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ELSEVIER
ABSTRACT Design formulae for bolted flush and extended endplates are presented based on the theory of plasticity. The flush endplate is designed such that prying forces are not present. The bolts of the extended endplate are designed such that yielding at the boltline and at the flange can occur, thus reducing the endplate thickness but increasing the required bolt force capacity. An explicit expression for the prying ratio is presented. The effect of using several bolts alongside the web is accounted for. The design formulae for flush and extended endplates are channelled into one general set of design formulae. To measure the adequacy of this simplified design method, comprehensive numerical analyses of the bolt/endplate connection have been performed. The numerical method is presented briefly. The agreement between the two methods is excellent, with only minor differences in the ultimate load bearing capacities. 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.
1 INTRODUCTION
Great attention has been drawn to the design of bolted endplate connections. Primarily, the forces in the bolts were objects of great concern, whereas only little attention was given to the design of the endplate. Although very complicated moment distributions are present in the endplate, the endplate is mostly designed based on simple Tstub models with yielding at the root of the T [1] and possibly at the bolt line [2,3]. In the annex to EC3 [4], the design of bolted endplates is based entirely on the model of equivalent Tstubs. However, the methods presented in Eurocode No. 3 [4] are applicable only for connections with one line of bolts on each side of the web or, alternatively, one line of bolts on each side of the tension flange. In addition the regulations
119
120
P. C. Olsen
are directly applicable only for small axial forces. For such simple cases, the Tstub model seems to be adequate, although the moment distribution at the junction between web and flange is very complex. It is very important to consider the connection bolts/endplate in its entirety. The dimension of the endplate influences the bolt forces, i.e. a very thick endplate results in smaller bolt forces, whereas prying forces are introduced for a thinner endplate, resulting in larger bolt forces. The existence of prying forces is a matter of to what extent the endplate makes contact with the resisting media, i.e. an opposite endplate for a beam splice or a flange for a beamcolumn connection. From this introductory discussion, it is obvious that more general methods of analysis and design of bolted endplates, in particular methods physically more comprehensive and suitable for computer implementation, are desirable. In Gebbeken et al. [5] results of numerical computations using the finite element method and the theory of elasticity are presented. However, the problem of contact between surfaces is very complex in the theory of elasticity and requires great computational effort. In this paper a general approach of analysis and design of bolted endplate connections, based on the structural laws of plasticity, is presented. Both endplate and bolts must thus possess sufficient capacity of plasticity. The upper bound theory is applied, i.e. the yield line theory is applied for the endplate. Contrary to classical yield line theory, where a single parameter determines the entire mechanism, the endplate is subdivided into triangular elements, the displacements of each vertex of the mesh representing a partial mechanism. The proper mechanism is determined by means of solving a linearly constrained optimization problem. The contact problem is simply solved by adding additional constraints regarding the displacements at the vertices; this does not increase the complexity. The optimization problem is solved by means of a very efficient method developed by the author. This newly developed method has a response time so minimal as to enable interactive design. One may utilize this methodology in one of two ways, either in terms of a small variety of possible yieldline patterns, selected by engineering judgement, with few parameters determining the mechanism, or in terms of applying a very large number of elements, in which case the necessity of engineering judgement becomes superfluous and whereby a very accurate estimation of the bearing capacity is ensured. In the first case, the response time of the methodology is comparable with that of applying a simple analytical solution expressed in terms of a formula, whereas the response time in the second case, especially in a PCenvironment, unfortunately is unacceptable. The duration of the analyses of the examples presented in this paper was typically 310 min, which must be compared to an acceptable response time of maximum 30 s.
'
121
The conclusion drawn was to develop analytical design aids by means of simple yieldline patterns and to test the results against the elaborate and accurate numerical method of using a very large number of elements. This must be seen in context with the requirement in EC3 of having to demonstrate the adequacy of the model by means of physical tests when the yieldline method is used. The adequacy of the analytical solutions presented in this paper has been proved by means of an accurate numerical method.
2 THE NUMERICAL MODEL OF ENDPLATE AND BOLTS It is well known [6] that the ultimate load factor of the upper bound theory may be determined by means of solving linear optimization problems. Formulation of the yield line theory as a problem of linear optimization is accomplished by subdividing the plate under consideration into a number of triangular elements as shown in Fig. 1, and applying the principle of virtual work and the upper bound theorem. Subdivision of the domain into triangles is advantageous in the sense that all partial mechanisms automatically are geometrically admissible. Displacements and relative rotations are assigned to all vertices and all triangular edges, respectively, in the subdivided domain. All displacements are collected in a vector u and all rotations in a vector 0. Compatibility requires the following equation to be satisfied:
0 = Bu (1)
where B is a rectangular matrix with the number of rows corresponding to the number of edges and the number of columns corresponding to the number of vertices. Writing the rotations as the difference between two positive numbers, eqn (1) can be rewritten accordingly as:
0 +  0 =Bu0 + 00>0. (2)
Fig. 1. Subdivision of part of an endplate around the boltholes into triangular elements.
122
P. C. Olsen
The intemal work is determined as the product of the yield moments and the rotations. Letting m + and in  represent the yield moments, the internal work is determined from eqn (3):
Wintern = m + 0 +
+m0.
(3)
The extemal work is principally determined as the product of the extemal forces and the displacements. This can be expressed as a linear equation, as shown in eqn (4):
Wextern C u (4)
where the components of C represent the external work for unit displacements. By means of the upper bound theorem, the ultimate load factor is determined as the quotient:
Wintern

(5)
Wextern "
For each mechanism an upper value of the ultimate load factor is determined and the problem is hereafter to determine the particular mechanism yielding the smallest load factor. By requiring the external work to be constant, for example Cu = 1 (6)
it is easily seen that this: mechanism and thereby the ultimate load factor are determined by solving the following optimization problem: rain[m+ 0 + + m  0],0 +  0   B . u = 0 Cu = 1 0 +  0 0  0. (7)
The incorporation of the bolts requires only a small extension to eqn (7). In addition to the internal work from the endplate, the internal work done by the bolts, which is simply the product of bolt force and displacement, must also be considered. Thus eqn (3) is amended as follows:
Wintern = m + 0 + + m  0  + Pbolt u (8)
where Pboxt is a vector expressing the yield condition of the individual bolts. Finally, the problem of contact between the endplate and the resisting media is solved by requiring the displacements to be nonnegative. As can be seen,
123
this does not increase the complexity of the problem. Thus, the bearing capacity of the assemblage of endplate/bolts with automatic consideration of potential prying forces is determined by solution of the following optimization problem: min[m+0 + + m  0 +Pbo~tU],0+  0  B . u = 0 C . u = l 0 >00 >0. (9)
Requiring the displacements to be nonnegative is also a requirement to the resisting media in terms of sufficient strength. A beam splice is reckoned to have sufficient strength when the thickness of the endplates at opposite beam ends is equal. For a beamcolumn connection the method is also applicable if one models both endplate and column flange with the appropriate strengths and requires the difference in displacements between endplate and flange to be nonnegative. With this latter technique practically any type of bolted connection can be analysed. Endplate connections for symmetrical I sections will now be discussed. In this case the tensile stresses in the flange and in part of the web are transferred via the endplate to the bolts, whereas the compression stresses are transferred by means of contact between the endplates. However, the flanges and the web also support the endplate, in that the section practically deforms rigidly. This effect is accommodated by introducing infinitely strong beams. Because of symmetry, only half of the endplate is considered, and in order to reduce the computational resources only the part of the endplate around the boltholes in the tension zone is descretized. This is justified by the fact that the I section rotates rigidly around the compression flange. This requires, however, that flanges are positioned opposite to one another. One thus arrives at the model shown in Fig. 2. In Fig. 3 the yieldline patterns for a thin and a thick endplate are shown. The bolts are in both cases designed assuming an infinitely strong endplate. As can be seen, completely different yieldline patterns are decisive in the two cases.
3 DESIGN OF BOLTS ASSUMING AN INFINITELY STRONG ENDPLATE In the case of an infinitely strong endplate, the ultimate load factor is easy to determine, as it corresponds to a mechanism, where the assemblage of beams and endplate rotates rigidly about the compression flange as shown in Fig. 3. In this case the internal work is solely due to the yielding of the bolts:
124
P. C. Olsen
(a)
t k = = lOmm 0.72
).
Fig. 3. Yieldline patterns for (A) a thin endplate and (B) a thick endplate
125
Wint~m= OZPB,ihi
1
(10)
where PB.i is the yield strength of the bolts, 0 is the angle of rotation and h i is the distance between the bolts and the compression flange. The external work is determined from eqn (11):
Wextern =
(11)
where O'T is the stress at the flange in tension, Oc is the stress at the flange in compression, t~ and bn are the thickness and the width, respectively, of the flange in tension, tw is the thickness of the web, and finally h is the height of the section [eqn (11) implies a linear stress distribution through the section]. The bolts can now be designed by means of eqns (5), (10) and (11) in that the load factor must be larger than one, or, equivalently:
N
(12)
For example, for given bolt dimensions, bolt strength and bolt spacing, the number of required bolts may be determined.
4 DESIGN OF FLUSH ENDPLATE The bolt design method of eqn (12) is completely traditional. Choosing an endplate thickness large enough to prevent any yielding in the endplate, the bolt dimensions thus determined are also the final dimensions. A question of great importance is, thus, what the lower limit of thickness of the endplate is in order to prevent yielding in the endplate. Before addressing this question, however, another limiting value of the endplate thickness, assuming full strength utilization of the bolts, is determined from the punching shear resistance. According to EC3/4/, the punching shear resistance is determined on the basis of a critical diameter corresponding to the mean dimension dm of the cross flats and the cross points of the bolt head or the nut. Requiring full strength utilization of the bolts, this leads to the following minimal endplate thickness tp:
tp >
4dmfp.y
(13)
126
P. C. Olsen
where dB is the diameter of the net stress area of the bolt, fB,y is the yield strength of the bolts and fp,y is the yield strength of the endplate. Using the specifications for the Mbolts, dm/dB "~ 1.9 and dN/dB ~ 1.15, where dN is the nominal diameter of the bolt. This leads to the following requirements: > /0.54dN ......... (8.8 bolts) tr,  L0.76dN ......... (10.9 bolts)
(14)
235 MPa and utilizing the yield strength of the bolt only. A simple analysis including one bolt only and assuming the simple yield mechanism, which is shown in Fig. 4, is now performed. The internal work is solely due to the yielding of the endplate and it is a simple matter to determine this to be: Wintern =
assuming fp,y =
((hch)hc)1
m 2 + 1 + 2 (c .}x )
X C e
~ ~pfp,yO
(15)
where the symbols used are seen in Fig. 4. The internal work is minimal for: x = ,,/m7. (16)
N,x
Fig. 4. Simple yield mechanism for an endplate with one bolt only.
127
The external work is determined by means of eqn (11) and thus the minimal thickness of the endplate is determined from:
tp >
2
m 2~
h(orTbntn + (1/6)(20"T
+c 1 +2
O'c)twh) (c+ )
. ,y
(17)
In Fig. 5 the endplate thickness is plotted for the IPEseries of sections, assuming the sections carry only a bending moment causing yielding in both flanges. Also, the design yield strengths of section and endplate are equal. When placing several bolts alongside the web, the yield mechanism shown in Fig. 6 is decisive. As a result of the rotation about the compression flange, the area denoted ABCD in Fig. 6 can not deform rigidly and must therefore be divided as shown. The internal work is determined to be:
Wintem =
((hc+h)
m 2
+ 1 x c
hcd
+2 e
(c + d
x) ~ tp2fp,yO
(18)
where the symbols used are seen in Fig. 6. Similarly to the yield mechanism of Fig. 4, the internal work is minimal for the xvalue determined in eqn (16) and the external work is determined by means of eqn (11). The minimal endplate thickness is thus determined from:
.35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i i i i t
30 . . . . .
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F    i/ ~ 
....
~25~Z~
x~"
. . . . . . . . .
I . . . .
r
r"
.r.
I
I I
I
I
I . . . . . . . . . . . .
I
t
~ . . . .
I
I
I I . . . .
._u 20(4,
I. . . .
~  o 1o . . . . .
c'III
/  /"
/
I
i
I
P,y: m " =
C :
yd
O.'Sb,F't
U,Jm
5 . . . . . .
; . . . . i
i
O,Sm
i i
i i i
100
200
300
IPE
400
500
600
(17).
128
P. C. Olsen
Jr
Nr~
tp
~2
((
m 2
h hcd  1 +2 c e
(c+d+
,y
(19)
eqn (19) is identical to eqn (17) when d = 0 is inserted. For extraordinary bolt positions the decisive yieldline pattern may be one, where the position of point B in Fig. 6 coincides with the intersection of web and compression flange. In this case the endplate thickness is determined as:
tp >
(c
(20)
+ 2
,y
In Fig. 7 the effect of placing several bolts alongside the web is plotted for the IPEseries of sections, d = 0 corresponds to the yield mechanism of Fig. 4. d = 50 and d = 100 correspond approximately to two and three bolts,
129
? ....
J I
7 ....
. ..,~f~~_
I I
.?.;.;.;.L
d=O d=50
mm mm
 !
, I I
I I I
. . . .
1 I
i
I . I
. I I
l . . . . I
.o 20c.+~
....
.~ ....
~'~I
~
I I
....
off ~C
~ ..........
4.#
~15c~ o_ o105
....
. . .
, ,t_. . . .
I
_ _ ] _ _ _
,~
I
~
I
= ~yol =yd

~
.
I
~ P,y~ C
I
Fyd
0,Sbft
P ....
~ m
, e
= =
=
cIM
. . . . .
I p . . . .
~
i
0,5rn
0.5m
,
~ i I
. . . .
p I I
o o
100
200
I 300 IPE
I 400
500
600
respectively. It is seen that the result of placing several bolts alongside the web may be partly a strengthening, partly a weakening of the endplate, depending on the distance between the bolts and the compression flange. The endplate is strengthened if this distance is large. In what follows, it is demonstrated that prying forces are not present at the ultimate limit state when designing the endplate thickness according to eqns (17), (19) and (20). The yield mechanism of Fig. 8 is considered, in which the contact surface of potential prying forces is lifted as shown, corresponding to a rotation about the compression flange. The internal work is now:
Wintern
~ W ( e q n l 8
.I
hc
(c + a + x)
),
hcd h   +  X C
\ hcd 1)+2
e
(21)
tgf.,,
and it is seen that x is once again determined by eqn (16). The endplate thickness is deduced from the requirement that the derivative of the internal work with respect to the lifting u must be nonnegative, and it is seen that, when applying the bolt forces of eqn (12), the thickness is once again determined by eqns (17) and (19), thus concluding that prying forces are not present.
130
P. C. Olsen
UI)= u UA = u(1~dc)
5 TESTING THE DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR FLUSH ENDPLATES The combined procedure of designing the bolts, assuming an infinitely strong endplate and designing the actual endplate thickness according to eqns (17), (19) and (20), is now tested by means of the numerical method. An IPE300 is selected and the ultimate load factor is firstly determined for the parameters used in the chart of Figs 5 and 7 for one and three bolts, respectively. Secondly, for extraordinary bolt positions, an endplate with a width of 200 mm with the first bolt positioned 100 mm below the tension flange, in line with the tip of the flanges is examined. A yield strength fyd = 183.5 MPa is applied. The results are shown in Fig. 9, in which the required total bolt force capacity PB, the endplate thickness tp and the ultimate load factor A calculated are tabulated. The yieldline patterns shown in this figure indicate that the design results in an ultimate load factor corresponding to an infinitely strong endplate. This is, however, not true for the endplate P3, the reason being that the endplate is weakened by the missing support of the tension flange at the extended part of the endplate, resulting in a lower ultimate load factor. In Fig. 10 the effect of increasing the total bolt force capacity is shown. It is seen that the forces in the endplate to some extent may be redistributed due to prying action, resulting in larger ultimate load factors. It is also notice
131
1.00
1.00
1,00
Fig. 9. Design values, ultimate load factors and yielding patterns for varying flush endplate. 15o
1.40
.........
&" " "~, P2 5~k'~ P3 F,'='=',,' P 4

? . . . . ?. . . . ? . . . .
I i L . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I I I I I
I
I I
1.30
q,.,
. . . .
L I
. I I
L I I
. . . .
L I I
. . . .
I I I
I
. . . . . .
I I
L I . . . .
I I L
I
I I
. . . . L I . . . .
I I
L I . . . .
I I
I I I
I I I I II
I I I I
I I
I I I I
I I . . . . L . . . .
I I I I
I I L . . . .
I I I I I
I L . . . .
I I I
I I
1.00
L
. . . .
I
I I
I
I I
I
I I
I
I I
I
I I
I I
I I
0.90
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
Bolt force factor Fig. 10. The bearing capacity as a function of increase in bolt force capacity. able that the increase in the ultimate load factor is nonproportional with the increase in bolt force capacity, indicating that the connection bolts/endplate in its entirety becomes decisive for the bearing capacity. This is also clearly seen in Fig. 11, where the yieldline patterns for an increase in bolt force capacity of 1.25 and 4.0, respectively, are shown.
6 DESIGN OF E X T E N D E D E N D P L A T E Extended endplates are considered next. This type of connection could also be designed such that no prying forces occur. In this case, however, only yielding at the flange would be possible, resulting in rather thick endplates.
132
PI
P. C. Olsen
P2 P3 P4
1.25PB
4,00P B
Fig. 11. Yieldline pattems for varying endplates and bolt force capacities.
x.
133
Using a slightly more complicated design procedure, the connection may be designed with yieldlines at both the boltline of the extended part of the endplate and at the flange. To this end, the yield mechanism of Fig. 12 is considered. The internal work is determined from eqn (22), whereas the external work is still given by eqn (11). Also, it is easily seen that the minimizing value of x is still given by eqn (16). Thus, from eqns (11) and (22), the endplate thickness and the bolt forces are derived as follows in eqns (2325):
Wintern =
(22)
+2 +2  1 +2
m 2
c
+
(c+d+x)
v~/him
Intern
+2
bed
e
(c+d+x)
+
))
+2
C
 1
UExt
" 2 t2fpy
m l  a +
t~,fp,y.
tp
(23)
(m ( h2 c  d
~me
,((hcd
~e
+2+2 c
h h  1) + 2 h  c  d
a e +21 C
(C + d "1 ~ ' ~ ) ~ p , y
h)
(24)
+2
(c+d+
a
21
l
a
(25)
134
P. C. Olsen
By means of eqn (23) the endplate thickness is first determined, whereafter the internal and the external bolts are designed by applying eqn (24) and eqn (25), respectively. Only one row of external bolts is considered. The design procedure is iterative in that the distance d depends on the number of internal bolt rows. It is seen that the required bolt force capacities of the internal and the external bolts are probably not the same. However, applying identical bolts and designing the length of the extended part of the endplate according to eqn (26):
a
k2 k
m
a
lwhere:
m
a
(26)
m 2 k=
c.
+2
c
 1 +2
(c+d+
) (27)
hi
Intern
yields identical required bolt force capacities for both internal and external bolts. Finally, the prying ratio is determined as the ratio between the total bolt force capacity of eqns (24) and (25) and the bolt force capacity of eqn (12) for an infinitely strong endplate where no prying forces are present. The prying ratio is thus determined from eqn (28): m 2  (a/l)l ~,hi k + a l  (~l) J
3 =
All "
m 2
~/me
+2+2 c
 1 +2
(c+d+
) (28)
and it is seen that the prying ratio depends only on the geometry of the connection. In Fig. 13 the required endplate thickness is plotted for the IPEseries of sections, assuming the sections to carry only a bending moment causing yielding in both flanges. Also the design yield strengths of section and endplate
135
..........
oh"c
CP,,

F....
I
F....
I
F. . . .  ? .  .. .,,~l ,
I
.,~I
 _ _ iI
30
....
' r ,
I
. . . .
i .....
I
/1'
.
0 E ,,(
25
= ,,c1' ]
'
r . . . . r 
/
 r . . .
JJ'~'
.
.0_ 2 0 cq) 1 5 
a
. .
I
.
:
I
:
I
I
I
. . . . . . . . . . . .
I
L . . . .
I
L . . . .
I I I
I I I I
I I I I
I I I I
. . . . ~;. . . . .
i
; ....
i
iI
Flushendplate
;
s
~
"..'..~,~.~
o=O.2_5~
a=O.50m
i
I
i
i
t
I
.LLA
a=l.00m
0 0
1 O0
200
300
400
500
600
IPE Fig. 13. Endplate thickness for the IPE sections using extended endplates.
are equal. It is seen, in c o m p a r i s o n w i t h flush endplates, that the r e q u i r e d t h i c k n e s s o f e x t e n d e d e n d p l a t e s is r e d u c e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . I n Fig. 14 the r e q u i r e d internal b o l t f o r c e c a p a c i t i e s are p l o t t e d t o g e t h e r w i t h the r e q u i r e d e x t e r n a l b o l t f o r c e c a p a c i t y f o r v a r i o u s l e n g t h s o f the e x t e n d e d part o f the endplate. A y i e l d s t r e n g t h f o r s e c t i o n a n d e n d p l a t e Offyd = 183.5 M P a is a s s u m e d .
4o0
........... i
O'P
? ....
I
I
; . . . .
I
? ....
I
;/~
I I
= e yeli ,
=~"
,
i
,
,
I
,
l
,
./
P~
/:
I
I
z3'r"Y
^Ya
r ....
r ....
r ....
....
"~/
C"
PI
=U,~IODI
I
I
I
I /
I 4t.
I /
: o ' Sr~
d =0
,I
'
"
@ o 2oo ~
'~'
'
=o,5~
y '*.,I
t ~. . . .
I
I I
~/ ,
I
'
~,,~=I84MP~
, ~/
I/
I
I /
I
~K
I
I I
~ I
0 r~
i 100 . . . . . . r .
I I
i . . . . . .
i
I I
Internal
ij=J~(dl~
External, ~,,~3~.~F..xtemal,
a~1=0.67 a'11=O,SO
; i
i ,00
I 200
i 300 IPE
I ,00
I s~o
I 600
Fig. 14. Bolt force capacities for the IPE sections using extended endplates.
136
PLate PB, In PB, Ex
tp X
P. C. Olsen
P1 296 KN 149 KN
16.42 1,02 ~
P2 296 KN 198 KN
16,42
1.02
P3 372 KN 147 KN
16.33 1,03 Mm
P4 372 KN 196 KN
16.33 1,03
m~
Fig.
15.
Design values, ultimate load factors and yieldline patterns for varying extended
plates.
end
7 TESTING THE DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR EXTENDED ENDPLATES The design procedure for extended endplates is now tested by means of the numerical method. An IPE 300 is selected and the ultimate load factor is determined for the parameters used in Fig. 14. Also, for the same parameters but using three internal bolts instead with d = 100 mm, the ultimate load factor is determined. The results are shown in Fig. 15, in which the required total bolt force capacity PB,],t and PB,Ext for the internal and external bolts, respectively, the endplate thickness tp and the ultimate load factor )t calculated are tabulated. It is seen that the design procedure is satisfactory and leads to the expected behaviour of the connection at the ultimate limit state. In Fig. 16 the ultimate load factor for connection P3 is plotted as a function
1.50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i ~ . . . . i i
L . . . .
/ . . . . i i
k . . . .
7. . . .
i i
k . . . .
i i n
I
Internal
Entomal
L . . . . L . . . .
1.40
. . . . . .
i I i L
i ~ i i
J g a i
i i i i
i i i :
i i
~1.30 ~ O ..... Il IL .... " I'IL .... IlL .... Ill" I11 .... II
I i i i
1.50 PB,In
4.0 PB, In
01.20
......
LI
L
i
....
L ....
i
t. . . . .
i
L ....
I
i i
i
~o
1.1o
.....
n '~ ....
'L . . . .
L ....
I I I I
'L . . . . . . .i:. .
L ....
t = = I
'~ . . . .
U ....
I I I O
',
1.oo . . . . . .
L ....
I I I
L ....
U I I I
0.90 1.00
4.00
Bolt
force
foctor
ri r
Fig.
16.
The
bearing
capacity as a function of increase in external and internal bolt force capacities and corresponding yieldline patterns.
137
of increasing internal and external bolt force capacities, respectively. In this figure the yieldline patterns for varying internal bolt force capacities are also shown. It is seen that the bearing capacity does not improve by increasing the external bolt force capacity above that given by eqn (25). However, as with flush endplates, the bearing capacity increases by increasing the internal bolt force capacity, indicating that the forces in the endplate are, to some extent, redistributed.
8 CONNECTIONS WITH SEVERAL BOLTS PER ROW The wideflanged Hseries of sections offers the possibility of placing two bolts per row on each side of the web and this type of connection is considered next. In Fig. 17 the bearing capacity of a connection for an HEB300 with an extended endplate designed according to eqns (23), (24) and (25) is plotted as a function of increasing bolt force capacity. It is seen that the design procedure slightly overestimates the bearing capacity and that the reserves in bearing capacity in terms of increasing bolt force capacity are less than for the connection with only one bolt per row, as seen in Figs 10 and 16. It is probably not possible by simple yieldline patterns to derive a simple formula that reflects a better approximation for this type of connection. Therefore, as a simple way of increasing the bearing capacity, the author suggests application of the design formulae of eqns (23), (24) and (25), increasing the endplate thickness of eqn (23) by 5%. This has been tested on several connections and leads to safe design. The effect on the bearing capacity of increasing the endplate thickness is seen in Fig. 17. It must be emphasized that no reduction in endplate strength due to the bolt holes has been introduced. This is justified by the excellent agreement for the
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138
P. C. Olsen
endplates with only one row of bolts each side of the web. However, for connections with several bolts per row, a more rigorous approach could be to reduce the strength of the endplate due to the bolt holes. However, being satisfied with the simplified procedure of increasing the endplate thickness by 5%, this has not been pursued.
9 RECAPITULATION The design formulae of the previous sections for flush and extended endplates can be channelled into one general set of design formulae as follows: Endplate thickness:
tp ~
~2
((bed h h )
m2
+kl+k2 1 +2
(30)
m 2
+kl
where: 12 flush endplate kl = extended endplate {~ k2 = flush endplate extended endplate (32)
(33)
139
A prerequisite for applying these design formulae is that the opposing endplate has the same thickness as the one considered and that the compression flange is rigidly supported in its entire length. Unstiffened beam/column connections have not been considered in depth in this paper. If the conditions above are satisfied for a beam/column connection, i.e. the column flange thickness is not less than the endplate thickness and a column flange stiffener is provided in front of the compression flange of the beam, the design formulae are applicable. Supplementary investigations must naturally be done for the column web. However, applying the numerical approach described in section 2, supplemented with a similar approach for the inplane forces, unstiffened beam/column connections could be thoroughly investigated based on the idealplasticity theory. The author has unsuccessfully applied for funds to carry out this work. Endplate thickness and boltforce capacity are only two of several important factors involved in a proper endplate design. Two other factors will be discussed here, requirements for the welding and requirements regarding throughthickness effects. The design of endplate thickness and boltforce capacity is based on a stress distribution in the section corresponding to the NavierBernouilli distribution. The endplate is considered to be simply supported at the flanges. Thus, the welds must resist only the direct stresses arising from the external forces. Using the linearelastic stress distribution in the design of the welds, full compatibility with the endplate design is achieved. In order to transfer the tensile stresses of the section to the bolts, large perpendicular tensile stresses arise in portions of the endplate next to the welds. Therefore the endplate must be checked for sufficient strength in directions perpendicular to the endplate.
10 ROTATIONAL STIFFNESS The rotational stiffness of the connection at the ultimate limit state is easily determined. Adhering to the design formulae of eqns (30), (31), (32) and (33), yielding of the bolts and yielding of the endplate are equally likely to occur for flush endplates. The strain energy evaluated from a deformed endplate and stiff bolts is equal to that of a straight endplate and flexible bolts. For extended endplates the strain energy can be evaluated partly from the deformations of the internal bolts and partly from the deformation of the extended part of the endplate. Thus, determining the strain energy of the extended part of the endplate from simple beam bending properties, the rotational stiffness S at the ultimate limit state can be evaluated as follows:
140
P. C. Olsen
s=e
#+ a
ai)
Intern
tp
(34)
in which the strains of the bolts are based on a length corresponding to the endplate thickness (A i a r e a of bolts). In order to evaluate eqn (34) in terms of the classification rules in EC3 [4], in which the stiffness of the connection is related to the stiffness EI/l of the connected beam, eqn (34) is rewritten as: l ((~ ~ ) m S=~p + P P + a
Eaih2
Intern
)~
(35)
where I and l are the moment of inertia and the length of the beam, respectively. Examining this expression, for example for the IPEseries of sections, indicates that the connections according to EC3 can be considered as rigid for normally applied beam lengths as well as for braced as for unbraced frames. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This study was carried out in order to be implemented in a PC steel design programme to expedite the daily routine work and optimize the design of bolted endplates. This programme has been implemented by several Danish steel manufacturing companies, one of which is AL Sthl A/S of Skjern, one of the largest steel manufacturers in Denmark, producing steel frames and load bearing steel structures for the building trade, who supported this study financially. The author gratefully acknowledges this support. REFERENCES 1. Schineis, M., Vereinfachte Berechnung geschraubter Rahmenecken. Der Bauingenieur, 1969, 44, 12. 2. Grundy, P., Thomas, I. R. and Bennetts, I. D., Beamtocolumn moment connections. Journal of the Structural Division, 1980, 106, 313330. 3. Thomsen, K. and Agerskov, H., Versuche zur Ermitdung des Tragverhaltens von Kopfplattensti~flen in biegebeanspruchten gewalzten IPE und HEBProfilTri~gern. Der Stahlbau, 1973, H. 8. 4. Eurocode No. 3, Design of Steel Structures, Part 11: General Rules and Rules for Buildings, April 1992. 5. Gebbeken, N., Binder, B. and Rothert, H., Zur numerischen Analyse yon KopfplattenVerbindungen. Der Stahlbau, 1992, H. 9. 6. Anderheggen, E. and Kn6ppel, H., Finite element limit analysis using linear programming. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 1972, 8, 14131431.