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QUESTION 1 Facilitate the exploration of needs, motivations, desires, skills and thou ht processes to assist the individual in makin

n makin real, lastin chan e! Use "uestionin techni"ues to facilitate client#s o$n thou ht processes in order to identif% solutions and actions rather than takes a $holl% directive approach Support the client in settin appropriate oals and methods of assessin pro ress in relation to these oals O&serve, listen and ask "uestions to understand the client#s situation 'reativel% appl% tools and techni"ues $hich ma% include one(to(one trainin , facilitatin , counsellin ) net$orkin ! Encoura e a commitment to action and the development of lastin personal ro$th ) chan e! *aintain unconditional positive re ard for the client, $hich means that the coach is at all times supportive and non(+ud emental of the client, their vie$s, lifest%le and aspirations! Ensure that clients develop personal competencies and do not develop unhealth% dependencies on the coachin or mentorin relationship! Evaluate the outcomes of the process, usin o&+ective measures $herever possi&le to ensure the relationship is successful and the client is achievin their personal oals! Encoura e clients to continuall% improve competencies and to develop ne$ developmental alliances $here necessar% to achieve their oals! ,ork $ithin their area of personal competence! -ossess "ualifications and experience in the areas that skills(transfer coachin offered! *ana e the relationship to ensure the client receives the appropriate level of service and that pro rammes are neither too short, nor too lon ! is

QUESTION . Non(ver&al communication consists of all the messa es other than $ords that are used in communication! In oral communication, these s%m&olic messa es are transferred &% means of intonation, tone of voice, vocall% produced noises, &od% posture, &od% estures, facial expressions or pauses! ,hen individuals speak, the% normall% do not confine themselves to the mere emission of $ords! / reat deal of meanin is conve%ed &% non(ver&al means $hich al$a%s accompan% oral discourse 0 intended or not! In other $ords, a spoken messa e is al$a%s sent on t$o levels simultaneousl%, ver&al and non(ver&al! Non(ver&al &ehaviour predates ver&al communication &ecause individuals, since &irth, rel% first on non(ver&al means to express themselves! This innate character of non( ver&al &ehaviour is important in communication! Even &efore a sentence is uttered, the hearer o&serves the &od% estures and facial expressions of the speaker, tr%in to make sense of these s%m&olic messa es! The% seem to &e trusta&le &ecause the% are mostl% unconscious and part of ever%(da% &ehaviour! -eople assume that non(ver&al actions do not lie and therefore the% tend to &elieve the non(ver&al messa e $hen a ver&al messa e contradicts it! This $as proven in tests in $hich su&+ects $ere asked to react to sentences that appeared friendl% and invitin $hen readin them &ut $ere spoken an ril%! In short, people tr% to make sense of the non(ver&al &ehaviour of others &% attachin meanin to $hat the% o&serve them doin ! 'onse"uentl%, these s%m&olic messa es help the hearer to interpret the speaker1s intention and this indicates the importance of non(ver&al communication in the field of interpretation! In dail% conversations it often happens that $e do not understand $hat the other person $ants to sa%! Thus $e ask "uestions such as 2,hat do %ou mean &% this3 so that the speaker clarifies his messa e! The interpreter is deprived of this possi&ilit% and therefore has to fall &ack on other means allo$in him to understand the speaker! This is the moment $hen non( ver&al communication comes in, understood! From the speaker1s point of vie$, ho$ever, there are numerous functions of non( ver&al &ehaviour 0 even if he or she is not a$are of them! 4uman &ein s use non(ver&al ivin him su&tle hints on ho$ the messa e is to &e

means to persuade or to control others, to clarif% or em&ellish thin s, to stress, complement, re ulate and repeat ver&al expressions! The% can also &e used to su&stitute ver&al expression, as this is the case $ith several &od% estures Non(ver&al communication is emotionall% expressive and so an% discourse appealin to the receiver1s emotions has a persuasive impact! /lthou h man% non(ver&al means are innate and universal, 5i!e! people in different cultures have a common understandin of these cues6, the contri&ution of non(ver&al communication to the total meanin of a discourse can &e culturall% determined and differ in different countries! Intonation Intonation is the $a% that the sender1s pitch of voice rises and falls $hen speakin ! For example, it sho$s the interpreter $hether the speaker expresses his or her messa e in the form of a "uestion or statement! In the first case, the voice rises at the end of the phrase or the sentence and in the second case, it falls! /t the same time, intonation indicates the end of an entit% of information, $hich 0 in $ritten communication 0 is sho$n &% means of a comma, semicolon, point, exclamation mark or "uestion mark! /nother function of intonation is to la% emphasis on a particular $ord or idea, a detail that the interpreter must not fail to &e a$are of! Tone of voice The tone of voice is a means &% $hich the speaker implies his or her attitude to the messa e! It is also a means &% $hich he seeks a reaction from the hearer! In a political de&ate, for instance, the tone of voice is likel% to &e rousin , $hereas on television the dail% ne$s is communicated in a more factual tone! Other examples of tone of voice are7 a ressive, critical, nervous, disappointed, monotonous, friendl%, enthusiastic, vivid, persuasive, etc! Vocally produced noises Spoken discourse can &e accompanied &% vocall% produced noises that are not re arded as part of lan ua e, thou h the% help in communication for the expression of attitude or feelin ! Such non(lexical expressions differ in important respects from lan ua e7 The% are much more similar in form and meanin , i!e! universal, as a $hole in contrast to the reat diversit% of lan ua e! 8ocall% produced noises include lau hter, shouts, screams of +o%, fear, pain, as $ell as conventional expressions of dis ust, triumph, etc!, traditionall% spelled 2u h93, 2ha ha93:

Body posture ;od% posture is the &earin or the position of the speaker1s &od%! It is a more or less sta&le state and thus not to &e confused $ith &od% estures $hich are movements! ;od% posture can &e characteristic and assumed for a special purpose or it can correspond to the normal expectations in the context of a particular situation! O&viousl% one can &e l%in do$n, seatin , or standin ! Normall%, these are not the elements of posture that conve% messa es! 4o$ever, $hen the speaker is slouched or erect, his or her le s crossed or arms folded, such postures conve% a de ree of formalit% or relaxation! Once more, the% can also transfer s%m&olic messa es on the orator1s attitude or intention $ith re ard to the messa e! Body gestures / &od% esture is a movement made $ith a lim&, especiall% the hands, to express, confirm, emphasi<e or &ack up the speaker1s attitude or intention! This non(ver&al activit% is re ularl% used in oral discourse! If a &od% act re"uires no ver&al accompaniment, it is called an 2em&lem3! Examples are7 hand si nals such as $avin ood(&%e, the 283 for victor% si n or the 2hi h five3 si nallin victor%! ,hile some em&lems, for example a clenched fist, have universal meanin , there are others that are idios%ncratic or culturall% conditioned! The use of the <ero shape made &% the fin ers, for instance, does not mean the same thin in different cultures! Standin for 2O=3 in the U=, it ma% &e a vul ar expression in South /merican cultures, sometimes em&arrassin l% so: ;od% estures are al$a%s perceived and interpreted to ether $ith facial expressions! Facial expressions and eye movement Facial expressions are d%namic features $hich communicate the speaker1s attitude, emotions, intentions, and so on! The face is the primar% source of emotions! >urin interpreted &% the receiver! Examples are7 a smile, fro$n, raised e%e&ro$, %a$n or sneer! E%e movement is a ke% part of facial &ehaviour &ecause the e%es are invaria&l% involved in facial displa%s! The different forms are o&served to &e cross(cultural! The fre"uenc% of e%e contact ma% su est either interest or &oredom or ma% even &etra% dishonest%! The direct lances are enerall% stare of the speaker can sho$ candour or openness! >o$n$ard oral communication, facial expressions chan e continuall% and are constantl% monitored and

associated $ith modest%? e%es rolled up$ards are conve%ed as a si n of fati ue! @esearchers have discovered that certain facial areas reveal our emotional state &etter than others! For

example the e%es tend to sho$ happiness, sadness or even surprise! The lo$er face can also express happiness or surprise? a smile, for instance, can communicate friendliness or cooperation! /s for the lo$er face, &ro$s and forehead are kno$n to reveal mostl% an er! Pause / pause can have t$o different functions7 1! It can &e a &rief suspension of the voice to indicate the limits and relations of sentences and their parts! / pause then assumes a similar function in oral discourse to intonation!

.! It can consist of a temporar% vocal inaction revealin the speaker1s uncertaint%, hesitation, tension or uneasiness! In this context, a pause can also &e +ud mental &% indicatin favour or disfavour, a reement or disa reement! 'onse"uentl%, the non(ver&al cue of a pause can ive rise to pro&lems $hen interpretin it &ecause its meanin can var% considera&l%! It can have a positive or ne ative influence on the process of communication!