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# 5) From the top of a building that overlooks a lake, Jack watches a boat sailing directly toward the building.

He notes that the angle of depression now to the boat is 40o and later it changes to 27o. His room is 120 feet above the lake. How far did the boat travel during that period?

We need to calculate two distances and then subtract these two. Both distances we calculate will give us the distance from the boat to the shore at different times. So, by subtracting we will get the distance the boat traveled. Calculating the distance to the shore at the first observation of 27o: Use tangent: tan 63 = opp/adj tan 63 = x/120 120 tan 63 = x 235.5 = x Now calculate the distance at 40o: Use tangent again tan 50 = opp/adj tan 50 = y/120 120 tan 50 = y 143.0 = y Now subtract y from x and we will have the distance the boat traveled. 235.5 - 143.0 = 92.5 The boat traveled 92.5 feet.
Example of angle of elevation: Suppose you need to find the height of a mountain using a right triangle model in which you can make two angle of elevation measurements at two distances, point A and point B.

You measure the distance between point A and B as 100 meters, but the terrain between B and C is too treacherous to measure. We know that angle C is 90 for both triangles, AMC and BMC. To find the height of the mountain, Because

MC, we need to know the distance AC and therefore BC. AB + BC = AC, then AC = 100 + BC. MC and then using right triangle ratios to find BC and AC:

## MC/BC MC = BC tan 45 = 100 tan 25 + BC tan 25

Rearranging,

BC tan 45 BC tan 25 = 100 tan 25 BC (tan 45 tan 25) = 100 tan 25 BC = 100 tan 25 / (tan 45 tan 25) 87.4 meters
Therefore,

## MC = AC tan 25 = (187.4 m) tan 25 87.4 meters.

Alternatively, we can find the height of the mountain using:

## MC = BC tan 45 = (87.4 m)tan 45 87.4 m.

Note that triangle BMC is a 45:45:90 triangle, which has both legs of equal length. Therefore, sides

## BC and MC are equal lengths.

Bearing is generally used in navigation and aeronautics, and calculations can be made using right triangle relationships. Bearing specifies a direction and is expressed in two ways: (1) with a direction being designated beginning with a north-south line toward an east or west direction with N, S, E, W specified, or (2) with a direction being designated beginning with due north and measured in a clockwise direction. See figures.

vertical pole, CD, stands on level ground and is observed by two children, Amber (A) and Billy (B).

Amber measured the angle of elevation to the top of the pole as 30 and the distance as 20ft. Billy measured the angle of elevation to the top of the pole as 45. Calculate Billy's distance, a ft, to the top of the pole.

A
14.1 ft

B
10 ft

C
16.1 ft

D
7.1 ft
+0.50

Well Done!
We can solve this problem in two stages: 1. Find the height of the pole In triangle ACD, we know the angle A = 30 and the hypotenuse side AC = 20 ft. We want to find the opposite side, CD = h ft * Step 1 The two sides we are using are Opposite (h) and Hypotenuse (20). * Step 2 SOHCAHTOA tells us we must use Sine. * Step 3 Write down the fraction for sin 30: sin 30 = opposite/hypotenuse = h/20 * Step 4 Change the two sides of the equation around:

So h/20 = sin 30 Find the value of the sin 30 from your calculator: So h/20 = 0.5 Multiply both sides by 20: So h = 0.5 20 = 10 The height of the pole = 10 ft 2. Find the distance a ft In triangle CDB, we know the angle B = 45 and the opposite side CD = 10 ft. We want to find the hypotenuse side, CB = a ft * Step 1 The two sides we are using are Opposite (10) and Hypotenuse (a). * Step 2 SOHCAHTOA tells us we must use Sine. * Step 3 Write down the fraction for sin 45: sin 45 = opposite/hypotenuse = h/a But h = 10, so sin 45 = 10/a * Step 4 Change the two sides of the equation around: So 10/a = sin 45 So a/10 = 1/sin 45 Find the value of the sin 45 from your calculator: So a/10 = 1/0.707... = 1.414... Multiply both sides by 10: So a = 1.414... 10 = 14.14...

Billy's distance from the top of the pole = 14.1 ft correct to 1 place of decimals.