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Plaxis Bulletin

Issue 25 / Spring 2009

Ed

Crane Monopile Foundation Analysis

Mohr-Coulomb Parameters for Modelling of Concrete Structures

Simulation of Soil Nail Structures using PLAXIS 2D

Table of Contents

» The Plaxis Bulletin is the combined

magazine of Plaxis bv and the Plaxis Users

Association (NL). The Bulletin focuses on the use

03

04

Editorial

New Developments

Page 4

of the finite element method in geotechnical

engineering practise and includes articles on 05 Recommendations on

the practical application of the Plaxis programs,

case studies and backgrounds on the models

the use of FEM for

implemented in Plaxis. Geotechnical Applications

The Bulletin offers a platform where users of 06 Crane Monopile

Plaxis can share ideas and experiences with each

other. The editors welcome submission of papers

Foundation Analysis

for the Plaxis Bulletin that fall in any of these

Page 6

The manuscript should preferably be submitted

for Modelling of Concrete

in an electronic format, formatted as plain text structures

without formatting. It should include the title

of the paper, the name(s) of the authors and

contact information (preferably e-mail) for the 16 Simulation of Soil Nail

corresponding author(s). The main body of

the article should be divided into appropriate Structures using

sections and, if necessary, subsections. If any PLAXIS 2D

Page 12

end of the article.

22 Recent Activities

The author should ensure that the article is

written clearly for ease of reading. 23 Plaxis Asia

In case figures are used in the text, it should

be indicated where they should be placed

approximately in the text. The figures themselves

have to be supplied separately from the text in

Page 16

or ‘scanned’ figures are used the author should

ensure that they have a resolution of at least 300

dpi or a minimum of 3 megapixels. The use of

colour in figures and photographs is encouraged,

as the Plaxis Bulletin is printed in full-colour.

Page 22

Colophon

The Plaxis Bulletin is a publication of Any correspondence regarding the Plaxis For information about Plaxis software contact

Plaxis bv and is distributed worldwide among Bulletin can be sent by e-mail to: your local agent or Plaxis main office:

Plaxis subscribers

bulletin@plaxis.nl Plaxis bv

Editorial Board: P.O. Box 572

Wout Broere or by regular mail to: 2600 AN Delft

Ronald Brinkgreve The Netherlands

Erwin Beernink Plaxis Bulletin

Arny Lengkeek c/o Erwin Beernink info@plaxis.nl

PO Box 572 www.plaxis.nl

Design: 2600 AN Delft

Blemmodesign The Netherlands Tel: +31 (0)15 251 7720

Fax: +31 (0)15 257 3107

Editorial

Editorial

to Plaxis new visual identity system. With this

new lay-out, the bulletin will be distributed as an

soil properties, special attention was given to

the concrete parameters. The results give an

indication of the tunnel settlement, the stresses in

e-bulletin, in addition to the on-line publication. the lining and the safety factor against soil failure.

For those who have not received this Plaxis

bulletin as an e-bulletin in your inbox, please visit In the third article some implications and

the Plaxis web site www.e-plaxis.nl and follow the recommendations are presented regarding

instructions on how to submit your e-mail address. the use of structural elements to simulate soil

By doing so, you will automatically receive the nail structures in PLAXIS 2D. Emphasis is given

next issues of the e-bulletin, as well as more useful to meshing issues and structural properties. A

information about Plaxis activities and services. comparison is made between the use of plate

elements and geogrid elements.

The New Developments column describes a new

initiative to distribute material data sets from The bulletin concludes with some recent activities

different soils all over the world in order to help and an agenda of upcoming events. It also brings

you making a first estimate of model parameters. our Expert Services to your attention, which is well

For this initiative we need your collaboration. appreciated by clients that have benefit from this

More information is provided in the next section. so far. All together we trust to have compiled again

We hope that many Plaxis users will participate. an interesting Plaxis bulletin, which hopefully

The subsequent section gives an overview of triggers you to participate in the various activities

various working groups in Europe that work on and initiatives. We are looking forward to more

recommendations of geotechnical finite element interactive commun–e–cation.

calculations.

The Editors

The first application article describes how PLAXIS

3D Foundation was used to check the analysis

of a mono-pile foundation for a tower crane.

Different load cases and sensitivity analyses were

considered. The article shows the results in terms

of pile displacements and structural forces. The

Plaxis results are consistent with those obtained

from another analysis tool.

the construction of a family house above an

existing tunnel in Barcelona. In addition to the

New Developments

Author: Ronald Brinkgreve, Plaxis bv

Over the past 20 years, Plaxis has continuously worked on the implementation of constitutive models to describe more features

of soil behaviour in more detail. This work is generally done in collaboration with researchers and experts at universities and

research institutes. Currently, we are testing the recently implemented and well-known Hoek-Brown model for rock behaviour;

we are working on the implementation of a model for cyclic loading and liquefaction of sands, and we will start working on

an anisotropic creep model for soft soils. We also consider the implementation of the sophisticated MIT S1 model for the real

‘cracks’ on soil modelling.

number of soil features can be taken into

account when more advanced models become

data sets with additional information about the

type of soil, the location and initial conditions.

To simplify this, you can download a special tool

spreadsheet containing the formulas. Your data

also helps us improving the formulas.

available. Other users are more reluctant to from the Plaxis web site and use this to send your We are looking forward to your cooperation in this

use advanced models, since, in general, more data to soildata@plaxis.nl. Your data will then be research initiative.

advanced models require more parameters to be considered (anonymously) in the research. The

selected, whereas in practice soil data is rather more Plaxis users participate, the more we all References

limited. It is not the model that scares these users; benefit from this initiative. 1. Duncan J.M., Byrne P., Wong K.S. & Mabry P.

it is the number of parameters to be selected. (1980). Geotechnical Engineering – Strength,

In addition to data sets for particular soil types, stress-strain and bulk modulus parameters for

What if predefined data sets with model Delft University of Technology and Plaxis bv finite element analyses of stresses and move-

parameters for the Hardening Soil model with are currently validating formulas to derive all ments in soil masses. Virginia Tech, Blacksburg,

small strain stiffness (HSsmall) would be provided HSsmall model parameters on the basis of either USA.

for different soil types or specific soils at particular the Relative Density (for sands) or the Plasticity 2. Brinkgreve R.B.J., Engin H.K. & Engin E. (2009).

locations around the globe? This would definitely Index (for clays). These formulas may be used to Validation of empirical formulas to derive

stimulate the use of the HSsmall model over the get a first estimate of the model parameters or model parameters for sands. First International

simple Mohr-Coulomb model, such that more to check the order of magnitude. A validation Symposium on Computational Geomechanics

users will benefit from its advanced features. of the formulas for sands will be presented at (COMGEO), Juan-les-Pins, France. (in press)

However, it is not a guarantee that accurate results the COMGEO conference in April this year

are automatically obtained. Results can still be (Brinkgreve et al., 2009). Users who submit realistic

wrong by 100% (a factor 2), but probably not by and complete data sets will be rewarded with a

1000%, provided that other modelling issues have

been properly taken into account. Note that the q [kPa]

user always remains responsible if he/she uses 900

Figure 1: Liquefaction

results of numerical modelling in geotechnical 800 drained q in undrained loading;

engineering and design. 700 700 model vs. experimental

data

600 600

In addition to the earlier work by Duncan et al.

500 Experiment 500 drained

(1980), it is the idea to create validated data sets Critical State

400 Simulation 400

for the HSsmall model and to provide them to Line Instability

Plaxis users. Therefore, we will invest in a research 300 300 Line

programme on validation of soil data sets, in 200 200

cooperation with universities and research centres. 100 undrained

undrained

We also ask for your cooperation. If you have 0 0

worked on a project using Plaxis with the HS or 0 5 10 15 20 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

HSsmall model, please send us these material epsyy [%] p' [kPa]

Recommendations on the use of FEM for

Geotechnical Applications

Author: Ronald Brinkgreve, Plaxis bv

In Europe, a few committees are working on recommendations on the use of the Finite Element Method for geotechnical

applications. Since 1986 the European Regional Technical Committee ERTC7 has organized conferences on Numerical Methods

in Geotechnics (NUMGE). Conferences have been held in Stuttgart (1986), Santander (1990), Manchester (1994), Udine (1998),

Paris (2002), Graz (2006), and the next conference will be held in Trondheim (2010).

Numerical Methods in Geotechnics is

active since the early nineties. Over the years,

About the same time, another committee was

initiated by NAFEMS in the UK to give a follow

up on an earlier publication in this field (Mar,

References

1. Meissner H. (1991). Empfehlungen des

Arbeitskreises “Numerik in der Geotechnik” der

they have published a number of documents with 2002). NAFEMS is a non-profit organization to Deutschen Gesellschaft für Erd- und Grundbau

recommendations on the size of finite element promote the use of the finite element method in e.V. Geotechnik 14. 1-10.

meshes, the selection of models and parameters, engineering in general. 2. Meissner H. (1996). Tunnelbau unter Tage.

and other useful hints for typical applications like Empfehlungen des Arbeitskreises 1.6 “Numerik

excavations, tunnels and slopes (Meissner 1991, Plaxis is actively involved in workshops and in der Geotechnik“, Abschnitt 2. Geotechnik 19,

1996, 2002; Schanz 2006). Also various benchmarks meetings organized by all these working groups. Nr. 2. 99-108.

have been elaborated in collaboration with the In addition to the committees mentioned here, 3. Meissner (2002). Baugruben. Empfehlungen des

ERTC7, of which the results have been published there are several other persons, universities and Arbeitskreises 1.6 “Numerik in der Geotechnik”,

in three NUMGE conferences (Schweiger 1998, organizations involved in education and research Abschnitt 3. Geotechnik 25. 44-56.

2002, 2006). with the purpose to stimulate and improve the use 4. Schanz (2006). Actuelle Entwicklungen

of numerical methods and constitutive models for bei Standsicherheits- und Verformungs-

In France, a new committee was initiated in geotechnical applications. This short message is berechnungen in der Geotechnik.

2008 by the geotechnical division of LCPC to not intended to give a complete overview, but we Empfehlungen des Arbeitskreises 1.6 “Numerik

consider typical French situations. In particular, are interested to hear about similar initiatives. in der Geotechnik”, Abschnitt 4. Geotechnik

the use of the pressuremeter test as the main 29. 13-27.

source of soil investigation leads to special Please inform us by sending an e-mail with further 5. Schweiger H.F. (1998). Results from two

recommendations for model parameter selection. details to info@plaxis.nl. geotechnical benchmark problems. Proc. 4th

The recommendations should also consider Eur. Conf. on Num. Meth. in Geotechnical

reinforced soil structures. Engineering. Cividini A. (ed.) Springer. 645-654.

6. Schweiger H.F. (2002). Results from numerical

benchmark exercises in geotechnics. Proc.

5th Eur. Conf. on Num. Meth. in Geotechnical

Engineering. Mestat P. (ed.). Paris: Presses Ponts

et Chaussees. 305-314.

7. Schweiger H.F. (2006). Results from the ERTC7

benchmark exercise. Proc. 6th Eur. Conf. on

Num. Meth. in Geotechnical Engineering.

Schweiger H.F. (ed.) Taylor & Francis.

8. Mar A. (2002). How to undertake Finite

Element based geotechnical analysis. NAFEMS

publication.

Crane Monopile Foundation Analysis

Author: Dr Andrew Mar, Coffey Geotechnics Limited, Atlantic House,

Atlas Business Park, Simonsway, Manchester, M22 5PR, United Kingdom, andrew_mar@coffey.com

This article describes the use of PLAXIS 3D Foundation v2.1 (Plaxis, 2008) to analyse the deformation and stability of a

crane monopile foundation supporting a tower crane in close proximity to an existing two-level basement structure. Coffey

Geotechnics were engaged to carry out a Category 3 check of the crane monopile foundation. As part of our quality assurance

procedures a number of comparisons were made to assess the performance of PLAXIS 3D Foundation for analyzing this

particular problem.

representations of the pile foundation

were compared with Coffey in-house developed

derived in the first instance from data in a

comprehensive geotechnical investigation

interpretative report. In summary, the site

The monopile is a composite structure as shown in

Figure 3 which comprises a 16.825m length of steel

pipe (Outer diameter 2.2m with a wall thickness of

analytical tools. The crane monopile is a is underlain by: 2m of made ground, 4m of 40mm) surrounded by a 6.825m length of concrete

composite structure composed of concentric weathered London Clay, 14.5m of London clay, caisson (Inner diameter of 3m with a wall thickness

elements and the effect of using the pile designer 19.5m of Lambeth Clay and 3.5m of Thanet Sands of 160mm) in the upper portion of the pile where

in developing such a configuration was explored. founded on Upper Chalk. it is known that the high lateral loads will develop.

The monopile is a composite structure of The infill between the concrete and steel is a

concentric elements and this was modelled using a Given the transitory nature of the crane loading cement-bentonite grout mixture and the infill in

combination of volume elements defined using the a short-term undrained response of the ground the steel pipe is a 20:1 sand-cement mixture. The

pile designer in PLAXIS 3D Foundation. The pile was considered appropriate; consequently an basement structure comprises three floors and

cross-section for each concentric component was undrained analysis was performed using undrained a contiguous piled wall composed of 28.825m

modelled as a circular tube with the appropriate soil parameters. A range of soil parameters were length; 900mm diameter piles at 1050mm centres.

diameter and wall thickness. considered for the detailed analysis and because The horizontal distance between the bored pile

of the extreme nature of the problem in terms of wall and crane monopile centrelines is 3.2m. The

Description of the Problem Considered the close proximity of the surrounding structures top of the crane monopile is connected to the top

The proposed foundation is a monopile situated and uncertainties with regard to soil strength and of the basement structure by a 500 thick reinforced

very close to an existing two-level basement stiffness due to construction stage effects; the concrete slab as shown in Figure 1.

as illustrated in Figure 1. As well as ensuring final analyses assumed a single London clay layer

that the proposed design of the monopile is with very conservative values for the undrained The material properties used for this problem are

structurally capable of carrying the applied loads Young’s modulus and undrained shear strength of: summarised in Table 1.

from the tower crane, the close proximity of the 30MPa and 150kPa respectively.

foundation to the basement warrants investigation Interface elements have been used along the

of the loads and deformations induced in these Given the transitory nature of the loading and the outside surfaces of the monopile for all the finite

neighboring structures by the activities of the characteristics of the surrounding soils the pile/soil element models in this study. These elements are

tower crane. Such predictions would not be interaction was analysed as an undrained load used to improve the results by allowing for slip

possible via simplistic calculations hence the case. Therefore the London clay has been between the monopile and the soil and to model a

recourse to finite element modelling to gain modelled as an undrained, cohesive linear possibly reduced strength su,int = aint $ su along the

insight into this three-dimensional soil-structure elastic-perfectly plastic (Tresca) material. The sides of the monopile to account for reduced soil

interaction problem. Plaxis Mohr-Coulomb strength model was used strengths due to the effects of pile installation.

with the friction and dilatancy angles equal to

The base of the crane platform grillage (500mm zero, ^z = } = 0h cohesion equal to the continue on page 7

thick) is elevated at 9.5m above the top of concrete undrained strength ^c = suh and the Plaxis default

capping and tie slab. The tower crane is 24.4m (zero tensile strength) tension cut-off criterion in

high with a 60m long jib as shown in Figure 2. place which restricts the development of tensile

The soil parameters used in the analyses were stresses in the soil.

Preliminary Analyses

ERCAP Analyses

The monopile was first analysed using the

boundary element program ERCAP. The program

implements the method described by Poulos

& Davis (1980). This program can analyse a pile

subjected to lateral loading and/or lateral soil

movements. ERCAP (Earth Retention CAPacity

of piles) can analyse the effects of the proximity

of a pile to a slope or cutting in an approximate

manner. It has the facility to enable the assessment

of the stabilising force which a pile or row of

piles can develop in a potentially unstable soil

mass. In this problem it was used to model the

lateral interaction of the monopile with the

surrounding soil when subjected to the horizontal

load and overturning moment at the pile head.

The objective of the preliminary analyses was to

compare results from Plaxis 3D Foundation with

ERCAP.

uniform pile geometry. For this reason, two

separate analyses were performed with uniform

cross-sectional representations of the actual crane Figure 1: Cross-section and plan showing the crane monopile

monopile. To bound the predictions of lateral pile and adjacent basement structure

deflection in the London clay; the performance

of the steel pipe alone and the composite pile

were considered. The first analysis modelled the

steel tubular section whereas the second analysis

modelled the composite pile; each over the full

16.825m length of pile. For the latter, a composite

Young’s modulus of 12.4GPa for a solid circular pile

of 3.32m diameter was calculated on the basis of

REI/R I (see Table 2).

Both the in-service and out-of-service crane

loads were considered (Table 3) to identify the

worst case combination which would develop the

highest deflections, shear forces and bending

moments in the monopile. This was for the

situation without any horizontal restraint offered

by the tie-slab.

were performed undrained and this is applicable Figure 2: Schematic of the Tower Crane Structure

Plaxis Practice: Crane Monopile Foundation Analysis

as the key stratum is London clay with an average displacements, bending moments and shear defined at the various depths in the model where

coefficient of consolidation cv of 0.3m2/year. For forces to be output in a convenient manner. This it is known that a change in geometry or structural

drainage paths, D , in the range of 5.5 to 30m and was performed for every workplane defined in element will begin or end.

an out-of-service time, t, of 1 year say, the the model. Workplanes are the horizontal planes

2

dimensionless time factor T^= cv t/D h

is less than 0.01 and Duncan(1996) has suggested

c z c } E y

that the soil can then be considered to behave in K0

kPa MPa - Rinter

kN/m3 o o

an undrained manner under the loading specified.

London Clay 20 1 0 150 0 30 0.495 0.85

With reference to Figure 1, it can be seen that

the crane grillage soffit level is elevated at 9.5m Steel 77 - - - - 2E5 0.3 -

above the top of concrete and tie slab. Thus for a

Concrete 24 - - - - 2.1E4 0.15 -

1m thick crane platform grillage the lever arm will

be 10m - inducing an additional bending moment 20:1 Sand/Cement

20 - - - - 30 0.25 -

equal to the horizontal crane load multiplied by Mix

this lever arm. For the in-service crane loads this Cement-Bentonite

produces an overturning moment of 6642kNm at 24 - - - - 200 0.15 -

Grout

the top of concrete capping and tie slab.

Table 1: Material Properties of the Soil and Pile

Graphs 1 and 2 show the ERCAP predictions of

pile deflection in the London clay for the steel

Outer Inner Young’s Second

tube alone and composite pile respectively under UCS Flexural Rigidity

diameter diameter modulus Moment of

the action of the in-service and out-of-service (MPa) El (kNm2))

(m) (m) (kPa) Area l (m4)

load conditions. It can be seen that the in-service

loads produce slightly higher horizontal pile head Caisson 3.32 3 20 2.100E+07 1.988E+00 4.174E+07

0

displacement. From the deflected pile shapes it 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000

Cement/Bentonite 3 2.2 2 2.000E+05 2.826E+00 5.652E+05

can be seen that the composite pile is behaving

-2

more like a short rigid pile than the steel tube Steel tube 2.2 2.12 - 2.000E+08 1.584E-01 3.167E+07

alone. The actual crane monopile is a combination

of these two simplifications and so it is expected 20:1-4Sand/Cement Mix 2.12 0 0 3.000E+04 9.915E-01 2.975E+04

that the deflections will fall within the range of

deflection predictions shown for this extreme case Table

-6 2: Material and Physical Properties of the Crane Monopile

without a tie-slab in place. RI = 5.964E + 00 REI = 7.401E + 07

Depth BGL (m)

-8

Graphs 3 and 4 show the ERCAP predictions of In-Service Loads: H=40kN M=6642kNm

bending moment and shear force developed Out-of-Service Loads: H=191kN M=5014kNm

-10

in the pile for these two load conditions. It can

Composite Pile

be seen that the in-service loads induce higher Steel Tube

0

0

-0.002 -0.001 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005

-0.002 -0.001 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007

-2

PLAXIS 3D Foundation Analyses -2

-14

The three-dimensional analyses considered -4

-4

composite pile’ consisting of a solid circular pile -6

Depth BGL (m)

Depth BGL (m)

-8 In-Serv

-18

of 3.32m and length of 16.825m (as used in the In-Service Loads: H=40kN M=6642kNm

Out-of-

Bending Moment (kNm) Out-of-Service

-10 Loads: H=191kN, M=5014kNm

ERCAP analyses) and (2) a ‘complex composite -10

-12

-14

for further details on modelling). The horizontal -14

-16

-18

5-7 thus confirming the idealisation approaches -18

Deflection (m)

Deflection (m)

and different analysis methodologies used. Graph 1: Steel Pile Deflection Predictions from ERCAP Graph 2: Composite Pile Deflection Predictions from ERCAP

Modelling the Composite Monopile in PLAXIS 3D Foundation

Modelling of the Complex Composite Pile

The series of concentric elements (Figure 3) 0 0

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 -700 -600 -500 -400 -300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300

forming the crane monopile were explicitly

-2 -2

modelled in PLAXIS 3D Foundation using the

pile designer. This was achieved by selecting -4 -4

its wall thickness and internal diameter. Tubular -6 -6

Depth BGL (m)

Depth BGL (m)

-8 -8

cement-bentonite grout and steel pipe and each In-Service Loads: H=40kN M=6642kNm In-Servi

Out-of-S

of these components were centred on plan at the -10

Out-of-Service Loads: H=191kN M=5014kNm

-10

solid elements with full connection at the mating -12 -12

-14 -14

Through the pile designer, interface elements

were specified along the outside boundaries -16 -16

slippage and separation between the soil and -18 -18

monopile. The use of the pile designer creates

an equivalent structural line element along the Graph 3: Pile Bending Moment Distribution Predictions Graph 4: Pile Shear Force Distribution Predictions from ERCAP

centreline of the pile which enables the pile: from ERCAP

Plaxis Practice: Crane Monopile Foundation Analysis

2

Three Dimensional Analyses of Crane Monopile The initial stresses in the ground were computed

deq = d 3 d n /s

& Basement using the K0-procedure with K0=1 for the London 4

In order to predict the interaction of the Clay layer. As the analysis was in terms of total

monopile with the ground and the adjacent stress parameters no pore water was modelled so Where d is the diameter of the pile and s is the

basement structure, a 3D finite element analysis the phreatic level was set below the level of the centre-to-centre pile spacing.

using PLAXIS 3D Foundation was performed. A base of the model. The soil and monopile were modelled using

serviceability limit state analysis (no partial factors 15-noded wedge elements. The horizontal, vertical

applied to materials) was performed with the The basement floors were idealised using 6-noded and moment loads applied to the monopile were

unfactored working loads applied to the pile head triangular plate elements and the basement walls rationalised into equivalent horizontal and vertical

at ground level. The analysis did not consider the were modelled using 8-noded quadrilateral plate pressures acting over the steel pipe cross-section.

detailed stages of excavation and construction elements. The contiguous bored pile wall was Interface elements were inserted between the soil,

of the basement. The following phases were idealised as a continuous plate with a reduced walls, floors and outside surfaces of the monopile

considered: thickness, deq , to account for the spacing of the to simulate the reduced strength between the

piles: soil and these structures. For these analyses an

interface reduction factor of 0.85 was assumed,

Load Case

Horizontal Thrust Vertical Load Overturning Moment resulting in a reduced undrained shear strength of

H (kN) V (kN) M (kNm) 127.5kPa between the soil and non-soil structures.

In-service crane 40 -1622 6242

Four 3D finite element analyses were undertaken

to model the excavation and ‘wished-in-place’

Out-of service crane 191 -1565 3104

construction of the basement and the subsequent

monopile with loading based on the tower crane

Table 3: Loads at the base of the crane

load specifications. The soil-structure interaction

between the monopile, walls and floors was

Phase Description Notes simulated in these analyses. These analyses

considered the in-service load combination

0 In-Service

Generation of initial stresses Loads:

in the H=40kN

virgin M=6642kNm K0-Procedure

ground and the results confirmed that the worst case

0 Wishing in place of the basement structure and contigu- No basement construction details were

corresponded to case 2 of Table 6.

1

-0.002 -0.001 ous pile0 wall 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 available

0.005

Results

-2

2 Installation of the crane monopile Previous displacements reset to zero This section summarises a selection of results from

the PLAXIS 3D Foundation analyses.

-4

3 Application of the crane loads

Plot 1 shows the deformed shape for Model 2

-6

Table 4: Phases for the Analysis of the Crane Monopile & Basement (Table 6) Phase 3 (Table 4) – note that the partial

geometry feature has been used to hide the

Depth BGL (m)

-8

ERCAP Simplified Composite Pile

London clay.

PLAXIS 3DF - Simplified Composite Pile

-10 PLAXIS 3DF - Complex Composite Pile

In-Service Loads: H=40kN M=6642kNm

Plot 2 shows the horizontal deflection of the crane

0 monopile and this was obtained by double-

-12 -0.002 -0.001 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005

clicking the structural line element representation

-2

of the pile. The shear force and bending moments

-14

-4 developed in the pile were obtained in a similar

manner and these are shown in Plots 3 & 4.

-16 -6

These plots are direct outputs from PLAXIS 3D

Foundation with no additional post-

Depth BGL (m)

-8

ERCAP Simplified Composite Pile

-18

processing made.

PLAXIS 3DF - Simplified Composite Pile

Deflection (m) -10 PLAXIS 3DF - Complex Composite Pile

result of the relatively coarse mesh being used.

-14

However, independent checks described in

-16 paragraph “PLAXIS 3D Foundation” on similar

Figure 3: Schematic showing the cross-section of the mesh refinements of the simplified pile provide

-18

upper portion of the monopile foundation Deflection (m) confidence in the accuracy of these results.

Graph 5: Pile Deflection Comparison between PLAXIS and The deformation pattern of the contiguous pile

ERCAP

In-Service Loads: H=40kN M=6642kNm In-Service Loads: H=40kN M=6642kNm wall is shown in Plot 5. This is to an exaggerated

0 0 scale of 5000x to make the deformations visible.

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 -600 -500 -400 -300 -200 -100 0 100

Predicted deformations are very small with a peak

-2 -2

total displacement of around 0.6mm.

-4 -4

-6 -6

6 – again shown to an exaggerated scale (2000x).

Predicted deformations are very small with a peak

Depth BGL (m)

-8 -8

ERCAP Simplified Composite Pile ERCAP Simplified Composite Pile

PLAXIS 3DF - Simplified Composite Pile total3DFdisplacement

PLAXIS - Simplified Composite Pile of around 0.7mm.

-10 PLAXIS 3DF - Complex Composite Pile

-10 Complex Composite Pile

Plot 7 to an exaggerated scale of 500x. A peak

-14 -14

total deformation of 3mm is predicted to develop

-16 -16 at the leading edge of the tie-slab.

-18 -18

BM (kNm) SF (kN)

Graph 6: Pile Bending Moment Comparison between PLAXIS Graph 7: Pile Shear Force Comparison between PLAXIS and continue on page 10

and ERCAP ERCAP

Plaxis Practice: Crane Monopile Foundation Analysis

c Thickness m

E y Discussion and Conclusions

kN/m3 MPa -

The user-friendliness of PLAXIS 3D Foundation

enabled a number of sensitivity studies to

Tie-Slab 500 mm thick 24 0.5 21 0.15

be explored in a straightforward and timely

manner which is vital for commercial work.

Floor 400 mm thick 24 0.4 21 0.15 Sensitivity studies were performed to investigate,

mesh density, model extent, load application

approaches and material property variation.

Floor 1000 mm thick 24 1 21 0.15

An investigation was made to explore the effect

of a reduction in the stiffness of the cement-

Contiguous Pile Wall:

0.742 bentonite mix between the concrete caisson and

900 mm diameter piles at 24 21 0.15

(equivalent thickness)

1050 mm c/c spacing steel pipe. The reduction of this from 600MPa

to 200MPa was found to have little effect on the

Table 5: Physical and Material Properties of the Tie-Slab and Basement Floors & Wall

behaviour of the monopile.

Including Tie Slab of excavation and construction of the basement so

Model Description

at ground level

the deformations and loads predicted to develop

Jib load and moment and tailwind applied away from the contiguous pile wall in the basement could not reliably be taken

1 No

without the surface tie-slab into account. To address this, the predictions of

movement and structural forces induced in the

Jib load and moment and tailwind applied away from the contiguous pile wall with basement during this phase were discounted

2 Yes

the surface tie-slab

by zeroing displacements at the start of Phase 2

Jib load and moment and tailwind applied in the direction towards the contiguous and by external post-processing of the structural

3 Yes

pile wall with the surface tie-slab propping against the basement wall in place forces developed between Phase 3 and Phase 1.

Therefore, the structural forces and displacements

Jib load and moment and tailwind applied parallel to the contiguous pile wall with reported are in addition to the existing structural

4 Yes

the surface tie-slab providing restraint forces and displacements due to the wall and floor

loads and live loads applied to the basement.

Table 6: Models Load Conditions Considered

The results of the ERCAP analyses predict that the

monopile will deflect laterally between 4-6mm

with bending moments in the range of 5014kNm to

Cement Peak Pile Head 6642kNm and shear forces in the range 444kN to

Peak Vertical

Bentonite Horizontal Peak Bending Peak Shear Force Peak Axial Force

Model Displacement 562kN (this is without the tie-slab in place).

Young’s modulus Displacement Moment kNm kN kN

mm

MPa mm

2 600 0.5 -2.7 6960 -928 -1970 The ERCAP analyses identified that the worst

case crane loads were the in-service combination

2 200 0.8 -2.7 6980 -922 -1970 comprising a horizontal thrust, axial load and

overturning moment of 40kN, -1662kN and

Table 7: Worst Case Model 2 – Monopile Displacements and Structural Forces 6242kNm respectively and these were assumed

to act at the crane base, which is 10m above

ground level. This resulted in a horizontal thrust H,

axial load V and overturning moment M of 40kN,

Cement Bentonite Young’s

Model Tie-Slab Peak Compressive Load kN Tie-Slab Peak Tensile Load kN -1662kN and 6642kNm acting at the top of the

modulus MPa

monopile at ground level.

2 600 -234 776

2 200 -324 942 Plaxis predicted the worst case deflection to be

Table 8: Worst Case Model 2 – Tie-Slab Structural Loads

5.4mm horizontal (model 1 – without tie-slab) and

this results in a pile head rotation at ground level

of 0.000831 radians (which would result in a 29

mm deflection 34.4m above ground level). The

Peak Wall bending moment in the monopile for this case is

Cement Bentonite Peak Wall Cement

Horizontal Peak Axial Load in 6170 kNm which is of the same order of magnitude

Model Young’s modulus Bending Model Bentonite Young’s

Displacement Floor Slab kN as that found in the ERCAP analysis. The results of

MPa Moment kNm modulus MPa

mm the PLAXIS analysis predict that the monopile will

2 600 -0.300 -200 2 600 261 deflect laterally by 0.5-0.8mm with peak bending

2 200 -0.301 -200 2 200 260 moments in the range of 6960kNm to 6980kNm

and shear forces in the range 922kN to 928kN (this

Table 9: Worst Case Model 2 Table 10: Worst Case Model 2 – Floor Axial Load is with the tie slab in place).

Contiguous Pile Wall Displacements and Bending Moments

The maximum horizontal wall deflection is of the

order of 0.3mm which is negligible and the peak

bending moment of 200kNm is generated

in the 500mm thick tie-slab is 1490kN for the

Plot 1: Deformed Mesh Shown

loading condition in model 3. The maximum

to an Exaggerated Scale (Model 2, Phase 3)

tensile axial load developed is 942kN for the

loading condition in model 2. The structural

capacity of the monopile and tie-slab system is

adequate under the action of these structural

loads (well within the 20MPa compressive strength

of the concrete and the 275MPa yield stress of the

steel).

Plaxis Practice: Crane Monopile Foundation Analysis

Acknowledgement • Tomlinson, M.J. (1994) Pile design and construc- • Gaba, A.R., Simpson, B., Powrie, W., Beadman,

The Author would like to express thanks to his tion practice (4th edition), E & FN Spon, London D.R. (2003) Embedded retaining walls – guid-

colleague Dr Caesar Merrifield for his feedback • Ng, C.W.W., Simons, N. and Menzies, B. (2004) ance for economic design (C580), CIRIA

regarding this article. A Short Course in Soil-Structure Engineering of • BS EN 1997-1:2004 Eurocode 7. Geotechnical

Deep Foundations, Excavations and Tunnels, Design, BSI/CEN

References Thomas Telford, London

• Mar, A. (2002) How To Undertake Finite Element • Potts, D., Axelsson, K., Grande, L.., Schweiger,

Based Geotechnical Analysis, NAFEMS (The H. and Long, M. (eds.) (2002) Guidelines for the

International Association for the Engineering use of Advanced Numerical Analysis, Thomas

Analysis Community) Telford, London

• Wood, D.M. (2005) Geotechnical Modelling, • Poulos, H.G. (1992) Program ERCAP (Earth Re-

Spon Press taining Capacity of Piles) Users Manual, Coffey

• Poulos, H.G. and Davis, E.H. (1974) Elastic solu- Geosciences Pty Ltd.

tions for soil and rock mechanics, John Wiley, • Duncan, J. M. (1996). State of the art: Limit Equi-

New York librium and Finite-Element Analysis of Slopes,

• Poulos, H.G. and Davis, E.H. (1980) Pile Founda- Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE 122,

tion Analysis and Design, John Wiley & Sons, No.7, July, pp. 557-596

New York • Brinkgreve, R.B.J. and Swolfs, W.M. (eds.) (2007)

• Potts, D.M. and Zdravković, L. (1999) Finite PLAXIS 3D Foundation version 2 User Manual,

element analysis in geotechnical engineering: Plaxis bv, The Netherlands

theory. Thomas Telford, London. • Atkinson, J.H. (2007) The Mechanics of Soils and

• Potts, D.M. and Zdravković, L. (2001) Finite Foundations (2nd edition), Taylor and Francis

element analysis in geotechnical engineering: Group

application. Thomas Telford, London. • Elson, W.K. (1984) Design of laterally loaded

• Smith, I.M. and Griffiths, D.V. (1988) Program- piles, CIRIA Report 103

ming the finite element method (2nd edition), • Matlock, H. and Reese, L.C. (1960) Generalised

John Wiley, Chichester solutions for laterally loaded piles, Proc. ASCE,

J. Soil Mech. Found. Div. Vol 86 (SM5), pp. 63-91

Plot 2: Horizontal Displacements (Model 2, Phase 3) Plot 3: Shear Forces (Model 2, Phase 3) Plot 4: Bending Moments (Model 2, Phase 3)

Plot 5: Contiguous Pile Wall - Deformed Shape Plot 6: Floors - Deformed Shape Shown to an Exaggerated Plot 7:Tie Slab -Deformed Shape Shown to an Exaggerated Scale

Shown to an Exaggerated Scale (Model 2, Phase 3) Scale (Model 2, Phase 3) (Model 2,Phase 3)

Mohr-Coulomb Parameters for Modelling of

Concrete Structures

Author: Dusko Hadzijanev Ardiaca. MOST Enginyers S.L., dha@most.es

The usual procedure for modelling structures in PLAXIS v8 is to introduce plates, which are one-dimensional beam

elements. This way, the results are beam deformations and cross-section forces that will allow the calculation

of stresses with post-Plaxis procedures. However, the introduction of one-dimensional elements within two-

dimensional soil elements requires the assumption of simplifying hypothesis. As recommended in PLAXIS v8

Reference Manual, this approach should only be used to model the behaviour of slender walls, plates or thin shells.

more complex structures is to introduce

these elements as clusters of the model which will

calculation that was made using this approach on

concrete modelled as a Mohr-Coulomb material.

which was made about 40 years ago. At the

present, an old building exists in the same spot

where the housing will be constructed, so previous

be discretized in two-dimensional mesh elements. Project Description demolition and excavation of the basement will be

Some examples where this can be applied are The example shown in this article relate to the necessary. New building will have one basement

plates with variable cross-sections, non slender construction of a family house in Barcelona. The and three floors. The existing construction and its

structures or models where the structure weight building will be constructed on a spot where neighbours are two or three floors high.

has to be determined accurately. The difficulty of the subway passes 9 m below the street level, Our research is intended to determine the

this procedure is to set up the material model for as shown in Fig. 1. The tunnel belongs to the influence of this construction to the tensional and

these clusters. This article gives an example of a extension of the first line of Barcelona subway, deformational conditions of the existing tunnel.

FE Analysis

The stresses and displacements in the tunnel have Average E c

depth c y { }

been calculated before the construction of the [kN/m3] [kN/m2] [-] [kN/m2] [o] [o]

[m]

housing, during the excavation and at the final

situation. The calculations were performed using

Fill 1.0 17.00 6000 0.30 0.10 22 0

PLAXIS v8 with about 1200 15-noded elements.

Input of the model is showed in Figure 2. Fine sand 2.1 19.00 8000 0.30 0.10 34 0

The main calculations phases are described below:

Silt 4.5 19.00 8000 0.30 5.00 29 0

1. Construction of the tunnel. Because of the Gravel and sand 12.5 20.00 40000 0.30 0.10 34 0

existing buildings above the tunnel, this could

not be done in open-cut procedure. Table 1: Mohr-Coulomb soil parameters

2. Current situation. Uniformly distributed loads

of 20 kN/m2 have been considered to take in

c c { } E50ref Eoedref Eurref m yur pref

account the weight of the existing constructions Rf

[kN/m3] [kN/m2] [o] [o] [kN/m2] [kN/m2] [kN/m2] [-] [-] [kN/m2]

and road traffic.

3. Excavation of the parking floor and execution of

the foundation slab, as retaining walls. Loads of Fill 17.00 0.10 22 0 25912 25912 77737 0.60 0.20 100 0.90

20 kN/m2 are applied.

Fine sand 19.00 0.10 34 0 23268 23268 69804 0.60 0.20 100 0.90

4. Construction of the building. It’s considered as

a uniformly distributed load of 40 kN/m2. Silt 19.00 5.00 29 0 13242 13242 39726 0.70 0.20 100 0.90

Soil Properties Gravel and sand 20.00 0.10 34 0 42597 42597 127791 0.50 0.20 100 0.90

Two sets of calculations were made using

Table 2: Hardening-Soil model soil parameters

two different material models on soils: the

Mohr-Coulomb model and the Hardening Soil

model. The soil parameters are summarized concrete has been carried out considering several Regarding the plasticity parameters of Mohr-

in Tables 1 and 2: Regarding the presence of hypotheses in a conservative way. Coulomb model, these can be obtained from

water, no phreatic levels were detected during compressive and tensile strengths according to

ground testing and had not been considered in In this sense, two hypotheses concerning the the representation of the yield surface as shown

calculations. quality of the concrete were considered, given by in Figure 3:

the characteristic compressive strength: fck = 15

Concrete Parameters MPa and fck = 25 Mpa, from now on “HM-15” and

The existing tunnel was built about 1970. “HM-25”.

According to the project’s history, the structure

does not have a tunnel invert and the vault is The elastic modulus E was determined through the

constituted by mass concrete. formula proposed by the Spanish regulation EHE-

98. According of this, the longitudinal deformation

The concrete of the tunnel was characterized modulus relates to the compressive strength as

having elastoplastic behaviour using the Mohr- follows:

Coulomb drained material model.

Even if previous laboratory tests revealed that the Two values of Poisson’s ratio were considered: a

mass concrete is considerably strong, the choice value y = 0.2 according to EHE-98 and a value of

of the elastic parameters ( E and y ) and strength y = 0.0 according to Eurocode-2 Recommendation

parameters (c, z, and tensile strength) of the for fissured concrete. Figure 3: Deduction of Mohr-Coulomb plasticity parameters

Plaxis Practice: Mohr-Coulomb parameters for modelling of concrete structures

strengths. Values of these can be compared to the

Tensile strength

allowable stresses proposed by P. Jiménez Concrete designation Cohesion: c (kN/m2) Friction angle:z (kN/m2)

Montoya (1971) for a mass concrete:

HM-15 712 54.9° 450

vc = 0.30 $ fck

HM-25 1186 54.9° 750

vt = 0.03 $ fck

In addition, the EHE-98 establishes the following

formula to calculate the shear resistance among According to EHE-98

concrete joints:

Tensile strength

Concrete designation Cohesion: c (kN/m2) Friction angle:z (kN/m2)

xmd # b $ fct,d + Ast $ fya,d $ ^ n $ sin a + cos ah

s$p HM-15 365 35.0° 1216

+n $ vcd # 0.25 $ fcd HM-25 513 35.0° 1710

stress applied to the joint plane. Considering a According to EC-2

reinforcement steel section Ast equal to zero, the

Tensile strength

resulting formula has the same shape than the Concrete designation Cohesion: c (kN/m2) Friction angle:z (kN/m2)

failure criterion of Mohr-Coulomb, with:

HM-15 387 9° 1216

HM-25 500 9° 1710

c = b $ fct,d

n = tgz Table 4: Mohr-Coulomb strength parameters for mass concrete according different methods

f

Where ct, d is the design value of tensile strength

of the concrete given by: HM-15 HM-25

fct,d = 0.30 $ ^ fckh /1.50 6 MPa @

2/3 c [kN/m3] 24 24

Where b and n are coefficients that depend on

the degree of roughness of the joint as shown in y 0.2 0.2

table 3. c [kN/m2] 365 513

z [o] 35 35

Type of surface

Tensile strength for tension

Low roughness High roughness 450 750

cut off [kN/m2]

n 0.6 0.9

HM-15 y=0.00 HM-15 y=0.20 HM-25 y=0.20

Table 3:b and n values according to EHE-98

Average values of b= 0.3 and n = 0.7 were adopted. 1.13 / 1.13 1.13 / 1.13 1.16 / 1.16

The values of Mohr-Coulomb strength parameters Table 7: Msf values of calculations. Material models for soils are [Mohr-Coulomb / Hardening-Soil]

can also be obtained according to the Eurocode-2.

The following formula is given for the shear

resistance for members not requiring design shear

reinforcement: The formula for the tensile strength from EC-2 is Outputs after phi-c reduction phases shows that

VRd,c = 6CRd,c k^100t y fckh1/3 + k1 vcp @ bw d

identical to the shown formula from EHE-98. failure mechanism is produced on soil below

tunnel side walls. Some plastic points appears on

With a minimum of: Table 4 summarizes the Mohr-Coulomb the tunnel, but doesn’t seem to be related to the

strength parameters according to the explained failure, as shown in Figure 6:

VRd,c = ^vmin + k1 vcph bw d

methodologies:

From here on we can establish: Conclusions

The final set of parameters considered to model Tunnel structure was modelled using two-

xRd,c = VRd,c /bw d = vmin + k1 vcp , which has the form the tunnel material are shown in Table 5: dimensional elements and a Mohr-Coulomb

of the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterium with: material model was used for modelling mass

Results of Calculations concrete.Mohr-Coulomb strength parameters

x = xRd,c Table 6 shows synthetic results. The first for concrete were estimated using two different

c = vmin values corresponds to Mohr-Coulomb and the methodologies. Concerning a mass concrete of

tgz = k1 second ones to Hardening-Soil, both models about 15-25 MPa of characteristic compressive

vcp = v' for characterizing soils. Some of the calculated strength, the values obtained were: cohesion of

stresses are shown in Figure 4. 365-513 kN/m2, friction angle of 35º, and tensile

where according to EC-2: strength of 450-750 kN/m2. In the example

To evaluate the obtained deformations 5 points presented, many calculations were done to test

vmin = 0, 035xk3/2 xfck1/2 , where fck is in MPa where selected for curve representation. These parameter sensitivity. Results show that this

are shown in Figure 5: approach gives realistic results for complex

k = 1+ 200 # 2, 0 where d is in mm structures where the use of plate elements is not

d

Displacement were reset to zero once constructed suitable.

so for this structure will be k = 2,0 and k1 the existing tunnel and before the application

recommended value is 0,15 of the loads. Results shows that building load Other methodologies for evaluating shear

counteracts previous excavation, so stresses strength of concrete are proposed by Rui Vaz

Therefore: remains similar than in the actual conditions Rodrigues (2007). This article encourages Plaxis

6 MPa @

c = 0.035# 23/2 # fck1/2 c

fck phases. Finally, a phi-c reduction phase was done users who want to follow the same approach.

100 in each model to determine safety factors. Results

tgz = 0.15, soz = 9% are summarized on Table 7: continue on page 15

Plaxis Practice: Mohr-Coulomb parameters for modelling of concrete structures

These outputs are from the building loading phase and Hardening-Soil model for soils

Actual

Plastic points (%) 22.4 / 24.9 25.1 / 22.1 23.2 /25.3

Conditions

Tension cut off points (%) 0.07 / 00 0.15 / 0.00 0.00 / 0.00

1880 / 1930 1880 / 1940 2670 / 2690

stress [kN/m2]

Max vertical

compressive stress 2360 / 2450 2450 / 2390 3440 / 3090

[kN/m2]

Max shear stress [kN/m2] 954 / 1050 915 / 1030 1250 / 1370 Figure 5: Points for curves

Settlement on C (mm) 17 / 14 17 / 14 16 / 12

Excavation Plastic points (%) 4.6 / 9.7 4.9 / 9.8 4.1 / 4.4

Tension cut off points (%) 0.00 / 0.07 0.00 / 0.22 0.00 / 0.00

1710 / 1850 1740 / 1850 2060 / 2030

stress [kN/m2]

Max vertical

compressive stress 1960 / 2160 2080 / 2100 2870 / 2540

[kN/m2]

Max shear stress [kN/m2] 978 / 969 821 / 985 1150 / 1290 Figure 6: Plastic points on phi-c reduction phase. This shows

the calculation with HM-15 y=0.20 concrete and Mohr-Coulomb

Settlement on C (mm) 4/9 4 / 10 1.5 / 8 material model for soils.

References

• Brinkgreve et al. (2004). Plaxis Reference

Convergence A-E (mm) 17 / 9 16 / 9 14 / 9

Manual. Plaxis bv., The Netherlands.

• Comisión Permanente del Hormigón (1998).

Building Plastic points (%) 17.3 / 22.4 17.2 / 21.9 14.5 / 4.4

Instrucción del Hormigón Estructural. Ministerio

de Fomento, Centro de Publicaciones, Madrid.

Tension cut off points (%) 0.15 / 0.00 0.00 / 0.07 0.00 / 0.00

• P. Jiménez Montoya (1971). Hormigón Armado.

Tomo 1. Editorial Gustavo Gili, S.A., Barcelona.

Max horiz. compressive

1920 / 1840 1900 / 1860 2600 / 2390 • Rui Vaz Rodrigues (2007). Shear strength of

stress [kN/m2]

reinforced concrete bridge deck slabs. Thèse

École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, no

Max vertical

compressive stress 2400 / 2420 2430 / 2370 3420 / 3020

3739, Lausanne.

[kN/m2]

Max shear stress [kN/m2] 966 / 1040 882 / 1030 1240 / 1360

Settlement on C (mm) 18 / 13 18 / 14 15 / 12

Table 6: Results on tunnel using Mohr-Coulomb material model for concrete. Material models for soils are

[Mohr-Coulomb / Hardening-Soil]

Simulation of Soil Nail Structures using PLAXIS 2D

Authors: G.L. Sivakumar Babu (Associate Professor), Vikas Pratap Singh (Research Scholar)

Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, Karnataka, India.

E-mail: gls@civil.iisc.ernet.in, vikasps@civil.iisc.ernet.in

Soil nailing is an in-situ earth retaining technique and it has been excessively used all over the world for the various

slope stability applications. The efficiency of soil nail structures is the resultant of complex soil-structure interaction

among its various components, namely, in-situ soil, stiff reinforcement (i.e nails) and the facing. Often rigorous

computational techniques based on finite element or finite difference methods are employed to study the complex

soil-structure interaction and to assess the performance and stability of soil nail structures. PLAXIS 2D has been

comprehensively used for the study of soil nail structures (e.g. Shiu et al. 2006; Fan and Luo 2008).

technique and it has been excessively used

all over the world for the various slope stability

Jewell and Pedley (1992) concluded that the

effects of bending and shear resistances can be

ignored in the design and analysis of soil nailing

of the suggestions based on the literature and

authors’ experiences related to the use of PLAXIS

2D for simulations and analyses of soil nail

applications. The efficiency of soil nail structures is with marginal conservatism. In practice, ignoring structures.

the resultant of complex soil-structure interaction the effects of shear and bending resistances of

among its various components, namely, in-situ soil nails, soil nailing analysis and design has been Connection of Soil Nails to the Wall Facing

soil, stiff reinforcement (i.e nails) and the facing. radically simplified and this approach is commonly In practice, a soil nail is rigidly connected to the

accepted (e.g. FHWA 2003). wall facing (FHWA 2003; Joshi 2003) by means of

Often rigorous computational techniques based bearing plate and hexagonal nut to the temporary

on finite element or finite difference methods are It has been noted from the literature related to facing which in turn is connected with permanent

employed to study the complex soil-structure the use of PLAXIS 2D for the study of soil nail facing using headed studs via bearing plate

interaction and to assess the performance and structures that users are using both geogrid forming a rigid connection with the continuous

stability of soil nail structures. PLAXIS 2D has been (e.g. Plaxis 2002; Liew and Khoo 2006) and plate reinforced concrete permanent facing. In PLAXIS

comprehensively used for the study of soil nail (e.g. Babu and Singh 2007; Fan and Luo 2008) 2D, connection between two plate structural

structures (e.g. Shiu et al. 2006; Fan and Luo 2008). structural elements to simulate nails. It is to be elements by default represents a rigid connection.

noted that the use of geogrid structural elements Therefore, use of plate structural elements to

Incorporation of bending and shear resistances completely ignores the bending stiffness the soil simulate soil nails and wall facing is recommended

of nails in the analysis and design of soil nail walls nails, on the other hand, plate structural elements to account for the rigid nail-facing connection.

had been a much debatable issue reported in the accounts for the same. This article provides an

literature. For example, Juran et al. (1990) reported insight into the implications of the analysis of Mesh Density, Boundaries and Fixity Conditions

that inclined nails (10-15 0) would tend to undergo a the soil nail structures by the use of geogrid (or 15-node triangular elements can be used for

local rotation to approach the horizontal direction plate) structural elements for simulation of nails. generating finite element mesh. PLAXIS 2D

of maximum soil extension, and therefore, the Additionally, a few suggestions are being made offers choice of mesh density ranging from very

effect of bending stiffness has significant effect on for the proper simulation of soil nail walls using coarse to very fine. A detailed discussion on the

the development of nail forces. Schlosser (1991), PLAXIS 2D, which may be beneficial to the soil implications of mesh density on the analysis of soil

based on his multicriteria theory in soil nailing nailing practitioners. nail structures has been presented in the later part

and observations from the extensive experiments of the article.

(such as national research project Clouterre) Simulations of Soil Nail Structures

and other works related to soil nailed retaining using PLAXIS 2D Briaud and Lim (1997) provided information

structures in France over 10 years, stated that, at Simulation of soil nail structures using PLAXIS about where to place the boundaries so that their

failure bending and shear resistances of grouted 2D is time efficient and relatively easy due to the influence on the results of the numerical simulation

nails are mobilised, however, the influence of user friendly environment. However, given the of soil nail wall can be minimised. They suggested

bending stiffness and shear on the global safety capability of the computational tool, the accuracy that bottom of the mesh is best placed at a depth

factor is small (less than 15%). of the analysis is significantly dependant on the where soil becomes notably harder (say at a depth

user’s understanding about the computational D below the bottom of the excavation). Based on

tool and the problem itself. Following are some the studies of Briaud and Lim (1997), if D is not

exactly known, D can be taken as two to three Use of Interface Elements rigidity (bending stiffness) EI and the axial

times the vertical depth of excavation H . It has been reported in the literature that the stiffness EA (for geogrid structural element only

Further, for known values of D and H , width of coefficient of soil-reinforcement interaction the axial stiffness EA is required). Both plate and

excavation We can be taken equal to three to four obtained from field pullout tests (e.g. Wang and geogrid structural elements are rectangular in

times D and the horizontal distance from wall face Richwein 2002) is found to be significantly more shape with width equal to 1 m in out-of-plane

to the end of mesh boundary Be can be chosen than unity. Therefore, use of interface elements direction.

equal to three to four times ( H + D ). Figure 1 between nail and soil can be eliminated and

shows the mesh boundaries and fixity conditions. default setting of “Rigid Interface” in material sets Since, the soil nails are circular in cross-section

menu for soil and interfaces can be used in the and placed at designed horizontal spacing, it

Material Models simulation process. is necessary to determine equivalent axial and

Most commonly used material model to simulate bending stiffnesses for the correct simulation of

in-situ soil for excavation and retaining structures Equivalent Nail Parameters circular soil nails as rectangular plate or geogrid

applications is the HS-model (Hardening soil Soil nail structures are modeled as plane strain elements. A detailed discussion on the suitability

model). However, if all the input parameters for problem in PLAXIS 2D. As stated earlier, plate (or of plate or geogrid structural elements to model

HS-model are not available, alternatively Mohr- geogrid) structural elements can used to simulate soil nails is presented later, given below is the

Coulomb material model can be used. Facings and nails. The most important input material general procedure to determine equivalent

nails can be modeled as elastic materials. parameters for plate elements are the flexural material parameters.

elasticity Eeq shall be determined accounting for

the contribution of elastic stiffnesses of both grout

cover as well as reinforcement bar. From the

fundamentals of strength of materials, Eeq can be

determines as:

A

Eeq = En ` An j + Eg ` g j (1)

A A

where: Eg is the modulus of elasticity of grout

material; En is the modulus of elasticity of nail;

Eeq is the equivalent modulus of elasticity of

2

grouted soil nail; A = 0.25rD DH

is the total cross-sectional area of grouted soil nail;

Ag = A - An is the cross-sectional area of grout

cover; An = 0.25rd2 is the cross-sectional area of

reinforcement bar and DDH is the diameter of drill

hole. If, Sh is horizontal spacing of soil nails,

knowing the equivalent modulus of elasticity

Eeq (equation 1) for the grouted soil nail, the axial

and bending stiffnesses can be determined using

equations (2) and (3) respectively.

Eeq rD2 DH

c m (2)

Sh 4

Figure 1: Mesh boundaries and fixity conditions (Briaud and Lim 1997) E 4

(3)

Sh 64

Plaxis Practice: Simulation of Soil Nail Structures using PLAXIS 2D

Substituting, EA and EI values in the material plate or geogrid elements) and facing (modeled as Study on the use of “plate” or “geogrid”

properties menu for Plate elements, PLAXIS plate element) shall be activated. This procedure Elements for Simulating Soil Nails

automatically determines the equivalent plate can be followed till finish livel of the soil nail wall is As brought out earlier, in practice, both plate

thickness in meter deq using equation (4). reached. and geogrid structural elements are being used

to simulate soil nails in modelling of soil nail

12 c EI m structures using PLAXIS 2D. In the light of fact that

Updated Mesh Analysis

deq = (4)

In order to take into account the effects of large consideration of bending and shear resistance of

EA p

deformations, PLAXIS 2D provides an optional soil nails is conservatively ignored in the analysis

Procedure for Numerical Simulations ‘Updated Mesh’ analysis to perform basic types and design of soil nail structures, suitability of

PLAXIS (2006) and the information available in of calculations (Plastic calculation, Consolidation using plate or geogrid structural element in

leterature (e.g. Shiu et al. 2006; Fan and Luo analysis, Phi-c reduction). Results of the finite modelling soil nails has been examined.

2008) may be referred for the understanding element simulation of the 10 m high soil nail wall

of simulations of soil nail walls with complex using ‘Updated Mesh Analysis’ are indicated in Two soil nail walls of 10 m and 18 m vertical height

geometry and loading conditions. Table 1. Material properties and other soil nail wall designed conventionally with reference to FHWA

parameters adopted are given in Table 2. (2003) are considered for the study. Two different

Staged construction option shall be used to It may be observed from Table 1 that the use of heights of soil nail walls are selected for the

simulate the infuence of construction sequence of ‘Updated Mesh’ results in marginal influence on analysis so that a comparison can be made based

soil nail walls (indicated as E1 , E2 , … En , in Figure the soil nail wall simulation results. Additionally, on the trends observed. Prime objective being

1). In each excavation stage, soil cluster updated mesh analysis increases the calculation to highlight the implications of the use of plate

representing excavation lift (defined in input time significantly. Similar observations are made or geogrid elements to simulate soil nails, similar

program) is deactivated and nails (modeled as for the 18 m high soil nail wall. geometry and same in-situ soil conditions have

been used throughout the analysis.

Parameters Using plate elements Using geogrid elements Both the walls are simulated using PLAXIS

2D following the procedure and preliminary

Normal Updated mesh Normal Updated mesh suggestions stated earlier. Two series of

analysis analysis analysis analysis

simulations are performed, one with the use

Global factor of of plate structural elements to simulate soil

1.59 1.60 1.57 1.59 nails and the other with the use of geogrid

safety

structural elements to simulate soil nails. At each

Max. lateral

discplacement 22.82 22.28 23.86 21.31 construction stage of both the walls, observations

(mm) are made with regard to the global factors of

safety, maximum lateral (horizontal) displacement

Max. axial force

74.82 73.29 85.44 83.80 of walls, maximum axial tensile developed and

(kN/m)

development of bending moment and shear force

Table 1: ‘Update Mesh Analysis’ of soil nail wall simulation (H = 10 m) in nails (for plate elements only).

Parameter Value m and 18 m high soil nail walls. Various material

properties and other parameters used for

Vertical height of walls H [m] 10.0 and 18.0

simulation are as indicated in Table 2. “P” and

Nailing type grouted “G” in the plots of the analysis correspond to the

Simulation model plane strain

observations made for simulations using plate and

geogrid structural elements respectively.

Element type 15- node

factor of safety of the soil nail walls with

Material model Mohr-Coulomb

construction stage. It is evident from Figure 3

Cohesion c [kPa] 4.0 that for fully constructed soil nail walls (i.e. 100%

Internal friction angle z[deg] 31.5 construction), consideration of bending stiffness

of nails in the analysis have negligible influence on

Unit weight c [kN/m3] 17.0

the global stability. In other words, both plate and

Elasticity modulus Es [MPa] 20.0 geogrid structural elements are able to capture

similar response and hence, either of the two can

Poison’s ratio of soil ys 0.3

be used. However, it is worth noting from Figure

Grouted nails and facing 3 that consideration of bending stiffness of nails

Material model elastic in the analysis has significant influence during

the construction stage. Geogrid elements results

Yield strength of reinforcement fy [MPa] 415.0 in significantly less factors of safety for global

stability in comparison to the plate elements.

Elasticity modulus of reinforcement En [GPa] 200.0 Alternatively, it can be interpreted that bending

stiffness plays important role in the stability of

Elasticity modulus of grout (concrete) Eg [GPa] 22.0 soil nail walls during the construction stage. This

aspect is overlooked if geogrid elements are used

Diameter of reinforcement d [mm] 20.0 (25.0)

to simulate soil nail in the finite element analysis of

Drill hole diameter DDH [mm] 100.0 soil nail walls.

Length of nail L [m] 7.0 (13.0)

Figure 4 shows the trend of maximum lateral

Declination wrt horizontal i [deg] 15.0

displacements of the soil nail walls with

Spacing Sh x Sv [m] 1.0 x 1.0 construction stage. It is evident from Figure 4 that

Facing thickness t [mm] 200.0 displacement response captured by both geogrid

elements and plate elements closely resembles

Table 2: Parameters adopted for numerical simulations using PLAXIS 2D and hence, results in negligible influence on the

Note: Figures in bracket correspond tot he 18 m high soil nail wall; all other parameteres are same

analysis of soil nail walls.

for both 10 m ad 18 m soil nail walls.

Plaxis Practice: Simulation of Soil Nail Structures using PLAXIS 2D

Figure 5 shows the development of maximum axial maximum bending moment and maximum shear is advisable that use of plate structural elements

force in nails with construction stage. From Figure force developed in soil nails with construction shall be preferred over geogrid structural element

5, it can be observed that on an average the stages are considerable. for simulating soil nails.

maximum axial force developed in nails simulated

using geogrid elements is found to be 15% more Figure 9 shows the variation of bending moments Influence of Mesh Density on the Soil Nail

in comparison to that developed in nails using and shear forces along the nail length for nails Structures Simulations

plate elements. In other words, lesser axial force at different levels in 10 m high soil nail wall. Another important aspect of the numerical

developed in nails simulated using plate elements Similar observations were made for 18 m high simulation of any structure is the density of finite

is credited to the contribution of bending stiffness soil nail wall. It is interesting to note that bending element mesh adopted for the analysis. PLAXIS

of the nails. moments and shear forces are concentrated near 2D provides option to the users to select mesh

the face of the wall. This provides an insight into density in the range from very coarse to very fine.

This observation is in good agreement with the the facing failure modes of the soil nail walls. As Influence of mesh density on the analysis of the

literature. Figure 6 shows the variation of axial mentioned previously, in practice, soil nail are soil nail wall and the results corresponding to the

force along the nail length for nails at different rigidly connected with the facing (FHWA 2003; analysis of 10m high soil nail wall are presented

levels in 10 m high soil nail wall. Very close Joshi 2003) and therefore, it may be desirable in Table 3. From Table 3, it can be observed

resemblance among the axial forces variation to appraise the facing design. Improper design that global factor of safety varies significantly

along nail length is evident from Figure 6 for the may lead to the bending and/or shear failures from 1.61 for very coarse mesh to 1.52 for very

nails simulated using geogrid and plate elements. of soil nails at or near the facing. Use of geogrid fine mesh. Also, maximum lateral displacement

Similar observations were made for 18 m high soil elements for simulating soil nails may lead to the varied from 20.93mm for very coarse mesh to

nail wall. complete negligence of this aspect of the soil nail 28.35mm for very fine mesh. Similar trends are

wall analysis. observed for the stress parameters in nails such

Development of maximum bending moment and as development of axial force, bending moment

maximum shear force in nails with construction Thus, from the above discussions it is apparent and shear force. Though, denser mesh may result

stages are shown in Figures 7 and 8 respectively. that the use of plate elements provides better in more accurate analysis, it is important to note

It is evident from Figures 7 and 8 that bending and insight into the analysis of soil nail walls using that increasing the mesh density results in drastic

shear capacities of soil nail start mobilising with finite element simulations. Hence, when PLAXIS increase in the overall calculation time (Table 3).

increasing construction stages. For soil nail walls 2D is used to investigate the cause of failure or Thus, appropriate mesh density shall be used

of greater heights such as 18 m, the magnitude of to assess the performance of soil nail structure, it depending upon the degree of accuracy required

and the capacity of the computing machine. In

general, coarse mesh density globally and fine

mesh density in the vicinity of the soil nail wall can

be used.

Concluding Remarks

In this article, an attempt has been made to bring

out implications of the use of plate and geogrid

structural elements for simulating soil nails on

the analysis of soil nail structures using PLAXIS

2D. Based on the observations from the analyses,

use of plate structural elements in comparison to

geogrid structural element is advised to simulate

soil nails. Further, influence of mesh density on

the analysis of soil nail structures is highlighted.

Preliminary suggestions made regarding

numerical simulations of the soil nail structures

that may be useful for the Plaxis user community in

general and soil nailing practitioners in particular.

Acknowledgements

The work presented in this article is a part of

the research project Guidelines for Soil Nailing

Figure 2: Simulated soil nail walls using PLAXIS 2D Technique in Highway Engineering (R-86) financed

by the Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and

Highways, India. The authors express thanks to

the Ministry for funding and providing necessary

support for the project.

continue on page 21

Plaxis Practice: Simulation of Soil Nail Structures using PLAXIS 2D

Figure 4: Trend of lateral displacements with construction stage

Figure 6: Variation of axial force along nail length (10 m high soil nail wall) Figure 7: Development of maximum bending moment with construction stage

Figure 8: Development of maximum shear force with construction stage Figure 9: Variation of shear force and bending moment along nail length

(10 m high soil nail wall)

Plaxis Practice: Simulation of Soil Nail Structures using PLAXIS 2D

References

• Babu, G. L. S. and Singh, V. P. (2007). “Plaxis Elements per Global factor

Max. lateral

Mesh density displacement Total calculation time (min)

practice - Stabilization of vertical cut using soil unit volume of safety

(mm)

nailing.” Plaxis Bulletin, October, No. 22, 6-9.

• Briaud, J.-L. and Lim, Y. (1997). “Soil nailed wall Very coarse 0.39 1.610 20.93 1.13

under piled bridge abutment: simulation and

guidelines.” J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng.,

123(11), 1043–1050. Coarse 0.60 1.598 22.31 1.51

• Fan, C. C. and Luo, J. H. (2008). “Numerical

study on the optimum layout of soil nailed

slopes.” Comput. Geotech., 35(4), 585–599.

Medium 0.98 1.592 22.86 2.45

• FHWA. (2003). “Geotechnical engineering

circular No. 7 - soil nail walls.” Report FHWA0-

IF-03-017, U. S. Department of Transportation, Fine 2.08 1.553 24.79 5.51

Federal Highway Administration, Washington

D. C.

Very fine 4.14 1.521 28.35 15.15

• Jewell, R. A. and Pedley, M. J. (1992). “Analysis

for soil reinforcement with bending stiffness.” J.

Geotech. Eng., 118(10), 1505–1528. Table 3: Influence of mesh density on finite element simulation

• Joshi, B. (2003). “Behaviour of calculated nail Note: (1.) FS values correspond to the fully constructed wall. (2.) If FS is to be determined

head strength in soil-nailed structures.” J. Geo- after each construction stage, calculation time may increase even more drastically.

tech. Geoenviron. Eng., 129(9), 819–828.

• Juran, I., Baudrand, G., Farrag, K. and Elias, V.

(1990). “Kinematical limit analysis for design of

soil-nailed structures.” J. Geotech. Eng., 116(1),

54–72.

• Liew, S. S. and Khoo, C. M. (2006). “Soil nail

stabilisation for a 14.5m Deep excavation at

uncontrolled fill ground.” Proc. 10th Int. Conf.

On Piling and Deep Foundations, 31st May – 2nd

June, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

• Plaxis (2002). “Plaxis practice I.” Plaxis Bulletin,

June, No. 12, 14-17.

• PLAXIS. (2006). Plaxis user manual, Delft Univer-

sity of Technology & Plaxis bv The Netherlands.

• Schlosser, F. (1991). “Discussion – The mul-

ticriteria theory in soil nailing.” Groun. Eng.,

November, 30-33.

• Shiu, Y. K. and Chang, G. W. K. (2006). “Effects

of inclination, length pattern and bending

stiffness of soil nails on behavior of nailed

structures.” GEO Report No.197. Geotchnical

Engineering Office. Hong Kong.

• Wang, Z. and Richwien, W. (2002). “A study of

soil-reinforcement interface friction.” J. Geo-

tech. Geoenviron. Eng., 128(1), 92-94.

Recent Activities

Plaxis Products geometry and calculation phases. The Output University of Cantabria. The course was fully

Since the last bulletin we officially released PLAXIS program is a postprocessor, used to inspect the booked which we believe is partially due to the

2D v9.01 and Plaxis-GiD. PLAXIS 2D v9.01 contains results of calculations in a three-dimensional view fact that the course was completely in Spanish.

new features and some bugfixes; or in cross sections, and to plot graphs (curves) As a result of the large amount of registrations

of output quantities of pre-selected geometry an identical course was held at the same location

• Apart from the English language pack, PLAXIS points. in Barcelona in February 2009 and just like in

2D v9.01 introduces the Chinese and Japanese October 2008 the course was again fully booked in

language packs. For more information about the specific features spite of global economic recession.

• The issues with the report genarator has been of Plaxis-GiD please contact us at info@plaxis.nl

fixed.

• During a phi/c reduction in PLAXIS 2D v9.0 the Increasing Interest in PLAXIS Expert Services

strength of wall elements will also be reduced. In 2008 a new service was introduced for clients

In PLAXIS 2D v9.01 only the soil strength reduc- who would like to obtain advanced support

tion is taken into account. on their numerical modelling: PLAXIS Expert

• Improvements on the Automatic Regeneration Services. In the past 6 months we have helped

of Stage Settings. clients with numerical modelling issues, we have

• Improvements on the change of multiple point given in-house courses with special requests,

loads . we have mentored new Plaxis users and we have

• A new groundwaterflow kernel is included which reviewed documents in which Plaxis models and

solves problems with some combinations of well results were used and described. These are just

properties, soil permeabilities and model sizes. some examples of the types of projects that we

can do in the framework of the Expert Services.

For more detailed information please visit the The idea behind the Expert Services is to combine

secure download page on our website. our client’s expertise in geotechnical engineering

with Plaxis’ expertise in numerical modelling

Plaxis-GiD for geotechnical applications in order to create

The PLAXIS-GiD program is a special purpose synergy and to improve efficiency and reliability.

three-dimensional finite element program used for We intend to create added value to our client, the

very complex geotechnical analysis. The modelling Plaxis user, such that he/she can better serve his/

of the geometry is done by the GiD program, her end-client.

which is based on CAD (Computer Aided Design).

The program is capable of generating structured More information about the PLAXIS Expert

and unstructured meshes and consists of a pre- Services can be found on the Plaxis web site. We

processor. In addition to the GiD pre-process are looking forward to receive more requests for

program to model a geometry, a Plaxis data tree this service.

is available to define materials, structures, loads,

fixities, prescribed displacements, interfaces and Plaxis Courses

calculation stages. The program will use the Plaxis Besides the release of products we had also some

material models as well as the Plaxis 3D kernel. memorable highlights on our activities of Courses

As a post-processor the Plaxis Output program is and Expert Services.

used.

Late in October 2008 the well-known course on

The user interface consists of two sub-programs: Computational Geotechnics was held for the first

the GiD program with the Plaxis data tree and the time in Spain with lectures of, among others, prof.

Plaxis Output program. The GiD program is used Antionio Gens of the Polytechnical University

as a pre-processor, used to define the problem of Catalunia and prof. Cesar Sagaseta of the

Plaxis Asia

conference of IACMAG in Goa, India from 1st

to 6th October 2008. This conference, which is held

course on Computational Geotechnics and

Agent Meeting in Chiang Mai scheduled in

December 2008. Instead we had held the agent

Asia culture of Malaysia but also the knowledge

which our three experienced professors have

imparted during the 4 days course.

every 3 years, address recent developments and meeting with the Asian and Australian agents in

relevant issues in computer methods, constitutive Singapore. We had a good discussion on topics

models and applications to different areas of ranging from sales & marketing strategies to

Geomechanics, and emerging and important new products demonstration. This meeting also

topics, and future needs, documented case provide opportunity for agents to network among

studies with integration of theory, laboratory themselves.

and field tests, and validation procedures. Our

exhibition booth which is situated just outside the The 3rd Asia Advanced course on computational

conference hall, attracted many interested parties. Geotechnics was successfully held in Kuala

Some of them even have “hands-on” experience Lumpur, Malaysia from 23 rd to 26th February 2009

on our latest Plaxis software at the booth. with more than 40 participants from Singapore,

Malaysia, Hong Kong, Iran, Germany and

Due to the political situation in Thailand we had Netherlands. The participants have not only

to cancel the planned 3rd Asia Plaxis Advanced brought back with them the experience of rich

Title

Activities 2009

April 3, 2009 June, 2009 November 18 – 20, 2009

Plaxis Seminar Russian Plaxis Users Meeting Standard Course on Computational

HCMC, Vietnam St. Petersburg, Russia Geotechnics

Hongkong SAR, China

April 6 – 8, 2009 July 14 – 17, 2009

International Course for Experienced Standard Course on Computational November 25 – 27, 2009

Plaxis Users Geotechnics Standard Course on Computational

Delft, The Netherlands Chicago, USA Geotechnics

Paris, France

April 15 – 17, 2009 July 15, 2009

Standard Course on Computational Plaxis Seminar December 2 – 3, 2009

Geotechnics Manila, Philippines IS on Geotechnical Engineering Ground

Beijing, China Improvement and Geosynthetics for

August 16 – 18, 2009 Sustainable Mitigration and Adaption to

April 29 – May 1, 2009 Standard Course on Computational Climate Change

Com Geo I Geotechnics Bangkok, Thailand

Juan-les-Pins, France Tapei, Taiwan

December 9 – 11, 2009

May 23 – 28, 2009 August 24 – 26 IS on Ground Improvement Technologies

WTC2009, Advanced Course on Computational and Case Histories (1SG109)

Budapest, Hungary Geotechnics Singapore

Glasgow, United Kingdom

May 25 – 27, 2009

IS on Prediction and Simulation Methods September 9 – 11, 2009

for Geohazard Mitigation EURO TUN 2009,

Kyoto, Japan Bochum, Germany

Standard Course on Computational 17th ISSMGE

Geotechnics Alexandria, Egypt

Bangalore, India

November 5, 2009

June 15 – 18, 2009 Geotechniekdag

IS on Performance-Based Design in The Netherlands

Earthquake Geotecnical Engineering

Tokyo, Japan November 11 – 13, 2009

16th European Plaxis User Meeting

June 23 – 25, 2009 Karlsruhe, Germany

Standard Course on Computational

Geotechnics

Manchester, United Kingdom

Plaxis bv P.O. Box 572 www.plaxis.nl Plaxis Asia 16 Jalan Kilang Timor

Delftechpark 53 2600 AN Delft Tel +31 (0)15 2517 720 Singapore #05-08 Redhill Forum

2628 XJ Delft The Netherlands Fax +31 (0)15 2573 107 Tel +65 6325 4191 159308 Singapore

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