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Using Adaptive Cursor Sharing (ACS) to produce multiple Optimal Plans

Carlos Sierra

Carlos Sierra

!! Enkitec Consultant !! Oracle Performance !! SQL Tuning !! PL/SQL

Adaptive Cursor Sharing (ACS)


!! Motivation !! Mechanics !! Test Case !! Demo !! Remarks

ACS Motivation

SQL Processing
Hard parsing is expensive!
!! Hard parse side effects
! CPU consumption ! Latch contention

!! Excessive hard parsing


! Affects concurrency ! Restricts scalability

!! Mitigating hard parsing


! Cursor sharing

Implementing Cursor Sharing


Replacing literals with bind variables

Before Bind Peeking


Before 9i CBO was blind to values passed
!! Predicate
! WHERE channel_id = :b1

!! Unknowns
! Is :b1 between low and high values of channel_id? ! Is :b1 a popular value of channel_id? ! Are there any rows with value :b1 for channel_id?

!! Penalty
! Possible suboptimal plans

With Bind Peeking


9i offers a partial solution
!! Predicate
! WHERE channel_id = :b1

!! Plan is determined by peeked values


! EXEC :b1 := 9;

!! Optimal plan for 1st execution


! CBO can use low/high and histograms on channel_id

!! Penalty
! Possible suboptimal plans for subsequent executions on skewed data
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Real-life Problem with Bind Peeking


People Soft Payroll Application
!! WHERE employee BETWEEN :b1 AND :b2 !! Payroll for one employee
! :b1 = 123456 ! :b2 = 123456

!! Payroll for one company


! :b1 = 000001 ! :b2 = 999999

!! Doing payroll for an employee first then entire company


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With Adaptive Cursor Sharing


11g improves cursor sharing
!! Some queries are ACS candidates !! Sophisticated non-persistent mechanism !! Selectivity of predicates determine plan !! Multiple optimal plans for a query!
! If ACS is successfully applied

!! Penalty
! Marginal increase in CPU and memory overhead

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ACS Mechanics

ACS high-level Overview


High level overview
!! If SQL with binds meets some requirements
! Flag cursor as bind sensitive ! Start monitoring data volume manipulated by cursor

!! If bind sensitive and data volume manipulated by cursor varies

significantly
! Flag cursor as bind aware ! Start generating multiple optimal plans for this query on next hard parse

!! If bind aware then use selectivity of predicates to decide on plan


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Bind Sensitive
Minimum requirements
!! SQL has explicit binds
! Or literals and cursor_sharing is force

!! Predicate: column + operand + bind_variable


! Equality operand = and histogram on column
!! Ex: channel_id = :b1

! Non-equality operand (range) regardless of histogram on column


!! >, >=, <, <=, BETWEEN, LIKE

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Bind Aware
How to become bind aware?
!! Significant changes in data volume manipulated by cursor
! A few rows versus a few thousands of rows ! A few thousands of rows versus a few millions of rows

!! Specifying /*+ BIND_AWARE */ CBO Hint


! Bypasses the monitoring phase on data volume

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Plan Selection
Based on selectivity profile of predicates
!! Evaluate selectivity of predicates at soft parse !! Compare to a non-persistent selectivity profile !! If within ranges of a known profile then select associated plan !! Else hard parse
! Compute and execute newly generated plan ! Create selectivity profile for new plan or update profile of existing plan

!! If ranges on selectivity profiles overlap then merge profiles

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V$ dynamic views for ACS


ACS non-persistent performance views
!! V$SQL
! Shareable, bind sensitive and bind aware flags

!! V$SQL_CS_STATISTICS
! Data volume manipulated (rows processed)

!! V$SQL_CS_HISTOGRAM
! Record keeping of data volume per execution (small, medium, large)

!! V$SQL_CS_SELECTIVITY
! Predicates selectivity profiles
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ACS Test Case

Our Query with Literals


Guesstimate execution plan then verify it with demo 0

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Possible Access Paths?

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Optimal Execution Plan

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Our Query with Bind Variables


How many optimal execution plans can you foresee?

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Multiple Optimal Plans for one Query


Guesstimate optimal plan (access paths) for each query

Query q1 q2 q3 q4 q5

:b1 9 5 2 9 2

:b2 33 32 999 999 33

AP1 N1

AP2 N2

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Multiple Optimal Plans for one Query


Guesstimate optimal plan (access paths) for each query

Query q1 q2 q3 q4 q5

:b1 9 5 2 9 2

:b2 33 32 999 999 33

AP1 N1 N1 FTS N1 FTS

AP2 N2 N2 FTS FTS N2

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Multiple Optimal Plans for one Query


Execute demos 1-5 and verify access paths

Query q1 q2 q3 q4 q5

:b1 9 5 2 9 2

:b2 33 32 999 999 33

AP1 N1 N1 FTS N1 FTS

AP2 N2 N2 FTS FTS N2

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Bind Sensitive: Rows Processed


Monitor v$sql_cs_statistics.rows_processed
!! Data volume manipulated
! Fuzzy representation ! S: few rows ! M: thousands or rows ! L: millions of rows

Query q1 q2 q3 q4 q5

:b1 9 5 2 9 2

:b2 33 32 999 33

Optimal N1/N2 N1/N2 N1/FTS FTS/N2

Rows Processed 37,382 2 8,021,324 6,233,815 1,825,131


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!! v$sql_cs_histogram
! Bucket(0): S ! Bucket(1): M ! Bucket(2): L

999 FTS/FTS

ACS Demo

Demo 6: When Cursor becomes Bind Aware?


Obtain rows processed from demo 1-5 then guesstimate aware flag
Rows Processed 37,382 2 8,021,324 6,233,815 1,825,131

Query q1 q2 q3 q4 q5

:b1 9 5 2 9 2

:b2 33 32 999 33

Optimal N1/N2 N1/N2 N1/FTS FTS/N2

Bucket

Aware

Child

Actual

999 FTS/FTS

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Demo 6: When Cursor becomes Bind Aware?


Obtain rows processed from demo 1-5 then guesstimate aware flag
Rows Processed 37,382 2 8,021,324 6,233,815 1,825,131

Query q1 q2 q3 q4 q5

:b1 9 5 2 9 2

:b2 33 32 999 33

Optimal N1/N2 N1/N2 N1/FTS FTS/N2

Bucket 1 0 2 2 2

Aware

Child

Actual

999 FTS/FTS

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Demo 6: When Cursor becomes Bind Aware?


Obtain rows processed from demo 1-5 then guesstimate aware flag
Rows Processed 37,382 2 8,021,324 6,233,815 1,825,131

Query q1 q2 q3 q4 q5

:b1 9 5 2 9 2

:b2 33 32 999 33

Optimal N1/N2 N1/N2 N1/FTS FTS/N2

Bucket 1 0 2 2 2

Aware N N Y Y Y

Child

Actual

999 FTS/FTS

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Demo 6: When Cursor becomes Bind Aware?


Obtain rows processed from demo 1-5 then guesstimate aware flag
Rows Processed 37,382 2 8,021,324 6,233,815 1,825,131

Query q1 q2 q3 q4 q5

:b1 9 5 2 9 2

:b2 33 32 999 33

Optimal N1/N2 N1/N2 N1/FTS FTS/N2

Bucket 1 0 2 2 2

Aware N N Y Y Y

Child 0 0 1 2 3

Actual N1/N2 N1/N2 FTS/FTS N1/FTS FTS/N2

999 FTS/FTS

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Demo 6: When Cursor becomes Bind Aware?


Obtain rows processed from demo 1-5 then guesstimate aware flag
Rows Processed 37,382 2 8,021,324 6,233,815 1,825,131

Query q1 q2 q3 q4 q5

:b1 9 5 2 9 2

:b2 33 32 999 33

Optimal N1/N2 N1/N2 N1/FTS FTS/N2

Bucket 1 0 2 2 2

Aware N N Y Y Y

Child 0 0 1 2 3

Actual N1/N2 N1/N2 FTS/FTS N1/FTS FTS/N2

999 FTS/FTS

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Demo 7: When Cursor becomes Bind Aware?


Compute bucket and guesstimate aware flag and actual plan
Rows Processed 1,825,131 6,233,815 8,021,324 2 37,382

Query q5 q4 q3 q2 q1

:b1 2 9 2 5 9

:b2 33 999 32 33

Optimal FTS/N2 N1/FTS N1/N2 N1/N2

Bucket

Aware

Child

Actual

999 FTS/FTS

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Demo 7: When Cursor becomes Bind Aware?


Compute bucket and guesstimate aware flag and actual plan
Rows Processed 1,825,131 6,233,815 8,021,324 2 37,382

Query q5 q4 q3 q2 q1

:b1 2 9 2 5 9

:b2 33 999 32 33

Optimal FTS/N2 N1/FTS N1/N2 N1/N2

Bucket 2 2 2 0 1

Aware

Child

Actual

999 FTS/FTS

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Demo 7: When Cursor becomes Bind Aware?


Compute bucket and guesstimate aware flag and actual plan
Rows Processed 1,825,131 6,233,815 8,021,324 2 37,382

Query q5 q4 q3 q2 q1

:b1 2 9 2 5 9

:b2 33 999 32 33

Optimal FTS/N2 N1/FTS N1/N2 N1/N2

Bucket 2 2 2 0 1

Aware N N N N Y

Child

Actual

999 FTS/FTS

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Demo 7: When Cursor becomes Bind Aware?


Compute bucket and guesstimate aware flag and actual plan
Rows Processed 1,825,131 6,233,815 8,021,324 2 37,382

Query q5 q4 q3 q2 q1

:b1 2 9 2 5 9

:b2 33 999 32 33

Optimal FTS/N2 N1/FTS N1/N2 N1/N2

Bucket 2 2 2 0 1

Aware N N N N Y

Child 0 0 0 0 1

Actual FTS/N2 FTS/N2 FTS/N2 FTS/N2 N1/N2

999 FTS/FTS

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Demo 7: When Cursor becomes Bind Aware?


Compute bucket and guesstimate aware flag and actual plan
Rows Processed 1,825,131 6,233,815 8,021,324 2 37,382

Query q5 q4 q3 q2 q1

:b1 2 9 2 5 9

:b2 33 999 32 33

Optimal FTS/N2 N1/FTS N1/N2 N1/N2

Bucket 2 2 2 0 1

Aware N N N N Y

Child 0 0 0 0 1

Actual FTS/N2 FTS/N2 FTS/N2 FTS/N2 N1/N2

999 FTS/FTS

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Demo 8: When Cursor becomes Bind Aware?


Guesstimate aware flag and actual plan
Rows Processed 1,825,131 6,233,815 8,021,324 37,382 2

Query q5 q4 q3 q1 q2

:b1 2 9 2 9 5

:b2 33 999 33 32

Optimal FTS/N2 N1/FTS N1/N2 N1/N2

Bucket 2 2 2 1 0

Aware

Child

Actual

999 FTS/FTS

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Demo 8: When Cursor becomes Bind Aware?


Guesstimate aware flag and actual plan
Rows Processed 1,825,131 6,233,815 8,021,324 37,382 2

Query q5 q4 q3 q1 q2

:b1 2 9 2 9 5

:b2 33 999 33 32

Optimal FTS/N2 N1/FTS N1/N2 N1/N2

Bucket 2 2 2 1 0

Aware N N N N N

Child

Actual

999 FTS/FTS

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Demo 8: When Cursor becomes Bind Aware?


Guesstimate aware flag and actual plan
Rows Processed 1,825,131 6,233,815 8,021,324 37,382 2

Query q5 q4 q3 q1 q2

:b1 2 9 2 9 5

:b2 33 999 33 32

Optimal FTS/N2 N1/FTS N1/N2 N1/N2

Bucket 2 2 2 1 0

Aware N N N N N

Child 0 0 0 0 0

Actual FTS/N2 FTS/N2 FTS/N2 FTS/N2 FTS/N2

999 FTS/FTS

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Demo 8: When Cursor becomes Bind Aware?


Guesstimate aware flag and actual plan
Rows Processed 1,825,131 6,233,815 8,021,324 37,382 2

Query q5 q4 q3 q1 q2

:b1 2 9 2 9 5

:b2 33 999 33 32

Optimal FTS/N2 N1/FTS N1/N2 N1/N2

Bucket 2 2 2 1 0

Aware N N N N N

Child 0 0 0 0 0

Actual FTS/N2 FTS/N2 FTS/N2 FTS/N2 FTS/N2

999 FTS/FTS

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Real-life Problem with ACS


People Soft Payroll Application
!! WHERE employee BETWEEN :b1 AND :b2 !! Payroll for one employee
! :b1 = 123456 ! :b2 = 123456

!! Payroll for one company


! :b1 = 000001 ! :b2 = 999999

!! Doing payroll for a few employees first then entire company


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Closing Remarks

Understanding Selectivity Profile


From demo 6

Query q3 q4 q5

:b1 2 9 2

:b2 999 999 33

Child 1 2 3
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Understanding Selectivity Profile


From demo 6

Query q3 q4 q5

:b1 2 9 2

:b2 999 999 33

Child 1 2 3
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Understanding Selectivity Profile


From demo 6

Query q3 q4 q5

:b1 2 9 2

:b2 999 999 33

Child 1 2 3
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Remarks on Bind Sensitivity


Based on experimental observation
!! Monitor V$SQL_CS_STATISTICS.rows_processed
! If small number of rows then
!! V$SQL_CS_HISTOGRAM.bucket_id(0)++

! If medium number of rows then


!! V$SQL_CS_HISTOGRAM.bucket_id(1)++

! If large number of rows then


!! V$SQL_CS_HISTOGRAM.bucket_id(2)++

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Remarks on Bind Aware


Based on experimental observation
!! Some cases where cursor may become bind aware
! bucket_id(0) = bucket_id(1) > 0 ! bucket_id(1) = bucket_id(2) > 0 ! bucket_id(0) > 0 and bucket_id(2) > 0

!! Or use /*+ BIND_AWARE */ CBO Hint


! What if we cannot modify code?

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Conclusions
ACS can produce multiple optimal plans for one query
!! ACS only applies to a subset of queries with binds !! ACS requires a ramp-up process (few executions) !! In some cases cursor may fail to become bind aware !! To force a cursor become bind aware use CBO Hint !! ACS is not persistent !! ACS works well with SQL Plan Management

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Give Away
Script sqlt/utl/coe_gen_sql_patch.sql (MOS 215187.1)
!! Creates a SQL Patch for one SQL_ID !! Turns on EVENT 10053 for SQL_ID !! Hints on SQL Patch
! GATHER_PLAN_STATISTICS ! MONITOR ! BIND_AWARE

!! Consider using and customizing this free script

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References and Contact Info


Oracle Optimizer Blog
!! https://blogs.oracle.com/optimizer/
! Insight into the workings of the Optimizer

!! carlos.sierra@enkitec.com !! http://carlos-sierra.net !! @csierra_usa

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