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2006 Take Home Quiz Explanations to the answers provided.

1. Which gas should not be collected over water because of its high solubility in water?
(D) HCl

HCl is a STRONG ACI D. Strong deals with 100% dissociation (high solubility).
2. A student wishes to measure 17.3 mL of a standard solution. This can be done best using
which container?
(C) 25 mL buret
A buret is marked in 0.1 mL increments. Burets are used for titrations which
requires very precise measurements. The other options are 25 mL beaker. One
should only use a beaker to place items within. The markings on the side are a
guide to approximate volumes one should NEVER use the markings for
precision. 25 mL volumetric pipet would be a very good option I F the buret were not
listed. Pipets are typically marked to a half mL OR there is a single mark that
represents the 25 mL volume (very precisely). The last option, 25 mL volumetric flask
falls in the same category as a beaker.
3. In a familiar classroom demonstration, concentrated H
2
SO
4
is added to a beaker
containing some sucrose (C
12
H
22
O
11
), to produce a column of carbon. In this reaction
the H
2
SO
4
is acting primarily as a
(B) dehydrating agent
Concentrated sulfuric acid has a very powerful dehydrating property, removing water
(H
2
O) from other compounds.
View video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Ib3MuOThTg&feature=related
4. Aqua regia, the reagent that can be used to dissolve gold, is a 3:1 mixture of which acids?
(C) hydrochloric and nitric acids
The mixture is formed by freshly mixing concentrated nitric acid and hydrochloric
acid, usually in a volume ratio of 1:3. I t was named so because it can dissolve the so-
called royal or noble metals, gold and platinum.



5. The solubility of a solid in H
2
O at different temperatures
is indicated in the accompanying diagram. What mass
of the solid will crystallize when 40. mL of a solution
that is saturated at 80
0
C is cooled to 20
0
C?
(A) 12 grams
The chart is for 100 mL of water. I f the solution only
has a volume of 40. mL we then need to create a
ratio for this problem.
At 80
0
C, approximately 90. grams of the solid can dissolve. At 20
0
C, approximately 60
grams. This was determined by the following equation mass of solid dissolved:
Mass of solid =[(temperature)(0.5) +50]
Therefore for a 40. mL use the above equation and modify it:
Mass of solid =(40/100) [(temperature)(0.5) +50]
@ 20
0
C: (40/100) [(20)(0.5) +50] =24 grams
@ 80
0
C: (40/100) [(80)(0.5) +50] =36 grams
36 grams 24 grams =12 grams
6. A student is asked to determine the degree of hydration of a salt by finding the mass of a
clean dried crucible and lid followed by the mass of the crucible and lid containing a
sample of the salt. The crucible, lid and salt are heated in a Bunsen burner flame,
cooled, and weighed. If the crucible, lid and salt are heated only once instead of the
recommended three times, what will be the effect of the degree of hydration compared
with the actual value?
(B) too low
Heating the salt only one time will evaporate some of the water off of the salt
(hydrate), but a MI NI MUM of three heatings should be performed to ensure that
all of the water is being removed. While heating the salt during the first heating, one
should notice water droplets on the lid (cover glass), if there is no water droplets on
the lid on the second heating then you have removed all the water (this is rare). The
third heating is used to validate that the mass is no longer decreasing as the salt
(hydrate) is heated. However, one must not heat the substance too much or one could
decompose the substance which is not the purpose of this lab.


7. Which is the net ionic equation for the reaction when 0.10 M solutions of silver nitrate
and sodium sulfide are mixed?
(D) 2 Ag
+1
(aq) + S
-2
(aq) Ag
2
S (s)
Well, the choice given was not totally accurate, the answer that I gave is correct. The
net ionic equation lists the ions involved in forming the precipitate. Never include
spectator ions in the NET I ONI C equation. Spectators are nitrate ions, NO
3
-1
, and
sodium ions, Na
+1
.
8. Magnetite, which has the formula Fe
3
O
4
, is comprised of iron(II) oxide and iron(III)
oxide. What is the ratio of iron(II) ions to iron(III) ions in magnetite?
(B) 1:2
I ron(I I ) oxide is FeO, iron(I I I ) oxide is Fe
2
O
3
. I f Fe
3
O
4
is the result of the two iron
oxides being mixed together, it would stand to reason that iron(I I I ) oxide has twice as
many iron atoms (with a +3 charge) than the iron(I I ) oxide molecule since there are
two atoms of iron(I I I ) in the molecular formula and only one iron(I I ) in its
molecular formula.
9. C
3
H
8
+ 5 O
2
3 CO
2
+ 4 H
2
O
What is the total mass, in grams, of the products when 2.20 grams of propane is burned in
excess oxygen?
(D) 10.2 grams
Stoichiometry !
3 8 2
2
3 8 2
1 2.20 3 44.01
6.587
44.094 1 3
mol C H g mol CO g
g CO
g mol C H mol CO
=

3 8 2
2
3 8 2
1 2.20 4 18.016
3.5955
44.094 1 1
mol C H g mol H O g
g H O
g mol C H mol H O
=

Total mass of the products =6.587 grams +3.5955 grams =10.18 grams



10. What volume, in mL, of concentrated sulfuric acid (18.0 M H
2
SO
4
) is needed to prepare
2.50 L of a 1.00 M solution?
(D) 139 mL
First we need to calculate how many moles are in the 2.50 liters of the 1.00 M solution:
2 4
2 4
2.50 1
2.5
L mol H SO
mol H SO
L
=

Next, calculate the volume needed (from the STOCK solution) to make the dilute 1.00
M solution.
2 4
2 4
2 4
2.5 1000
139
18 1
mol H SO mL L
mL H SO
mol H SO L
=

11. The bromide impurity in a 2.00 gram sample of a metal nitrate is precipitated as silver
bromide. If 6.40 mL of 0.200 M AgNO
3
solution is required, what is the mass
percentage of bromide in the sample?
(C) 5.11 %
1
3
1
3
6.40 1 0.200 1.00 79.9
0.1023
1000 1.00 1
mL L mol AgNO mol AgBr g
g Br
mL L mol AgNO mol Br

=

1
0.1023
100% 5.11%
2.00
g Br
g XBr

=

Please realize that this question is not asking you to identify the metal (for this metallic
nitrate), yet the question is stating that there is some bromine that has attached itself
to this compound.






12. Under which conditions is the solubility of oxygen gas in water the greatest?
(B) High (Pressure) and Low (Temperatures)
Know the difference between solid solubility and gas solubility. These two phases
actually behave very differently when the temperature of the solution is raised (solids
do not care about pressure (with solubility)). Gases are more soluble when the
solution is cooler (not as much energy in the solution) where solids are more soluble
in warmer solutions. Lets consider why. Gases are already a gas (thank you Mr.
Obvious!) which means that adding more energy to a gas will cause the gas to move
even faster (higher molecular velocity) causing the gas to escape the solution more
easily. Placing the gas in a cooler solution will cause the gas to slow down and
possibly stay in solution. Solids behave oppositely of gases - because solids (individual
ions or molecules once in solution) are able to absorb more energy which causes them
to move more freely in the solution.
13. Which pure compounds form intermolecular hydrogen bonds?
(A) I only
Hydrogen bonds take place between MOLECULES not
between a hydrogen atom and nitrogen (or oxygen, or
fluorine). Hydrogen bonding is 1) with a polar molecule that 2) has a hydrogen atom
bonded (polar covalently (not sharing the electrons equally between atoms
(I NTRAmolecular bonding))) to NOF (nitrogen, oxygen, & fluorine). Hydrogen
bonds are the strongest I NTERmolecular bonds (bonding between molecules) for
molecular (non-metal with non-metal) compounds.
H
2
S is a polar compound with hydrogen. However, H
2
S can only have Dipole-Dipole
intermolecular bonding. CH
4
, methane, is a NON-polar compound and can only
have (London) Dispersion forces.





14. What is molar mass of a gas if 10.0 grams of it occupy 4.48 liters at 273 K and 101.3 kPa
(1.00 atm)?
(C) 50.0 g/mol
63.6 Re
; ; ;
m mRT g
PV nRT PV RT M M
M PV
= = = =

( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
10.0 0.0821 273
50.02
1 4.48
g atm L K
g
M
mol K atm L mol

= =


15. Which process requires the greatest amount of energy for 1 mole of H
2
O?
(A) breaking the O H bonds
The other options were: melting, evaporating, and subliming.
When a substance changes phases: melting (solid to a liquid), evaporating (liquid to a
gas), or subliming (solid to a gas) requires the breaking of I NTERmolecular bonds
(the bonds between molecules). Breaking the bond between O H (oxygen and
hydrogen) requires so much more energy since the bonds being broken are
I NTRAmolecular bonds (between atoms). One may wish to think about molecules as
a body and the atoms as the parts of the body (sure, use your body for this
analogy). I f you hug another body, that action requires energy therefore,
someone trying to break up the hug will require additional energy. However, the
energy needed for someone to pull your arm off of your body will require a bit more
energy. Molecules (and your body) do not want atoms (arms) ripped off if at all
possible however, the making and breaking of intermolecular bonds (hugs) are a
common normal action.





16. If the circles represent molecules, which diagram provides the best molecular level
representation of a pure solid in the process of melting?
(B) I n the solid state, the molecules are
touching each other and not
moving around. When a solid
begins to melt, the solid will melt in
stages the whole solid does not
change to a liquid at one moment.
Diagram (A), could represent a
sublimation. The diagram shows
that some of the molecules have so
much energy that they are creating
a great distance away from the other molecules that are still in the solid state
(touching each other). (C) is a solid. All the molecules are touching each other. (D)
may be attempting to represent two crystals (not one solid). Therefore, (B) is the best
representative for a solid phase melting.
17. Which substance boils at the highest temperature?
(D) CCl
4

Alright, I am not a big fan on this question! The wording is not the best either (too
much is left to interpretation.) I believe this question is asking at a particular
temperature (which happens to be high) which substance will boil. We all should
recognize that this the only non-polar compound (listed). Non-polar compounds are
held together with weak intermolecular forces (London Dispersion forces) the other
molecules have dipole-dipole forces (between the molecules). I NTERmolecular
forces determine if a substance exists as a solid, liquid, or gas at a particular
temperature.




18. What can be concluded about the substance represented
by this phase diagram?
(B) The solid is more dense than the liquid.
The layout for the (given) phase diagram is for most
substances. Waters phase diagram (below) does not
look this way because
when water is solid, the solid has a lower density than
when water is in a liquid phase. The major difference
is (from this diagram and waters diagram) is that
from the Triple point (the pressure and temperature
that the substance is at equilibrium with all three
states) upward, the line angles to the right. The
angling to the right indicates that the solid is denser
than when a liquid.
19. A chemical reaction is carried out twice with the same quantity of reactants to form the
same products but the pressure is different for the two experiments. Which does not
change?
(A) K
p

At a specific temperature (this is a HUGE concept!!!), the equilibrium constant will
remain the same value (same ratio of products to reactants). The equilibrium
constant only changes when the temperature changes. Equilibrium 101
20. Which of these conversions has a positive S?
(A) I only
Positive S deals with the system becoming
more organized. In I the combustion of ANYTHING will cause an increase in
disorder forming liquids and gases. The other two options I I ) condensation of Br
2
(g)
indicates that the gas is becoming more organized by becoming a liquid. And I I I )
precipitation of AgCl (s), indicates that silver ions and chlorine ions are coming
together to form a precipitate or two things forming one thing.




21. Given these reactions:
A 2B H = +40 kJ
B C H = -50 kJ
2C D H = -20 kJ
Calculate H for the reaction;
D + A 4 C
(C) - 40 kJ





22. Hydrazine, N
2
H
4
, contains a N N single bond and 4 N H bonds. Use the bond
energies to calculate H in kJ for the reaction; N
2
+ 2 H
2
N
2
H
4
.
(C) 98 kJ

































23. An ice cube of unknown mass at 0
0
C is added to 265 grams of H
2
O at 25.00
0
C in a
calorimeter. If the final temperature of the resulting H
2
O is 21.70
0
C, what is the mass of
the ice cube?
(B) 8.63 g



















24. Which reaction is spontaneous at all temperatures at standard pressure and concentration?
(B) exothermic reaction with an increase in entropy

Although pressure and concentration are not the real issue, one should know that for a
spontaneous reaction to occur, Gibbs Free Energy, G, must have a negative value.
The only way that the reaction will be spontaneous at all temperatures is for the
enthalpy (heat) to be exothermic (negative H), and for the entropy (disorder) to be
positive (increasing the disorder).














25. When 100. mL of 1.0 M HCl is added to a 2.0 gram piece of CaCO
3
, CO
2
is produced at
a certain rate. Which of the changes below will NOT increase the rate of this reaction?
(D) adding 150. mL of 1.0 M HCl in place of 100. mL of 1.0 M HCl

This question asks to discuss the other options and why (D) is the best choice.
For (A), increasing the concentration will increase the rate of the reaction. I ncreasing
the concentration will increase the rate of a reaction. This question is not discussing a
zero order reactant (there would be more information if this were the case).
For (B), heating increases the rate of a reaction. Heating allows the particles to move
at a higher velocity thus allowing the collisions to occur more easily and more often.
For (C), increasing the surface area of a reactant will increase the rate of the reaction.
I ncreasing the surface area allows particles to react more easily than only allowing the
outer most portion of the substance to react before allowing the inner surface a chance
to collide with the other reactant particles.

26. 2 N
2
H
4
(g) + N
2
O
4
(g) 3 N
2
(g) + 4 H
2
O (g)
If N
2
H
4
(g) disappears at a rate of 0.12 molL
-1
min
-1
, at what rate does N
2
(g) appear?
(C) 0.18 molL
-1
min
-1


Rate Stoichiometry !!!

2 4 2 2 4
2 4
0.12 3 0.18
min 2 min
mol N H mol N mol N H
L mol N H L
=



27. Use the data to determine the orders of A and B in the reaction: A + B products


(B) Rate = k [A]
2
[B]



















28. 2 NO (g) + Cl
2
(g) 2 NOCl H = -38 kJ
If the activation energy for the forward reaction is 62 kJ. What is the activation energy
for the reverse reaction?

(D) 100 kJ











29. What is the order of a reaction if the rate constant has the units Lmol
-1
sec
-1
.
(C) second

Rate =molarity per unit of time
| |
| |
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2 2 2
;
sec sec sec
mol L
L
Rate M
Rate k A k
M L mol mol
A
= = = = =



30. An iron catalyst is used in the Haber process in which gaseous N
2
and H
2
react to
produce NH
3
. What is the role of this catalyst?
(A) It provides a pathway with a lower activation energy.

To explain this answer, one would need to discuss the other options.
(B) Adding something to a reaction that is not in the overall balanced equation and
thus not in the equilibrium expression, WOULD NOT affect the equilibrium
constant. Catalysts could (may) appear in the Rate Law, but catalysts will not appear
in the equilibrium constant.
(C) I ron cannot raise the kinetic energies of the reactants if iron is acting as a
catalyst. Catalysts LOWER the energy needed to form the activated complex.
(D) I ron is the NOT interacting with the PRODUCT. The catalyst is assisting the
reactants in forming the activated complex which eventually forms the product(s).






31. 2 NO
2
(g) + 7 H
2
(g) 2 NH
3
(g) + 4 H
2
O (l)
What is the correct equilibrium expression for this reaction?


( )
| |
| | | |
2
3
2 7
2 2
c
NH
A K
NO H
=


Products over reactants. Do not include solids or liquids in the expression! Also, be
sure to express the coefficient as an exponent within the expression.

32. N
2
O
4
(g) 2 NO
2
(g)
The equilibrium reaction shown is endothermic as written. Which change will increase
the amount of NO
2
at equilibrium?
(C) increasing the volume of the container

When a gas system is at equilibrium and the volume of the system is increased, the
equilibrium system will shift in the direction that will increase the number of
particles in the system. This occurs because the system has a certain pressure at
equilibrium, and when the systems volume changes, the pressure of the system will
change (because there is more room for the particles to move around which reduces
the number of collisions on the walls of the container).

33. Which weak acid has the strongest conjugate base?
(A) acetic acid ( K
a
= 1.8 x 10
-5
)

Of the acids listed, acetic acid has the lowest K
a
value. The lower the K
a
value for the
acid, the greater the K
b
for the conjugate base of that acid. I n this case, the acetate
polyatomic ion will have a the highest K
b
value (the strongest base). Stronger
substances (acid, base, or salt) will have a greater the dissociation in water.











34. What is the pH of a 0.20 M HA solution ( K
a
= 1.0 x 10
-6
) that contains 0.40 M NaA?
(D) 6.30


HA


H
+1

A
-1

I 0.20 ~ 0 0.40
C - x + x + x
E 0.20 - x

[ H
+1
] 0.40 + x

| |
( )
( )
( )
( )
1 1 1 1
6
0.40 0.40
1.0 10
0.20 0.20
a
H A H x H
K
HA x
+ + +

( ( ( ( +

= = = =



( )( )
( )
6
1 7
1.0 10 0.20
5.00 10
0.40
H

+

( = =


pH =- log [ H
+1
] = - log 5.00 x 10
-7
=6.30

35. A 0.1 M solution of which salt will have a pH less than 7 ?
(B) NH
4
Br

Less than 7 indicates an acidic solution. Know how to calculate salt pH (as acid or
basic) without doing any calculations. Recall that conjugates of strong acids and
conjugates of strong bases do not change the pH. Know the six strong acids. Know
the strong bases (solubility rules). Ammonia, NH
3
, is a weak base. Conjugates of
weak bases will cause the solution to become more acidic. NH
4
+1
is a conjugate of
ammonia. I n (D), NaO
2
CCH
3
, may not be something you recognize, however the
sodium atom is a conjugate of a strong base, and will do nothing to change the pH
the O
2
CCH
2
-1
is a conjugate of some type of acid (not a strong acid). This conjugate
is of a weak acid which will behave as a base (making the pH higher).







36. What is the [ Mg
+2
] in 0.10 M NaF that is saturated with
MgF
2
at 25
0
C?

(D) 6.4 x 10
-7
M


MgF
2


Mg
+2

2 F
-1

I - 0 0.10
C - - x - 2x
E -

- x 0.10 - 2x

( )( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2
2 1 9
0.10 2 0.10 6.4 10
sp
K Mg F x x x
+
( ( = = = =


( )
( )
9
7 2
2
6.4 10
6.4 10
0.10
x Mg

( = = =


37. Which change represents an oxidation?
(B) VO
+2
VO
3
-1


Oxidation involves a loss of electrons, and the element becomes more positive.

2 H
2
O + VO
+2
VO
3
-1
+ 4 H
+1
+ e
-1


38. What is the oxidation number of Mo in MoO
2
Cl
2
?
(D) +6

One must assume that we are looking at an ionic compound. With the options given
(as answers: 0, +3, +5, +6), Mo could not be neutral when bonded to non-metals.
Also, the other options would be difficult to support therefore, each oxygen must
have a -2 charge and each chlorine must have a -1 charge.






39. What is the coefficient for H
+1
when the half equation is balanced with the smallest
whole number coefficients?

__ S
-2
+ __ H
2
O SO
2
+ __ H
+1
+ __ e
-1

(B) 4
__ S
-2
+ _2_ H
2
O SO
2
+ _4_ H
+1
+ _6_ e
-1


40. What is the E
0
value for the voltaic cell constructed from the half-cells?
(B) 0.426 V

Voltaic cells need to have a positive voltage to be spontaneous. Also, a voltaic cell
must have one thing oxidized, and one thing reduced. Both of the reactions
listed are reduction reactions. The final equation will be:

Zn Zn
+2
+ 2 e
-1
+0.762 V
Tl
+1
+ e
-1
Tl -0.336 V
+0.426

41. Which is a consistent set of values for a specific redox reaction carried out under
standard conditions?
(A) E
0
= +, G
0
= -, Spontaneous reaction

For a voltaic cell (or galvanic cell) to be spontaneous, the voltage must be positive.

According to the equation:
0
0.0592
log
cell cell
V
E E Q
n
=








42. During the electrolysis of a dilute solution of sulfuric acid, what substance is produced at
the anode?
(C) oxygen

Electrolysis is a REDOX reaction. Oxidation takes place at the anode. The sulfuric
acid will not have anything oxidized or reduced. However, the water molecules in
the solution act as both the oxidizing agent and reducing agent.


2 H
2
O O
2
+ 4 H
+1
+ 4 e
-1
E
0
= - 1.23 V

2 ( 2 H
2
O + 2 e
-1
H
2
+ 2 OH
-1
) E
0
= - 0.83 V

6 H
2
O 2 H
2
+ O
2
+ 4 OH
-1
+ 4 H
+1
E
0
= - 2.06 V

43. Which metal is most reactive?
(D) cesium

All of the alkali metals react with water to form hydrogen gas and energy. The
reaction looks something like this:
Cs (s) + HOH (l) CsOH (aq) + H
2
(g)
This reaction happens vigorously where the alkali metal separates the hydrogen from
the hydroxide (in the water). The hydroxide remains in solution (making the solution
more basic) and the hydrogen is converted into a gas.
44. Which element has the largest first ionization energy?
(C) N

I onization energy deals with the energy needed to remove an electron from the atom.
The periodic trend states that the ionization energy increases from left to right
(metals to non-metals) and decreases down the Group (column). Also, metals have
low ionization energy metals want to lose electrons (to become positive), and non-
metals have higher ionization energies (to become more negative.)
Of the elements listed: Li, B, N, & Na, nitrogen has the highest ionization energy.



45. All of the energy levels listed are allowed EXCEPT
(A) 3f

Know WHERE certain orbitals begin:
s orbitals: First energy level (row 1)
p orbitals: Second energy level (row 2)
d orbitals: Third energy level (row 4)
f orbitals: Fourth energy level (row 6)

46. A sulfur atom has the electron configuration:
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
4
. How many orbitals in this ground state atom are occupied by at least
on electron?
(B) 9


47. The shapes of s and p orbitals are determined by which quantum
numbers(s)?
(B) II only

KNOW what the quantum numbers represent!
n =energy level. Starts at 1 and increases.
l =orbital type ( 0 to n-1 ). 0 =s-orbital, 1 =p-orbital, 2 =d-orbital, 3 =f-orbital.
m
l
=orientation ( l 0 -l ). Know that the number of orbitals equals the
orientations.
m
s
=spin. There may only be two electrons in each orbital and the spins must be
opposite.










48. What are the elements called for which the 4f subshell is being filled?
(C) lanthanides

Know your periodic trends and locations on the periodic table. Group 1A =alkali
metals, Group 2A =alkali earth metals, Group 7A =halogens, Group 8A =noble
gases. Know where the s-orbital elements are located. Know where the d-
orbital elements (transition metals). Know where the p-orbital elements are
located. Know where the non-metals are on the periodic table. Know where the
metals are located. Know where the lanathanides and actinides are located.

49. Which ionic compound has the smallest lattice energy?
(A) NaF


The force of attraction between oppositely charged particles is directly proportional to
the product of the charges on the two objects (q
1
and q
2
) and inversely proportional
to the square of the distance between the objects (r
2
).
The strength of the bond between the ions of opposite charge in an ionic compound
therefore depends on the charges on the ions and the distance between the centers of
the ions when they pack to form a crystal.
An estimate of the strength of the bonds in an ionic compound can be obtained by
measuring the lattice energy of the compound, which is the energy given off when
oppositely charged ions in the gas phase come together to form a solid.
50. Which species have one or more atoms that violate the octet
rule?
(A) I only

Violating the octet rule indicates that the atom is bonding
with more than eight valence electrons. OR, as in this
case, DO NOT have eight electrons TOTAL. Nitrogen monoxide only has eleven
total electrons.
Recall that Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Fluorine may only have eight valence
electrons. The other bonding non-metals may violate the octet rule because those
elements are located in the third (or higher) energy levels that include d-orbitals.





51. In which species is the carbon-nitrogen bond the shortest?
(D) CH
3
CN

Relatively speaking, single
bonds are longer than
double bonds, and double
bonds are longer than triple
bonds. Therefore, triple
bonds have the shortest bond
length.





52. In which species is resonance most useful in explaining the observed bond lengths?
(D) NO
2


Resonance structures deal with molecular geometries that have multiple possible
structural arrangements. For this to take place, there needs to be one double bond
and multiple single bonds.

I n (A), NF
3
has all single bonds (all the same bond lengths). In (B), NH
4
+1
has all
single bonds (all the same bond lengths). I n (C), NO
2
+1
has only double bonds, and
in (D), NO
2
-1
, there is a single bond and a double bond. Since there are two
different types of bonds (single and double), it would be possible to explain observed
bond lengths a little easier.

53. Which description best represents the hybridization of
the C
1
and C
2
atoms?

(C) C
1
= sp
3
, C
2
= sp
2


C
1
has a tetrahedral arrangement (as does C
3
). C
2

has a trigonal planar arrangement.











54. Polar molecules include which of those listed?

(D) II and III only

Polar molecules are molecules that are able to dissolve in
water (or other polar compounds). Also, you can
recognize a polar compound if it has a
lone pair of electrons on the central
atom unless one has a molecule with
sp
3
d hybridization with three lone pairs
of electrons on the central atom (linear
shape). Or if one has a molecule with
sp
3
d
2
hybridization with two lone pairs of
electrons on the central atom (square
planar). Also, polar molecules are easy
to detect if they have different external
atoms.


55. Which is an example of an aromatic compound?
(B) benzene

Aromatic compounds are compounds with a
delocalization of electrons within a ring.
Aromatics have resonance that causes the single
and double bonds to shift See the graphic of
the benzene ring (to the right). This is an
organic structure, and you WI LL become very
familiar with this structure once you are in
organic chemistry.

56. Which can exist as geometric isomers?
(D) 1,2-dichloroethene

I somers have
different
structural
arrangements.












57. Which substance is formed when K
2
Cr
2
O
7
is added to C
2
H
5
OH in acid solution?
(B) CH
3
COOH

This is an oxidation / reduction reaction that involves many steps to describe. That is
all you need to write about this reaction.

58. Which functional group, present in simple sugars, is responsible for their high solubility
in water?
(A) - OH

The OH group is an alcohol functional group and causes the organic compound
to be POLAR which allows water to dissolve the substance (water-soluble).
However, the COOH group is more soluble than OH when COOH is in
carboxylic acid. Carboxylic acid has TWO polar ends.

59. Which family of compounds is used most frequently as flavoring agents.
(C) esters

Ester is an organic functional group that forms many sweet-smelling compounds.

60. In addition to carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which element is found in all amino
acids?
(B) nitrogen

Amino acids are proteins, you will not need to know the formulas for amino acids,
but you will want to know that amino acids are hydrocarbons with nitrogen.