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Universitatea POLITEHNICA din Timioara Facultatea de Electronic i Telecomunicaii De artamentul !

surri i Electronic O tic """#meo#etc#u t#ro


(# DI$ITAL O%CILLO%COPE + $ENE,ALITIE% The rapid and ingoing development of electronics and computational techniques has led to the creation of even more performing measuring instruments. Starting from the analog oscilloscope there have been developed instruments that integrate circuits and also numerical functions. Some digital oscilloscopes contain along the usual circuits of a general use analog oscilloscope, circuits of connection between the analog and the numerical part (analog to digital and digital -analog converters) as well as other strictly numeric circuits (storages, microprocessors). Thus, from the waveform there are taken samples which afterwards are converted in numbers or codes and then memori ed. The samples are again converted in voltages for the carrying out of the vertical scavenging in order to be displayed on the monitor of the oscilloscope. Such an oscilloscope has two working topologies! analog when the numeric circuits are not used and numerical or with storage. To the most of the digital oscilloscopes the input voltage is converted in numeric format, the samples are stored, processed and displayed on a screen or transmitted to a computer. The data can be processed as well after the removal of the signal applied at the oscilloscope input, transmitted to a computer, or directly printed. The performances of these oscilloscopes depend mainly on the characteristics of the analog-digital converter. The digital oscilloscope differs from its analog counterpart in that it "digiti es# or converts the analog input waveform into a digital signal that is stored in a semiconductor memory and then converted back into analog form for display on a conventional $%T ($athode%ay Tube). Typical digiti ing-scope architecture applies e&tensive processing power to waveform acquisition, measurement, and display. ' wide variety of plug-in modules are available for special timing functions and additional channels. The data are displayed most frequently in the form of individual dots that collectively make up the $%T trace. The vertical screen position of each dot is given a binary number stored in each memory location, and the hori ontal screen position is derived from the binary address of that memory location. The number of dots displayed depends on the frequency of the input signal relative to the digiti ing rate, on the memory si e and on the rate at which the memory contents are read out. The greater the frequency of the input signal is with respect to the digiti ing rate, the fewer the data points captured by the oscilloscope memory in a single pass and the fewer the dots available in the reconstructed waveform. (igital and analog oscilloscopes each have distinct advantages, but digital scopes are fast replacing analog scopes because they are more versatile. *# O%CILLO%COPE O& '()*+C This instrument is a digital oscilloscope for laboratory use, intended for the analysis of the signals encountered in electronics also with a ),***-count multimeter. The frequency bandwidth is +,* -. , with a sampling speed of + /s0s in singular mode and ,* /s0s in repetitive mode, also with a +* bit analog-numeric converter. The following modes can be used "-ultimeter -ode#, "1scilloscope -ode# and "Spectrum 'nalysis -ode#. 2n this laboratory work we use the "1scilloscope -ode#, underlining the specifics of this working mode.

Universitatea POLITEHNICA din Timioara Facultatea de Electronic i Telecomunicaii De artamentul !surri i Electronic O tic """#meo#etc#u t#ro

The instrument is powered on by a short press of the 130ST'3(450166 key. Switch the instrument to standby (yellow 78( flashing inside the key) by one short press. ' second press on the key reactivates the instrument. 4y a long press (9 : s) the oscilloscope is powered off. ' graphical interface similar to a ;$<s is used to! -select the advanced functions by means of drop-down menus and the touch-sensitive pad -act directly on the ob=ects (curves, cursors, etc.) displayed on the screen. This means that the settings can be modified. The oscilloscope is designed to operate on a power source delivering >* to ?@) A ('$rms) at ,* to @* . . The main control functions are directly accessible using the keys on the front panel and can be modified using a touch-sensitive pad with the stylus supplied. These can be used for! selection of menus, validation of functions and movement of symbols appearing on the 7$( screen. The menus at the top of the screen and the submenus selected by the pointer open and are validated with the stylus. The menus in the curve display area, the command area, the status area can be opened with the stylus. The stylus can move the symbols displayed in! +. the main display area! trigger position, position of cursors, reference of the traces displayed ?. the bargraph! trigger position, position of cursors, position of oomed area in the acquisition memory ;lace the pointer on the symbol to be moved and keep the stylus pressing down while you move it to the required position. 2t is possible to use the stylus to oom in the display area! drag to create a rectangle. The 'BT1S8T key offers an automatic optimum ad=ustment on the channels where the signal is applied. This concerns the following parameters! the coupling, the vertical sensitivity, the time base, the gradient, the framing and the trigger. The lowest frequency signal is used as the trigger source. 2f no trace is detected on the inputs, the autoset will be aborted. The display elements are presented in figure +.

6ig. +. (isplay elements


Universitatea POLITEHNICA din Timioara Facultatea de Electronic i Telecomunicaii De artamentul !surri i Electronic O tic """#meo#etc#u t#ro

Bp to four signals can be displayed simultaneously on the screen. Two of them are the input signals $.+ and $.) and other two can be the result of the mathematical functions -ath? and -ath:. 6or the displayed signal you can measure the signal parameters using the cursors, or there are displayed ? parameters automatically measured (-8'SB%8 menu). The 6ast 6ourier Transform for the input signal can be computed and displayed (on a linear or logarithmic scale). The oscilloscope can be connected directly to a computer, or connected in a network with computers and other systems. The communication is performed by %S-?:? or 8T.8%38T interface. 8very function is described in the .87; menu. This menu is on the right corner of the display. -# P,ACTICAL .O,/ :.+. ' sinusoidal signal is applied to the input of $.+. 6rom the buttons of the front panel we e&ecute the necessary ad=ustments in order to obtain a clear and stable image (time0div, A0div, triggering). The parameters can be set from the screen as well, from the corresponding menus. Chich is the effect of the button '$0($0/3(D :.?. Ce underline the specific functions from menus from the upper side of the screen. :.:. -easure the parameters of the sinusoidal signal (peak-to-peak voltage, amplitude, period, frequency) using the cursors (-easure -enu). Then measure and display on the screen the same parameters using the automatic measuring option.

Universitatea POLITEHNICA din Timioara Facultatea de Electronic i Telecomunicaii De artamentul !surri i Electronic O tic """#meo#etc#u t#ro

:.). 'pply to the input of $.+ a pulse signal. -easure on the screen the amplitude, period and the pulse width, using the cursors, then by using the automatic measuring function. Chat other parameters can be determined with this functionD :.,. Select the functions from the menu (isplay. Chat effect do they haveD Select a part of a signal and visuali e it in detail ( oom). :.@. Bse a pulse generator which can generate three signals! synchroni ation signal denoted +, positive and negative pulse signals, denoted ?, respectively :. (isplay on the screen the signals ? and :, internally synchroni ed with ?, then with : and finally, e&ternally with +. Cork in two situations! synchroni ation on the rising edge, respectively, on falling edge. (raw the last situation. :.E. 't the inputs $.+ and $.) we apply the positive and negative pulses from the previous task. (efine the mathematical functions math?F - $.+ and math:F$.+G$.) and display all the four signals on the screen. Chich other functions can be definedD :.H. 6or a sinusoidal signal and then for a rectangular one select the 66T function. 6or the displaying 66T, choose a linear scale, then a logarithmic one. Chat differences can you observe for the two signalsD :.>. 'pply to $.+ a random signal. Save the signal in a file. 6rom the memory, visuali e the saved signal. 6rom memory, bring a second signal for visuali ation. :.+*. The signal from the internal calibrator is brought to the input by a probe with attenuation. -easure the peak to peak voltage using the attenuation ratio of +!+, respectively +*!+. Select the function that allows displaying the same value in both cases. :.++. $onnect the oscilloscope to the computer. -ake some remote ad=ustments using the SI--8T%1 application. -ake some observations.