+ vs. *a#+, *+ vs. *+.

-. Which are the vowel phonemes that can appear in front of *p+?

.. %f one compares short vowels to long ones/ which of them have a more restricted
distri"ution?
0. 1ive the vowel phonemes that cannot appear in word2final position.

3. 4pecify the English phonemes that cannot appear in initial position.

15. 6escri"e the simple front vowels in the following sentences and e7plain the
difficulties encountered "y 8omanians in ac9uiring their correct pronunciation#
a. !aggie:s "ag is easy to carry.
". ;e felt e7tremely well after such a "ig meal.
11. 1ive the English sounds corresponding to the following descriptions#
2 central/ mid2open/ short/ unrounded vowel,
2 "ac</ mid2open/ long/ rounded vowel,
2 front (retracted)/ close/ short/ unrounded vowel,
2 "ac< (advanced)/ close/ short/ unrounded vowel.
3

12. Write the sym"ols for the vowels in the following words#
a. "read ". rough c. foot d. hymn e. full f. cough
g. sat h. friend i. cool =. >edipus <. as< l. further.

13. ?ronounce the following minimal pairs#
mad *md+ @ mud *md+ put *put+ @ pot *pt+
"it *"it+ @ "et *"et+ men *men+ @ man * mn+
cut *<t+ @ cot *<t+ fin *fin+ @ fan *fn+

1. 4hort vowels contrasted. ?ronounce the following words#
!" vs. e" e" vs. " " vs. "
"it "et hem ham lac< luc<
tin ten set sat "ad "ud
fill fell pec< pac< fan fun
"uilt "elt send sand stamp stump
lift left wrec< rac< flash flush

" vs. " " vs. u"
dug dog loc< loo<
cup cop cod could
ru" ro" pot put
stuc< stoc< shoc< shoo<
luc< loc< croc< croo<

1&. ?ractice the pronunciation of the short vowels in longer conte7ts.
"
AA6 a "ad cat
!AB a "ad cat on the mat
?AB don:t pat the "ad cat on the mat
B;AB don:t pat that "ad cat on the mat.

e"
EN6 in the end the men
4A%6 in the end the men said
!EB in the end the men said they:d met
'8%EN6 in the end the men said they:d met a friend.

" #nd e" $ont%#sted
AA6 AE6 What a "ad "ed that isC
?AB ?EB $hildren li<e patting their pets.
!AN !EN ;e was the man who led the other men to "attle.
1A4 1DE44 % guess that smell must "e gas.
4A6 4A%6 4he said she felt very sad.
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;A6 ;EA6 ;e had a good head for figures.
EABBE8 EEBBE8 F6id you send a letter or an e2mail?: FBhe latter.:

"
;>AAG What:s your ho""y?
>N/E>N1 ;ow long have you "een wor<ing on your ho""y?
$>4B/E>B 6oes your ho""y cost a lot of money?
$>NB8A8G >n the contrary.
4;>?4 Bhere are lots of "oo<s on ho""ies in the shops.
"
6>E4/!>NEG %t doesn:t cost much money.
>B;E8 Are there any other "oo<s on the upper shelf?
4BD'' %:ve seen some of your stuff.
AE$>!E Gou:ll "ecome an instructor.

" #nd " $ont%#sted
N>B NDB Bhat:s not a chestnut/ it:s a peanut.
4N>A 4NDA 4no"s often snu" people.
;>AAG ;DAAG ;er ho""y is loo<ing after her hu""y.
E>N1 EDN1 Gou need good lungs for long2distance running.
WAN6E8 W>N6E8 4he wandered a"out/ wondering what to do.
$>EEA8 $>E>D8 White shirts with different coloured collars.

1-. ?ronounce the following minimal pairs containing lon& vowels. ?ay attention to
the fact that a voiceless consonant shortens the preceding long vowel.

heard *ho#d+ 2 hurt *ho#t+ hard *ha#d+ @ hearth *ha#e+
"een *"i#n+ @ "eat *"i#t+ cord *<#d+ @ caught *<#t+
rude *ru#d+ @ root *ru#t+

N>BE# Bhe main difficulties encountered "y 8omanian learners in the pronunciation
of English vowels is due to the fact that in English there are twice as many simple
vowel sounds as there are in 8omanian. Actually there are two independent English
vowels corresponding to each 8omanian vowel#
8 *i+ E *i+ 8 *e+ E *e+ 8 *a+ E *a#+
E *i#+ E *+ E *+

8 *o+ E *+ 8 *u+ E *u+ 8 *H+ E *o+
E *#+ E *u#+ E *o#+
Bhe 8omanian learners have to <eep the two mem"ers of each pair of vowels
distinctly apart/ "oth with respect to their 9uality and to their length. Bhe following
e7ercises are meant to fulfil this goal.

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1.. 8ead aloud the following minimal pairs "ased on the contrast "etween *i#+ and *i+#
2feel 2 fill, "ead 2 "id, read 2 rid, scheme 2 s<im,
2steel @ still, "een @ "in, greed @ grid, leap @ lip,
2feet @ fit, reap @ rip, seal @ sill, deep @ dip.
2leave @ live, peel @ pill, reach @ rich, feast @ fist,
2peach @ pitch, least @ list, deal @ dill, 1ene/Iean@gin.
2eat @ it cheap @ chip chee< @ chic< pea< @ pic<

10. 8ead aloud the following phrases and sentences in which *i#+ occurs fre9uently,
as free as a "ee agree to flea steel heel
eager to leave speech speed easy to "elieve
cheesy meal see no evil receive three

2Iean will receive her degree in three wee<s.
28ead these three recipes to me.
2Bhe guilty plea was part of the deal.
2Bhat:s easy for me to e9ual.
2Bhe three greeting cards were free.
24he didn:t hear you spea< last evening.
2;e could see the reaping machines in the field.

13. 8ead aloud the following sentences in which *i+ occurs fre9uently#
2Aill:s sister is silly.
21ive this "ill to him.
24i7 "ig <ids are still ill.
2%t:s windy in his living2room.
2No weather is ill if the wind "e still (prover").
2$hicago is a "ig city in %llinois.
2%s he too ill to pitch this spring?
24itting in the rear seat/ he cleaned the windows in minutes.
2%f a man sits down to thin</ he is immediately as<ed if he has a headache.

25. !'" #nd !" $ont%#sted. 8ead aloud the following/ trying to <eep the distinction
"etween the two vowels clear#
a. When did 4ir Walter 8aleigh leave?
". When did 4ir Walter 8aleigh live?
a. ;e was loo<ing at the sheep.
". ;e was loo<ing at the ship.
a. 4he was leap2reading.
". 4he was lip2reading.

21. ?ractice the *u#+ sound in longer conte7ts#
2What <ind of food is this soup?
F6o you have two "owls of soups a day?:
FGes/ % do. And what a"out you?:
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F% sometimes/ too/ have two soups a day.:
2Eu<e has a loose tooth.
24chool rules must "e o"eyed.
2;e refused to move.
2At noon we were in a mood to go to the swimming pool.

22. ?ractice the *u+ sound in longer conte7ts#
2;e would ma<e a good coo<.
2Bhe woman too< the "ottle and shoo< it.
2!r. ;oo< whose coo<"oo< you have "rought is our "utcher.
2Bhe "ullet was fired "y a good2loo<ing man.

23. 8ead aloud the following minimal pairs "ased on the contrast "etween *u#+ and
*u+.
pool pull ;e had to "e pulled out of the pool.
suit soot ;is suit was full of soot.
Eu<e loo< Eoo< at Eu<eC
fool full Bhe world is full of fools.
wooed would 4he would li<e to "e wooed "y an DJ"e< ruler.
who:d hood Who:d wear a hood nowadays?
$ooed could Bhe pigeons cooed whenever they could.

2. 8ead aloud the following minimal pairs "ased on the contrast "etween *#+ and
*+#
cord cod awed odd
dawn don stal< stoc<
pawned pond port pot
naught not sport spot
gnawed nod cor< coc<
for<s fo7 sworn swan
wars was court cot
roared rod !orse moss
corpse cops "orn Aonn (town in 1ermany)

2&. 8ead aloud the following sentences containing the *#+ sound#
2 4he pawned her shawl and "ought a "all.
2 A tall man was crawling in the hall.
2 Bhey called the doctor when their daughter caught the flu.
2 Bhe audience in the law2court saw ?aul hitting Iohn in his =aw.

2-. 8ead the following sentences in which the sound *+ occurs fre9uently.
2 Iohn stopped all the cloc<s on the doc<s.
2 A watched pot never "oils.
2 Bhey:d stoc< their shop with cots.
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2 Bhe yacht was roc<ing on the pond.
2 Bhe doctor was in the corridor tal<ing to Bom.

2.. 8ead aloud the following minimal pairs "ased on the contrast "etween *a#+ and
*+#
lar< luc< cud card
dar< duc< last lust
"ar<s "uc<s carp cup
!arch much "arge "udge
cart cut "arn "un
psalm sum calm come


(. P%#$t!$e the En&l!sh d!)hthon&s #nd t%!)hthon&s
Bheoretical pro"lems
1. 6iphthongs have "een descri"ed as se9uences of two vocalic sounds. Eist the
vocalic sounds serving as diphthong nuclei and the vocalic sounds serving as glides?

2. 6o diphthongs have a general distri"ution?

3. %s there any functional difference "etween a diphthong and a vowel in the
following minimal pairs?
"eat @ "ite, "ee @"eer, mouse @ mice, mouth @ moth,
cord @ code, fee @ fear, mouth @ myth, tea @ tear.

. 6oes a shortening of a diphthong ta<e place "efore a voiceless or a voiced plosive?
$onsider the e7ample# code @ coat @ cope.

&. 4tate whether the following are true or false#
2 %n distri"ution and function diphthongs are similar to vowels.
2 %n English there are as many sylla"les in a word as there are sylla"ic vowels (and
sylla"ic m/ n/ p/ l/ r).
2Bhe glides can "e isolated as sylla"ic sounds.
2 Bhe sylla"ic sound of an English diphthong is its first sound..
2Bhe two elements of a diphthong can "e divided into two sylla"les/ or "etween two
sylla"les.
2 6iphthongs are defined as a se9uence of two vocalic sounds "ecause/ in spite of
their distri"ution and function/ they form only one sylla"ic pea<.

?ractical e7ercises
-. ?ractice the following minimal pairs "ased on the contrast "etween *ai+ and *ei+#
white wait lied laid
rice race rise raise
li<e la<e file fail
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.. 8ead aloud the following minimal pairs "ased on the contrast "etween *io+ and
*co+#
here hair "eer "ear
steered stared ears airs
really rarely weary wary

0. >n the vowel diagram indicate the glides for the diphthongs in the following
words#
freight, hold, sphere, fair, bow, sky, toil.

3. Write the sym"ols for the diphthongs in the following words#
tone way hair style beer out coil they

15. ?ractice the diphthong *ei+ in the following sentences#
- 4tate your name.
- Baste ma<es waist.
- Bhe rain in 4pain stays mainly in the plane.
- Bhey may stay in hay in April and !ay.
- Bhey say they sleighed all day long.

11. ?ractice the diphthong *ai+ in the following sentences#
- !y child li<es to fly a <ite.
- % li<e ?aris "y night.
- %:ll try to arrive on 'riday night around nine.
- Never smile at the crocodileC
- %:d li<e to "uy some nylon tights.

12. ?ractice the diphthong *i+ in the following sentences#
2 %t:s a noisy noise that annoys an oyster.
- !any slave "oys toiled in Broy.
- Eoyd raised his voice to the naughty "oys.
- Bhe "oys made noise with their toys.
- Aring the soy2"eans oil to the "oiling point.

13. 8ead the following words "ased on the contrast "etween the diphthongs *ei+/ *ai+
and *i+#
say sigh soy, "ays "uys "oys
pays pies poise laid lied Eoyd
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cane <in(e) coin tale tile toil
tray try Broy paint pint point.

1. ?ractice the diphthong *ou+ in the following sentences#
- Bhose are old notions.
- Bhe phone has no tone.
- ;e wrote an ode to the rose.
- Bhe whole "owl was full of oat.
- 6on:t go home alone.
- ;is only goal was to go to the North ?ole.

1&. ?ractice the diphthong *au+ in the following sentences#
- 6on:t shout out so loudC
- Bhe Arowns found a mouse in their house.
- Now the cow "owed and found a flower.
- %t was very cloudy in the mountains.

1-. 8ead the following minimal pairs "ased on the contrast "etween the diphthongs
*ou+ and *au+#
no 2 now hoe 2 how phoned 2 found
<nown 2 noun load 2 loud oat 2 out

1.. ?ractice the diphthong *co+
2 ;ow dare you share my pear?
- ;e rarely had money for the fare.
- % saw her somewhere in the s9uare.
- 4ince !ary found her mare there/ she had nothing to declare.
- 4he "ought a new pair of =eans to share with !ary.
- Bhey would rarely wear their golden =ewelry.

10. ?ractice the diphthong *uo+ in the following sentences#
- England was at war with "oth the !oors and the Aoers.
- Bhe doctor was sure that he was past cure.
- We went on a tour of the moors.
- ;enry !oore:s art is sure to endure the passage of time.
- Bhe =ury convicted poor !uriel.

13. ?ractice the diphthong *io+ in the following sentences#
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- ;e drew nearer and nearer to the feared pier.
- Aeer should not "e feared to "e dear.
- Bhere were tears in the eyes of the deer.
- ;e couldn:t hear/ so he drew nearer.
- >ur theater staged 4ha<espeare:s King Lear last year.

25. 8ead aloud the following list of minimal pairs "ased on the contrast "etween *co+
and *uo+#
pear @ poor, "are @ Aoer, mare @ moor, tear (v") @ tour, dare @ dour, share @ sure.

21. 8ead and give the phonetic transcription of the poem Fire and Ice "y 8o"ert
'rost. ?ay attention to the diphthongs.
F4ome say the world will end in fire/
4ome say in ice.
'rom what %:ve tasted of desire/
% hold with those who favour fire.
Aut if % had to perish twice/
% thin< % <now enough of hate
Bo say that for destruction ice
%s also great
And would suffice.:

22. 8ead aloud the following words containing triphthongs. Bhe *i+ and *u+ in the
se9uences *ai Ko+ and *au Ko+ should not "e made too strong.
#!o oo o" #uo oo o"
tyre coward
trial tower
9uiet flower
flyer ours
"uyer shower
tired "ower
riot towel
iron powerful

23. Bhe less common triphthongs *eio+/ *ouo+/ *io+ should "e pronounced with the
normal diphthong smoothly followed "y *o+. Bhe *i+ and *u+ need not "e wea<ened at
all. Bry pronouncing the following words#
greyer, grower, player, royal, followers, employer, thrower, betrayal, lawyers.


*. P%#$t!$e the En&l!sh $onson#nts
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1. 6istinguish the manner of articulation of the English consonantal sounds and
specify the classes of consonants thus produced.

2. 6istinguish the "asic points of articulation in English.

3. 1ive the articulators and the points of articulation for the following English
sounds# *p+/ *<+/ *h+/ *J+/ *f+.

. 1ive the English sounds corresponding to the following simplified descriptions#
a. voiced/ alveolar fricative,
". voiceless/ velar plosive,
c. voiceless/ palato2alveolar fricative,
d. voiced/ alveolar plosive.
e. voiced/ la"io2dental fricative,
f. voiceless/ interdental fricative,
g. voiceless/ glottal plosive.

&. Each of the following purports to "e an articulatory description of English
consonantal sound. Which of these descriptions are representations of actual English
sounds/ and which are impossi"le features?
a. voiceless/ la"io2dental fricative,
". voiceless/ apico2velar plosive,
c. voiceless/ glottal fricative#
d. voiceless/ "ila"ial fricative,
e. voiced/ apico2dental (interdental) fricative,
f. voiceless/ dorso2velar fricative.

-. %dentify the words made up of the sounds corresponding to the following
articulatory descriptions#
a. voiceless/ fortis/ "ila"ial plosive, front/ close/ short/ la7/ unrounded vowel,
voiceless/ fortis/ velar plosive.
". voiced/ lenis/ "ila"ial plosive, "ac</ close/ short/ la7/ rounded vowel,
voiceless/ fortis/ velar plosive.
c. alveolar/ voiceless/ fortis plosive, narrow/ closing diphthong (glide to *i+),
voiceless/ alveolar fricative, alveolar/ voiceless/ fortis plosive.

.. 1ive the articulatory description of the sounds which ma<e up the following
words# front, nasal, elar.

0. 'ind minimal pairs (whenever possi"le in all "asic positions 2 initial/ medial and
final2) for the following English phonemes# *s # J+/ *p # "+/ *tj # d+/ *l # r+/ *f # v+/ *0 #
+.
E7ample#2 initial# *si#l+ seal vs. *Ji#l+ zeal
2 medial# *'si#sip+ ceasing vs. *'si#Jing+ seizing
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2 final# *sins+ since vs. *sinJ+ sins.

3. Branscri"e the following words phonemically#
a. fishes e. archies
". shaer f. others
c. si!th g. measure
d. these h. ahead

15. 'eatures used to define individual sounds can also "e used to descri"e sets of
related sounds. 'or instance/ the set consisting of *p t < " d g+ would "e descri"ed as
sharing the feature *Kstop+ (plosive). We can also use the features of manner of
articulation/ point of articulation and voice to su"divide larger sets of sounds. *p t <+
would "e descri"ed "y the features *Kstop+ and *2 voice+/ *"/ d/ g+ as *Kstop+ and
*Kvoice+/ *p "+ as *Kstop+ and *K"ila"ial+/ *t d < g+ as *Kstop+/ *2"ila"ial+/ etc. 6escri"e
the following classes or su"classes of sounds#
*0 f v s J j +/ * v J +/ *v J +/ *J +/ *s J+
*p t+/ *f v s J+/ *m n+

11. ;ow does voicing/voicelessness of a consonant affect the preceding vowel or
diphthong?

12. %ndicate with a mar< which of the following vowels and diphthongs are
shortened as a result of a following voiceless/ fortis consonant#
a. tea *ti#+ d. dar< *da#<+ g. egg *eg+
". meat *mi#t+ e. card *<a#d+ h.oa< *ou<+
c. toad *toud+ f. lip *lip+ i. <ite *<ait+

13. 4pecify the variants (allophones) of the plosive consonants in the following
words# peak, blame, ribbon, adore, climate.

1. %dentify and descri"e the sylla"ic /m// /n// /p/ and /l/ in the following lines#
a. % have found some of the "est reasons % ever had for remaining at the "ottom
simply "y loo<ing at the man at the top ('ran< !oore $ol"y/ "ssays)
". %n the grave/ dust and "ones =ostle not for the wall. (?rover")
c. What you say is nothing "ut a truism.
d. A spasm of coughing made her stop laughing.
e. FBhis is the spray the Aird clung to/!a<ing it "lossom with pleasure: (8.
Arowning/ #isconceptions$

1&. 'ind possi"le cases of Fintrusive %: and Flin<ing %: in the pronunciation of the
sentences "elow. !ar< the place where the Fintrusive %: occurs "y a small cross/ and
the occurrences of Flin<ing %: "y a small circle.
a. 1ranada is famous for its monuments. Aut there:re a lot of interesting places
outside 1ranada itself.
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". Bhe area of a room of 15 feet "y 1& feet is 1&o s9uare feet.
c. !y grandpa is ill.
d. 'ancy 4arah as<ing Ada outC Bhe idea of it ma<es me laugh.
e. When 'reda attended her first speech class in her drama academy the tutor
said she did not <eep her =aw open.
f. Australia and New Lealand are two English spea<ing countries.
g. New Lealand has other islands far out.

1-. 8ead the following list of words which illustrate the various phonetic values of
*p+#


#s)!%#ted un#s)!%#ted un%ele#sed l#te%#ll+ n#s#ll+
%ele#sed %ele#sed
peel spea< adopt play open
pet spend prompt uplift happen
part span <ept apple hypnotic
?aul 4partan roped couple stop news
powder spot <eep trac< simple shrapnel

1.. 8ead the following list of words which illustrate the various phonetic values of
*"+#

)#%t!#ll+ ,ull+ vo!$ed )los!onless l#te%#ll+ n#s#ll+
devo!$ed %ele#sed %ele#sed
"ee lo""y su"dued "lame ri""on
"oat a"ove o"=ect ca"le su"merge
"artender !o"y 6ic< gra""ed "u""le cra"@meat
Aerlin na"o" su"poena pro"a"le su"marine
"eam o"ey we" a"le o"no7ious
"end a"out sno" em"lem a"normal
Aoston a"acus tu"e su"lime ur"an

10. 8ead the following minimal pairs containing the *p+ and *"+ sounds#

)" #nd -" !n !n!t!#l )os!t!on
pea< *pi#<+ "ea< *"i#<+ pit *pit+ "it *"it+
pac< *p<+ "ac< *"<+ par< *pa#<+ "ar< *"a#<+
port *p#t+ "ought *"#t+ pull *pul+ "ull *"ul+
pride *praid+ "ride *"raid+ plays *pleiJ+ "laJe *"leiJ+
pat *pt+ "at *"t+ pie *pai+ "uy/"y *"ai+
pen Aen

)" #nd -" !n .!d/)os!t!on
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repel *ri'pel+ re"el *ri'"el+
roped *roupt+ ro"ed *rou"d+
simple *simpl+ sym"ol *sim"l+
staple *steipl+ sta"le *stei"l+
rapid *rpid+ ra"id *r"id+

)" #nd -" !n ,!n#l )os!t!on
rip *rip+ ri" *ri"+ rope *roup+ ro"e *rou"+
cap *<p+ ca" *<"+ tripe *traip+ tri"e *trai"+
tap *tp+ ta" *t"+ wrap *rp+ gra" *gr"+
lap *lp+ la" *l"+ cap *<p+ ca" *<"+

13. ?ractice the following phrases containing the *p+ sound.
stop sign slipping Jipper grape pop
repair shop superior straps responsive person
sip of punch paddle in the pool slipper strap
plastic wrapper e7plicit promise prune plums
cryptic concept pleasant place proud priest
accept applause slept at the opera hopelessly repressed

25. 8ead the following tongue twister and o"serve the aspiration of the initial *p+
sound.
?eter ?iper pic<ed a pec< of pic<led peppers,
A pec< of pic<led peppers ?eter ?iper pic<ed,
%f ?eter ?iper pic<ed a pec< of pic<led peppers/
Where:s the pec< of pic<led peppers ?eter ?iper pic<ed?

21. ?ractice the following phrases containing the *"+ sound#
"unch of "ananas "ean "ag "ig hot tu"
"ad "ac< "ind "oo<s ho""y ca"inet
thro""ing earlo"e ur"an su"way "est ru"ies
scru" the cur" "lac< um"rellas "rand2new "room

22. Bhe following sentences contain *p+ and *"+ in difficult "lends and com"inations,
scan them silently "efore you read them out loud.
- Bhe purple "u""le "urst its "onds and popped up.
- Bhe "ouncy "a"y "u""led and "a""led happily after the "ottle.
- 6o people prefer "right "au"les or pretty peonies and poppies?
- Bhe "lushing "ride "reathed happily after the priest "lessed the "ridal "rea<fast.
- ?eter ?iper protested at "eing la"eled a pepper pic<ler.

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23. ?ractice the *t+ sound in the following words which illustrate its various phonetic
variants#


#s)!%#ted un#s)!%#ted un%ele#sed l#te%#ll+ n#s#ll+
%ele#sed %ele#sed
time stop hot dog cattle hot news
tool stain night "ar little mutton
tal< stool cost price at last cotton
tar distur" night cap settle "ottom
torch astonish smart "attle "itten
tooth still lost parental <itten
tale stea< scout total certain

2. ?ractice the following phrases containing the sound *t+.
top ten tea time cute note
tic<2toc< toe tapping enter data
telephone ta"le great de"ate tested lettuce
talented sister western forest smart students

2&. 8ead the following phrased and sentences in which *t+ occurs fre9uently#
2Bit for tat.
2Bhat is a storm in a tea2pot.
2Brust Bom for telling the truth.
2Bell me when to ta<e it to the right.
2Bhe teacher told Berry that Bim had to ta<e the test ne7t Buesday at ten.
24ometimes the tongue is faster than the eye.
2Which is the most e7pensive hotel in Bo<yo?
2% can attest to the 9uality of teaching.
2Ba<e the note from under the tea pot.
2% put the tip of my toe in the center of the tu".

2-. $hallenge sentences for *t+
2Bwenty teachers of Eatin trusted their students not to start cheating in the test.
2Bhe detective was tric<ed into "etraying his secret to the "eautiful temptress.
2Bhe dentist dropped his "utton into the fountain and instantaneously tried to ta<e it
out.
2Bommy Burner taped his tal< with his psychiatrist.

2.. 8ead the following words paying attention to the sound *d+.
P#%t!#ll+ ,ull+ vo!$ed )los!onless l#te%#ll+ n#s#ll+
devo!$ed %ele#sed %ele#sed

dou"le adore sad saddle sadness
day ado changed riddle admission
16
deal Beddy amaJed cradle hardness
deer lady under handle cadmium
date cider made middle sudden
duc< soda code paddle hidden
dust "ody wide dwindle redness
damp odor aid poodle shouldn:t

20. ?ractice the following phrases containing the sound *d+
dirty dogs dangling in the wind dou"le2dec<er
decided to divorce dirty dancing do:s and don:ts
hidden address sudden advance deep depression
dwindling red2light idle hands defect detection

23. 8ead the following minimal pairs "ased on the distinction "etween *t+ and *d+#
two do torn dawn
ten den tie die
ton don town down
tune dune tan 6an
tea 6ee tip dip
tie die tuc< duc<

writer rider wetting wedding
latter ladder water warder
whitish widish putting pudding
<itty <iddy <notted nodded
matter madder rated raided
"itter "idder shutter shudder

"et "ed heart hard
late laid sight side
set said "rought "road
feet feed hit hid
cot cod shoot shooed

35. 8ead the following sentences containing *t+ and *d+.
- Eots of ladies left their hats on the ta"le during the time they told stories.
- Beachers are trusting of their students: honesty during end2term testing times.
- ?icture yourself getting to stand at the end of an empty corridor.
- 6idn:t % tell you times and times again to do your homewor</ Beddy?

31. 8ead the following list of words which illustrate the various phonetic values of
*<+#
#s)!%#ted un#s)!%#ted un%ele#sed l#te%#ll+ n#s#ll+
%ele#sed %ele#sed
17
<eep scale action clover rec<on
call s<ip contract climate "acon
<ite school electricity clu" ac<nowledge
core scholastic loc<ed frec<le thic<en
cane ascri"e chal< pic<le
cause escort smo<e cluster
<ey s<i stic< acclaim

32. ?ractice the following phrases containing the sound *<+.
common cause "ac< ache $ape $od
$oca $ola drin< of mil< $hristmas carols
cute character canal crossing curious loo<ing
carrying cargo raccoon catching drin<ing li9uor

33. ?ractise the sound *g+ in the following words/ trying to pronounce correctly its
variants#

)#%t!#ll+ ,ull+ vo!$ed )los!onless l#te%#ll+ n#s#ll+
devo!$ed %ele#sed %ele#sed
go tiger rug"y glory organ
guide ago fig tree glimmer ignite
game logo plug struggle dignity
goose foggy tango wriggle rigmarole
guess toga vogue igloo signature
gown "egin mug single fragment

3. ?ractice the following phrases containing the sound *g+.
"egin again dog days engagement gift
"ig fig2tree gushing =ug get a guide
go get it gauJe fragments elegant luggage
good colleague gorgeous signature the longest monologue

3&. Meep the *<+ and *g+ apart in the following minimal pairs#
cave gave card guard
curl girl could good
cap gap coal goal
class glass crow grow

pic< pig doc< dog
"ac< "ag loc< log
lac< lag 6ic< dig

3-. 8ead the sentences "elow containing *<+ and *g+.
- Bhe regular careta<er too< his gardening with a grain of salt.
18
- !aggie "egged the wic<ed frog <ing for a <iss and 9uic<ly "ecame a frog 9ueen.
- Bhe 1rand $anyon is gorgeous/ "ut if campers <eep leaving gar"age around/ it
will "ecome gruesome.
- % "egged her not to put all the eggs in one "as<et.
- Bhe angry captain let the "oat go aground.
- Gour grades go down with vague guesses on e7ams.

3.. ?ractise the following words/ with long/ strong friction for *f+ and short/ wea<
friction for *v+#
," #nd v" !n !n!t!#l )os!t!on
fast *fa#st+ vast *va#st+ few *f=u#+ view *v=u#+
feel *fi#l+ veal *vi#l+ fear *fio+ veer *vio+
foal *foul+ vole *voul+ file *fail+ vile *vail+
ferry *feri+ very *veri+ fat *ft+ vat *vt+
fan *fn+ van *vn+ fail *feil+ veil *veil+


," #nd v" !n .!d/)os!t!on
proofing *'pru#fip+ prooving *'pru#vip+
safer *'seifo+ savour *'seivo+
defied *di'faid+ divide *di'vaid+
refuse *ri'f=u,J+ reviews *ri'v=u#J+

," #nd v" !n ,!n#l )os!t!on
When *f+ and *v+ occur at the end of words/ after a vowel/ they influence the length of
that vowel. Bhe strong consonant *f+ ma<es the vowel shorter/ whereas the wea<
consonant *v+ ma<es it longer. ?ractice this with the following list of words#
leaf *li#f+ leave *li#v+ life *laif+ live *laiv+
half *ha#f+ halve *ha#v+ strife *straif+ strive *straiv+
calf *<a#f+ carve *<a#v+ waif *weif+ wave *weiv+
surf *so#f+ serve *so#v+ safe *seif+ save *seiv+
proof *pru#f+ prove *pru#v+ "elief *"i'li#f+ "elieve *"i'li#v+

30. ?ractice the following phrases containing the sound *f+.
fine "eef filthy furniture funny photo
famous females face to face face the facts
furnace fire deaf chef defend the fans
foolish faults tough muffin enough affinity

33. 8ead the following sentences containing the sound *f+#
- ;is face grew flushed when he won the raffle.
19
- 4he left the snowfla<es on the frosty shelf.
- 'lorence fried fifty fat cauliflowers for five of her finest friends.
- 're9uent fliers often find fault with their favorite flights of fancy.
- ;alf a loaf fre9uently fails to satisfy the food preferences of affluent fol<.
- ?lease inform 'anny if any funny references are made "efore "rea<fast is finished.
(source# ;ahner et al/ 133.# 1252121)

5. ?ractice the sound *v+ in all three "asic positions#
Nictor 4tephen Eve
vain invent wave
vitamin moving dive
vote heaven native
voice avoid dove
void advance five
Nernon paving =ive

1. ?ractice the following phrases containing the sound *v+#
heaven a"ove give five very valua"le
vintage view velvet gloves Nivian:s vindictiveness
voice vote have value oval shovel
moving van weavers: village Nalentine:s 6ay fever

2. 4entences with *f+ and *v+#
2Nalerie was a vivacious vi7en/ variously proving herself vindictive and "enevolent.
26id you receive a Nalentine from your lover?
2Bhey proved that the levels were even.
2>livia:s fiancO "elieved that her sylphli<e figure was effectively featured in her
effervescent offering of flamenco.
2Nivienne vacations at Naletta the first fourteen days of 'e"ruary.

3. 8ead aloud the following words/ phrases and sentences in which the sound *0+
occurs fre9uently#
three method "oth
theory author death
thorough ethical wealth
thic< diphthong mouth
throw lethal depth
thrush healthy warmth
throat atheist earth
therapy toothpaste growth
thistle lethargic south

a thorough method thic< thum" pathetic thug
20
ethnic pathways thought nothing mammoth theft
a thousand toothpic<s youthful theme third Bhursday
three "athro"es fourth "irthday thirsty throng
2Bhing worth thin<ing thoroughly a"out.
2Bhrow the thic< thing at a greater depth.
2Bhe cathedral was at the end of the path.
2;e wrote a third theory a"out the toothache.
24he lived on the fourth floor/ in room thirteen.
2>n the fourth of the month he thought of Elisa"eth.
2Bwo fifths e9uals four tenths.
2%t was his third faithless love affair.
2Bhan<s for thin<ing of "oth of us, it was thoroughly thoughtful of you.
2Bhree thread"are travelers threaded their way through isothermal pathways to reach
their Jenith.
2Without a thesaurus/ authoring three growth phrases with the phoneme *T+ is a
than<less tas<.

. ?ractise the following tongue twister#
Bhis is Bheodore Bhic<thum" who thrust his thic< thum" through a thorny thic<et of
thirty2three thousand thistles.

&. 8ead the following te7t#
Bhe "o7 of thim"les from the Bhrifty Bhim"le $ompany arrived as ordered.
;owever/ instead of thirty2si7 thim"les the "o7 contained only thirty2three thim"les/
three thim"les fewer than the thirty2si7 we had ordered. We wrote to the company
e7plaining that we had ordered thirty2si7/ not thirty2three thim"les/ and as<ed them to
send us the e7tra three thim"les. Bhey replied that they were in error in sending only
thirty2three thim"les rather than thirty2si7 and that they would ship us three additional
thim"les immediately.

-. 8ead aloud the following words/ phrases and sentences containing the sound *+#
there mother "reathe
though although with
these together "athe
the other loathe
thus worthy clothe
that leather soothe
thereafter rhythm teethe
theirs wither seethe
themselves neither scathe

those rhythms their mother father is there
within and without gather together other feather
thee and thou farther and farther either mother or father
21

2'ather and mother are rather tired.
2Bhis leather is as smooth as a feather.
2Bhey were gathering cotton "efore the hot weather.
2Either "rother may "e "athing in the river.
2;e was "reathing smoothly/ although the weather was rather "ad.
2Bhere was fine weather when father and mother went on the trip.
2Bhey were within the "oundaries.
2Bheir things were put together in a leather "ag.
2Bhe "a"y is teething/ don:t tease him.
2 Bherein lies the tale of Wuthering ;eights.

.. 8ead the following te7t. ?ay attention to the correct pronunciation of the *+
sound#
Neither of them was there when their "rother arrived. ;e had not "othered to get in
touch with them and therefore neither of them e7pected him. When they came home
their surprise at his sudden visit can thus "e imagined. Bheir "rother was rather at a
loss for words and they themselves were almost speechless. Bhey then estimated that
it had "een more than ten years since they had seen each other. %t was indeed a happy
gathering for all of them and although much had happened in the meantime they were
together again at last.

0. 8ead the following words containing the sound *s+#
send assume pass
small descri"e li<es
4am ascend purse
sweet essential dominance
sorrow destitute fa7
sign cassette =uice
soar "ase"all <iss
sound mist menace
supper decent cactus
ceiling proceed lettuce
cycle classic verse
certain deceive actress

3. 8ead the following sentences containing the sound *s+. Ad=ust your tongue to
produce the clearest/ strongest *s+#
set aside sil< suit sing song
<iss 4arah purchase price pass the salt
safe and sound 4weet 4wan of Avon se7y 4wiss hats
sad sermon tasteless lettuce actress: address
solar system classic ceiling deceitful policy

22
- Bhey set sail to 4outh America.
- Bhe sand made a mess on the seat
- %t:s the tip of the ice"erg.
- %:m going to sign the lease for the house.
- Bhat:s the worse lettuce %:ve ever tasted.
- 4end me a press release.
- !y silly sister sold her new "icycle at a loss.
- Bhe actress had to rehearse the role of a nurse.
- Bhe screaming guests have "een frightened "y the sna<es.
- Bhe instructor spo<e respectfully to the students.
- Bhe mos9uito is a pest that ma<es you scratch.
- Bhe >rient E7press stops twice "efore leaving 'rance.
- Bhe master:s assistant will register your instrument or instruct you in its use.

&5. 8ead the following words and phrases containing the *J+ sound#
Jero present loves
Jealous o"serve "ooJe
Jip prism rose
Jom"ie dosing "louse
Jone daisy cause
Je"ra rosy falls
Joo risen "reeJe
Jone music gaJe
Jin< easy wise
Jipper possess "ecause

"uJJing "ees Jodiac Jone "usy Buesday
noisy music haJy days amaJing design
was it his amaJing news Pero7 disaster

&1. ?ractice sentences for *J+
- 4he was gaJing at a fuJJy wool "laJer.
- Bhe "ruise was due to a fall from the trapeJe.
- ;e was awarded a priJe for "raving the freeJing "liJJard.
- 6oes the amusement par< close early on Buesdays?
- ;e heard the "uJJing of "ees in the daisies.
- Pero7 earns Jillions of dollars "y setting e7amples for other rising companies.
- 4uJie was "usy as a "ee while EJra laJed around noisily.

23
&2. 8ead the following words "ased on the contrast "etween *s+ and *J+#
sin< Jin< looser loser place plays
said Jed lacy laJy niece <nees
4ue Joo "uses "uJJes price priJe
4eal Jeal fussy fuJJy hearse hers.

&3. 8ead the following minimal pairs "ased on the contrast *0/ t/ s+ and */ d/ J+.
thin tin sin seethe seed seiJe
than< tan< san< teethe teed tease
theme team seem "athe "ade "aiJe
thaw taw saw lithe lied lies
faith fate face "reathing "reeding "reeJing

&. 8ead the following words/ phrases and sentences in which *j+ occurs fre9uently#
ship nation "ush
sure fishmonger "lush
shallow intention splash
shade machine am"ush
chaperone cushion fresh
$hicago usher crush
shed fashion mustache
shower tissue 4panish
chef ocean slash
sugar tension foolish

washing machine ocean ships spatial relations
?olish nation short shower shrill shrie<
foolish charades fashion shoe wash the dish
sha""y chef fish dish shine a shoe

24he shouldn:t have mentioned her shameful mission in front of the "ishop.
24he washes her hair with fresh shampoo.
2%t:s a sure sign of shoc<.
24hall % wear my new fashiona"le shawl?
24he sells seashells "y the seashore.
24he relished the thought of loo<ing for shells at the shore.
2Bhe usher was shut out of the show.
2Bhe chauffeur stopped at the "ar"er shop for a shave.
2Bhe flashlight was crushed when the shelter collapsed.
26on:t "rush against the fresh varnish.

&&. 8ead aloud the following words and phrases paying attention to the pronunciation
of the *+ sound#
pleasure rouge
24
measure "eige
allusion garage
visual camouflage
treasure prestige
fision massage
casual mirage
leisure entourage

measure for measure Asian vision
precision e7plosion visual mirage
casual decision "eige garage

&-. Meep *j+ and *+ apart in the following minimal pairs and sentences#
dilution delusion
glaciar glaJier
mesher measure
fission vision
$onfucian confusion

2Always shower after a pleasura"le massage.
2% was assured that the ocean would "e aJure in colour.
2;e shouldn:t wear that "rushed2denim leisure suit.
24hovelling sand can "e pleasura"le.
2;e shaved and showered "efore "rushing his teeth "ut neglected to massage some
polish into his shoes.


&.. ?ractice the sound *h+ in the following words and sentences#
hint "ehind
hero a"hor
heart anyhow
horse rehearse
;alloween alcohol
who ahead
heat coherent
hinder inha"it
humiliate foothold
;elen "ehave
harmless adhesive.

2Bhe hunters: hotel "ehind the hill is huge and very hot.
2;ave you heard that ;enry was in a hurry to "uild himself a house?
2Bhe hurricane destroyed the hurdles and hurt many human "eings inha"iting some
horrid huts.
2Bhey were happy "ut hungry after the rehearsal.
25
2Who ate the other half of the ham"urger?
2%ncoherent sentences are hard to handle.
2Boo huge a helping can "e haJardous to her health.

&0. 8ead the following words/ phrases and sentences containing the sound *r+.
reef grass ra<e narrow
rag crowd write "erry
ring train wrec< hurry
right "rand roc< carrot
rest "read roam worry
riddle arrive raid terrific
rheumatism curious ro""er carry
reverend surround wrong direct
rare aggressive ride marry
research permanent rainwater circular

Aroo<lyn Aridge his "rother:s "ride 1reat Aritain
"ro<en promises "road protection "rain drain
his "rother:s "ride red herring marriage rite
pouring rain hurry around write to ;arry
pride and pre=udice red roses worry tomorrow
very direct narrow corridor wrec< the car

24traw"erries/ rasp"erries and red2currants/ with real cream are really very refreshing.
2Bhis train and its truc<s are trapped "y a tree2trun< across the trac<.
2Bhree hundred readers used the li"rary reading room in the period from 'e"ruary to
April/ reports the li"rarian.
2;e roamed around the room to find the ra<e.
2Bhe carrier was on the rural route.
2April gives us freedom from the trials of winter.
2%t:s rare to find a real pearl.
2Bhe red ferry went in the wrong direction.
28alph has the list of rules for the raffle.
2Bhe florist hurried across the road.
2% roamed around the room to find the ra<e.
2;e worried that the tar would ruin the rug.
2When you are angry/ a frown spreads across your face.
2Bhe fragile crystal "ro<e in the crate.
2;e "ro<e the "ottle of apricot "randy.
2'riday afternoon traffic across the Aroo<lyn Aridge increases a"ruptly at
appro7imately three2thirty.
2'erdinand the "ull/ terror of the ranch/ graJed really greedily around the range while
ignoring the surrounding herd.
2?resenters of oral readings should pursue the ready references wherever they occur.
2;e "rought red roses home for their anniversary.
26

&3. 8ead the following minimal pairs "ased on the contrast "etween *r+ and *l+#
reap leap, pray play
rid lid, proud ploughed
roo< loo<, grow glow,
royal loyal, praise plays
rare lair, "reed "leed
rear leer, heron ;elen
reef leaf, grass glass
rot lot, "read "led
roc< loc<, croc< cloc<.

-5. 4ay the following phrases ma<ing sure to add an intrusive *r+#
law and order Alas<a and Ala"ama
% saw a man go to Africa on vacation
vanilla ice cream ;avana is the capital of $u"a.
drama and speech Gour idea is o<.

-1. 8ead aloud the following words/ phrases and sentences containing the *tj+ sound#
church teacher "each
chair feature catch
chain creature !arch
chic< picture such
cheer furniture hatch
chat <itchen peach
$hina hatchet coach
choose "utcher watch
chime enchant match

cheap chal< chitchat chief coach
<itchen match cheap china teach a child $hinese
chocolate chips actual choice charming 'rench woman
grouchy "achelor church sculpture cheerful children

2$harles is scratching his itching chin.
2$harles is a cheerful chic<en2farmer. A poacher is watching $harles:s chic<ens/
choosing which to snatch. ;e chuc<les at the chance of a choice chic<en to chew for
his lunch. Aut the chuc<le reaches $harles/ who chases the poacher and catches him.
2Bhe <itchen chair had a natural colour.
2Bhe matching $hina plates chipped easily.
2% chuc<le every time % watch them dance the cha2cha.
2;e gave the children the chance to en=oy chocolate chip coo<ies in a cheap 'rench
restaurant.
-2. 8ead the following words/ phrases and sentences containing the sound *d+#
27
=elly aged orange
ginger"read a=ar large
=am2=ar fragile urge
=udge surgeon hedge
=uice o"=ect age
gender digit ca""age
=ournalism agile grudge
gelatin ma=or college
=o<e suggest page

a large gin =ump for =oy vintage ca""age
aging ma=or ginger =ar strange village
gentle =udge large "arge =a" at the =aw

2Ieremy Iaco"son is an aged =udge who tried to urge a =olly =ury to "e =ust "ut
generous.
21eorge =ourneys to Iapan ne7t Iune.
2Bhe genial surgeon Iones has an urgent =o" to carry out.
2Iane en=oyed the wedge of fudge.
2Iac<:s old =o" was =umping on "aggage.
2Iane was =ealous of my "eautiful geraniums.
24ausage and ginger don:t mi7.
2Iill e7aggerated with her large =eans.
2Iohn lost his gold chain and engagement ring.

-3. Meep the *tj* and *d+ apart in the following words#
tj jj j " #nd d " !n !n!t!#l )os!t!on
chin *tjin+ gin *din+ chain *tjein+ Iane *dein+
cheer *tjio+ =eer *dio+ chest *tjest+ =est *dest+
cho<e *tjou<+ =o<e *dou<+ chun< *tjp+ =un< *dp+
choice *tjis+ Ioyce *dis+ cheap *tji#p+ Ieep *di#p+

tj jj j " #nd d " !n .!d/)os!t!on
riches *'ritjiJ+ ridges *'ridiJ+
catching *'<tjip+ cadging *'<dip+
"atches *"tjiJ+ "adges *"diJ+
"reeches *"ri#tjiJ+ "ridges *"ridiJ+
purchase *potjis+ purges *po#diJ+

tj jj j " #nd d " !n ,!n#l )os!t!on
rich ridge
"atch "adge
28
search surge
catch cadge
; *eitj+ age *eid+

-. 8ead aloud the following words/ phrases and sentences in which *m+ appears
fre9uently#
maid amount same
mil<man summer autumn
mice comfort com"
!ar< clumsy phlegm
mastermind thim"le rhyme
mayday lemon rhythm
mouse demand "room
mista<e camera synonym
metal woman crum"

amount of money summer time time "om"
remem"er me team name tempt me

2!ar< and !ary have mumps.
2F!illie and !elody mustn:t munch margarine and marmalade at the moment:/ says
!ummy.
2%t was a mista<e to wear a metal mas<.
2An immense mammoth in the museum at !emphisC
2Bhe museum has many memora"le monuments to the memory of some remar<a"le
mem"ers of the !oslem community.
2Bhe man was calm after he hit his thum" with a hammer.
2%:m going to school for one summer semester.

-&. ?ractice the *n+ sound in the following words/ phrases and sentences.
need annoy earn
native union "urn
Nigeria pension nun
networ< underta<e loan
nostril concept fun
<nee anti9ue happen

a thin man nine nuns nineteen needles
no"ody <noc<ed never naughty Nancy:s <nitting
wounded <nee annoying granny a tin can

2Naughty Nancy has "ent the <nitting needles and <notted Nanny:s <nitting.
2;enry hands his nephew Nigel a "rand2new pound2note on 4undays.
2Norman Arown signs his name again and again with a fine pen line.
2Iane needed a can2opener for the ninety2nine cans.
29
24he "egan <nitting mittens in Novem"er.
2We used satin2finish varnish on the furniture.

--. ?ractice the sound *p+ in the following words/ phrases and sentences#
thing singer
herring longing
wrong hanger
strong "an<ing
gang finger

a strong young mon< a ringed finger staying among
racing and =ogging strong hanger doing wrong
"uying rings as<ing the singer amaJing things

24ing a song to me/ IenniferC
2Bhe young <ing tried the ring on his finger.
2English ran<ers marching along/ singing a rousing drin<ing2song.
2% thin< that singing is good e7ercise for your tongue.
24he is always as<ing the wrong 9uestions.
28unning and =umping conflict with eating and rela7ing.

-.. ?ronounce the following minimal pairs/ paying attention to the difference
"etween *n+ in the first column and *p+ in the second one#
*n+ *p+ *n+ *p+
thin thing sin sing
win wing "an "ang
fan fang pan pang
lawn long ton tongue
stun stung run rung
gone gong sun sung

-0. ?ronounce the following pairs of words. Bhe first word in each pair ends in *p<+
and the second in *p+#
*p<+ *p+ *p<+ *p+
clan< clang rin< ring
thin< thing win< wing
tan< tang "an< "ang
sun< sung sin< sing
ran< ran< "un< "ung
stin< sting han< hang

-3. 8ead aloud the following words/ phrases and sentences containing the *l+ sound#
lemon place girl
laughter flame simple
30
lettuce yellow smuggle
lame shilling purple
lentil lollipop fool

long life little Eucy lame lion
yellow daffodil lonely lady late lunch
cauliflower fields faulty lin< smell of garlic

2A simple sym"ol of love is all she longs for.
2Bhis little girl called Eucy/ left alone/ loves her small doll.
2A no"le old lion and a lioness are lying asleep in their lair.
2Bhere were lilies around the "lue la<e.
24he:s not li<ely to "e lonely.
2Bhe loc< was literally welded close.
2Bhere will "e hail or sleet late tonight.
2Bhe colours "lended together "eautifully.
2Eilly slowly ladled little Eetty:s lentil soup into the lemon2yellow "owl.
2Eately/ people have "een complaining "itterly a"out untangling world pro"lems.

.5. ?ractice the semivowel *=+ in the following words/ phrases and sentences#
yard yet "eauty music
youth yacht value tune
university yesterday due rescue
yellow universe new mutual
Europe uni9ue nephew humour
use year cupid popular
unit Dtah onion communicate

a new suit a yelping yapping terrier the musical youth
European Dniversity yellow onion humorous nephew

2Goung Dna is "eautiful and alluring in her super" new yellow tunic.
2Dna:s tutor/ ;ugo/ is an amusing humorous musician.
2;ugo:s tuneful duet for tu"e and euphonium is musically uni9ue.
2Bhe pro"lem of uranium disposal has "ecome universal.
24ome musicians use popular fol< tunes to produce music which goes "eyond the
usual.
2>nions grown in the yard usually produce yearnings for yeasty "oullions.

.1. ?ractice the semivowel *w+ in the following words/ phrases and sentences#
window wine twenty twice
once one always twin<le
William waiter dwindle 9uality
water Welsh 9uit s9uare
wave wish"one tweed dwarf
31

windy weather weeping Wilma watered2down wine
water waves twenty dwarves 9uiet waiter

2William is always away.
2A weeping willow is moving in the wind.
2% would li<e some sweet white wine.
2Wilma is worried a"out the woodworm in the woodwor< of her wardro"e.
2Why wouldn:t Walter wash with water that wasn:t warm? Walter wor<s at a
wa7wor<s and wa7 won:t wash off without warm water.
2William always wears a warm woolen vest in winter.
2Walter/ however/ will not wear woolen underwear even in the Wild West.


0. P%#$t!$e/ sounds !n $onne$ted s)ee$h
1. %s the individual 9uality of sounds as pronounced in isolation preserved when they
are used in connected speech?

2. What are the three stages distinguisha"le in the production of a given sound?

3. ;ow are sounds =oined together in connected speech?
. Which are the most important phonetic phenomena (processes) that occur in
connected speech?

&. 1ive e7amples of close and open =uncture.

-. ;ow is the transition from one sound to the other fulfilled?

.. What is the direction of the ad=ustments of the articulatory movements?

0. What is the name of the process consisting of a change in at least one feature in the
articulation of a sound in a word or at word "oundaries/ which is due to the tendency
of the spea<ers of a language to achieve a certain degree of similarity in the
pronunciation of contiguous sounds?

3. 6escri"e and illustrate "y e7amples the three types of assimilation# progressive/
regressive and reciprocal.

15. 1ive the phonetic transcription of the following phrases and sentences. What <ind
of assimilation ta<es place in them?

right place gone past that girl in case you need it
those shoes plant carrots this year ;as your mother told you that?
hit you <id you % miss you 6oes your papa <now?

32
11. Branscri"e the following English =o<e and e7plain "y what phonetic process it has
"ecome a source of humour?
!r. 4mith# !y wife has =ust left for the West %ndies.
!r. Arown# Iamaica?
!r. 4mith# No/ of her own accord.

12. Eisted "elow are several variants of one of the English prefi7es meaning QnotQ.
E7amine their distri"ution and e7plain the instances of assimilation#
%ariant Found in
*im+ immature/ imperfect/ impartial/ implausi"le/ im"alance/ immortal/
*in+ inoperative/ indecent/ innocent/ inedi"le/ inaudi"le/ intermina"le
*ip+ incomplete/ incapa"le/ incorrigi"le/ inglorious/ ingratitude
*ir+ irregular/ irresponsi"le/ irreversi"le/ irresisti"le/ irrespective
*il+ illegal/ illegi"le/ illogical/ illiterate/ illegitimate

13. 6efine elision and specify whether it affects# a) only vowels, ") only consonants,
c) "oth vowels and consonants.

1. %n what <ind of sylla"les does the elision of vowels occur?

1&. %dentify the vowels which are usually elided in the pronunciation of the following
words#
family garden deli"erate
history generous pattern
comforta"le evil suppose

1-. 'ind elision of consonants in the following words and phrases#
2hand"ag/ landscape/ grandmother/ castle/ crum"s/ "est man/ first night/ left <nee/
<ind nurse/ s<immed mil<.

1.. ;ow can =uncture change the meaning of the following strings of sounds?
*onaishaus+/ *oneijon+/ *disli#ps+/ *ogreit"i+/ *ogri<spai+/ *ai s# ho#reis+/ *ti<it+.


1. P%#$t!$e the s+ll#-le
1. An English word may "egin with a ma7imum of three consonants. Eist as many
e7amples of different three2consonant clusters as you can/ then answer the following
9uestions#
a. What must the first consonant "e?
". What two phonetic features must the second mem"er of the cluster have?
c. What phonetic features must the third mem"er have?

2. >f the following list of consonant clusters/ find the ones that can appear in word2
initial position in English#
33
"l, <l, dl, pl, tl, ml, nl, sl, jl/ 0l, <r, "r, tr, dr, gr/ mr/ nr/ r/ r/ hr/ dr/ tJr/ st/ pt/ "t/ ft/
Jt/ jt/ ht/ p</ r</ sgl/ s</ spr.

3. 'rom among the following/ find the clusters that can appear in the final segment of
the English sylla"les.
fs/ t</ pt/ ps/ <t/ f0/ sp/ 0s/ sl/ ns/ mJ/ lp/ jt/ vJ/ pd/ Jd/ <st/ tjt/ sts/ l<s/ nJd/ ndJ/ lvJ/
lpt/ g0s.

. What does the nucleus of the sylla"le correspond to?

&. 1rammar mista<es are sometimes the result of not hearing the num"er of sylla"les.
'or e7ample#
a. Bhey:ve rent(ed) a house.
". Bhere are two dish(es).
Which of the following words have one sylla"le and which have two sylla"les#
painted rented added caused
wal<ed wor<ed watched started
landed closed folded laughed
What is the rule?
causes dishes watches ca<es
rules files misses pieces
mi7es changes loves prices
What is the rule?

-. 4ometimes in natural spo<en English vowel contractions cause sylla"les to
Fdisappear: completely. Eoo< at the following words. ;ow many sylla"les would you
e7pect in each word? ;ow many do you actually pronounce? Write the num"ers
down.
Expected number Actual number
e.g.# medicine 3 2
chocolate
vegeta"le
comforta"le
interesting
secretary
li"rary
military

2. P%#$t!$e wo%d/st%ess

34
1) Accent is a suprasegmental feature of language/ which discharges a distinctive
function/ since/ =ust li<e the segmental phonemes/ it can signal differences in
meaning.
a) >ver what length does accent (stress) e7tend?
") What does it consist of?

2) 4ylla"le prominence is due to a variety of factors. What are they?

3) Bhe varying factors contri"uting to the prominence of an accented sylla"le result in
several distinguisha"le degrees of accent. What are they?

) Accent discharges its function in English in two ways. What are they?

&) AnalyJe the following words from the accentual point of view. 4how whether a
change in their stress pattern "rings a"out a change in their grammatical function#
affi!, increase, abstract, import, insult, contest, contrast, replay, surey.

-) Bhe shift in accent from one sylla"le to another is sometimes mar<ed "y changes
in the segmental phonemes of the words in 9uestion. !inimal pairs of the incense &n$
vs. incense &$ type are very rare in English. Bhere are/ instead/ numerous e7amples
of shift of accent co2occurring with minor segmental changes/ mainly the reduction of
the vowels in unstressed sylla"les to *o+. 6iscuss the accentual patterns of the words
"elow and indicate the syntactic function (and the meaning) corresponding to each of
the two accentual patterns they possess# contract, conict, refuse, progress, rebel,
pro'ect, minute, alternate, supplement, inalid.

.) A closer loo< at the words e7hi"iting this <ind of change in accent/ corresponding
to a change in syntactic function/ discloses the fact that when the primary accent falls
on the prefi7/ the words perform a nominal function (i.e. they are either nouns or
ad=ectives) while when the primary accent falls on the root/ they function as ver"s.

4tate which of the following words display two accentual patterns associated with
two different syntactic functions (sometimes unrelated semantically)/ and which
preserve the accentual pattern while still discharging the two distinct syntactic
functions. ?oint out those instances in which a shift in accent is accompanied "y a
change in the 9uality of the vowels in the unaccented sylla"les#
abandon, absent, addict, address, amend, collect, combine, comfort, comment,
compress, test, content, contest, correct, corrupt, decease, degrease, de'ect, demand,
deposit, digest, discharge, discount, discourse, display, effect, escort, e!tract, e!act,
import, incline, insult, insert, ob'ect, perfume, permit, present, prefi!, produce,
progress, protest, rebound, record, refill, refund.

0) As far as meaning differences are concerned/ accent serves to signal such
differences especially in the case of compound words. $ompare bl(ckb)rd (a
35
compound word/ meaning Fa special <ind of "ird:/ i.e. mierlH) to bl*ck b+rd (a free
syntactic com"ination/ meaning Fany "ird which is "lac< in colour:).

1ive the accentual pattern of the following compounds# greenhouse, hot dog,
briefcase, blackboard and then switch it with the accentual patterns of the free
com"inations corresponding to them. Analyse the resulting changes in meaning as
well.

3) %dentify the appropriate accentual patterns of the italiciJed words (simple or
compound) or phrases/ as revealed "y their syntactic function#
,. a. ;e spo<e with no trace of accent.
b. Bhe way you accent these words tells me you were not "orn in England.
-. a. Bhat:s very abstract.
b. >ne can abstract several general rules from the e7amination of these facts.
.. a. ;e was not on the missing list.
b. ;e couldn:t find the missing list, it:s "een missing for several days.
/. a. Gou will need a permit to visit the place.
c. Bhis =o" does not permit of any delay.

15. 8ead the following words aloud/ reading across the page. ?lace the primary stress
on the appropriate sylla"le#
ma=or ma=ority
sacrifice sacrificial
reference referee
incident incidental
continent continental
simplify simplification
occupy occupation
product production
"eautify "eautification
converse conversational
nominate nomination nominee
photograph photography photographic
o"=ect o"=ective o"=ectification
su"=ect su"=ective su"=ectification
person personify personification

11. English spea<ers do not always agree as to which sylla"le in a word should "e
stressed# should contribute/ for e7ample/ "e pronounced $>Ntri"ute or conB8%Aute?
;ere are some words which are stressed differently "y different spea<ers. Which
sylla"le do you stress in each case? $hec< the pronunciation in a dictionary.
a. adversary ". applica"le
c. centrifugal d. cigarette
e. compara"le f. contri"ute
g. controversy h. (an industrial) dispute
36
i. distri"ute =. e79uisite
<. ice cream l. <ilometre
m. magaJine n. pe=orative
o. primarily p su"sistence
(4ource# Bras</ 8.E./ 133#20)


3. P%#$t!$e !nton#t!on
Tune I
1. St#te.ents. 8ead the following sentences/ paying attention to the correct
intonation.
%t was '9uite good.
% 'li<e it 'very much.
% 'wouldn:t 'mind 'seeing it again.
% 'don:t thin< % can.
Bhe 'flowers were "eautiful.
Bhey had 'difficulty in 'finding accommo dation.

2. 8epeat the following phrases according to the pattern#
We:re late at night "y heart
% <now "y day at sight
Iust now he:s gone of course
%t:s mine at school in "ed

3. 8ead the following statements with the correct intonation#
% 'heard him 'play at the 'Al"ert ;all.
'Alice was "e'ginning to get 'very tired.
%t:s the 'early '"ird that 'catches the worm.
'Boo many 'coo<s 'spoil the "roth.
4he has a 'very 'small 'private income.
;e 'wor<s 'all 'day in the city.
'What a 'pity he 'couldn:t come sooner.

. 4h/5uest!ons. 8ead the following 9uestions with appropriate falling intonation.
'Why did you 'change your mind?
'Who on 'earth was that?
'What:s the time?
'When can you come?
'What:s the date?
'Why don:t you listen?
37
'What have you done?
'When do the 'shops open?
'Where do you 'want to sit?
'Which do you 'li<e "est?
';ow many 'pennies are there in a shilling?
';ow 'long have you "een waiting?

&. Co..#nds. 8ead the following imperative sentences/ paying attention to the
falling tone.
'6on:t "e a 'stupid idiotC
'Ba<e your 'feet off the chairC
'$ome and have 'dinner with usC
';ave some chocolate/ EliJaC
'Aring me a chairC
'Auy me a newspaperC
'Eend me your pen<nifeC
''ind 'page 'twenty2 nineC
'8un and 'fetch a hammer/ 'IohnC
'4ee if you canC
'Burn on the radioC

-. E6$l#.#t!ons. 8ead the following e7clamations.
'1ood ;eavensC
';ow e7traordinaryC
'What a 'very 'pretty dressC
Bhan< youC
'Bhan< you 'very muchC
What a 'cold dayC
';ow lovely it all loo<sC
'Welcome 'home againC
'What a 9uestionC
'What a 'terri"le tragedyC
'What a 'glorious viewC
'?oor 'old thingC

.. 7uest!on/t#&s (remar< and tag "oth on falling intonation). Bhis pattern is used in
remar<s where the statement is o"viously true and the tag merely a polite phrase to
invite the interest of the other person. %t is also used where the spea<er feels
reasona"ly sure that his remar< is correct and e7pects the listener to agree with him.
8ead the following sentences/ paying attention to the intonation mar<s.
38
2Bo'morrow:s !onday/ isn:t it?
Gou:re 'wondering who % am/ aren:t you?
%:m 'rather late/ aren:t %?
;e 'wasn:t 'very polite/ was he?
Gou 'don:t "e Rlieve me/ do you?
% could 'try a gain/ couldn:t %?
We shall 'see each 'other a gain/ shan:t we?
%t 'loo<s li<e rain/ doesn:t it?
We 'had no choice/ had we?
Bhey 'should have <nown/ shouldn:t they?
Bhat was 'most un fair/ wasn:t it?

Tune II
0. St#te.ents
Bune %% is used in its simple from for statements made as re9uests/ remar<s of
concern/ sorrow/ apology and almost any emotion that ma<es an o"=ective statement
less definite. 8ead the following sentences/ using the correct intonation#
% 'wish % could 'spea< 'English li<e
/
that.
% 'shan:t "e
/
long.
'Iohn will "e 'here
/
soon.
% 'won:t drive too
/
fast(so don:t worry)
'Bhat:s all
/
right.
'Bhat:s the 'sort of 'man he
/
is.
'Bhan<s 'very
/
much.
%f you
/
li<e.
'Bhat:s
/
funny.
'1ood
/
morning.
%t:s 'all the
/
same.

3. Yes8o 5uest!ons
'Are you '9uite
/
sure?
'6idn:t they 'promise to 'do it at
/
once?
';ave you "een 'staying here
/
long?
'6o you su'ppose there:s 'any 'chance of
/
meeting him?
'6id 'Iohn 'post 'that
/
letter?
'$an %
/
see it?
'6id you go a'way for
/
Easter?
'Would you 'li<e it 'painted
/
red?
39
'%s it 'possi"le to 'get it
/
out?
'Are you 'sure it can "e
/
done?
'$an you 'come to
/
lunch tomorrow?
'Would you 'li<e a'nother 'slice of
/
"read?
'Were you in 'time for the
/
concert last night?
$an 'any"ody 'tell me the 'name of the 'young 'man who was
/
spea<ing to me =ust
now?


15. Re5uests
Bhis is the typically Fpolite: and encouraging intonation. %t often denotes a somewhat
formal politeness/ i.e. casualness and indifference may "e present as in the case of
statements (with Bune %%). %t is/ however/ more polite than Bune %/ "ut not so polite as
Bune %% with emphasis. A sentence which with Bune % is a command "ecomes a
re9uest if Bune %% is used.

8ead the following re9uests with the appropriate intonation#
'Eet me '<now how you get
/
on.
'6on:t go '"ac< =ust
/
yetC
'!ay % 'fetch your
/
coat?
'$ome and 'see me
/
soonC
'6on:t 'trou"le to
/
answer itC
'Eet me '<now how you
/
get thereC
E7'cuse me one
/
momentC
'!ind what you are
/
doingC
'6on:t "e
/
sillyC
'6on:t 'tease your 'little /sisterC
'Eet:s 'try
/
againC

11. 7uest!on/t#&s
%f the tag is spo<en on the rising pattern of Bune %%/ we understand that the spea<er is
less certain of his remar<, it is presented more as a true 9uestion. Bhe spea<er
suggests# S% "elieve that this is so/ "ut please correct me if % am wrongT. Ay using this
rising tag he is as<ing the listener:s opinion/ and would not "e very surprised if he
were contradicted.

8ead the following sentences using Bune %% for the tags.
%t 'isn:t sold/ is it?
Gou can 'drive a car/ can:t you?
Gou were 'late this morning/ weren:t you?
We 'last 'met in !arch/ didn:t we?
40
% 'ought to 'give it "ac</ oughtn:t %?
%t:s a 'long 'way fromhere/ isn:t it?
;e was 'top of his class/ wasn:t he?
Gou 'do smo<e/ don:t you?
We could 'find 'out tomorrow/ couldn:t we?

12. 4hift the position of the nucleus in the following sentences and analyse the
resulting modifications in the structure of their intonation patterns#
2% don:t thin< he <nows (K2)
2%:m going home at si7 (K2)
21eorge is a fraud (K2)
2What can you see? (K2)
2% don:t thin< he ought to go (K3)
2;ow do you <now it:s wrong? (K1)
2% don:t want the money (K1).

13. $hoose appropriate intonation patterns for the following sentences. ?ay attention
to the possi"ility of choosing several intonation patterns for each sentence and
specify the change in meaning. Notice the deli"erate omission of the comas.
2 % as<ed the captain !r. Arown.
2 Ianet my wife and Iohn have left.
2 Would you li<e one or two lumps of sugar.
2 % thought it would rain.
2 % want more e7perienced people.
2 Iohn my "rother who lives in >7ford loves fishing.

1. $ommands and re9uests are also distinguished "y means of intonation. Bransform
the commands in the first column into re9uests in the second column#
% %%
'8ing me 'up at
R
twelveC 8ing me up at twelveC
'Will you 'pass the
R
sugar/ please? Will you pass the sugar/ please?
R
Alter itC Alter itC
E7
R
cuse me one momentC E7cuse me one momentC
'$ome
R
inC $ome inC
'6on:t 'trou"le to
R
answer itC 6on:t trou"le to answer it.

1&. Bhe following sentences are given with intonation mar<s. 4<etch the pitch within
the lines "elow/ leaving a gap "etween each sylla"le.
a) 'Which was the cheap one did you say
222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222

22222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222
") % 'only 'want to taste it
41
22222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222

2222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222
c) 4he would have thought it was /Ro"vious
2222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222

222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222
d) Bhere 'wasn:t 'even a 'piece of "read in the Uhouse
222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222

222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222

e) Now will you "eUlieve me
22222222222222222222222222222222222

22222222222222222222222222222222222

1-) Bhis e7ercise is similar/ "ut here you are given polysylla"ic words and a tone,
you must draw an appropriate pitch movement "etween the lines#

a) (rise) opportunity
") (fall2rise) actually
c) (fall) confidently
d) (rise2fall) magnificent
e) (rise) relationship
f) (fall2rise) afternoon

1.). %n the following "its of conversation/ you are supplied with an Fopening line: and
a response that you must imagine saying. Gou are given an indication in "rac<ets of
the feeling or attitude e7pressed/ and you must mar< on the te7t the intonation you
thin< is appropriate (mar< only the response). ?unctuation has "een left out/ since it
can cause confusion.
a) %t loo<s nice for a swim. %t:s rather cold (doubtful)
") Why not get a car? Aecause % cant afford it (impatient$
c) %:ve lost my tic<et. Gou are silly then (Stating the obious)
d) Gou can:t have an ice cream. >h please (pleading)
e) What time are the "uses? 4even o:cloc< seven thirty and eight (listing)
f) 4he got eight FA: levels. Eight (impressed$
g) ;ow much wor< have you got to do? %:ve got to do the shopping (and more
things after that$

10) Bhe following sentences are given without punctuation. Dnderline the appropriate
tonic sylla"le places and mar< tone2unit "oundaries where you thin< are appropriate.
42
a) (he wrote the letter in a sad way) he wrote the letter sadly
") (it0s regrettable that he wrote the letter) he wrote the letter sadly
c) four plus si7 divided "y two e9uals five
d) four plus si7 divided "y two e9uals seven
e) we "ro<e one thing after another fell down
f) we "ro<e one thing after another that night.

13) Bhe distance "etween two pitch levels is called range. %s the range "etween two
pitch levels constant?

25) $an differences in pitch "e due to individual characteristics of spea<ers and to the
conte7t in which speech ta<es place?

21) 4tate whether true or false#
2All sound stretches of an utterance are pronounced on the same level
2No language is spo<en on a monotone.
2Bhe distance "etween a high pitch level and a low one is relative.
2?itch range varies with every individual as well as with the conte7t of speech.
2When we refer to the intonation pattern of an utterance we have in mind not only the
recurring changes in pitch level "ut also the movement and the pitch direction
changes of the respective utterance.
2A change either to a higher or to a lower level represents a ....... in pitch.
2Bhe point towards which the movement ta<es place is called........

22) Bhe fluctuation in pitch/ that is in pitch level/ pitch range/ pitch movement and
pitch direction are the component parts of the intonation pattern of an utterance. Bhe
intonation pattern of an utterance displays a given structure/ depending on a variety
of factors. What is the minimal num"er if sylla"les in such a pattern?

23) Nery often/ utterances consist of several sylla"les (and words)/ resulting in a
more comple7 structure from the point of view of its intonation.
a) What are the component elements of a more comple7 intonation pattern?
") What are the pre2 and post2nuclear components of an intonation pattern?

2) 1ive a schematic representation of the complete structure of an intonation
pattern.

2&) 6ivide the intonation patterns of the following sentences into their component
parts#
a) % met him on my way home.
") Bhere:s nothing % can do a"out it.
c) %t:s impossi"le for me to do it.
43