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9.1.

Introduction To Ansys Workbench

The ANSYS Workbench that can solve limited types of three dimensional problems begins with Start Page that has Geometry, Simulation, and Empty Project as shown below. The Geometry is to create the model and the Simulation is for analysis. All of these are saved individ ally. ote that all of them are saved in the same directory if the pro!ect is to be reopened later. When a pro!ect is reopend with the associated "eometry or Sim lation files in other directory, the Ansys Workbench iss es an error message and # its.

!i"ure 9.#.$. Typical ANSYS Workbench initial window 9.1.1.1 %esi"n&odeler $. %lick the Geometry to bring p the %esi"n&odeler. &. Select a nit 'here, select the (nch) in the dialog for nit. *. +or f t re, the unit and other options may be changed by ,Tools - 'ptions - .esigner /odeler - 0nits 1 (nch2. 3. The initial screen of .esign/odeler appears as below. The men arrangement may change with the si4e of window and can be altered by drag5moving the handle.

!i"ure 9.#.(. (nitial screen of .esign/odeler 6. %lick Sketchin" tab to sketch a section. The initial sketch plane appears as )*Plane at pper left corner. Yo may change this to any other plane or any planar s rface of e7isting feat re in the model s ch as solid s rface. Some of important men s are indicated in the fig re below. 8. %lick Sketch +ie, for easiness of sketching. 9. %ra, men in the sketch men and select a drawing tool, then sketch a section in the &odel Windo,. The sketch section m st be a closed section. (f there are several of them, then they m st not intersect. The act al dimensions will be changed later. To deactivate the c rrently selected men , hit ES- key or click e, Selection another drawing men . ote that a hint appears on the toolbar at bottom of the window d ring any action. 9.1.1.# .o, to Sketch ote that any time d ring sketching as well as modelling /ndo and 0edo can be sed repeatedly. Also, ES- key is to terminate the active men . $. This is a practice for only sketching and can be skipped. &. Sketching can be done on a selected plane. (nitial sketching plane is :Y Plane that appears in the defa lt *. view. Sketch can be done on the plane in any orientation. *. %ra, - 1ine - draw a vertical line starting from a point on the negative 75a7is and then contin e to draw lines to complete a rectangle. ote that a symbol appears when the c rsor on an entity. % symbol appears when the c rsor lies on an entity and symbol appears as it is on the end point or intersection of entities. Also, the ; 'vertical) or < 'hori4ontal) symbol appears for vertical or hori4ontal line. or select

3. 2oom To !it 6. -ircle - click a point for center and move the c rsor to change the si4e, and then click to
place the circle.

8. 0ectan"le - click two points for two diagonal corners. 9. '3al - click two points for two focal points of the oval and move the c rsor to fi7 the
si4e. The res lt sho ld appear as=

>. Arc by -enter - click the center, move and click the first end point of the arc, and then
second end point. ?. Arc by Tan"ent. %lick and hold down the e7isting end point of another line to which the arc will be tangent and move off to pick another point. Not shown here.

$@. .raw two additional lines as shown above to learn &odi4y. $$. &odi4y - Trim - click the side of a line to trim that intersect other line - repeat this to trim all segments of two lines o tside the rectangle as shown below in 'a). $&. -orner - click the sides of two lines to trim that intersect each other as in 'b). $*. !illet - pick two pper corners of the rectangle as in 'c) below. $3. -ham4er - pick two lower corners. See the fig re 'c) below. $6. E5tend - pick a line near the end to e7tend. This e7tends to the nearest line. Aepeat this twice to e7tend the line BA to BAC and then BAD as in 'd). $8. %ra" - click the end point % of the arc and drag to change the si4e and position of the end point as in 'd).

'a)

'b)

'c)

'd)

$9. -opy - select all lines of the oval - A/B - End F Set Paste <andle - click a point on the
window - move the c rsor and click at another position to paste it. This may contin e. 0&6 - End. See below. $>. '44set - select all lines of the copied oval - A/B - End Selection F Place '44set move the c rsor and place the offset copy as shown in the second fig re.

$?. +or this practice, sketch a similar section sing drawing men s as shown below. &@. %imension - General - click a line and place the dimension ne7t to it. Aepeat this for all other lines. &$. &odi4y 7 -onstraints - E8ual 1en"th - pick two lines G$ and G& - E8ual %istance 0&6 in the model window - Select &ultiple - pick G*, P$, G3 in se# ence 'see them rearranged) - 0&6 in the model window - e, &ultiple Select - 'now, for hori4ontal arrangement of G8, P$, G6) pick G8 - pick them in order and see them rearranged.

&&. %imension - %isplay - ncheck ame and check +alue to display val es than names. 9.1.1.$ -rash E5ample 9Structural Analysis: When one dimension is m ch larger than the other two dimensions of the model s ch as beams and bars, the analysis can be simplified to one dimensional analysis with appropriate section properties. (n the e7amples below, str ct ral problems are ill strated. I. 6eam Analysis $. &. *. 3. 6. 8. 9. Geometry in initial window - %esi"n&odeler opens. %lick Sketchin" tab 7 %ra, - -onstruction Point - sketch two points as shown below. %imension - .ori;ontal - click both points and place the dimension. %lick &odelin" tab. -oncept - 1ines !rom Points - ctrl H pick two bottom points - Apply 7 Generate. -oncept - -ross Section 7 2<Section. A I5section was added to Tree 'utline. .rop down the ,H2 1 Part 1 6ody 'model) in Tree ;iew - click 1ine 6ody - in %etails +ie,, click ot Selected for -ross Section - pick the section, 21 in Tree +ie,. See '44set Type whose defa lt is -entroid. >. The model is shown with the section.

-ross Section '44set After assigning a cross section to a line body, a new property will appear where yo can specify the type of offset to apply. There are three choices= -entroid= The cross section is centered on the edge according to its centroid. This is the defa lt setting.

Shear -enter= The cross section is centered on the edge according to its shear center. Note that for this setting, .esign/odeler draws the bodyJs edges the same way it does for %entroid. When analy4ed, the shear center is sed. 'ri"in= The cross section is not offset and is taken e7actly as it appears in its sketch.

-oordinate Systems 4or -ross Sections (t sho ld be noted however, that %esi"n&odeler ses a different coordinate system for cross sections compared to the one sed in the ANSYS environment, as shown in the pict re below. (n %esi"n&odeler, the cross section lies in the )*Plane and the I direction corresponds to the edge tangent. (n the ANSYS environment, the cross section lies in the YI plane and ses the : direction as the edge tangent. This difference in orientation has no bearing on the analysis.

?. Project - make s re to have selected modeller - e, Simulation - Stress 6ranch > %uctile &aterial $@. %lick Geometry 7 1ine 6ody - see the Properties as

where I55 '/oment of inertia abo t the 7 a7is) and other properties are given in "lobal coordinates. $$. +eri4y &aterial - in .etails ;iew, Edit Str ct ral Steel - change the Yo ngCs /od l s to *@ 7 $@8 psi as below.

$&. %lose the material properties and click Simulation tab. $*. Insert loads - Structural - !i5ed Support 7 pick the right end point - Apply Structural - !orce 7 pick the left end point - Apply - (n the %etails +ie, click %e4ined 6y and select -omponents - enter 5$@@@ for *<-omponent $3. Sol3e $6. %lose Simulation Wi;ard. This can be bro ght back by ,+ie, - Simulation Wi;ard2. $8. %lick E8ui3alent Stress in Tree ;iew - see the res lt that shows nothing. (t is beca se the str ct ral analysis with 1ine 6ody does not calc late this stress. $9. %lick Solution in Tree ;iew - 0&6 - Insert - 6eam Tool - 6eam Tool - the beam tool appears in Tree ;iew $>. Sol3e 'have to solve again) $?. GetCs display the res lts with ndeformed shape. Ed"es - Sho, /nde4ormed Wire4rame &@. %lick 6eam Tool - &a5imm 6endin" Stress. The stress appears as=

Stresses in 1ine 6ody The %irect Stress is the stress component d e to the a7ial load enco ntered in a beam element. 6endin" Stress is that stress from any bending loads in both the local Y and I directions. This leads to the following fo r bending stresses= Y bending stress on topFbottom and I bending stress the topFbottom. &inimum?&a5imum 6endin" Stress is the minim mFma7im m of these fo r bending stresses. -ombined Stress is the linear combination of the .irect Stress and the /inim m Bending Stress.

&$. The previo s res lt was obtained with the defa lt beam section orientation where the beam y5a7is 'defined in the section) is aligned to global 45a7is. The beam alignment can be changed. Select 1ine 6ody in Tree K tline - Select /nali"ned 1ine Ed"es that brings p the .etails ;iew as shown below. ote that if the line body is created by 1ines 4rom Sketch, then the following is not possible.

&&. %hange the 0otate to 5?@ and hit Enter. The section y5a7is changes as shown below.

&*. &3. &6. &8. &9. &>. &?.

Project - e, Simulation (f the wi4ard is not seen, +ie, - Simulation Wi;ard 1ink to Geometry - Geometry - /pdate= /se Geometry Parameters The material, s pport, and load are same as before. Sol3e %lose Simulation Wi;ard. %lick 6eam Tool - &a5imum 6endin" Stress. This is the only stress in this beam analysis. The stress and the deflection appear as=

(t is interesting to compare this n merical res lts with the analytical res lts in strength of materials. The analytical tip deflection given below is close to @.>3& of the beam analysis. = PL* $@@@ $@@ * = = $.@&8 *EI * *@ $@ 8 $@.>**

II. Structural Analysis <ere a simple str ct re is created by a 1ine 6ody and a $% -ur3e. $. +irst, in a sketcher, sketch constr ction points by , %ra, - -onstruction Point2 and then place dimensions. &. Add a 1ine 6ody between left and right points. *. -oncept - $% -ur3e - pick three points from left point, top, and right point in se# ence - Apply - Generate. 3. Add a I5section in Tree 'utline. 6. Select the section for the 1ine 6ody in .etails ;iew. 8. %hange the section orientation so that the section y5a7is is pward for both line bodies. The model is shown below.

ote that each 1ine 6ody can be selected in model window for the section orientation. 9. Project - e, Simulation - Stress 6ranch > %uctile &aterial >. +eri4y &aterial - see the defa lt material. ?. Insert loads - click o selection for Geometry in %etails +ie, - Structural - !i5ed Support 7 pick the right end point - Apply - Structural - !orce 7 pick the left end

$@. $$. $&. $*. $3.

point - Apply - (n the %etails +ie, click %e4ined 6y and select -omponents - enter 5$@@@ for *<-omponent %lick Solution in Tree ;iew - 0&6 - Insert - 6eam Tool - 6eam Tool - the beam tool appears in Tree ;iew Sol3e %lose Simulation Wi;ard GetCs display the res lts with ndeformed shape. Ed"es - Sho, /nde4ormed Wire4rame %lick 6eam Tool - %irect Stress. The direct stress appears as=

$6. Kther stresses are shown below. As e7pected from the loading, the .irect Stress is minimal and the total stress is mainly from bending stress.

$8. The displacement above is the total res ltant displacement from both directions of the section. The directional displacement can be obtained. %lick 6eam Tool - 0&6 Insert - 6eam Tool - %e4ormation - %irectional

$9. %lick ! st inserted %irectional %e4ormation in Tree 'utline - select 'rientation in %etails +ie,. The defa lt val e is now ) A5is. %lick 0esults to e7pand it that is empty now. $>. Sol3e

$?. See the res lts of 75directional displacement in %etails +ie, as well as in res lt window.

&@. Try change the 'rientation to * A5is and Sol3e again to see the y5displacement as=

III. Structural Analysis <ere another simple str ct re is created by a 1ine 6ody and 1ine !rom Points with sketched line. $. %esi"n&odeler &. +irst, in a sketcher, sketch the G5str ct re by , %ra, - 1ine2 and then place dimensions as=

*. %reate a 1ine 6ody. -oncept - 1ine !rom Points - pick the bottom point and then ctrl H pick the second point - ctrl H pick the first and second points for the second line Generate. 3. -oncept - -ross Section - add a (5beam.

6. 1 Part@ 1 6ody - 1ine 6ody in Tree 'utline - -ross Section in %etails +ie, - select I1. 8. Simulation - Stress 6ranch > %uctile &aterials 9. Insert 1oads - Structural - !i5ed Support - 'change the c rsor selection mode) 0&6 - -ursor &ode - Point - pick the bottom point >. Structural - !orce - 0&6 - -ursor &ode - Ed"e - pick the top hori4ontal line %e4ined 6y in .etails ;iew - select -omponents - enter 5$@@@ for * -omponent ?. Sol3e $@. Ed"es - Sho, /nde4ormed Wire4rame $$. See the res lts with the mesh as=

I+. A5isymmetric Analysis <ere a7isymmetric analysis of a str ct re is introd ced. $&. %esi"n&odeler $*. %lick Project tab - Ad3anced Geometry %e4aults - select &. for Analysis Type $3. +irst, in a sketcher, sketch a line by ,%ra, - 1ine and Arc by Tan"ent2 and se ,&odi4y - !illet2 to ro nd the lower right corner. $6. Then, '44set - ctrl H select all lines - 0&6 - End Selection ? Place '44set - move the c rsor o tward and click it to place the offset. 0&6 - End 'end the offset). .raw lines at both ends to close the section. Also, place dimensions as=

A5isymmetric= Ass mes that a *5. model and its loading can be generated by revolving a &5. section *8@o abo t the y5a7is. The a7is of symmetry m st coincide with the global y5a7is. The geometry has to lie on the positive 75a7is of the 75y plane. The y direction is a7ial, the 7 direction is radial, and the 4 direction is in the circ mferential 'hoop) direction. The hoop displacement is 4ero. <oop strains and stresses are s ally very significant. E7ample ses are press re vessels, straight pipes, and shafts. A7isymmetric behavior cannot be sed in a shape sim lation. $8. -oncept - Sur4aces 4rom Sketches - select the sketch in Tree 'utline - Apply Generate. $9. Project tab - e, Simulation - Stress 6ranch > %uctile &aterials. $>. %lick the s rface body nder &odel - Geometry in the Tree 'utline 'see below) and then in the %etails +ie,, click %e4inition - 6eha3ior - select A5isymmetric.

$?. Accept the material as is - Insert Supports - Structural - Gi3en %isplacement 'change the c rsor selection mode) 0&6 - -ursor &ode - Ed"es - ctrl H select two end edges along the vertical a7isymmetric a7is - Apply - specify 4ero only for 75 component. &@. Structural - Pressure - ctrl H select all inner edges - Apply - enter *@ psi for &a"nitude. &$. Sol3e. The sol tion iss es warning for nder5constrained model. This is ok. &&. %lick Solution ? E8ui3alent Stress in Tree K tline.

&*. Ed"es - Sho, /nde4ormed Wire4rame &3. See the total deformation with the mesh and the Sa4ety !actor nder Stress Tool. Note that the safety factor shows dangero s design.

I+. A5isymmetric Analysis in $% <ere *. a7isymmetric analysis of a str ct re is introd ced. $. %esi"n&odeler &. Sketch the section as below and Generate.

*. &odelin" - select the sketch - 0e3ol3e - pick the vertical a7is for rotation a7is - Apply - keep *@ for An"le - select *es for As Thin?Sur4aceA And enter @.$&6 for both In,ard and 'ut,ard Thickness - Generate. 3. e, Plane - select 0otate about * for Trans4orm 1 - enter 5*@ for +alue 1 - select *es for E5port -oordinate System - Generate. The model appears as the second fig re above. 6. %lick Project tab - e, Simulation 8. Stress 6ranch > %uctile &aterials 9. Insert Supports - Structural - Gi3en %isplacement - ctrl H select all edge lines on one side - Apply - select the plane name that contains local coordinate system - enter 4ero only for 45component - hit -0 >. Aepeat this for the other edge with global coordinate system. ?. Aepeat this for both vertical tips at the center and enter 4eros for 75 and 45components hit -0.

$@. Structural - Pressure - ctrl H select all inner s rfaces - Apply - enter *@ for &a"nitude - hit -0. $$. Sol3e. Warning message appears for attached weak spring for sol tion. This is ok. $&. The res lts appear as=

+rom the res lt for Sa4ety !actor, it is noted that the design m st be changed. Especially, the ma7 stress occ rs at the center of bottom lid that is flat. The stress distrib tion on the spherical top lid is minimal in contrast.

9.1.1.( -rash E5ample 9T,o<%imensional Analysis: (n many applications the problem can be simplified to two dimensional analyses nder certain conditions s ch as state of plane stress and plane strain. The model m st be defined in 5<y plane in Ansys Workbench. .o, to Sketch #% Sur4aces $. Kpen the Geometry in Inch nit. &. e, Sketch - Sketchin" *. 1ine - sketch a section and place dimensions as shown below. 3. -onstraints - E8ual 1en"th - pick two lines G$ and G& - E8ual %istance - 0&6 in the model window - Select &ultiple - pick G*, P$, G3 in se# ence 'see them rearranged) - 'now, for hori4ontal arrangement of G8, P$, G6) pick G8 to see an error message for over5constrained - /ndo - pick them in reverse order 'G6, P$, G8) and see them rearranged.

ote that the s rfaces can be also created by sing modeling techni# es s ch as E7tr de and Aevolve if possible. 6. &odelin" 8. -oncept - Sur4aces 4rom Sketch - Apply 'to select the highlighted sketch) Generate.

9. %lick Project tab. >. Ad3anced Geometry %e4aults - Analysis Type 7 #% as=

?. e, Simulation - Thermal 6ranch $@. +eri4y &aterial 'see the selected material in .etails ;iew) $$. Insert 1oads - Thermal - Gi3en Temperature - Ed"e in Selection &ode 'tool bar) or 0&6 and select - pick on the left edge - enter $@@ for &a"nitude in %etails +ie, Thermal 7 -on3ection - pick on the right edge - Apply - enter 6@ for !ilm -oe44icient and *& for Ambient Temperature. ote that the nit may be changed to another nit like &etric 'm, kg, N, o%, ;, A) if needed by /nits - /S -ustomary 'in, lbm, lbf, o+, s, ;, A). See how the previo s val es entered in a nit changes to another with appropriate conversions. $&. The other edges are ins lated and have to do nothing abo t them. $*. Sol3e $3. The temperat res and heat fl 7es are shown below.

$6. (t is also worthwhile to see the sed mesh for this analysis.

$8. (n a similar way, other analysis s ch as stress analysis can be performed. 9.1.1.B -rash E5ample 9E5trude@ 0e3ol3e@ S,eep@ and Simulation: I. %esi"n&odeler $. &. *. 3. 6. 8. %lick the Geometry to bring p the %esi"n&odeler. Select a nit 'here, select the (nch) in the dialog for nit. %lick Sketchin" tab. %lick Sketch +ie, for easiness of sketching. %ra, - 0ectan"le - draw a rectangle in the &odel Windo,. '3al - draw it inside the rectangle ,click a center position and another center position, and then move the mo se to determine the shape2. Now, the sketch appears as=

9. %imensions - General - click the lower hori4ontal line of the rectangle with 1&6 'left mo se b tton) to select and then move the mo se down to and click a position to place the dimension - change the val e in the %etails +ie, ! st below the Sketch &enus.

>. (n the similar way, place all dimensions incl ding radial dimensions for arcs with proper val es. .ifferent from General that selects an entity and place the dimension, other men s s ch as .ori;ontal and +ertical re# ire to select two entities for a dimension. The dimensions are moved by &o3e nder %imensions men . Now, the sketch appears as=

?. <aving created a section, click &odelin" tab to go back modelling. $@. %hange the view to three5dimensional isometric view by ,click the right mo se b tton on the drawing window to bring p the shortc t men , select +ie, - Isometric +ie,2.

$$. %lick E5trude and the preliminary e7tr ded solid model appears. %hange the %epth of the E7tr de in the %etails +ie, to ten. $&. Aotate the model and 4oom in and o t. %lick a point on the model window to activate and then se the mo se b ttons. The model can be rotated by holding down the middle mo se b tton '&&6). Also, scrolling p and down the scroll b tton 4ooms in and o t the model. Pan can be done by ctrl H middle mo se b tton. $*. Now, the model can be generated to finali4e it. %lick Generate. The final model appears as below. Toggle %isplay Plane to t rn off the sketch plane for the second fig re.

ote that any feat re can be redefined by selecting the feat re in Tree 'utline - 0&6 Edit Selections - modify it - Generate. Kr ! st Generate witho t modifying it if wanted to # it. The selected feat re Tree 'utline may also be deleted by 0&6 - %elete. $3. %lick -ham4er tool and then select Selection !ilter= Ed"es, then pick on the edge shown below. %lick Apply in the .etails ;iew and then change the chamfer dimensions to +.$ 1 @.* and +.& 1 @.6. (f Lnot selectedD appears in "eometry, click it to bring Apply?-ancel and select the edge. An edge can be selected by sing the Selection !ilter= Ed"e. Aegenerate it now.

$6. Add a revolved feat re. The section will be created from the Sketch $ of the e7tr ded part by copying and modifying. Since the c rrently selected sketch plane is Sketch $ that is correct plane for sketch, no selection of sketch plane is re# ired. e, Sketch - Sketchin" 'a new sketch is active) - %isplay &odel 'toggle for wireframe) - Sketch +ie, . &odi4y - -opy - select all the lines and arcs in Sketcher $ with G/B. Kr yo may sweep the window with G/B. The selection order is kept in the sketch. - %lick A/B on the drawing window - End ? Set Paste .andle - pick the origin of the coordinate or any point that can be easily reselected again - move the c rsor aro nd to see the attached lines - go back and pick the previo sly selected point for paste. Yo may contin e copying if needed. - 0&6 - End %ra, - 1ine - draw a line for chamfer at pper right corner. &odi4y - Trim - click the sides of the lines to remove. %imensions - .ori;ontal - pick the end point of the hori4ontal edge and right edge and then place the dimension - enter the dimension of @.* in %etails +ie, - +ertical - select an end point of the edge and the other edge and then place the vertical dimension - enter the val e of @.6 in .atails ;iew. &odelin" - 0e3ol3e - pick on the vertical edge along 45a7is as a7is of rotation - Apply in .atails ;iew - change the An"le to ?@o - change the %irection to 0e3ersed Generate. Toggle the %isplay Plane and then, the feat re appears as below.

ote that if any section is not closed d ring the modelling process, that part of the section is ignored. "o back to sketch and close any section with constraints if necessary. $8. Now, the rotated end of the feat re is swept along an arc. %lick the rotated end s rface e, Sketch - Sketchin" - Sketch +ie, - %isplay &odel to toggle to wireframe display. ote that in order to click and make a selected s rface the %isplay Plane@ the c rrent display plane m st be t rned off first. Ktherwise, the display plane does not change. $9. &odi4y - -opy - select all bo ndary lines needed for the section incl ding the bo ndary of the hole - 0&6 on the Sketch Window - End ? Set Paste .andle - to place the handle, click at a position on the screen - move aro nd the mo se and click a point to paste it - copy may contin e. To stop it, 0&6 - End. E7aggerated copy of the bo ndary lines appear as

$>. %ra, - 1ine - draw a vertical line in the middle where the bo ndary is missing. $?. &odi4y - Trim - pick on the line segment to trim. &@. -onstraints - -oincident - align the new bo ndary to the e7isting one as below.

&$. The section now appears as

&&. <ere the sweeping is done in two steps to be sed in Simulation after modeling. &odelin" - pick on the bottom s rface of the model to sketch a path for sweep - New Sketch - %ra, - Arc by Tan"ent - draw an arc as shown below. (f necessary, constraints m st be sed at point A for Tan"ent and B for -oincident. Also, specify A$ 1 > for the radial dimension. (tCs ok to draw in *. view.

&*. &odelin" - select the sketched section for sweep in Tree 'utline - S,eep - Apply click Path in .atails ;iew - select the path created - Apply - Generate. The model appears as below after rotating the view. &3. %reate ro nds along the other pper edge with radi s @.*. 6lend - !i5ed 0adius Selection !ilter= Ed"es - pick all edges - Apply - Generate. &6. Aepeat the Sweep one more time to complete the rest of the part. &8. The ad!oining s rfaces can be blended by Blend tool . 6lend - !i5ed 0adius - select the end face with the hole as shown below and then click "eometry to select Apply in .atails ;iew. All s rfaces ad!oining this face will be blended 'i.e., ro nded) with the given radi s. %hange the radi s to @.* in .atails ;iew.

&9. 6lend - ctrl H select all pper inner edges - Apply - enter the radi s @.* - Generate. The final model appears as=

II. Simulation $. %lick Project tab - select %esi"n&odeler - e, Simulation - the sim lation window appears as=

&. Stress 6ranch ? %uctile &aterials - Simulation Wi;ard appears in the place of Analysis Types - move the %i3ider to f lly show the Tree 'utline as below.

*. Sim lation has been linked to the model with 1ink to Geometry already checked in the Simulation Wi;ard. 3. %lick +eri4y &aterial and see the material in the %atails +ie,. 6. Insert 1oads - Structural - !i5ed Support - pick on the end of the hook handle to fi7 - Apply 8. Structural - 6earin" 1oad - pick on the inner s rface of the hook - %e4ine 6y 1 -omponents - enter three load components '@, @, 5$@@@). The res lt appears as

9. Now, itCs good time to check the mesh. %lick /esh in the Tree 'utline - 0&6 Pre3ie, &esh.

>. %lick Sol3e. After a co ple of seconds, the sol tion is done. ?. %lick Solution - E8ui3alent Stress in Tree 'utline - the von /ises stress distrib tion appears. Also, try /a7im m Shear Stress. The res lts are shown below.

$@. %lick +ie,ports - select !our +ie,ports - click a viewport and then select a res lt in Tree 'utline to display and repeat this to display all of them as below. The Stress Tool - Sa4ety !actor is the ratio of stress to stress limit that is s ally yield stress for d ctile materials. The &in and &a5 were toggled off in the men bar.

$$. %onto rs and Edges can be manip lated in the display as shown in the following fig re. Try them o t.

$&. This is the end of the crash e7ample MM 9.1.1.C -rash E5ample 9Skin?1o4t: Another important modeling men is Skin?1o4t that ses two or more profiles to blend them. All profiles m st have the same n mber of edges. All profiles for the SkinFGoft feat re m st be of the same type. Sketches and planes can be selected by clicking on their edges or points in the graphics area, or by clicking on the sketch or plane branch in the Tree 'utline. As an ill stration, consider the frontal part of a boat modeled by three profiles.

$. (n the %esi"n&odeler, Sketchin" - sketch the first section as below.

ote that the dimension val es can be displayed by %imensions - %isplay - check +alue.

&. +or the second section, e, Plane - Trans4orm 1 - click the option list and choose '44set 2 - enter $@ for +alue - Sketchin" - sketch the second section as below.

*. The third section is at $@ inch distance from the second section. %reate a point section by -onstruction Point as

3. &odelin" - ctrl H pick all three sections in Tree 'utline 7 Skin?1o4t - Generate. Now, the blended solid appears. 9.1.1.D -rash E5ample 9Sketch Plane and 6ody 'peration: This e7ample of a shaft s pport shown below ill strates how to create the Sketch Plane at an angle to a s rface passing thro gh an edge as well as mirroring. Also, it shows how to se 6ody 'peration for mirroring.

I. %esi"n&odeler $. &. *. 3. %lick the Geometry to bring p the %esi"n&odeler. Select a nit 'here, select the (nch) in the dialog for nit. %hange the Sketch Plane to 2)Plane. Sketching - sketch the half section appro7imately as shown below. /ake s re to orient the plane as in the fig re.

6. Sketch +ie, - se %onstraints if necessary to align them. 8. %imensions - place the dimensions as shown below. To obtain the following view, first get the isometric view to fig re o t the orientation by 0&6 on the model window +ie, - Isometric +ie,. Now, 0&6 - +ie, - Top +ie,. Aemember %imensions %isplay - check +alue and ncheck ame to display n merical val es.

9. &odelin" - E5trude - enter @.6 for %epth - Generate. The res lt appears as

>. -reate - 6ody 'peration - pick the body - Apply in .etails ;iew - click &irror Plane to bring p ApplyF-ancel - pick )*Plane in Tree 'utline - Generate. See mirrored part appears as

?. Now, create a plane at 36o incligned angle to the pper s rface passing thro gh the right pper edge. e, Plane - click Type in %etails +ie, and select !rom !ace - click 6ase !ace and pick the pper s rface of the part - Apply - click Trans4orm 1 - select 0otate

about Ed"e - click Trans4orm 1 A5is - pick the pper right edge of the model - enter 36o for +alue 1 - Generate. Now, the created plane appears in the second fig re above. $@. Sketchin" - sketch the section with constraints and place the dimensions as

$$. &odelin" - E5trude - %irection in %etails +ie, - select 0e3ersed - Type - select To e5t - Generate. $&. %lick %isplay Plane to toggle off it. The final model appears. I+. &odal Analysis <ere modal analysis of a str ct re is introd ced. 0se the defa lt nit at the beginning. &6. %esi"n&odeler &8. +irst, in a sketcher on 7y5plane, sketch a line by , %ra, - 1ine2 and then place dimensions as=

&9. Yo may sketch another on a new rotated plane or simply revolve the sketch as shown below. +or practice, the line will be drawn on the revolved plane. Another line then is revolved *. e, Plane - Trans4orm 1 in .etails ;iew - Aotate abo t : - !%1@ +alue 1 - $&@o Generate 3. Sketch - sketch another line on this new plane as before 6. &odelin" - select the second line - 0e3ol3e - pick the y5a7is as the a7is of revol tion Apply - enter the angle and the direction - Generate. See the second fig re above 8. -oncept - 1ines 4rom Sketch - ctrl H select both sketches for lines in Tree 'utline Apply - Generate

9. -oncept - 1ines 4rom Sketch - select the first sketch - 1ines 4rom Ed"e - pick the both edges of the revolved s rface - Apply - Generate >. Select Sur4ace 6ody in Tree K tline - 0&6 - Suppress ?. -oncept - 1ines 4rom Points - create three 1ine 6ody connecting the three points at bottom - Apply - Generate. $@. %lick 2)Plane in Tree K tline - e, Plane - Trans4orm 1 1 '44set 2 - +alue 1 1 &@ - Generate. $$. Sketchin" - sketch a circle with the centre at the origin - %imensions - General - click the circle - enter the val e %1 1 8 - Generate. .onCt worry abo t !oining now. (t will be !oined to the e7isting body by defa lt when itCs generated. $&. -oncept - -ross Section - add the circ lar section - enter 0 1 $. $*. Select the 1ine 6ody in Tree K tline - select -ircular 1 for -ross Section in %etails +ie,.

$3. Project tab - e, Simulation

$6. (n &ap o4 Analysis Types, click &odal Analysis and type in the n mber of modes 'to find) at the bottom - 'E 'This map can be retrieved from e, Analysis men at top). (f yo come back later with another sim lation, yo may not see this map, b t the defa lt n mber of mode is 8 in &odal - Analysis Settin"s in /odel Tree. $8. (n /odel Tree, click &odel - Geometry - 1ine6ody - see the material in .etails ;iew and accept it as is $9. Yo can close Simulation Wi;ard 'this can be retrieved by +ie,). $>. %lick Supports men - !i5ed Support - 'change the c rsor selection mode) 0&6 -ursor &ode - Ed"es - ctrl H select all three bottom edges $?. Sol3e &@. %lick Solution in /odel Tree if that is not selected yet. See the fig re below. The data appears at lower right corner. Aight click the mo se over the data and Select All and then one more time select -reate &ode Shape 0esults. The de4ormations appear for mode shapes in /odel Tree. Aight click one of them and then select E3aluate All 0esults. This prod ces all sim lation res lts as shown below. Yo can also animate sing the Play b tton at the bottom in Time1ine window.

&$. Ed"es - Sho, /nde4ormed Wire4rame &&. See the res lts with the mesh as=

&*. +ie,ports - select fo r windows - click each window and pick a res lt in Tree K tline. &3. 't rn off the scale and triad) pick a viewport - +ie, - t rn off all of them as shown above. The m ltiview display appears as=

&6. +ie,ports - select back one viewport. &8. %lick Animate - see the animation - Stop. &9. Probe - move the c rsor over the model to see the res lt at the position - click at the points to display the res lts as shown below.

&>. /ore graphics manip lation is possible in Graphics

. Try it o t.