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ORGANIZING De inition of organizing. Organizing identifying the organizational needs from mission statements and objectives and from observations of work performed, and adapting the thinking act. (Swansburg, 1993). It is the process of designing the machine (Urwick in Swansburg, 1993). During the organization process, activities are grouped, responsibility and authority are determined and working relationships are established to enable both the organization and the employees to realize theircommon objectives. PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZATION Four principles of organizing name by Swansburg are: 1. The Principle of Chain of Command. The principle of chain of command denotes central red authority and corresponding authority. This principle states that to be satisfying to members, economically effective, and successful in achieving their goals, organizations are established with hierarchical relationships within which authority lows from top to bottom. Most government, religious and military entities, as well is health institutions are organized this way. In the more modem organizations however, the chain of command is lat, with line managers and technical and clerical staff providing support services. 2. The Principle of Unity of Command. The unity of command principle states that an employee has one supervisor/leader and one plan for a group of activities with the same objective. In nursing, primary nursing and case management support the principle of unity of command. This principle is, however, being modified by emerging organizational theory. 3. The Principle of Span of Control. This principle states that a person should be a supervisor of agroup that he or she can effectively supervise in terms of numbers, functions, and geography. This principle is lexible because the more trained an employee is the less supervision is needed, while those still under training need more supervision to prevent mistakes. 4. The Principle of Specialization. The concept of division of labor or the differentiation among kinds of duties, springs form this principle. This principle states that each person should perform a single leading function. Organizational Structure The organizational structure furnishes the formal framework in which organizing takes place. The organizational structure provides work system, network of communications and identity to individuals and the organization. An organization has both formal and informal components. The informal aspect comprises the personal and social relationships in the organization. It provides the social control of behavior among its members. Management must be aware of its presence because of its importance especially in disseminating correct information through its grapevine. A good manner can take advantage of the informal organizations operating technique and to use it to achieve common goals and objectives. The

formal aspect, on the other hand, is de ined by executive decision determined by planning bureaucratic structure is a formal organizational design. It facilitates large-scale by coordinating the work of many personnel. It is associated with subdivision, specialization technical qualifications, rules and standards, impersonality, and technical efficiency. Organizational structures may either be traditional or decentralized. The traditional organizational structure is a vertical one, with the authority, power, and decision-making vested in one person at the top. Many managers agree that this is an ef icient, cost-effective way getting the job done. Decisions are made quickly, few leaders are required, and much power is vested in a central igure. A disadvantage of this structure is that communication in the organization is greatly impeded. Personnel are informed of changes but are not involved in planning the change. This results in the luck of formal power of personnel, notably of nurses the traditionally structured hospital organizations(Rowland, 1996). The decentralize organization, on the other hand, is characterized by a horizontal structure in which decision making responsibility, authority are at the lowest possible level in the organization. The organization that is decentralized is usually vital, dynamic, and growth oriented. It is lexible and adjusts easily to changes. It has the potential for adapting established standards, policies and procedures to their special needs without creating confusion. Major disadvantage decentralization is the risk of losing coordination brought about by broadening the scope of authority and responsibility. Bureaucracy This term coined by Max Weber evolved from the early principles of administration including those of organizing. It is highly structured and usually includes no participation by the governed. The principles of chain of command, unity of command, span of control, and specialization support bureaucratic structures. A strong point of bureaucratic organizations is their ability to produce employees who are competent and responsible. They perform by uniform rules and conventions, are accountable to one manager who is an authority, maintain social distance with supervisors and clients, thereby reducing favoritism and promoting impersonality, and receive rewards based on technical quali ications, seniority and achievement ( Swansburg, 1993). The characteristics of bureaucracy include formality, low autonomy division of labor, specialization, standardized procedures, written speci ications, memos and minutes, centralization, controls, and emphasis on a high level of ef iciency and production. These characteristics frequently lead to complaints about red tape, and to procedural delays and general frustration. Role Theory Role theory supports the chain of command and unity-of-command principles. Role theory indicates that when employees face inconsistent expectations and lack of informationthey will experience role con lict, leading to stress, dissatisfaction, and ineffective performance. Role conflict and ambiguity can be reduced when management provides: 1. Certainty about duties, authority, allocation of time, and relationship with others 2. Guides, directives, policies, and ability to predict sanctions as outcomes of behavior 3. Increased need fulfillment 4. Structure and standards 5. Facilitation of team work 6. Toleration of freedom 7. Upward influence

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

Consistency Good, prompt communication and information Using the chain of command Prompt decision Personal development Formalization Planning Receptiveness to ideas by top management Coordinating work plans Adapting to change Adequacy of authority

Organizational Climate A work environment that is conducive to worker satisfaction and productivity is a major concern in every organization. Swansburg(1993), identi ied the following as activities that promote positive climate in health care and nursing organizations: 1. Develop the organizations mission, goals, and objectives with input from practicing nurses. Include their personal goals. 2. Establish trust and openness through communication that includes prompt and frequent feedback and stimulates motivation. 3. Provider opportunities for growth and development, including career development and continuing education programs. 4. Promote teamwork. 5. Ask practicing nurses to state their satisfactions and dissatisfactions during meetings and conferences and through surveys; 6. Market the nursing organization to the practicing nurses, other employees, and the public 7. Follow through on activities involving practicing nurses. 8. Analyze the compensation system for t entire nursing organization an structure it to reward competence,longevity,and productivity. 9. Promote self-esteem,autonomy,self-fulfillment for practicing nurses,including feelings that their work experiences are of high quality. 10. Emphasize programs to recognize practicing nurses contributions to the organizations. 11. Asses threats and punishments and eliminate them. 12. Provide job security with an environment that enables free expression of ideas and exchange of opinions without threat of recrimation,which occur,which may occur as negative performance reports,negative counseling,confrontation,conflict,or job loss. 13. Be inclusive in all relationships with practicing nurses; 14. Help practicing nurses to overcome their shortcomings and develop their strengths. 15. Encourage desired and support loyalty,friendliness,and civic consciousness. 16. Develop strategic plans that include decentralization of decision making and participation by practicing nurses. 17. Be a role model of performance desired off practicing nurses. Team Building Having high morale, enthusiasm, s elf-con idence, good self-esteem, are some of the terms associated with team building. The objective of team building is to establish an environment of cohesiveness, high morale, enthusiasm, the feeling of being cared of, self-worth among

employees. In a nursing unit, the irst step in team building is to determine why nursing employees are unhappy and dissatis ied. Once problems and dissatisfactions are identi ied and prioritized, a calendar should be established for addressing them. It is best to prepare a brief management plan that includes the problems, objectives, actions the team can accomplish on its own authority, actions needing management support, persons assigned speci ic responsibilities, target dates and list of accomplishments. The plan should be communicated to the entire staff of the nursing unit, department or division. Evaluation should occur continuously. Recognition of the individuals worth and contributions to the organization through praise and commendations is an important morale builder. LEARNING ACTIVITIES 1. Cite a specific example/ incident that illustrate the difference between leadership and management. 2. Name and briefly explain each of the components of effective management. 3. Describe the characteristics of an effective manager. 4. Give an example of how forecasting has made a difference in your own planning. 5. Give an example/ incident to show how work planning has benefited your work performance. 6. Describe the activities involved in planning. 7. Describe the phases of planning. 8. Why is strategic planning popular among nursing/ health care organization management? 9. What do you understand by bureaucracy? What are its advantage/ disadvantage? 10. Discuss the following principles of organizing (a) chain of command (b) unity of command (c) span of control (d) specialization 11. Describe the structure and climate of the organization where you work. Is it decentralized? Traditional? In what ways? Describe both the formal and the informal structure. 12. If you were a manager, what team building activities will you engage in to promote high morale, enthusiasm, good self-esteem and self-confidence among your staff?