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Acoustic Applications

in Mechanical
Engineering:
Structure-Borne Sound
versus Air-Borne Sound
Marold Marold Moosrainer Moosrainer
CADFEM GmbH CADFEM GmbH
2009 2009 July July 6th 6th
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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Agenda
Introduction into acoustics: common phrases, basic equation
Solving structural vibration problems with ANSYS
Solving structure-borne sound problems with ANSYS SBSOUND
Solving air-borne sound problems with ANSYS (FEM)
Solving air-borne sound problems with WAON (BEM)
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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Introduction
machine acoustics
speed of sound, wavelength, frequency
basic concept of solving acoustic
problems by simulation
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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Some phrases of machine acoustics
direct noise
generation:
flow
acoustics
(CFD + acou.)
indirect noise
generation:
vibroacoustics
(FEM + acou.)
oscillating
forces
transient flow
machine
machine
structure
fluid, e.g. air
building structure
structure-borne sound: a sound wave propagating in a solid medium
air-borne sound: a sound wave propagating in air
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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Speed of sound wavelength frequency
Note that we solve the acoustic wave equation to model reflection,
scattering, absorption and thus we have to resolve each wave in its
spatial pattern
important equation:
air: c340m/s, f=1000Hz ! "=0.34m
water: c1500m/s, f=1000Hz ! "=1.5m
rule of thumb FEM, BEM: 6....10 linear elements per wavelength
required elements for a domain of characteristic size a:
FEM (volume mesh): ~O(N
3
) BEM (surface mesh): ~O(N
2
)
large acoustic FEM problem: 10M DOFs
large acoustic BEM problem: 20k DOFs
large acoustic FMBEM problem: 200k DOFs
f c =
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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Basic concept of solving acoustic problems by simulation
Signal analysis
(MBS, test, FFT)
Structure Structure- -borne sound analysis borne sound analysis
(FEM) (FEM)
Air Air- -borne sound analysis borne sound analysis
(FEM, BEM) (FEM, BEM)
Psycho acoustics
(e.g. DIN 45631)
use N use N
55
percentile values percentile values
for transient noise for transient noise
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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Solving Structural Vibration
Problems with ANSYS
modal analysis
harmonic response analysis
ANSYS application example: train
wheel
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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Solving structural vibration problems with ANSYS
modal analysis:
standard procedure for the dynamic assessment of a structure
compute the potential vibration shapes & resonance frequencies of a
structure without considering any excitation
a library of specific solvers for special tasks:
standard: block Lanczos (LANB),
large problems: PCG Lanczos (LANPCG)
large problems, up to 10000 modes (SNODE)
rotordynamics: incl. gyroscopic effects (QRDAMP)
damped structures: incl. damping matrix (QRDAMP, DAMP)
break-squeal analysis: incl. friction (QRDAMP,UNSYM)
FSI coupled systems: incl. fluid (UNSYM)
however: no amplitude results
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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Modal analysis: mode shapes of a train wheel
1 2 3
6 5 4
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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Solving structural vibration problems with ANSYS
harmonic response analysis
now we introduce an excitation, for
instance a point force F=1N specified over
a frequency range 02500 Hz
only distinct modes will contribute to the
structural response, e.g. the modes having
a nodal line at the excitation point will not
be excited
use mode superposition instead of
inverting full matrices whenever possible
because of efficiency
usually the response amplitude at some
points is postprocessed versus frequency
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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Frequency response UY(f) at contact point
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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Solving Structure-Borne Sound
Problems with ANSYS SBSOUND
basic equation of machinery acoustics
ANSYS application example: train
wheel
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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Computation of structure-borne sound
Acoustics is driven by velocity v=iu not by structural displacement u.
Acoustics assumes an ideal non-viscous fluid without shear layers. Thus
only the surface normal component of the structural vibration velocity
is important.
Acoustics is not a local phenomenon like fatigue where we have to deal
with local notch stresses. Acoustics is a global phenomenon where the
whole structure may contribute to sound radiation.
thus lets try to get one integral quantity to describe the acoustic
fingerprint of a structure by simply averaging the normal surface
velocities
For all this ideas apply the basic equation of machinery acoustics (cf.
textbooks)
> < = ) (
~
) ( ) (
~
2
f v A f c f P
n

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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ANSYS macro library SBSOUND (structure-borne sound)
Perform normal projection of the displacement results
Compute surface averaged mean square velocity by integration
Do all computations in modal subspace for higher efficiency and
extended postprocessing capabilities (modal contribution plot, panel
contribution plot)
1 2 3
modal
contributions
show the
influence of
distinct modes
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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Alternatively: bar chart of modal contributions for fixed f
total result (red
bar) together with
the (blue) modal
contributions
the same figure is
available for
panel panel
contributions contributions if
panels are
defined before
calling
SBSOUND
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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Sound radiation is not only a function of velocity amplitude!
Sound pressure p for two plates vibrating in the same spatial pattern, both
with equal velocity amplitude v
0
but with different frequencies. There is,
however, a big difference in the sound radiation! Radiation efficiency !
at 50 Hz and at 200 Hz
note the equal pressure scale
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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Solving Air-Borne Sound
Problems with ANSYS (FEM)
interior frequency domain acoustic
FEM: living room
exterior acoustics time domain FEM:
offshore hammer
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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Interior acoustics: modal analysis by ANSYS FEM
living room with defined absorbent
linings: mode 2 at 28 Hz (right) mode
50 at 152 Hz (left)
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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Exterior acoustics: transient analysis by ANSYS FEM
Offshore hammer: for offshore applications a steel pipe has to be fixed
in shallow sea water. The pile has a length of 30m above sea ground, a
radius of 2m, and a wall thickness of 50mm; half-sin force FY1E8N.
Its partially immersed in water (water height 25m), where the speed of
sound c=1500m/s, and fluid density #=1000kg/m
3
, apply absorbent
boundary condition at exterior surfaces
pipe
exterior fluid
interior fluid
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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Results: animated displacement u and sound pressure p
Structural result
pipe displacement
radial component
important
Acoustic result
sound pressure
animation
sound pressure
signals at different
microphone
positions
PP
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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Solving Air-Borne Sound
Problems with WAON (BEM)
features of BEM and FMBEM
FMBEM workflow for train wheel
example
ANSYS Workbench !WAON interface
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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Computation of air-borne sound (typical BEM workflow)
1. structural FE model
2. modal model (FEM):
eigenfrequencies, mode
shapes, modal damping
4. Acoustic BEM solves wave equation, no fluid volume mesh required.
a) BEM result: sound pressure p, sound power P, radiation efficiency $
b) field point mesh result (half sphere): sound pressure p, intensity I
3. Harmonic frequency (FEM)
response results (structure-
borne sound): surface
displacements
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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Compare FEM & BEM
before talking about the new
development FMBEM lets
have a more general view on
BEM
BEM: divide only the surface.
easy to create a mesh.
The sound radiation problem
can be handled completely
no need for any particular
boundary condition like in
FEM for exterior acoustic
problems
FEM BEM
Interior Interior
Exterior Exterior
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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Acoustics Software: &
WAON specialized acoustic software for efficient frequency domain sol.
technology
based on Fast Multipole Bounday Element Method (FMBEM), a state of the art
numerical technology
pros
easy to learn (2-4 hours or even a seminar by WEBEX is sufficient)
easy to apply even if acoustics isnt your every day business
easy mesh operations surface mesh of your radiating structure is sufficient
low memory requirements, high performance, high frequencies (comp. to
BEM): e.g. automotive sensor applications at ultrasonic frequencies very
efficient (park distance control, alarm)
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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What is FMBEM
Conventional BEM
Calculation of interaction between all
elements
Memory requirement
O(N
2
)
Solution time
O(N
3
) : direct solver
O(N
2
) : iterative solver
Fast Multipole algorithm is applied to the boundary element method (BEM)
The world's first commercial acoustic-analysis program with using FMBEM
Accuracy is the same as conventional BEM
FMBEM
Calculation of interaction between cells
instead of between elements (maths:
clustering & multipole expansion)
Solution time
O(N N logN)
Memory requirement
O(N N logN)
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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Available on larger structures and higher frequency at
shorter times!
Radiated noise from engine
Pressure or output power distribution
around scooter engine.
4.5 kHz analysis by 84,000
DOF mesh.
Required memory(4.5kHz)
Conventional BEM : 113 GB
FMBEM by WAON : 3 GB
Engine: Conventional BEM vs. FMBEM
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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Compare FEM & BEM
FEM acoustics BEM acoustics
large amount of data particularly for large
distance results or scatter objects
reduced amount of data even for large distance
results
volume meshes: prep/post efforts surface meshes: easy prep/post, less data
developer: easy math,
user: more effort to handle
developer: complex math,
user: more easy to handle
non-reflecting boundary conditions like
FLUID130, perfectly matching layer (PML)
for radiation problems
radiation problem solved very naturally because
every boundary element knows about the
radiation cond. analytically
strong in both frequency & time domain only strong in frequency domain
modal analysis available no modal analysis available
non-homogeneous acoustic media acoustic medium has to be homogeneous
porous media (foam) available (Biot theory) volome damping idealized by complex c
nonlinearities available (large amplitudes) confined to linear theory
convected wave eq. for flow eff. available quiescent acoustic medium
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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ANSYS/WAON workflow: air-borne sound
train wheel example
reloaded
Prepare WAON BEM
(surface) mesh in ANSYS
and export it to CDB
formatS
prepare WAON field point
mesh (virtual
microphones) in ANSYS
and export it to CDB
format
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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Import BEM mesh & map ANSYS structural vibration
results
WAON feature tree
(max. 7 dialogues
to work through
intuitively)
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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Import field point mesh (virtual microphones) &
perform FMBEM harmonic response analysis (2-3 min.)
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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Postprocess pressure amplitude & pressure level in dB
& intensity vectors on field point mesh
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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Compare air-borne power to structure-borne sound power
blue curve: input power
(structure-borne sound
power identical to
SBSOUND result)
due to radiation
efficiency $ this always
is a very conservative
estimate of the radiated
active output power in
red (air-borne sound
power)
good agreement at
higher frequencies
above coincidence
where we have
radiation efficiency $=1.
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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ANSYS Wor k benc h
Developed by ANSYS, Inc.
Developed by CYBERNET SYSTEMS
WAON
Developed by CYBERNET SYSTEMS
WBtoWAON
Even more Easy to Use: Interface WBtoWAON
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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WAON: some more solved acoustic applications
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
0 5 10 15 20
Frequency[kHz]
S
o
u
n
d

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

L
e
v
e
l
[
d
B
]
Point1 Point2 Point3
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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Structure: Single phase
alternating current
electric motor
Task: Simulate noise
behavior for silent
operation
Method: Coupled
electro-mechanic,
structural-dynamic and
acoustic analysis
Investigation of the Noise
Behavior of an Electric Motor
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
f [Hz]
S
ch
allleistu
n
g
s
p
e
g
e
l [d
B
]
Multiphysics: FEM/FEM/BEM application example
electromagnetics electromagnetics
struct. vibrations struct. vibrations
acoustics acoustics
Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering
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Conclusion
ANSYS FEM for structural vibration analysis, multiphysics analysis
(e.g. electro-magnetic excitation)
SBSOUND (ANSYS macro library provided by CADFEM) for a quick
rough structure-borne sound assessment
WAON for really doing fully-fledged acoustic simulations
FMBEM is a very comfortable technique particularly for the new user
because there is no need for volume meshing like in acoustic FEM
FMBEM technique overcomes the traditional drawback of
conventional BEM: matrix storage requirements & large CPU time
due to direct solvers. High-speed iterative solvers available.
FMBEM by WAON allows the analysis of large scale models & high
frequencies
acoustics is easy acoustics is fun!