Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 3

Summary Chapter 6-CHEM SPM by Naguib Zakaria

ELECTROCHEMISTRY

Electrolyte Ion Present Anode Cathode Note


Molten Lead bromide (PbBr2) PbBr2  Pb2+ + 2Br- Ion present : Pb2+ Ion present : Br- In molten only 2 ions are
Ion Present :Pb2+ (CATion) Discharge : Pb2+ + 2e Pb Discharge: 2Br-  Br2 + 2e present, so no problem to
Br- (ANion) Observation : grey solid deposit Observation : Pungent brown determine which ions are goin to
on electrode. gas is liberated be discharge on respective
Product : Lead solid Product : Bromine gas electrode.

Diluted Sodium chloride (NaCl) NaCl  Na+ + Cl- Ion present : Na+ , H+ Ion present : Cl- , OH- KCl, CaCl2 will yeild same
solution / aquoeus H2O  H+ + OH- Discharge : 2H+ + 2e H2 Discharge: 4OH-2H2O + O2+4e product as NaCl in this case,
Ion Present : Na+ , H+ (CATion) Observation : colourless gas is Observation : colourless gas is because K+, Na+ and Ca2+ will
Cl- , OH- (ANion) liberated at cathode liberated at cathode not choose to bes discharge at
Product : Hydrogen gas Product : Oxygen gas cathode. ( refer to E.C.S)
Concentrated Sodium chloride NaCl  Na+ + Cl- Ion present : Na+ , H+ Ion present : Cl- , OH-
** Anode- solute will discharge
(NaCl) solution / aqueous H2O  H+ + OH- Discharge : 2H+ + 2e H2 Discharge: 2Cl-  Cl2 + 2e
when solution is concentrated, if
Ion Present : Na+ , H+ (CATion) Observation : colourless gas is Observation : Pungent yellowish
diluted refer to ECS, the lowest
Cl- , OH- (ANion) liberated at cathode gas is liberated at anode ion will choose to be discharge.
Product : Hydrogen gas Product : Chlorine gas
Concentrated / Diluted CuSO4  Cu2+ + SO42- Ion present : Cu2+ , H+ Ion present : SO42-, OH- Either concentrated or diluted
Copper(II)sulphate aqueous ( H2O  H+ + OH- Discharge : Cu2+ + 2e Cu Discharge: 4OH-2H2O + O2+4e Cu2+ is choose to discharge at
using carbon / graphite / Ion Present : Cu2+ , H+ (CATion) Observation : Brown solid Observation : colourless gas is cathode ( refer to E.C.S)
platinum electrode) SO42-, OH- (ANion) deposit on cathode liberated at cathode ** extra observation : Intensity
Product : Copper solid Product : Oxygen gas of blue colour decrease
Reason : concentration Cu2+ ion
decrease
Concentrated / Diluted CuSO4  Cu2+ + SO42- Ion present : Cu2+ , H+ Ion present : SO42-, OH- Reactive electrode are used. So
Copper(II)sulphate aqueous H2O  H+ + OH- Discharge : Cu2+ + 2e Cu Ionization : Cu  Cu2+ 2e at anode, discharge process
( using copper electrode) Ion Present : Cu2+ , H+ (CATion) Observation : Brown solid Observation : Electrode become does not occur. Electrode will
SO42-, OH- (ANion) deposit on cathode // Electrode thinner // mass of electrode dissolves in electrolyte to
become thicker // mass of decrease produce ion.
electrode increase ** extra observation : Intensity
of blue colour remains
Product : Copper solid Product : Cu2+ ion
unchange
Easy to discharge (more electronegativity) Easy to discharge
**K+, Na+, Ca2+ from cation, F-, SO42- andNO3- from anion : THESE ARE STABLE
IONS. THEY DO NOT DISCHARGE IN WHATEVER CONDITION. THEY HAVE A
CATion

ANion

SO42-
Mg2+

NO3-
Pb2+

Cu2+
Ca2+

Zn2+
Fe2+
Sn2+

OH-
Na+

Al3+

Ag+

Br-
Cl-
H+
K+

STRONGER TENDENCY TO EXIST AS IONS THAN ATOMS OR MOLECULE.


F-

I-
Summary Chapter 6-CHEM SPM by Naguib Zakaria

DIAGRAM ELECTROPLATING AND PURIFYING OF METAL


ELECTROLYSIS USING MOLTEN ELECTROLYTE

GAS CONFIRMATORY TEST

Gas Properties Chemical test


ELECTROLYSIS USING SOLUTION / AQUEOUS ELECTROLYTE
1. Bring glowing wooden splinter
near to the mouth of test tube.
Oxygen Colourless gas
2. Glowing wooden splinter relight.
3. Oxygen gas is released.

1. Bring lighted splinter near to the


mouth of test tube
Hydrogen Colourless gas 2. Fire extinguish, produce ‘pop’
ELECTROLYSIS COPPER (ii) SULPHATE AS ELECTROLYTE (Carbon Electrode) sound.
3. Hydrogen gas is released.
1. Put a moist blue litmus paper in
the test tube.
Chlorine Pungent yellowish gas 2. Blue litmus change to red and
bleach out (white).
3. Chlorine gas is released.

1. Put a moist blue litmus paper in


the test tube.
Bromine Pungent brown gas
2. Blue litmus change to red.
3. Bromine gas is released.
Summary Chapter 6-CHEM SPM by Naguib Zakaria

Energy change : Chemical energy  Electrical Energy

** the position of two metals is in Electrochemical series


Anode ( negative terminal) determine the cell voltage. Cathode ( positive terminal)
Definition: ** the further the distance between two metal in Definition:
Anode is a terminal where substance Electrochamical series, he bigger the cell voltage will be. Cathode is a terminal where the substance
releases electrons and the oxidation accepts electrons and the reduction
process takes place. process takes place

Zinc is more electropositive than copper. Electrons flow from zins strip to copper
(Zinc stated above than copper in strip through the external circuit.
electrochemical series). Electrons are accepted by Cu2+ ions.
Cu2+ ions are discharged because its
Zinc atom will released electrons to form position is lower than Zn2+ ion and H+ ion
zinc ion. in ECS.
Cu2+ + 2e  Cu
2+
Zn  Zn + 2e
Copper strip : becomes the positive
Zinc strip : becomes the negative terminal.
terminal.
Electron flow from zinc strip to copper
strip. Observation at Anode:
Brown solid deposit on the copper strip.
Observation at Anode: Salt Bridge : contains inert ions or salt that does not Intensity of blue colour decrease (because
Zinc strip become thinner. (because it react with the electrolyte, example sodium chloride, the concentration of Cu2+ is decreases.)
dissolves, refer to half equation above) potassium chloride, potassium nitrate and dilute
sulphuric acid.

**Function:
To complete the circuit by allows the flow of ions.
To prevent the two electrolyte from mixing.

** Porous pot also functioned like a salt bridge. Porous


pot has fine pores to allow ions to flow through but
prevent the two electrolyte from mixing