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Matching Alternatives to Meet Human Food Requirements

Sharif Haron
Director General MARDI
ASEAN Regional Conference On Food Security 2013-8-10 October 2013

The food crisis of 20072008 caught most countries in the ASEAN region unprepared results of which saw the sudden spike in food prices, especially that of rice
ASEAN Regional Conference On Food Security 2013-8-10 October 2013

ASEAN Integrated Food Security (AIFS) Framework was developed to provide scope and joint approaches for cooperation among ASEAN Member States to address long-term food security issues.

Strategic Thrust 1

: Strengthen food security arrangements.

Action Programme 1.1 : Strengthen national food security programmes/ activities. Activity 1.1.1 : Promote diversification of food sources Scale up community based food security initiatives.

ASEAN Regional Conference On Food Security 2013-8-10 October 2013

Food security:
All people at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that will meet their dietary needs and food preference for an active and healthy life.

Conventional definition Based on SSL

Nutrition security

ASEAN Regional Conference On Food Security 2013-8-10 October 2013

Year/ Commodities Rice Fruits Vegetables Beef Mutton Poultry meat Pork Eggs Milk (liter) Fish * - Projections

2000

2005

2010

2015 *

2020 * 2011-2015 2016-2020 2011-2020

kg/person/year
77.9 60.6 43.7 4.8 0.6 27.3 6.8 13.4 44.7 54 70.8 83.3 55.6 5.3 0.7 30.1 8.6 14.3 34.3 45.8 79.6 93 54.7 5.6 0.8 35 8 16.2 47.5 45.5 78.4 94 59.9 6.1 0.9 36.5 20 17.4 51 50 77 96.5 70.4 6.6 1.1 38 20 18.6 53.7 55

Average annual growth (%)


-0.3 0.2 1.8 1.7 3.8 0.8 0.1 1.4 1.4 1.9 -0.4 0.5 3.3 1.7 3.3 0.8 1.4 1 1.9 -0.3 0.4 2.6 1.7 3.6 0.8 0.1 1.4 1.2 1.9

The per capita consumption of all food commodities are expected to increase for the year 2010-2020 with an annual growth rate of between 0.1% -3.8%. However, per capita consumption of rice are expected to decline between 0.3% -0.4% per year
ASEAN Regional Conference On Food Security 2013-8-10 October 2013

Projected self sufficiency level, 2010-2020 (%)


Crop Rice Fruits Vegetables Beef 2010 71.4 65.8 41.2 28.6 2015 71.5 70.0 54.0 30.5 2020 69.8 76.3 67.6 32.7

Mutton/lamb Chicken Egg Milk

10.6 127.9 115.4 4.9

16.0 129.3 117.8 5.5

30.9 131.6 119.1 6.3

ASEAN Regional Conference On Food Security 2013-8-10 October 2013

Self-Sufficiency Level of Rice


90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

SSL (%)

1,200 1,000 800 600 400

Import (ton)

200 -

Year

Details/Year Rice SSL projection (%)

2010 71.4

2015 71.5

2020 69.8

Annual Growth projection (%) 2011-2015 2016-2020 2011-2020 0.0 -0.5 -0.2

The trend of self-sufficiency was stable with an average annual growth rate of -0.46% and projected at -0.23% from 2010-2020. The total imports of rice increased especially after the food price crisis in 2007/2008.
ASEAN Regional Conference On Food Security 2013-8-10 October 2013

Thousands ton

1 2 3

4 i
Policies and trade

ii
Demand - supply - price

iii
Environment

iv
Farm factors

ASEAN Regional Conference On Food Security 2013-8-10 October 2013

Energy/Protein Consumed by Malaysian Population


800 700 600 500 400 715.98 520 Availability in the country

300
200 100 0 Protein availability (MT/yr) 25.1 20.4

Requirement by Malaysian

Energy availability (000 MCal/yr)

Protein source : Chicken, beef, goat/lamb, egg, milk, fish and rice (local production) Energy source : Rice, palm oil, meat (local production) and sugar (import)

ASEAN Regional Conference On Food Security 2013-8-10 October 2013

Food Source

Estimated Composition per Production Amount of kg ('0000 MT/yr) Protein (MT) Protein (g) 190 190 190 62.8 31.5 201 20 15.7 124 Energy (Kcal) 2600 3447 3458 1500 614 2082 1020 860 2520 1,334.47 48.84 2.74 621.00 70.87 2,049.00 2,665.00 253.55 9.28 0.07 39.00 2.23 411.85 85.28 0.00 0.00 715.98 1.96 253%

Amount of Energy ('000 Mcal) 3,469,622 168,334 9,489 931,500 43,514 4,266,018 3,456,505 0 0 12,344,982.18 33,821.87 56% 26,463,200 60,063.18 0.78

Chicken Beef Goat/Lamb Egg Milk Fish Rice Sweet Potato Wheat/Bread Total/yr Total/day Supply of nutrients

Malaysian Population 2011 (5 years and above) Total Energy Required (000 Mcal/day) Total Protein Required (MT/day)

ASEAN Regional Conference On Food Security 2013-8-10 October 2013

01

02

03
Inclusion of alternative raw materials as sources of carbohydrate (e.g sweet potato, cassava, potato, sago etc) with other food in composite products

04
Can be tailor made to needs of niche markets and diet requirements

Modify Formulating diets by diversifying nutritious food with balance of types of carbohydrate, food offered to protein, fat and micronutrients the consumer

ASEAN Regional Conference On Food Security 2013-8-10 October 2013

Composite food
e.g Artificial rice/rice analogues/ reformed rice

Artificial rice/rice analogues/ reformed rice can be produced with extrusion technology

Raw material mix with vitamin, amino acid, protein, minerals and water and extrude
Alternative to the traditional staple grain Challenge is colour, texture & cost

Work: Budijanto, S. (2013), Mishwa et al (2012), Kurachi (1995), Yoshida et al. (1971)

ASEAN Regional Conference On Food Security 2013-8-10 October 2013

Alternative crops
(sweet potato, cassava, potato, sago) - carbohydrate source

Flour

Fresh form

Cereals, pulses, nuts, fruit, veg, HVP, byproducts etc - protein source, fibre & micronutrient source Fortifying agents, processing aids

Processing

Composite/ restructured products- bread, noodles, cakes, patty, nuggets, artificial enriched rice-customised to meet specific needs

ASEAN Regional Conference On Food Security 2013-8-10 October 2013

Food pyramid is actually changeable if consumer can adapt modified food

But required consumer education and acceptance Targeting younger generation

ASEAN Regional Conference On Food Security 2013-8-10 October 2013

Where do we go ?
Food Security based on consumer preference - can we achieve this ?

Nutrition Security modifying available sources of food to meet human food requirement.

ASEAN Regional Conference On Food Security 2013-8-10 October 2013