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EXPERIMENTAL MECHANICS.

New Trends and Perspectives


TrackC. Civil Engineering Applications 249
PAPER REF: 2651


EFFECT OF CEMENT GRAINS ON THE TRIBOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR
OF FRESH CONCRETE

Samir Bouharoun
1(`)
, Nordine Leklou
2
1
GeM UMR CNRS 6183 - Institut de recherche en Genie Civil et Mecanique, IUT de Saint Nazaire, France
2
LUNAM Universite, Universite de Nantes - IUT Saint-Nazaire, GeM, CNRS UMR 6183,
Institut de Recherche en Genie Civil et Mecanique, France
(*)
Email. sbouharounyahoo.Ir


ABSTRACT
The objective oI this paper is to understand the inIluence oI the paste volume on the
mechanisms intervening at the concrete/Iormwork. Two concrete with 28 and 34 oI paste
were Iormulated in order to study the inIluence oI Iines content at the concrete/wall interIace.
Friction tests were carried out using an apparatus which can reproduce the same conditions oI
jobsites. Then, three types oI mixtures Iine elements and the aggregates Iorming the granular
skeleton were prepared to study the eIIect oI water content and aggregates on the interIace
behavior oI Iresh concrete. The results show that the Iriction is governed by the cement grains
and its water content.

INTRODUCTION
Currently, there are many lacunas to understand the phenomena involved during the concrete
casting in the vicinity oI the Iormwork. Some oI the phenomena are directly related to a
Iriction between the materials in contact. This Iriction at the concrete/Iormwork interIace can
be considered as a Iavorable Iactor to reduce lateral pressure exerted on the Iormwork, but it
can also be unIavorably to the quality oI concrete surIace (Libessart, 2006) and (Djelal, 2004).
In the case oI concrete pumping, the excessive Iriction is a problem representing a lack oI
mobility or stability which causes blockage in the pumping pipes in jobsites (Ngo, 2010).
There are many Iactors inIluencing the behavior at the interIace, such as mixture proportions,
admixture, temperature, casting rate, height oI Iormwork. Those Iactors can be classiIied into
two categories: intrinsic and extrinsic. The intrinsic Iactors are related only to the material
characteristics, while the extrinsic Iactors include the external contributions such as Iormwork
Ilexibility, wall roughness, and external temperature. The Irictions at concrete/wall can be
related to the compactness oI the granular skeleton and the Iines content oI the mixture. It can
occur in the case oI concrete mixtures with a very compact granular skeleton and a low or
high content oI binder (Neville, 1995). The ratio is a Iactor which modiIies the rheological
properties oI Iresh concrete and aIIects the interIace properties. The ability oI concrete to Ilow
is improved when this ratio increases. But the concretes at very high w/c are more exposed to
the segregation phenomenon, with a possible blockage oI mixture in the pumping pipe and an
augmentation oI Iiction at the concrete/Iormwork interIace by aggregate/aggregate contact.
The existing studies have some limitation in estimating the role oI the Iine elements and water
content oI the interIace layer at the concrete/wall interIace. This work presents the inIluence
oI the water content and the concrete constituents on the Iriction at concrete/wall interIace.
Friction tests were carried out using a plan/plan tribometer specially designed Ior studying
such Irictions due to the placement oI concrete in Iormwork. Firstly, two ordinary concretes
15
th
International Conference on Experimental Mechanics
250 Porto/Portugal, 22-27 Julv 2012
with 28 and 34 oI paste volume were studied at diIIerent pressures. Secondly, the Iriction
stress was determined Ior several mixtures oI paste and oI sand at deIerent water content. The
results highlight the role oI Iine elements on the tribological behavior oI Iresh concrete. The
results showed that the Iriction stress at the concrete/Iormwork interIace depends on the
volume oI paste and the water content oI the interIace layer.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS
Fig. 1 shows the evolution oI the Iriction stress as a Iunction oI contact pressure Ior the both
concretes and the aggregates (gravel sand) Iorming the granular skeleton. The evolution oI
the curve is linear and Iollows a Iriction law oI Coulomb type in the range oI pressure studied.
In addition, an increase in Iriction stress is observed when the contact pressure and the paste
volume increase.
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0 20 40 60 80 100
F
r
i
c
t
i
o
n

s
t
r
e
s
s

(
k
P
a
)
Contact pressure (kPa)
C1
C2
Aggregates (Gravel Sand)

Fig. 1 - Evolution oI the Iriction stress as a Iunction oI contact pressure

The results show that the Iriction stress recorded Ior the aggregates are lower than those oI
concretes. This phenomenon conIirms that the Iriction is not governed by the granular
skeleton. So, the mechanisms oI Iriction at the concrete/wall interIace are probably linked to
the Iine elements oI mixtures. To complete this study, the eIIect oI the water content oI
cement should be studied at the interIace.
This surprising result could be explained by the role oI cement grains in the interIace layer
which generates in an increase oI Iriction. This augmentation is linked to the enrichment oI
the interIace layer oI Iine elements. The thickness oI this layer becomes greater which
increases the probability to trap the cement grains in the roughness oI the metal plate.

REFERENCES
|1|-Libessart L, InIluence de la composition des agents de demoulage a l`interIace
coIIrage/beton - Impact sur l`esthetique des parements en beton, Doctoral thesis in French,
University oI Artois, Bethune, 2006.
|2|-Djelal C, Vanhove Y, and Magnin A. Tribological behaviour oI selI-compacting concrete,
Cement and Concrete Research, 2004, 34, No.5, p. 821 - 828.
|3|-Ngo T.T, Kadri E.H, Bennacer R, Cussigh F. Use oI tribometer to estimate interIace
Iriction and concrete next term boundary layer composition during the Iluid 'concrete
pumping, Construction and Building Materials, 2010, 24, No. 7, p. 1253 - 1261.
|4|-Neville A. M., Properties oI Concrete, Longman Scientic & Technical, 1995.