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2nd NATIONAL BIOSAFETY CONFERENCE 5- 9th AUGUST, 2013

KENYATTA INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION CENTRE (KICC), NAIROBI, KENYA


THEME: BIOSAFETY ADVOCACY FOR THE REALIZATION OF VISION 2030

PROGRAMME AND ABSTRACTS BOOK

Organised by

NATIONAL BIOSAFETY AUTHORITY


Championing for a Biosafe Nation

2nd NATIONAL BIOSAFETY CONFERENCE 5- 9th AUGUST, 2013


KENYATTA INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION CENTRE (KICC), NAIROBI, KENYA
THEME: BIOSAFETY ADVOCACY FOR THE REALIZATION OF VISION 2030

PROGRAMME AND ABSTRACTS BOOK

National Biosafety Authority

National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation

Program for Biosafety Systems

African Agricultural Technology Foundation

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
National Steering And Scientific Programmes Committee ..................................................................................... 6 OPENING REMARKS BY H.E. HON. WILLIAM RUTO, DEPUTY PRESIDENT OF REPUBLIC OF KENYA...............................7 Message From The Cabinet Secretary................................................................................................................... 9 Ministry For Education, Science And Technology .................................................................................................. 9 CLOSING REMARKS..............................................................................................................................................10 Message From The Principal Secretary ............................................................................................................... 12 Message From The Chief Executive Officer, NBA................................................................................................. 13 Pre-Conference Courses Program....................................................................................................................... 15 Conference Program.......................................................................................................................................... 17 PRE- CONFERENCE COURSES .............................................................................................................................. 24 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Biotechnology And Biosafety Regulatory Framework In Kenya ........................................................................ 24 Introduction To Emergency Response System, PPE And Occupational Health And Safety .............................. 24 Biosafety Levels ................................................................................................................................................. 25 Detection Methods For Genetically Modified Organisms................................................................................. 25 Decontamination And Waste Handling ............................................................................................................. 26 Standards For Food And Feed Safety ................................................................................................................ 26 Food And Feed Safety Assessment (Risk Analysis) ............................................................................................ 26 Transport Of Dangerous Goods Training........................................................................................................... 27 Environmental Risk Assessment Of Gm Crops: Case Studies On Non-Target Organisms ................................. 27

10. Developing Institutional Research Compliance Committees ............................................................................ 28 11. Bioethics, Biosecurity And Dual-Use Research Of Concern............................................................................... 28 12. Design, Construction And Management Of High Bio-Containment Facilities ................................................... 29 13. Design And Maintenance Of Isolation Facilities ................................................................................................ 29 14. Biosafety Cabinets, Fume Hoods & Clean Benches........................................................................................... 30 CONFERENCE ABSTRACTS .................................................................................................................................. 31 1. 2. 3. Biosafety Regulartory Framework In Kenya ...................................................................................................... 31 Risk Assessment Of Gm Crops: Determining The Likelihood Of Harm.............................................................. 31 National Performance Trials Of New Varieties: Implications On Gmo Commercialization............................... 32
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4. 5.
6.

Safety Of Genetically Modified Crops: Echoes From The Seralini Publication In 2012 ..................................... 33 Challenges Encountered In Setting Up A Biosafety Level 3 Laboratory In Emerging Economies: The Kenyan Perspective ........................................................................................................................................................ 34
Application Of Slipta In Enhancing Biosafety In Global Diseases Detection Division Laboratories Of Cdc Kenya...................................................................................................................................................... ..........34 Poor Chemicals Management: A Potential Health Hazard Among Kenyas Small Medium Enterprises (Smes).................................................................................................................................................................35 Reflections On Lone Work With Hazardous Biological Materials And Dual Use............................................... 36

7. 8. 9.

Structure And Role Of Institutional Biosafety Committees In Contained Use Applications ............................. 36

10. Biochemical Benefits Of Tea Outweigh Minor Bio-Safety Issues Associated With Its Intake ........................... 37 11. Osrap2.6 Transcription Factor Contributes To Rice Innate Immunity Through Its Interaction With Receptor For Activated Kinase-C 1 (Rack1) In Compatible Interactions Targeting The Rice Blast Fungus......................... 38 12. Genotype Independent Embryogenic Callus Induction And Regeneration Frequency Of Ph4 And Dk 8031 Hybrid Maize Adapted To Coastal Ecosystem Of Kenya ........................................................................................ 39 13. Yeast Extract Peptone (Yep) Media Promotes Agrobacterium Infectivity In Recalcitrant Tropical Maize Inbred Lines ......................................................................................................................................................................... 39 14. Importance Of Accreditation In Biosafety ......................................................................................................... 41 15. Quality Assurance For Occupational Health And Safety Administration (Osha) In Morgue: The Impact Of Sop Domestication On Implementation And Practice Of Universal Safety Precautions In Kenya.................................. 42 16. Role Of The Media And Communication Networks In Sharing Knowledge On Biotechnology And Biosafety.. 43 17. Myths And Miscommunication; A Challenge In Commercialization ................................................................. 43 18. Of Gmos: A Case Study In Kakamega County .................................................................................................... 43 19. The Ethical Dimension Of Genetically Modified Foods/Organisms (Gmos) ..................................................... 44 20. Socio-Economic Considerations Towards Commercialization Of Bt Cotton In Kenya....................................... 44 21. Global And Regional Trends In Commercialization Of Biotech/Gm Crops: 1996-2012..................................... 45 22. Progress In Confined Field Trial Of Africa Biofortified Sorghum In Kenya And Nigeria..................................... 46 23. Biosafety Considerations In The Development Of Drought Tolerant And Insect Protected Maize In Kenya ... 46 24. Biosafety And Bioethics At The International Maize And Wheat Improvement Center (Cimmyt) ................... 47 25. Baseline Studies On Insect Resistance Management Strategy For Bt-Cotton In Kenya.................................... 48 26. Introgression Of Nutritional Traits And Evaluation Of Performance Of Improved Sorghum Expressing The Enhanced Nutrition .................................................................................................................................................. 48 27. Development Of Transgenic Virus Resistant Cassava Under The Virca Project ................................................ 49

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28. Genetic Transformation Of Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor L. Moench) With Chitinase And Chitosanase Genes For Anthracnose Tolerance...................................................................................................................................... 49 29. Expression Of Drought Induced Genes Enhances Grain Productivity Under Water Limited Environment ...... 50 30. Genetic Transformation Of Bananas For Resistance To Xanthomonas Wilt Disease........................................ 50 31. African Trypanosomiasis Resistance In Cattle By A Transgenic Approach ........................................................ 51 POSTERS AND EXHIBITIONS ............................................................................................................................... 52 Molecular Analysis For Gene Expression Of Beta Carotene Genes In Transgenic Cassava........................................ 52 Latex Agglutination Test Kit For Rapid Diagnosis Of Contagious Caprine-Pleuropneumonia.................................... 52 Gmos: Efficacy, Safety And Profit ............................................................................................................................... 53 Mitigating Health Concerns And Rights Of Consumers In Relation To Gmo Foods ................................................... 53 Biosafety Recognition Awards 2013 ................................................................................................................... 54 2012 Biosafety Recognition Awardees: ...................................................................................................................... 55

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NATIONAL STEERING AND SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMMES COMMITTEE


NAME 1. Dr. Willy Tonui 2. Prof. Dorington Ogoyi 3. Mr. Julius Itunga 4. Mr. David Wafula 5. Prof. Theophilus Mutui 6. Ms. Anne Kamau 7. Ms. Mariam Ali Mahamud 8. Mr. Martin Mwirigi 9. Ms. Damaris Matoke 10. Ms. Rose Nyanga 11. Ms. Jane Otadoh 12. Ms. Asha B. Mohamed 13. Dr. Daniel Kimani 14. Ms. Brenda Obura 15. Dr. Ayub Macharia 16. Ms. Ephy Khaemba 17. Mr. Hillary Sang 18. Mr. Josphat Muchiri 19. Mr. Argut Kipturgo 20. Dr. Nicholas Mwikwabe 21. Dr. Daniel Kimani 22. Mr. Oliver Pyoko 23. Mr. Sammy Inyasi 24. Ms. Carole Apunda INSTITUTION National Biosafety Authority, NBA (Chairman) National Biosafety Authority, NBA (Secretary) National Biosafety Authority (NBA) Program for Biosafety Systems (PBS-Kenya) National Biosafety Authority (NBA) National Biosafety Authority (NBA) National Biosafety Authority (NBA) Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Ministry of Agriculture NACOSTI Centre for Disease Control (CDC- Kenya) Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) National Biosafety Authority (NBA) National Biosafety Authority (NBA) Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) Centre for Disease Control (CDC- Kenya) National Biosafety Authority (NBA) National Biosafety Authority (NBA) National Biosafety Authority (NBA)

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MESSAGE FROM THE DEPUTY PRESIDENT REPUBLIC OF KENYA


On behalf of the Government of Kenya, I would like to thank the organizers of this conference, the second of its kind in Kenya. In particular, I would like to thank the National Biosafety Authority (NBA) and the National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation (NACOSTI) for the roles they have played in implementing the Biosafety Act and the biotechnology policy in Kenya. The focus of this conference is the important subject of Biosafety. As a country, Kenya has opted to embrace modern biotechnology. This was essential for the purposes of, among others, maximizing productivity in agriculture and industry, protecting the environment, conserving biodiversity, bio-prospecting and generally improving the quality of human welfare. To achieve this, Kenya is required to effectively implement internationally recognized legal and regulatory framework to ensure biosafety. The necessary capacity must also be put in place to ensure that appropriate safety measures are taken into account at all stages of biotechnologyrelated product development, commercialization and trade. I am therefore, encouraged and pleased to note that you are gathered here this week to share experiences and suggestions for a strong framework in the field of biosafety in Kenya. We do realize that in our country, many academies and universities do not train on topics related to Biosafety. I am glad to note that you have just concluded a two-day pre-conference course programme. Looking at your programme, I am pleased to note that the pre-conference courses included topics on Biohazard waste management, risk assessment concepts and methodologies, emergency responses, engineering design and maintenance and infectious substance shipping and transport. These courses are needed by most facilities and laboratories in Kenya, and I wish to congratulate NBA on successful completion of the pre-conference courses. The African region is regularly plagued by a number of life-threatening infections such as typhoid, drugresistant tuberculosis among others. It is important to note that a lot still needs to be done towards building the necessary human resources capacities to effectively and safely handle such pathogens. I am therefore, encouraged and pleased that this conference will explore the risks of biological exposures in various occupational settings in Kenya, provide participants with information in handling and mitigating the effects of highly pathogenic and life-threatening biological agents. Looking at the programme, I am also impressed to see that we have a whole session on safety and health concerns on GMOs. During this session, a panel of experts will discuss public concerns on GMOs. I hope this forum will help many participants to generally understand the concerns of the various stakeholders and will help NBA to address these issues. Other than this forum we would like our scientists to constantly assure the public on the safety of GM products. We also welcome the public at large to bring forth their concerns and ensure that they justify them so that we work together as a nation to define the way forward on GMOs in Kenya. I am equally encouraged that Laboratory biosecurity and responsible conduct of sciences (or dual use issues) are discussed during the conference. Strengthening biosecurity issues and developing
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biosecurity standards in our laboratories in Kenya, regionally and internationally is an urgent requirement. Successful implementation of Biosecurity will improve the security of infectious materials at facilities and during transit within Kenya and elsewhere, be they GM or non-GM derived. Such security will help protect against the theft or diversion of pathogens, which could be used by bioterrorists or biological weapons proliferators. In addition, Biosecurity standards will help create a national reporting and registration system for facilities that store, use, and/or transport pathogens. The National Biosafety Authority is making great strides in their role of ensuring and assuring safety in application of Biotechnology in the country. This year, the NBA has declared 2013 as the Year of Biosafety Advocacy. As part of Biosafety Advocacy activities, NBA intends to sponsor awareness seminars and workshops throughout Kenya, support development and implementation of guidelines in facilities undertaking research, testing or commercialization of GMOs and training for Institutional Biosafety Committees (IBCs). The expected outcome is to raise awareness and increase general understanding of what Biosafety is throughout Kenya. It really pleases me to note that within a period of three years of existence NBA has published four Biosafety Regulations namely: the Contained Use, Environmental Release, Import, Export and Transit, and Labeling Regulations. The Authority has also established a National Biosafety Clearing House and approved over ten GMO activities for various uses including confined field trials, contained use, import and transit. I urge them to keep up the good work so that they may realize their vision of being a World-Class Biosafety Agency. I wish to express my deep gratitude to Ministry of Education, Science and Technology for the role they have played towards enhancing biosafety, not only in the country, but also globally. In conclusion, I would also like to thank the Board of Management and all the staff of the Authority for the good work that they are doing and also urge them to work extra hard because they are the backbone of biosafety in Kenya. I am also pleased to note the involvement of stakeholders in all major activities of NBA, and to commend such an undertaking. I believe that it is this kind of teamwork that will yield excellent results. My thanks also go to the participants from all over Kenya and beyond for attending this conference. H.E. HON. WILLIAM RUTO, EGH, EBS DEPUTY PRESIDENT, REPUBLIC OF KENYA

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MESSAGE FROM THE CABINET SECRETARY MINISTRY FOR EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
On behalf of the Ministry for Education, Science and Technology and the National Biosafety Authority, I welcome you to the 2nd Annual Biosafety Conference. The focus of this conference is the important subject of Biosafety. As a country, Kenya has opted to embrace modern biotechnology. I am encouraged and pleased to note that you are gathered here this week to share experiences and suggestions for a strong framework in the field of biosafety in Kenya. By organizing this conference we hope not only to create awareness but also educate the public on issues of biosafety and the role of National Biosafety Authority. Only a well-informed and educated public can understand and contribute towards our endeavor to create scientific and knowledge savvy society. As articulated in the constitution, information is a human right and therefore Kenyans deserve to know more about modern biotechnology and its attendant products, genetically modified organisms (GMOs). I would like to thank the Board of Management and all the Staff of the Authority for the good work that they are doing and also urge them to work extra hard because they are the backbone of biological safety in Kenya. Many thanks also go to all the participants in this conference. I am also impressed by the involvement of Stakeholders in all major activities of NBA, and to commend such an undertaking. I am confident that the interaction and teamwork between stakeholders and NBA will yield excellent results in future. I wish you all a pleasant week, productive discussions and look forward to the results of the conference. PROF. JACOB KAIMENYI, EBS CABINET SECRETARY FOR EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

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MESSAGE FROM THE CABINET SECRETARY MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE, LIVESTOCK AND FISHERIES
I am encouraged and pleased that you have been gathered here this week to share experiences and suggestions for a strong framework in the field of biosafety in Kenya. This conference would not have come at a better time when capacity to ensure that appropriate safety measures are taken into account in all stages of biotechnology-related product development, commercialization and trade is needed. I appreciate that these issues are addressed in your conference programme. Let me also encourage colleges, universities and institutions to develop training programmes that train students on topics related to Biosafety. In this regard, I am pleased to note that the National Biosafety Authority is coming up with a curriculum and guidelines to guide Institutions and universities on training staff and students. Courses that include Biohazard waste Management, Risk Assessment Concepts and Methodologies, Emergency responses, Engineering Design and Maintenance and Infectious Substance Shipping and Transport are required by most facilities and laboratories in Kenya. I am equally impressed that these courses were included as pre-conference courses during this conference. Looking at the programme, I can see a whole session on GMO concerns. During this session, experts and other stakeholders will discuss public concerns about GMOs. I hope you will agree with me that this forum will shed light on many issues that the various stakeholders have. I am therefore confident that the information shared will help NBA to address these issues in future. However, we still continue to encourage the public to continue to bring forth their concerns and ensure that they justify them so that we work together as a nation to define the way forward in Kenya. As we are all aware, the previous cabinet banned importation of genetically modified organisms until such a time that we have enough information guaranteeing their safety to human health. The challenge to us now is whether we already have the information or not. I hope by the end of this conference you will have come up with recommendations based on scientifically verifiable evidence that may inform the review of the ban. As the Ministry concerned with agricultural research in Kenya, I would like to encourage our scientists to continue with the good work that they are doing as they continue to confirm to us the safety of genetically engineered products. The National Biosafety Authority has demonstrated through this conference that they are open to promoting an atmosphere of open dialogue in their role of ensuring and assuring safety in application of Biotechnology in the country. I urge them to continue on with the same effort, to realize their vision of being a World Class Biosafety Agency. As I conclude, I would also like to congratulate the Board of Management and all the staff of the Authority for hosting this second conference. I am happy to note that this event will be conducted annually and would like to express my support and that of the Ministry of Agriculture in planning future conferences.

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I have observed with a lot of encouragement that a lot of networking and collaboration has taken place during this conference. In this regard I wish to encourage more involvement of stakeholders in all major activities of NBA. It is through the involvement and teamwork of all stakeholders that we will continue to make good gains in promoting good science and regulatory framework in Kenya. MR. FELIX KOSGEY CABINET SECRETARY MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE, LIVESTOCK AND FISHERIES

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MESSAGE FROM THE PRINCIPAL SECRETARY


The National Biosafety Authority (NBA) is a state corporation under the Ministry Education, Science and Technology. NBA is mandated to ensure and assure safety of human and animal health and provide adequate protection of the environment from harmful effects that may result from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The Ministry of Education, Science and Technology was established to promote Education, Science, Technology and Innovation (ST&I) as the foundation to which the economic, social, and political pillars are anchored for national development. Our vision is to have a national culture that prides in and actively promotes science, technology and innovation and quality higher education, for prosperity and global competitiveness. The integration of ST&I in national productive processes is therefore central to the achievement of the countrys dreams as outlined in Vision 2030. Welcome to the second conference on Biosafety in Kenya. I wish to congratulate the National Biosafety Authority for hosting this important conference. Biosafety is a new discipline that is taking shape worldwide and we do encourage our institutions to work towards developing a culture in this vital area. As the concerned parent Ministry, we do encourage all the stakeholders and institutions to be proactive and be involved in promoting our national regulatory and administrative networks in Biosafety. It is my hope that the conference will stimulate and inspire innovative thinking in biosafety as an ST&I tool for national development.

PROF. COLLETTE SUDA, PhD, EBS PRINCIPAL SECRETARY MINISTRY FOR EDUCATION, SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

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MESSAGE FROM THE CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER, NBA


It gives me great pleasure to be part of this Second Annual National Biosafety Conference. On behalf of the 2nd Annual National Biosafety Conference Steering Committee, staff of the National Biosafety Authority and the biosafety professionals worldwide, I wish to welcome you and really acknowledge your participation. Our mandate at the Authority is to exercise supervision and control over the development, transfer, handling and use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) so as to ensure and assure safety of human and animal health and provide adequate protection of the environment. This is achieved through promotion of biological safety practices, responsible research and conduct of sciences into the national production systems for sustainable development and the achievement of the objectives of the Kenya Vision 2030. This conference provides a unique opportunity for all of us in Kenya to take stock of the achievements that we have made in implementing our regulatory framework and executing our mandate. At the end of this conference I hope that we shall have identified local, practical and sustainable solutions that will enable us to close key gaps and commit ourselves to action. This conference brings together diverse stakeholders in the various fields of policy, biotechnology, biosafety and biosecurity, research, agriculture, public and animal health, environment, engineering, industry, academia and the media fraternity under one Conference umbrella Biosafety Advocacy for realization of Vision 2030. The conference is characterized by two-day pre-conference courses and another two for the main conference. The pre-conference will feature a number of courses designed to address regulatory aspects of biosafety. May I take this opportunity to thank all our trainers and facilitators, drawn from our local institutions, for accepting to support our pre-conference courses. Some of the topics that will be discussed during the conference include: strengthening laboratory biosecurity and responsible conduct of sciences or dual use research of concern. The climax of the conference is a plenary session on concerns of GMOs where animate debate is expected from parliamentarians and other stakeholders. We wish to thank all our speakers and delegates who have committed their time and resources towards the success of this conference. The Conference will culminate in Biosafety Recognition Awards 2013 ceremony. The NBA has created a Biosafety Recognition Award Program to identify and celebrate extraordinary individuals who have made significant contributions to help others in the field of Biosafety in Kenya and beyond. This Program honours exceptional and inspiring individuals who have made a difference in promoting Biosafety, serve as role models and contribute to food security, the fight against infectious diseases, environmental, animal and public health protection. The year has been designated globally as the Year of Biosafety Advocacy by the Authority. As part of our Biosafety Advocacy activities, NBA intends to sponsor awareness seminars and workshops throughout Kenya; Support development and implementation of guidelines in facilities undertaking research, testing or commercialization of GMOs and Training for Institutional Biosafety Committees (IBCs).
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Our success to host this conference was greatly aided by financial support we received from the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology and Program for Biosafety Systems. I wish to thank them most sincerely. Sincerely,

Willy Kiprotich Tonui, PhD, RBP Chief Executive Officer, National Biosafety Authority

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Pre-Conference Courses Program August 5 - 6, 2013

Date

Time 08:00 - 08:30 08:30 - 13:00

Room

Pre-Conference Course Registration

Course Presenter/s NBA Secretariat Prof. Edward Nguu Prof. D. Ogoyi

Aberdares

Biotechnology and Biosafety Regulatory Framework in Kenya

14:00 - 17:30

Aberdares

Emergency Responses Systems, Personal Protective Equipment and Occupational Health & Safety

Dr. Kiiyukia Ciira Mr. Charles M. Mburu

5th August 2013

Monday

08:30 -13:00

Lenana

Biosafety Levels. Detection and Surveillance of GMOs

Mr. Abed Kagundu Mr. George Ngundo

14:00 - 17:30

Lenana

Decontamination and Waste handling

Ms. Damaris Matoke Ms. Milka Mwangi

08:30- 13:00

Taifa

Food and Feed Safety Assessment and Standards Transport of Biological Materials

Margaret Aleke Prof. Theophilus Mutui Juma Bonventure Nicholas Mwikwabe

14:00 - 17:30

Taifa

08:00 - 08:30 08:30 - 13:00 Aberdares

Registration Environmental Risk Assessment of GM Crops: Case studies on non-target Organisms

NBA Secretariat Dr. M. Wach Mr. Josphat Muchiri Ms. Julia Njagi Mr. Thomas Bwana

6th August 2012

14:00 - 17:30

Aberdares

Developing Institutional Research Compliance Committees Transport of Biological Materials

Ms. Ephy Khaemba Ms. Sylvia Wanjiru Dr. Juma Bonventure


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Tuesday

08:30 -13:00

Lenana

(continuation) 14:00 - 17:30 Lenana Bioethics, Biosecurity and Dual Use Research of concern

Dr. Nicholas Mwikwabe Ms. Cecilia Rumberia Mr. Albert Bunyasi

08:30- 13:00

Taifa

Design, Construction & Maintenance of High Bio-containment Facilities. Design & Maintenance of Isolation Facilities

Dr. David Mburu Eng. Josphat Wamburu

14:00- 17:30

Taifa

Biosafety Cabinets, Fume Hoods & Clean Benches

Mr. Gabriel Okondo Ms. Beth Njaramba

Feedback forms should be filled after every course

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Conference Program
Wednesday August 7, 2013
Venue: Lenana Hall
SESSION 1: REGISTRATION AND CONFERENCE OPENING CEREMONY
Time Topic Presenter/s Moderator/ Session Chair

08:00 08:30 08:30 10.00

Registration Welcome remarks and Conference opening

NBA Secretariat Dr Willy K. Tonui, NBA CEO

Hillary Sang

Dr Willy K. Tonui, NBA CEO

Conference Keynote Address: An overview on implementation of biosafety systems in Africa Ms. Rachel Shibalira, Biosafety Legal Consultant

Prof. Collette Suda, Principal Secretary, State Department of Science and Technology

Prof. Jacob Kaimenyi, Cabinet Secretary, Ministry of Education, Science and Technology

Chief Guest: H.E. Hon. William Samoei arap Ruto, EGH, EBS Deputy President Republic of Kenya
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10.00- 10.30: GROUP PHOTO AND TEA BREAK SESSION 2: BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOSAFETY REGULATION
10:30 11:00 Keynote Address: Science Technology and Innovation for sustainable development 11:00 - 11:20 Biosafety Regulatory Framework in Kenya Risk Assessment of GM Crops: Determining the Likelihood of Harm National Performance Trials of New Varieties: Implications on GMO Commercialization. Confinement facility for experimental animals towards development of GMO animals Safety of Genetically Modified Crops: Echoes from the Seralini Publication in 2012. Prof .Abdulrazak Shaukat, (CEO, NACOSTI) Prof. Geoffrey Wahungu, Director General, NEMA

Prof. D. O. Ogoyi (NBA) Dr. Michael Wach, (CERA, USA) Dr. James Onsando (KEPHIS) Dr. Peter Ithondeka (DVS) Mr. Kennedy Oyugi (ABSF)

11:20 11:40

11:40- 12:00

12:00 - 12:20

12.20- 12.40

12.40- 13:00

Questions & Answers

13:20- 2:00 LUNCH BREAK SESSION 3: DISEASE SURVEILLANCE AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE
14:00- 14:30 Keynote address: Improving infectious disease surveillance and response: an integrated strategy from the African region Kevin De Cock Head, Global Disease Detection Division (CDC-Kenya) 14:30- 14:50 Challenges encountered in setting up a biosafety level 3 laboratory in emerging economies: the Kenyan perspective Application of SLIPTA in enhancing biosafety in Global Diseases Detection Division laboratories of CDC Kenya Dr. David Mburu (University of Nairobi) Pius Makhonge, Director, DOSH

14:50-15:10

Abigail Kosgey (CDC-Kenya)

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15:10 - 15:30 TEA BREAK SESSION 4: BIORISK MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION OF BIOLOGICAL EXPOSURES IN THE WORKPLACE
15:30- 16:00 Keynote address: Main Streaming Biorisk Management and Prevention of Biological exposures at Work Place Poor Chemicals Management: A Potential Health Hazard Among Kenyas Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) Reflections on Lone Work With Hazardous Biological Materials and Dual Use

Mr. Daniel Wako,


(CDC-Kenya)

16:00- 16:20

Dr. Ali Adan Ali (National Museums of Kenya) Andrew O. Muruka, (Kemri-Wellcome Trust Research Programme)

16:20-16:40

16:40- 17:00

Questions & Answers

END DAY 1 PROGRAM

Thursday August 8, 2013


SESSION 5: CAPACITY BUILDING IN BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOSAFETYIN KENYA
Time 08:30-08:50 Topic Capacity building in Biotechnology and Biosafety in Kenyan Universities Structure and role of Institutional Biosafety Committees in Contained use applications Biochemical Benefits of Tea outweigh minor biosafety issues associated with its intake. OsRap2.6 transcription factor contributes to rice innate immunity through its interaction with Receptor for Activated Kinase-C 1 (RACK1) in compatible interactions targeting the rice blast fungus. Presenter/s Prof. J. O. Ochanda (University of Nairobi) Prof. Theophilus Mutui (NBA) Dr. Alfred Orina Isaac, (Technical University of Kenya). Dr. Mwathi Jane Wamaitha (KARI) Moderator/ Session Chair Dr. Joseph Mureithi (KARI)

8.50- 09:10

09:10- 09:30

09:30- 9.50

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9.50-10.10

Genotype independent Laban Mwadime embryogenic callus induction and regeneration frequency of PH4 and DK8031 Hybrid Maize adapted to coastal ecosystem of Kenya Yeast Extract Peptone (YEP) media promotes Agrobacterium infectivity in recalcitrant tropical maize inbred lines Dr. Sylvester E. Anami (JKUAT)

10.10-10.30

10:30- 10:50

Questions & Answers

10.50- 11:00: TEA BREAK SESSION 6: QUALITY AND ACCREDITATION SYSTEMS IN LABORATORIES AND INDUSTRIAL SETTING
Time 11:00- 11:30 Topic Keynote Address: Overview on Laboratory Biorisk Standards Environmental impact assessment of laboratory facility in Kenya Importance of Accreditation in Biosafety Presenter/s Dr. Juma Bonventure (WRP, Kenya) Prof. Geoffrey Wahungu (NEMA) Mr. Sammy K. Milgo, Kenya Accreditation Service (KENAS) Abed Okoth-Okelloh (Maseno University) Moderator/ Session Chair Dr. George Ombakho, MoEST

11:30- 11:50

11:50-12:10

12:10- 12:30

Quality assurance for Occupational Health and safety administration (OSHA) in morgue

12:30- 13:00

Questions & Answers

13:00- 14:00 LUNCH BREAK SESSION 7: ROLE OF THE MEDIA, PUBLIC PARTICIPATION AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY
14.00 -14.30 Key note address: Role of the Media and communication networks in sharing knowledge on biotechnology and biosfety Myths and Miscommunication; A challenge in commercialization of GMOs: A case Study in Kakamega County Dr. Margaret Karembu (ISAAA Africenter) Edwin Madegwa Mr. Otula Owuor (Science Africa)

14.30 - 14.50

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14.50 - 15.10

Role of Public participation in policy formulation Ethical Dimensions of Genetically Modified Organisms

Dr. Ann Kingiri (ACTS)

15.10 - 15.30

Ms. Virginia Gichuru (Strathmore University)

15.30 - 15.50 TEA BREAK


15.50 - 16.10 Challenges of reporting new agricultural technology e.g. biotechnology Need for scientists, regulators and journalists to work together for a biosafe nation Socioeconomic considerations in Biotechnology Stewardship in Biotechnology and Biosafety Mr Gatonye Gatura (Standard Group) Mr Aghan Daniel (African Seed Trade Association) Dr. Lydia Miriti (KARI Thika) Dr. Simon Gichuki (KARI)

16.10-16.30

16.30- 16.50

16.50- 17.10

17.10- 17.30

Questions & Answers

END DAY 2 PROGRAM

FRIDAY, 9TH AUGUST, 2013


SESSION 8: STATUS OF GMOs RESEARCH IN KENYA: COMPLIANCE WITH BIOSAFETY REQUIREMENTS
08:30-09:00 Keynote address: Global Status of Biotechnology and Biotech crops Progress in Confined Field Trial of Africa Bio-fortified Sorghum in Kenya and Nigeria Biosafety considerations in the Development of Drought tolerant and Insect Protected Maize in Kenya Biosafety and Bioethics at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre Dr. Margaret Karembu, (ISAAA Africenter) Dr. Silas D. Obukosia (A-Harvest) Mr. Murega Mwimali, (WEMA Project) Dr. Francis Nangayo (AATF)

09:00- 09:20

09:20- 09:40

09:40- 10:00

Dr. Stephen Mugo (CIMMYT)


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10:00- 10:20

Baseline Studies for Insect Resistance Management Strategy for Bt-Cotton in Kenya

Dr. Charles N. Waturu (KARI Thika)

10:20- 10:40

Questions & Answers 10.40- 11:00: TEA BREAK

11:00 11:20

11:20 11:40

Introgression of nutritional traits and evaluation of performance of improved sorghum expressing the enhanced nutrition Development of transgenic virus resistant cassava under the VIRCA project Genetic transformation of sorgum (Sorghum Bicolor L. Moench) with chitinase and chitosanase genes for anthracnose tolerance Expression of drought induced genes enhances grain productivity under water limited environment

Dr. Esther Kimani (A-Harvest) Dr. Douglas W. Miano (University of Nairobi) Dr. Linus K. Ayoo (KIRDI)

Dr. Kiiyukia Ciira (JKUAT)

11:40 12:00

12:00 12:20

Dr. Stephen Runo (KU)

12:20 12:40

Genetic Transformation of Bananas Dr. Leena Tripathi (ILRI) for resistance to Xanthomonas Wilt Disease

12:40 - 13:00

African Trypanosomiasis resistance in cattle by a transgenic approach

Dr. Mingyan Yu (ILRI)

13:00- 13:20

Questions & Answers

13:20 14:00 LUNCH BREAK


SESSION 9: CONCERNS ON GMOs Topic 15:00-17:00 Health concerns of GMOs Presenter/s Panel Discussions: Hon. James Nyikal Prof. Abdulrazak Shaukat, CEO, NACOSTI Dr. Kepha Ombacho, Chief Public Health Officer Dr. Willy Tonui, CEO, NBA Dr. Solomon Mpoke, KEMRI Dr. Simon Mwangi (KMA)
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Session Chair Hon. Wilbur Otichilo

Conference feedback

All participants to fill a questionnaire Mr. Felix Kosgey, Cabinet Secretary - Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries

Prof. Dorington Ogoyi (NBA)

Closing Remarks

16:00- 17:30 SESSION 10: CONFERENCE DINNER AND AWARD CEREMONY TO BE HELD AT THE KICC, LENANA HALL RESTURANT 16.00-16.30: Lecture in Honour of the Late Prof Jesse Machuka (KU)
Outstanding Presenters Awards Biosafety Recognition Awards Schools Biosafety Champions Awards Prof. Jacob Kaimenyi, Cabinet Secretary, Ministry of Education, Science and Technology.

Dr. Richard Oduor (KU)


Dr Willy K. Tonui, CEO NBA

Vote of Thanks

Mr. Julius K. Itunga, Director, Finance and Administration NBA

END OF PROGRAM

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PRE- CONFERENCE COURSES 1.


BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOSAFETY REGULATORY FRAMEWORK IN KENYA

Prof. Nguu and Prof. Ogoyi Objectives To equip participants with basic facts on biotechnology development and its potential applications. To highlight key biosafety concerns on GM development and applications To enlighten participants on current status regulatory framework in Kenya Contents The development of modern biotechnology Key concerns on use of modern biotechnology Biosafety Law: Alignments to International Conventions Operationalization of Biosafety Regulatory Framework in Kenya: Where are we?

2. INTRODUCTION TO EMERGENCY RESPONSE SYSTEM, PPE AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY Dr. Kiiyukia and Mr. Charles M. Mburu Objective: To summarize the general elements of a health and safety program including emergency preparedness and use of PPE in workplaces. Emergency preparedness to deal with biohazards, fire and other related accidents. To develop programs to deal with their workplace safety specific needs.

a) Occupational health and safety: Identify and characterize workplace hazards Assess risks associated with biohazards Evaluate precautions and preparedness of GMO Identify correct processes and procedures of controlling those hazards associated with GMFs. Investigation and inspection techniques of accidents and near misses Reduce incidents, accident and injury reporting procedures Planning and budget process elements that affect the OSH program.
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Program overview to control and manage hazardous materials.

b) Emergency preparedness To identify and describe ethical standards for the profession of emergency management of biohazards. To define and critique definitions of bio-disaster To discuss about the biohazards emergency preparedness To discuss the fire hazards emergency preparedness To discuss and debate hazard-specific and all-hazard emergency approaches to disaster. To describe and critique the comprehensive emergency management approach. To assess the future of emergency management policy and programs of biohazards c) The personal protective equipment Explain the importance of wearing Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Types of PPE Identify PPE Responsibilities: management to select PPE appropriately to task and to require its use, Employees to use selected PPE consistently and correctly Identify some of the uses and limitations of protection provided by specific types of PPE Focusing on common examples of eye/face, head, body, foot, and hand protection Explain the importance of assuring good fit and how to inspect, clean, and maintain PPE Appropriate PPE for handling the bio-hazardous materials

3. BIOSAFETY LEVELS Mr. Abed Kagundu Objectives: To carry out a comprehensive analysis of a proposed GM activity to ascertain its safety to human health and the environment.

Content: Determine the nature of the DNA sequences to be transferred, donor organism of the insert, pathogenicity of the GMO and potential hazards. Risk assessment determines the containment level/Biosafety level Classification of the contained-use levels

4. DETECTION METHODS FOR GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS Mr. George Ngundo Objectives: The aim of GMO testing is to mitigate the risk of unapproved GM seeds being
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released in the Kenyan environment. Content: Sampling methods and sample preparation: Grinding and DNA Extraction Lateral strip test Qualitative and Quantitative PCR tests Interpreting and Reporting Test Results

5. DECONTAMINATION AND WASTE HANDLING Ms. Damaris Matoke Muhia and Ms. Milka Mwangi Objectives: To train participants on key waste management processes To explain on the importance of environmental management To enlighten participants on waste regulations in Kenya Content: Waste definitions and characteristics Train on various waste categories and management processes Guidelines for hazardous waste disinfection, decontamination and disposal Create awareness on biological waste management regulations in Kenya Risks associated with irresponsible waste handling Environmental Management Coordination Act; EMCA 1999

6. STANDARDS FOR FOOD AND FEED SAFETY Ms. Margaret Aleke Objective: Create awareness on food/feed safety standards Content: Create awareness of standards for food and feed derived from recombinant-DNA Create awareness on methods for analysis of foods derived from recombinant DNA

7. FOOD AND FEED SAFETY ASSESSMENT (RISK ANALYSIS) Dr. Allan Liavoga Objective: Create understanding of food and feed safety assessment
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Content: Explain risk analysis in food and feed Define food and feed safety; and food safety assessment Explain the different approaches for food and feed safety assessment in conventional foods and feed derived from recombinant DNA materials.

8. TRANSPORT OF DANGEROUS GOODS TRAINING Dr. Juma Bonventure and Dr. Nicholas Mwikwabe Objectives The objective of the training is to equip the trainees with the requirements of shipping of dangerous goods as spelled out by the UN, IATA and ICAO as a requirement. The training will be hands own and will be divided into 6 modules. It will be organized into lectures, exercises and assessments. There will be a pre and post-assessment and the successful candidates will be awarded a two years certificate for packaging documenting and shipping dangerous goods as per the internal regulations referred above. Content Module I: Terms Used for Shipping Module II: Classification of Infectious Substances Module III: Packaging of Infectious Substances Module IV: Labeling and Marking Packages Module V: Shipping Documentation Module VI: Shipping with dry ice Module VII: FAQ and tools Final Assessment Certificate of Successful Completion

TUESDAY, 6TH AUGUST 2013

9. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF GM CROPS: CASE STUDIES ON NON-TARGET ORGANISMS Dr. Michael Wach, Mr. Josphat Muchiri, Ms. Julia Njagi and Mr. Thomas Bwana Objectives To provide participants with an understanding of the principles of environmental risk assessment of GM crops. To highlight the use of laboratory and field tests in the assessment of risks to non-target organisms (NTOs). To use case studies to provide hands-on experience in the risk assessment of insect-resistant crops.
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Contents Key Considerations in the Environmental Risk Assessment of GM Crops Assessment of Impacts to Herbivorous Insects Assessment of Impacts to Beneficial Insects Use of Field Observations in NTO Risk Assessment Small group exercise--Insect-resistant Crop Case Studies

10. DEVELOPING INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH COMPLIANCE COMMITTEES Ms. Ephy Khaemba and Ms.Sylvia Wanjiru Objectives To make participants aware of the legal requirements to establish IBCs before embarking on any genetic modification work. Content Composition Functions SOPs / Biosafety Manual

11. BIOETHICS, BIOSECURITY AND DUAL-USE RESEARCH OF CONCERN Ms. Cecilia Rumberia and Mr. Albert Bunyasi Bioethics Objectives The purpose of this course is to provide students with an introduction to the historical and theoretical foundations of bioethics. To present the basic concepts, principles, and elements of bioethics Content The history and development of key international institutions and regulatory documents, pivotal policies, theoretical frameworks informing international bioethics and research ethics, and case studies of specific areas in international bioethics. Describe the ethical responsibilities for individuals working with infectious disease agents in the laboratory. Outline the ethical issues that concern biosafety and biosecurity Discuss codes of conduct for scientists Identify key international codes and conventions in relation to the safe and ethical use of biological sciences Biosecurity Objectives Develop awareness and understanding of the concepts of biosafety and biosecurity, and its
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relevance to biosecurity within the laboratory. Develop knowledge of approaches to the conduct of biosafety and biosecurity risk assessments, and be able to provide strategies to appropriately manage these risks. Dual use in research Objectives Create awareness on the historical and regulatory perspective of Dual Use Research of Concern Develop awareness and understanding of a range of dual-use conundrums and dilemmas that arise due to the impact of science and technology on society; Develop awareness and understanding of the ethical, legal and social relevance of dual-use biosecurity Create an understanding of the regulations governing life science research. Familiarize on the Dual Use Research (DURC) criteria. Steps by the Institution to address the issue of DURC.

12. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND MANAGEMENT OF HIGH BIO-CONTAINMENT FACILITIES Dr. David Mburu Objectives To identify factors that governs the design of a high bio-containment facility. To summarize the roles of key professionals involved in setting up a BSL3 laboratory. To outline the significance of the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system in biosafety. To reinforce the central role of the Building Management System (BMS) as the nerve centre for a BSL3 facility. To present an operational strategy cognizant with the industry optimal. Content Design consideration Project management Builders requirements Laboratory services matrix HVAC system BMS consideration Facility management

13. DESIGN AND MAINTENANCE OF ISOLATION FACILITIES Eng. Josphat Wamburu Objectives To identify factors that governs the design and maintenance of isolation.
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Content Engineering Interventions in IPC (Infection prevention& Control) Design & Maintenance of Contact Isolation Facilities. Design & Maintenance of air-borne Infection Isolation Facilities

14. BIOSAFETY CABINETS, FUME HOODS & CLEAN BENCHES Mr. Gabriel Okondo and Ms. Beth Njaramba Objectives To discuss different types of Biological Safety Cabinets (BSCs) and their applications Content Selection limitations of BSCs and their application Proper Use of BSCs HEPA Filters : How they work Decontamination and Annual Certification per NSF Std 49, EN Std, etc.

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CONFERENCE ABSTRACTS

SESSION 2: BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOSAFETY REGULATION


BIOSAFETY REGULARTORY FRAMEWORK IN KENYA Dorington O. Ogoyi, Josphat Muchiri, Theophillus Mutui and Willy Tonui National Biosafety Authority (Kenya) The National Biosafety Authority (NBA) was established following the enactment of the Biosafety Act, 2009. The Biosafety act provides that the Authority shall; facilitate responsible research into, and minimize risks that may be posed by GMOs to human and animal health and the environment, ensure adequate level of protection for safe transfer, handling and use of GMOs to human and animal health and the environment and to establish a transparent, science based and predictable process for review of applications. Prior to the enactment of the act, Kenya ratified the Categena Protocol on Biosafety (2003) and developed Biotechnology policy (2006) which envisaged the establishment of the NBA. Since its inception, the National Biosafety Authority has developed a number of regulations including; Contained use, Environmental release, Import, Export and transit and Labeling regulations. The Authority has since also developed clear guidelines on transparent, science based and predictable risk assessment process which is the basis for approval of applications. A number of applications for contained use and confined field trials have also been approved by the Authority. Among the products that are currently under confined field trials include; Bt-cotton, Bt-maize, water efficient maize for Africa, biofortified sorghum and virus resistant cassava. So far, there has been no environmental release of GMOs although it is anticipated that some of the products under confined field trials may be released in the future after due process of risk assessment. Despite these developments, there are still misconceptions about GMOs in the country. NBA intends to enhance understanding of the technology through public awareness campaigns and to establish a predictable science based and transparent system for the approval process. Challenges towards attainment of this objective will be discussed.

RISK ASSESSMENT OF GM CROPS: DETERMINING THE LIKELIHOOD OF HARM Michael Wach, J.D., Ph.D., Senior Scientific Program Manager Assessing potential environmental risks posed by the commercial production of GM crops can be challenging for regulators, but the Problem Formulation approach can assist regulators in creating a science-based, transparent process to formulate questions relevant to the risk assessment of GM crops and to collect and analyze appropriate information to answer those questions. Problem Formulation has four basic steps. It begins by identifying environmental resources that need protection and then
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determines if there are any causal relationships between these resources and the commercial production of a GM crop that could result in harm to the resources. Next comes an evaluation of the likelihood of a particular harm, followed by a determination of the regulatory significance of any harm that are likely to occur. Among the four steps in the Problem Formulation approach, the determination of the likelihood of a particular harm may be the most challenging for regulators, especially when decisions must be made consistently and transparently. This presentation will provide a review of the Problem Formulation approach and an in-depth discussion of how the likelihood of harms can be determined using the Pathway to Harm method. Using this method, the likelihood of harms can be determined in a systematic way that documents all the data used in the decision making process, resulting in clear, defensible decisions that accurately assess the safety of commercial GM crop production.

NATIONAL PERFORMANCE TRIALS OF NEW VARIETIES: IMPLICATIONS ON GMO COMMERCIALIZATION Dr. James Onsando MD, Plant Health Inspectorate Service (KEPHIS), P.O. Box 49592 Nairobi, website: www.kephis.org Interest for release of genetically modified crops in Kenya has been growing. Kenyas framework for regulating GMO crops and the roadmap for undertaking the release is clearer now than it was several years ago. This is made possible by the existence of international standards as well as domestic standards and regulations governing this process. This is complemented by existence of regulators such as KEPHIS and NBA. KEPHIS; vigilance on matters of plant health and quality control of agroinputs, plant variety protection, seed certification and is a member of National Codex Committee and National Food Safety Coordination Committee. Detailed guidance has been provided by UPOV, OECD, IPPC and CBD. Locally the Biosafety Act, The Standards Act and the Seeds and Plant Varieties Act have provided clear steps for commercialization. Fundamental questions have to be asked when proceeding with release of GM varieties including whether the variety is imported or developed locally, whether risk assessment has been conducted and regulatory approval granted by the NBA, whether the variety has been described, ownership and whether the variety is an EDV. All varieties should comply with existing laws and regulations. For this reason, national performance trials and evaluation of DUS must be performed for new varieties to give value to farmers and users of the variety. The varieties evaluated in this manner are released and entered in the official list and may be protected if required. The duration from application to release has generated debate though the regulations have clearly defined it. This is especially so due to EDVs where characteristics other than the introduced trait are already evaluated in a released variety. This may lead to possibility of conducting trials for special attributes and also possibility of joining NPTs with CFTs while considering appropriate local checks. The conduct of NPTS has been elaborated within the general rules of NPT s. Though confinement is not required at this level and in order to avoid undue attention or safeguard NPTs it is recommended to secure the sites by confinement or select sites that can guarantee the trials. Laboratory testing (molecular characterization) will be required on the seed to confirm the presence of the protein and the gene of interest and to provide additional data for DUS purpose and facilitate seed multiplication. Variety release must be accompanied by appropriate certification, variety maintenance and monitoring processes to ensure continued supply of quality seed. Besides, large scale commercialization of a variety in linked to effective variety maintenance and seed production continuum . In the future focus should be on trials that can generate data for; Scientific technology transfer, Biosafety, National
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Performance evaluation - NPT, Environment safety, Food safety and Socioeconomic considerations. This will save time and maximize use of resources

SAFETY OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: ECHOES FROM THE SERALINI PUBLICATION IN 2012 Kennedy Oyugi1 and Francis Nangayo2 1. African Biotechnology Stakeholders Forum, P. O. Box 66069-00800-Nairobi 2. African Agricultural Technology Foundation, P.O. Box 30709 00100, Nairobi Adoption of biotech crops has increased nearly one-hundred fold since 1996 when genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercially grown making modern biotechnology to stand out as one of the rapidly adopted technologies in history. In 2012 alone, a total of 17.3 million farmers in 28 countries grew biotech crops on an estimated 170 million hectares. This impressive account of GM crops perhaps stems from the twin advantage manifest in their superior performance on one hand and a long standing record of safety to public and environmental health on the other hand. Indeed, GM products are subjected to a suite of safety tests in accordance with laid down international standards and protocols before they are deregulated for public use. However, in September 2012 the scientific community the world over was stunned by a sensational publication by a group of French Scientists led by Prof Gilles-Eric Seralini describing harmful effects on rats fed diets containing genetically modified maize. This peer-reviewed study (Seralini et al., 2012), attracted wide-ranging global attention from consumers, scientists, industry, academia and policy makers. Nearly a dozen professional Toxicological Societies, Food Safety Agencies and Academies of Sciences are on record to have issued Expert Opinion and Position Statements on this matter. Despite all this, opinion remains divided on the scientific merit and validity of this so called Seralini Study. This dilemma has precipitated far reaching actions such as bans on GM food imports that was once slapped in Russia, and the one that remains in force in Kenya today. This paper reviews the outcomes of the Seralini Study in light of scientific responses, opinions and policy implications generated.

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SESSION 3: DISEASE SURVEILLANCE AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE


CHALLENGES ENCOUNTERED IN SETTING UP A BIOSAFETY LEVEL 3 LABORATORY IN EMERGING ECONOMIES: THE KENYAN PERSPECTIVE David Mburu Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Kenyatta University, P. O. Box 43844, Nairobi 00100. Due to a greater awareness of biosafety and biocontainment practices as well as the need to meet regulatory requirements there is a steady increase in the number of operational high containment BSL3 facilities in the emerging economies, including Kenya. There are various challenges encountered when setting up and running a BSL3 facility and the critical ones include lack of expertise and legislation. This paper discusses the challenges encountered and at the same time it offers some solutions to the same. In nearly all developing countries there are no specialized national or local authority codes that specifically govern the construction and running of high containment facilities, instead, they are governed by the general building codes. The available approach when setting up a BSL3 facility locally is to domesticate guidelines that have been developed in United States, Canada or European Union. Likewise there are almost no construction industry project managers experienced enough to handle such projects on their own. For project management the approach is normally to incorporate a BSL3 specialist as a consultant on biosafety matters to advice the implementing panel that comprises of an architect, mechanical and electrical engineer and quantity surveyor. The BSL3 specialist is normally a scientist with hands on experience of overseeing construction and management of such facilities, and locally they are very few in existences. Overall, there is urgent need to develop guidelines to regulate the construction and running of BSL3 facilities and at the same time train the BSL3 specialists.

APPLICATION OF SLIPTA IN ENHANCING BIOSAFETY IN GLOBAL DISEASES DETECTION DIVISION LABORATORIES OF CDC KENYA A. Kosgey*2, E. Apondi2, R. Mugoh2, S. Moulid2, P. Ahenda2, E. Ouma2, F. Oyier2, G.Awiti2, N. Wamola2, D. Wako3 J.oundo1, B. Fields1 1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Diagnostics and Laboratory System Program, Nairobi, Kenya. 2 Kenya Medical Research Institute/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Research and Public health Collaboration, Diagnostics and Laboratory System Program Nairobi, Kenya. 3 Centers for Disease control and Prevention, Emergency Response unit, Nairobi, Kenya. INTRODUCTION A robust institutional biosafety and biosecurity policy is important in mitigating and controlling the spread of infectious diseases. Diagnostics and Laboratory Systems Program (DLSP) of CDC Kenya plays a pivotal role in research and public health collaboration in Kenya and the region. The program is currently using the Stepwise Laboratory Improvement Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA) approach in
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enhancing biosafety and biosecurity measures as the laboratories work towards ISO 15189 accreditation. OBJECTIVE Implement biosafety and biosecurity measures in DLSP Laboratories at CDC Kenya and public health laboratories as a component of laboratory systems development and accreditation. METHODOLOGY Laboratory assessments of the four DLSP laboratories in Kisumu and Nairobi was done using the WHO AFRO checklist. Improvement projects were identified for implementation. RESULTS Biosafety ratings of the respective laboratories were: Kisumu (Enterics 75%, Respiratory 66%, Animal BSL3 64%, Zoonoses 54%), and Nairobi (Virology 52% and Tabitha clinic laboratory 47%.) Improvement projects identified include development of biosafety manuals, safety standard operating procedures, training and competency assessment, immunization of laboratory staff, enforcing stringent biosecurity measures, enhancing fire safety and emergency response measures. The laboratories should be accredited at the end of the improvement process. Future activities include joint accreditation with Ministry of Health (MOH) laboratories. CONCLUSION The DLSP is effectively using SLIPTA to improve biosafety and Biosecurity levels of its laboratories and future activities include joint accreditation with MOH laboratories REFERENCES: WHO laboratory Quality Management System assessment tool.

SESSION 4: BIORISK MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION OF BIOLOGICAL EXPOSURES IN THE WORKPLACE

POOR CHEMICALS MANAGEMENT: A POTENTIAL HEALTH HAZARD AMONG KENYAS SMALL MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (SMES) Ali Adan Ali National Centre for Biodiversity, National Museums of Kenya, P.O Box 40658-00100 Nairobi, Email: aadan@museums.or.ke or iqra114@yahoo.com

Kenyas economy is dependent on agriculture, manufacturing, packaging, tourism, training and research sector. All these sectors use enormous quantities of chemicals to improve their products and services. Many of the small-medium enterprises import and use a variety of chemicals to produce goods and services, where the staff level education is not well enhanced since most of their workers are from vocational institutes where the issue of health and safety is not well grounded. It is important to note that the Kenya vision 2030 has provided various economic opportunities to make Kenya a middle economy with improved quality of life for its citizen. However, it is important to point out that the country development framework is not strongly driven by green investments framework and as a result of this, most of the SMEs workers often fail to effectively neither follow instructions on the chemical containers nor understand the potential hazards of careless handling of these chemicals. Additionally, there is little recognition of this problem due to weak enforcements and compliance measures by relevant government authorities. For example strategies to reduce the risks posed by
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these chemicals to human and environment, especially those in products including heavy metals like mercury, arsenic, lead, and cadmium among others is lacking in many aspects. Another problem is lack of scientific data on the chemicals used by the Kenyan SMEs in terms of estimated chemicals demand, level of substitution, and experience with alternatives for the various product categories (measuring and control devices, batteries, dental use, electrical and electronic devices, lamps/lighting, and other uses) and process categories (vinyl chloride monomer production, chlor-alkali production, and small scale/artisanal gold mining). Despite Kenya being a transit for many land locked countries, it lacks adequate national policies, legislations and regulation to effectively deal with the challenge of chemicals management. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to trigger critical thinking, policy debates, and create awareness on the potential health hazards among the Kenyas small medium enterprises.

REFLECTIONS ON LONE WORK WITH HAZARDOUS BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS AND DUAL USE Andrew O. Muruka, Kemri-wellcome trust research programme, P.O Box 230-80108, email: amuruka2001@gmail.com; KilifiKenya In the last few years, there has been increased concern about the possibility of the use of benevolent scientific breakthroughs for malevolent purposes. This has been compounded by insufficient international, regional or nationally enforceable policies to guide the rapid and secure growth in scientific research endeavours around the world. Lone work with hazardous biological materials which presents multiple opportunities for access to and possibly theft of such materials is reflected upon. It is argued that both Thomas Butlers case and the Amerithrax attacks may have exploited lone work situations to deviate from pure benign to more malicious scientific work. Policies that clarify and define how and when lone work may be conducted and what sort of records and documentation would be needed are critical during work that is conducted while alone. An example of such policies, the Lone Working Policy would be more effective at the laboratory level in ensuring and contributing to dual biosecurity concerns and addressing dual use research dilemmas that may be contemplated.

SESSION 5: CAPACITY BUILDING IN BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOSAFETYIN KENYA

STRUCTURE AND ROLE OF INSTITUTIONAL BIOSAFETY COMMITTEES IN CONTAINED USE APPLICATIONS

Mutui, T.M., Tonui, W, Ogoyi, D. and J. Muchiri National Biosafety Authority National Biosafety Authority was established through Biosafety Act, 2009. Its mandate is to exercise general supervision and control over the transfer, handling and use of genetically modified organisms
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with a view to ensuring safety of human and animal health; provision of an adequate level of protection of the environment. Regulation 6 of Contained-use Regulations provides that a research institution undertaking contained use activities shall establish an Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBC). It further states the composition of the IBC. Some key functions of IBC are to advise the research institutions on matters relating to biosafety, to prepare applications for contained use activities and refer the applications to the Authority for approval, assist their institutions in the establishment of the appropriate monitoring mechanisms for risk assessments and risk management and to review and ascertain the suitability of both physical and biological containment and control procedures appropriate to the level of assessed risk involved in research, development and application activities among others. NBA advises all research institutions dealing in genetically modified organisms to comply with the law through establishment of IBCs.

BIOCHEMICAL BENEFITS OF TEA OUTWEIGH MINOR BIO-SAFETY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH ITS INTAKE Alfred Orina Isaac1, Khalid Rashid2,3 and Mercy Chemwotie2 1. Technical University of Kenya, Dept of Pharmaceutical Sciences Po Box 52428 Nairobi 2. Egerton University, Po Box 536 Egerton 3. Tea Research Foundation, Kericho Tea is contains compounds with significant downsides such as caffeine. It has also been shown to affect iron absorption and hence interfere with vital processes that are linked to iron metabolism. However, we have shown quite remarkably that tea anthocyanins, which are powerful antioxidants have profound benefits to brain function and lipid metabolism. In our studies we investigated the ability of Kenyan purple tea ACNs to cross the BBB and boost the brain antioxidant capacity. Mice were orally administered with purified and characterized Kenyan purple tea ACNs or a combination of Kenyan purple tea ACNs and coenzyme-Q10 at a dose of 200mg/kg body weight in an experiment that lasted for 15 days. Twenty four hours post the last dosage of antioxidants; CO2 was used to euthanize the mice after which the brain was excised and used for various biochemical analyses. Brain extracts were analyzed by HPLC for ACN metabolites and spectrophotometry for cellular glutathione (GSH). Kenyan purple tea anthocyanins significantly (p<0.05) raised brain GSH levels implying boost in brain antioxidant capacity. However, co-administration of both antioxidants caused a reduction of these beneficial effects implying a negative interaction. Notably, ACN metabolites were detected in brain tissue of ACN fed mice. Our results constitute the first demonstration that Kenyan purple tea ACNs can cross the BBB reinforcing the brains antioxidant capacity. Hence the need to study them as suitable candidates for dietary supplements that could support antioxidant capacity in the brain and have potential to provide neuroprotection in neurodegenerative conditions. In another study, we sought to determine if anthocyanins can prevent or reverse metabolic disturbances induced by diabetes, including occurrence of diabetic wounds. Oral administration of tea helped alleviate hyperglycaemia and hypercholesterolemia in a mice model for diabetes. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels were lowered in treated groups compared to controls. PCV levels increased while body weights declined in both diabetic and healthy mice on tea. Note that, anthocyanin rich tea had the most significant impact compared to other teas. Anthocyanin rich tea played a significant role in wound closure and ultimately fast angiogenesis and wound repair. Histological studies of skin wounds revealed an accelerated
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wound healing in mice supplemented with anthocyanin rich tea as compared to the controls. Granulation tissue contained more collagen and fibroblasts and no inflammatory cells suggesting a more advanced stage of wound healing as compared to controls which had high levels of inflammatory cells. Results of the present study demonstrate that hyperglycaemia is responsible for diabetic complications including artheriosclerosis and delayed wound healing. Moreover, these results demonstrate beneficial and significant effects of tea in wound healing and diabetic complications. OSRAP2.6 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR CONTRIBUTES TO RICE INNATE IMMUNITY THROUGH ITS INTERACTION WITH RECEPTOR FOR ACTIVATED KINASE-C 1 (RACK1) IN COMPATIBLE INTERACTIONS TARGETING THE RICE BLAST FUNGUS Mwathi Jane Wamaitha*1, Risa Yamamoto1, Hann Ling Wong1,2, Tsutomu Kawasaki1,3, Yoji Kawano1 and Ko Shimamoto1 * Corresponding author, Email; wamaithajm@yahoo.com. Present address: Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, NARL-Biotechlogy Cneter, Nairobi, Kenya 1 Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192, Japan 2 Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, Kampar, 31900, Malaysia 3 Department of Advanced Bioscience, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kinki University, 3327-204 Nakamachi, Nara, 631-8505, Japan The rice small GTPase OsRac1 is a molecular switch in rice innate immunity. The Receptor for Activated Kinase C-1 (RACK1) interacts with OsRac1 to suppress the growth of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. RACK1 has two homologs in rice, RACK1A and RACK1B. Overexpressing RACK1A enhances resistance to the rice blast fungus. However, RACK1A downstream signals are largely unknown. Here, we report the identification of OsRap2.6, a transcription factor that interacts with RACK1A. We found a 94% similarity between the OsRap2.6 AP2 domain and Arabidopsis Rap2.6 (AtRap2.6). Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays in rice protoplasts using tagged OsRap2.6 and RACK1A with the C-terminal and N-terminal fragments of Venus (Vc/Vn) indicated that OsRap2.6 and RACK1A interacted and localized in the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Moreover, OsRap2.6 and OsMAPK3/6 interacted in the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Expression of defense genes PAL1 and PBZ1 as well as OsRap2.6 was induced after chitin treatment. Disease resistance analysis using OsRap2.6 RNAi and overexpressing (Ox) plants infected with the rice blast fungus indicated that OsRap2.6 RNAi plants were highly susceptible, whereas OsRap2.6 Ox plants had an increased resistance to the compatible blast fungus. Therefore, OsRap2.6 contributes to rice innate immunity through its interaction with RACK1A in compatible interactions.

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GENOTYPE INDEPENDENT EMBRYOGENIC CALLUS INDUCTION AND REGENERATION FREQUENCY OF PH4 AND DK 8031 HYBRID MAIZE ADAPTED TO COASTAL ECOSYSTEM OF KENYA Laban Mwadime, Muchemi Kariuki Peterson, Allan Jalemba Mgutu, Catherine Taracha, Sylvester Elikana Anami Maize (Zea mays) is an important human food, animal feed and energy crop throughout the world. Establishing a reproducible regeneration system is a prerequisite to improve its tolerance to both abiotic and biotic stresses through recombinant DNA technology. This study provides an evaluation of immature zygotic embryos in relation to embryogenic callus production and plant regeneration in PH4 and DK 8031 maize genotypes for their use in genetic transformation experiments. Immature zygotic embryos harvested 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 days after pollination (DAP) were cultivated in MS basal media complemented either with dicamba or 2,4-D growth regulators. The frequency and fresh mass of embryogenic callus was evaluated after 7 days in callus induction media. Embryonic callus induction and fresh weight were dependent on 2,4-D and dicamba growth regulator concentrations (p=0.006 and 0.001) in all the genotypes at all the DAP. 12 DAP was determined as the developmental stage for immature zygotic embryos to induce the highest frequency of embryogenic callus at all the growth regulators concentrations. Embryogenic callus induction and regeneration frequency were genotype independent (p=0.209 and 0.136 respectively).The optimal concentrations of growth regulator for induction of embryogenic calli were 3 mg/L dicamba and 2 mg/L 2, 4-D at all DAP in both the genotypes. This is the first report establishing regeneration protocol for genotypes adapted to coastal region of Kenya. The data demonstrates that yield and yield stability for these genotypes can be improved through the integration of Agrobacterium mediated transformation step.

YEAST EXTRACT PEPTONE (YEP) MEDIA RECALCITRANT TROPICAL MAIZE INBRED LINES

PROMOTES

AGROBACTERIUM

INFECTIVITY

IN

Sylvester E. Anami 3* Olive Sande1, Allan J. Mgutu1, Jesse Machuka1, Mieke van Lijsebettens4, and Catherine Taracha2 1. Plant Transformation Facility, Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Kenyatta University, P.O. BOX 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya 2. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI), P.O. BOX 57811, Nairobi, Kenya 3. The Laboratory of Plant Genetics and Systems Biology, Department of Pure and Applied Sciences, the Mombasa Polytechnic University College, P.O. BOX 90420-80100 G.P.O. Mombasa, Kenya 4. Department Plant Systems Biology, VIB-Ghent University, Technologiepark 927, B-9052 Gent, Belgium Different evidence indicate that bacterial recognition of susceptible hosts, chemotaxis and subsequent attachment are not the limiting steps in Agrobacterium mediated transformation of monocots. However, tropical maize inbred lines are recalcitrant to Agrobacterium mediated transformation through unknown means. Here, three hypotheses were advanced: 1. MS salts do not support the optimal growth of Agrobacteria. 2. Tropical maize immature embryos produce chemicals that inhibit the optimal subsistence and ultimately attachment of Agrobacterium to maize cells. 3. When Agrobacterium is cultured on an optimal growth medium during infection, its virulence can breakPage 39 of 56

through the resistance presented by the maize immature zygotic embryos. Agrobacterium EHA101 harboring pTF102 vector at different titers (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% relative to 12 hrs culture) was evaluated for its ability to attach and infect immature embryos of seven (7) tropical maize inbred line genotypes (CML216, CML 144, CML 395, T 04, A 04 E 04, TL 21) 18 DAP (days after pollination) on Murashige and Skoog (MS) and Yeast Extract Peptone (YEP) medium. Transient histochemical Gus assays was used to evaluate the successful transfer of gene into plant cells as an indicator of successful attachment of the Agrobacterium to the plant cells and transfer of T-DNA. Immature zygotic embryos from all the genotypes failed to show transient expression of -glucuronidase gene on MS salts supplemented either with Dicamba, Picloram and 2, 4-D growth regulators after 12 hrs of co-culture and no Agrobacterium growth was visualized around the immature embryo using a light microscope. Immature zygotic embryos placed on YEP medium containing EHA101 harboring pTF102 vector with or without growth regulators showed transient GUS expression and revealed host resistance induction by Agrobacterium as visualized by deep halos around the immature zygotic embryos. The deep halos around the immature embryos suggest that the chemicals exuded by the immature embryos were toxic and likely killed the Agrobacterium that were present. Thus, YEP medium is a viable alternative to commonly used infection and co-cultivation media (MS, LS or N6) in tropical maize tissue culture and that T-DNA transfer to immature embryo cells occur early before induction of host resistance by the Agrobacterium. The delay of tropical maize immature embryos in inducing resistance against Agrobacterium provides a window for Agrobacterium attachment, infectivity and subsequent transfer of T-DNA. The elucidation of these chemicals might be instrumental in designing their inhibitors/effectors to enhance Agrobacterium attachment, infectivity and ultimately transformation of tropical maize genotypes. In addition to early activation of the T-DNA transfer process in the Agrobacterium (sometimes using chemical cues like acetosyringone), it is conclusive from this study that an optimal growth medium (YEP) for Agrobacterium positively influences the ultimate T-DNA transfer to target tropical maize immature embryo cells.

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SESSION 6: QUALITY AND ACCREDITATION SYSTEMS IN LABORATORIES AND INDUSTRIAL SETTING


IMPORTANCE OF ACCREDITATION IN BIOSAFETY Sammy K. Milgo Kenya Accreditation Service (KENAS) A lot of controversy still exists in some countries with regard to the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs).The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety seeks to protect biological diversity from the potential risks posed by living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology. It establishes an advance informed agreement (AIA) procedure for ensuring that countries are provided with the information necessary to make informed decisions before agreeing to the import of such organisms into their territory. The National Biosafety Authority is mandated among other roles to collaborate with relevant Government Departments and Universities' faculties, to develop strategies in the fields of Biotechnology & Biochemistry; to co-ordinate Biotechnology & Biosafety issues in the country among all the relevant stakeholders. In order to get credible, accurate, reliable and trustworthy information, accreditation of GMO inspection, testing and certification facilities are essential for products destined to countries that have set specifications, standards, regulatory requirements including customer requirements for purposes of ensuring quality and safety of Genetically modified organisms. Participation in accredited Proficiency Testing programs for GMOs is also a very critical component that enables testing laboratories analyzing GMO products to demonstrate competence. The growing awareness among the public of the risk associated with biological agents and toxins, formal inspection, testing and certification has created demand for assurance that the biorisk management system is effectively and efficiently being implemented and that applicable regulatory requirements are fulfilled. This then becomes a public declaration of an organizations commitment to protect the staff, the community and the wider environment including plants and animals. Accreditation is third party attestation related to a Conformity Assessment Body (CAB) conveying formal demonstration of its competence carry out specific conformity assessment tasks. Accreditation lays emphasis on technical competence of the respective activities for which the CAB is mandated to undertake. This is in terms of personnel and infrastructure that include equipment, methods, procedures and the environment within which the activity is carried out. KENAS was established under the State Corporations Act Cap. 446, Laws of Kenya as the sole National Accreditation Body mandated by the Government of Kenya vide Legal Notice No. 55 of 2009 to accredit Conformity Assessment Bodies (CABS) that include general testing, Laboratories, institutional research laboratories, inspection and certification bodies involved in biosafety and certification. Accreditation of CABs is carried out against conformity assessment standards i.e ISO/IEC 17025,ISO/IEC 17043 and ISO/IEC 17021, ISO/IEC 17024 and applicable regulatory and customer requirements. Such regulations include those that have established by regulatory institutions such as the National Biosafety Authority. It is for this reason that the quality infrastructure and the regulatory infrastructure must work in synergy for meaningful trade in products and services.

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QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ADMINISTRATION (OSHA) IN MORGUE: THE IMPACT OF SOP DOMESTICATION ON IMPLEMENTATION AND PRACTICE OF UNIVERSAL SAFETY PRECAUTIONS IN KENYA. Abel M Okoth-Okelloh, Sydney Ogolla, RosebellaOnyango, Willy Tonui The growing need for mortuary services in sub-saharan Africa amid competing priorities continue to pose occupational health and Safety (OHS) challenges to stakeholders. OHS Administration (OSHA) in the healthcare sector in sub-Saharan Africa has not only been overlooked on the assumption that healthcare sector is a safe zone given that health is its core mandate. Morgues have been sidelined as resources are allocated to presumed priority areas like maternal and child health, leaving stakeholders exposed to biohazards. Quality implementation of universal safety precautions is however critical in such risky work environments. Emerging data raises an alarm. In over 2.3 million fatalities reported annually in hospital environment related accidents and diseases, morgues are a contributor. However there is lack of information on OHS exposures among mortuary workers in the light of rapid expansions. This study investigated the quality assurance for OSHA in morgues specifically the impact of standard operating procedures (SOP) domestication on practice of universal safety precautions in government mortuaries in Kenya. This was a cross-sectional survey targeting a saturated sample of 39 facilities out of a population of 97 randomly sampled from 3,448 government health facilities. A research model instrument, the Morgue OHS-Hazard Identification Risk Assessment and Control (HIRAC) survey developed from the principles of universal mortuary safety precautions was used to collect data. Factors analysis and Spearmans rank correlation analyses was used. The result shows cases of Universal Precautions fully in Place at 9.8%, Universal Precautions Partially (Certain Elements) in Place 27.8%, while cases of No Universal Precautions in Place at 62.4%. In addition, a correlation was observed between the presence of SOPs and the practice of universal precautions in the morgues (P=0.05) confirming an empirical relationship between SOP domestication and the practice of universal precautions. The findings are significant in improving quality assurance for OHSA in the mortuaries and healthcare sector in Kenya.

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SESSION 7: ROLE OF THE MEDIA, PUBLIC PARTICIPATION AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY
ROLE OF THE MEDIA AND COMMUNICATION NETWORKS IN SHARING KNOWLEDGE ON BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOSAFETY Dr. Margaret Karembu, Faith Nguthi and Kwame Ogero ISAAA Africenter mkarembu@isaaa.org highly polarized debate and diverse opinions about modern biotechnology, specifically genetically modified crops has raised public anxiety and fears about actual benefits and risks of genetic engineering as a tool for agricultural sustainability. This has reaffirmed the need for greater stakeholder engagement and participation, continuous and sustained efforts in building public trust and confidence in the technology, policy formulation and regulatory/biosafety decision-making processes. Communication, biosafety, biotechnology, genetically modified crops Effective biosafety communication therefore is an essential component of technology acceptance. It is imperative that scientists get acquainted with principles of effective science communication and the skills and tools to promote public understanding of the innovation process. This can only be realized through bridging the gap between scientists and the policy making community in order to formulate and implement policies that are timely, demand-driven and evidence-based. Over the last ten years, various communication actors and the mass media have been conducting awareness creation activities with a view to filling this void. What has clearly emerged is that biosafety communication is not an event but a process and is much more than reporting a biosafety decision or a product. It requires an audience perspective and careful planning, preparation and participatory evaluation in order to address the needs and aspirations of a wide range of stakeholders. This paper examines the communication modalities employed by the various communication networks including the mass (and social) media in communicating biotechnology and biosafety in the country. Planning for effective biosafety communication involves preparing the Messenger (Science communicator) the Message (content) and the Means (delivery channels) of communication.

MYTHS AND MISCOMMUNICATION; A CHALLENGE IN COMMERCIALIZATION OF GMOS: A CASE STUDY IN KAKAMEGA COUNTY Edwin Madegwa This is to study and examine how myths and miscommunication among residents of Kakamega County about GMOs has posed a great challenge to commercialization of GMOs in the county. The study targeted both men and women, working and jobless who are over 18 years of age residing in Kakamega County in the Western region of the Republic of Kenya. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected using interview schedules consisting of fixed and open-ended questions administered in face to face interviews. Stratified random sampling method was used to select the samples for the study, that is, 320 residents drawn from different socio-economic background were interviewed. The quantitative data were analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) while the
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qualitative data were analyzed manually. The study showed that various myths and miscommunication about GMOs are passed on from generation to generation and thereby interfering with commercialization of GMOs in Kakamega County. The major one include ; GMOs are products dumped by Western Countries to Africans with the aim of controlling birth rates i.e. GMOs cause infertility and the other one being the GMOs are products are associated with devil worshipping. These make them to fear using these goods because they believe they have consequences thereafter. The other findings was that most of these myths and miscommunication are passed on from generation to generation thereby making these misleading information to spread .However, from the findings of study , there were viable ways through which the challenges could be addressed. The key ones included using the CBOs, FBOs, NGOs, Youth groups and Women groups to pass the right information to the residents regarding the GMOs and also creating ways in which more GMOs goods can reach people far and wide so that they can be used to. This study concluded that these myths and miscommunication have posed a great challenge to commercialization of GMOs in Kakamega County and these challenge can be addressed effectively. However, effectiveness can be hampered by other constraints.

THE ETHICAL DIMENSION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS/ORGANISMS (GMOS) Ms. Virginia Gichuru Strathmore University, School of Humanities and Social Sciences The Kenya Biosafety Act enacted in 2009 is an act of parliament to regulate activities in genetically modified organisms. The law now paves the way for Kenya to undertake commercial production of genetically modify crops. There is belief that the use of biotechnologies in combination with conventional plant breeding, can contribute to the food security of Africa. Some of these potential benefits of biotech crops include tolerance to salinity, resistance to pests, and enhanced nutritional value. Nutritionally enhanced crops are important in developing countries to fight malnutrition and its related diseases. On the other hand the advent of biotech crops has been met with skepticism by different sectors of the public. People want to know whether these crops are safe, cheaper and more nutritious. However, informed decisions about their use have been left to individual countries. In Kenya, Genetically modified maize has been imported into the country to meet the current shortfall in the maize crop. This has been met with certain reservations from the sector of the public. This paper seeks to explore the ethical analysis of the local/current situation in genetically modified foods and make some recommendations for our Kenyan context.

SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS TOWARDS COMMERCIALIZATION OF BT COTTON IN KENYA Lydiah Miriti, John Ndungu and Charles Waturu The cotton industry in Kenya is one of the sub-sectors targeted for poverty reduction especially in the marginal rainfall areas. It is estimated that about 25% of the countrys population can benefit from the cotton industry. However, analysis of the sub-sector shows a decline in cotton production, mainly due to high incidences of pests and the high cost in controlling them. This led to the introduction of Bt cotton in 2004. This paper notes the socio economic considerations towards commercialization of Bt cotton in Kenya. Economic analysis studies were conducted in a confined field trial to compare benefits with respect to yield and revenue between Bt and non Bt cotton. Data were collected on cost of
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production and the yield. The results for these confined field trials showed that Bt cotton yielded 25% more than the conventional cotton variety and gave positive net benefits. There was also a 20% reduction in costs when untreated Bt cotton (06Z604D) was grown compared to the conventional variety (HART 89M) treated for all pests. This indicated that the benefits in Bt cotton were not so much in the yield but in the reduction of the costs of pesticide application. A study on the Potential Economic Impact and Analysis of Institutional Factors that May Influence Adoption and Deployment of Bt-Cotton in Kenya is currently on going. The study is expected to document constraints, opportunities, and intervention packages, economic advantages of Bt-cotton compared to commercial cotton varieties, knowledge sharing and communication on appropriate interventions among Farmer Self Help Groups and Community Based Organizations in the adoption, production and commercialization of Bt-Cotton. The results of this study are expected to guide in awareness creation and sensitization to the stakeholders on the socio-economic issues related to Bt cotton.

SESSION 8: STATUS OF GMOs RESEARCH IN KENYA: COMPLIANCE WITH BIOSAFETY REQUIREMENTS


GLOBAL AND REGIONAL TRENDS IN COMMERCIALIZATION OF BIOTECH/GM CROPS: 1996-2012 Dr. Margaret Karembu, Faith Nguthi and Kwame Ogero ISAAA Africenter mkarembu@isaaa.org The adoption of GM crops has grown 100-fold from 1.7 million hectares in 1996 to170.3 million hectares in 2012 making it the fastest adopted crop technology in history. In 2012, 17.3 million farmers in 28 countries grew GM crops, an increase of 0.6 million from 2011. Over 15 million or 90% of these were small scale farmers in developing countries. This is enough evidence that biotech crops deliver sustainable and substantial, socioeconomic and environmental benefits. The net economic benefit at the farm level in 2011 was $19.8 billion, equal to an average increase in income of $133/hectare. For the first time, developing nations grew more, 52%, of global GM crops compared to industrial countries which grew 48%. The major biotech crops in 2012 were soybean, cotton, maize and canola. Africa continued to make good progress with South Africa increasing its biotech area by a record 0.6 million hectares to reach 2.9 hectares. Sudan became the fourth African nation to commercialize GM crops after South Africa, Burkina Faso and Egypt. The country planted Bt cotton on a total of 20,000 hectares in both rain-fed and irrigated schemes. It is projected that the adoption of GM crops will continue to rise in the developing countries where the need for the technology is greatest.as more governments enact enabling biosafety polices and appropriate cost-effective regulatory regimes There is need for transparent and consistent communication with society about the biosafety measures in place to assure on product quality and ensure responsible use.

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PROGRESS IN CONFINED FIELD TRIAL OF AFRICA BIOFORTIFIED SORGHUM IN KENYA AND NIGERIA

Silas D. Obukosia, Esther Kimani, Mary Yeye, Florence Wambugu, Daniel Kamanga, Jim Gaffney, Michael Njuguna, Kenneth Mburu, , Simon Gichuki, Rose Gidado, Solomon B. O., Daniel Aba, Antony Aseta, Anthony Korir, Daniel Aba, Evans Mwasame, Marc Albertsen, Che Ping, Zhao, Zuo-Yu, Christopher Ngichabe and Dominique Nzeve

The overall goal of Africa Biofortified Sorghum (ABS) Project is to develop and deploy biofortified sorghum with enhanced pro-vitamin A to farmers and end users in Nigeria and Kenya, as the first priority product. The deployment of improved ABS product will be done on a sub-regional basis. Kenya was chosen as the primary site for deregulation and deployment of ABS products for Eastern Africa, while in Western Africa the project is focusing on Nigeria, the largest producing of sorghum in Africa. To date 2 to 3 ABS confined field trials have been successful undertaken in each country under prescribed biosafety and regulatory measures to ensure effective genetic and material confinement. These measures included-isolation distance of 400metres, bird netting, inherent self-pollination of sorghum (90-95%), habitat isolation, electric fencing, chain link fencing, 24/7 hour security, post-harvest monitoring, stringent record keeping, washing trough, three layer packaging. Preliminary results shows successful and stable introgression of ABS traits into farmer preferred sorghum varieties including KARI Mtama I, Gadam and Tegemeo as confirmed by phosphomannoseisomerase test and real-time polymerase chain reaction.

BIOSAFETY CONSIDERATIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF DROUGHT TOLERANT AND INSECT PROTECTED MAIZE IN KENYA

Murenga M, S. Mugo, S, Gichuki, F. Nangayo, J. Karanja, R. Tende, K. Pillay, and S. Oikeh Kenyans are among the 300 million people that are affected by the recurrent droughts in Africa, and losses 13.5% of maize grain yield to stem borer insect pests. Maize weakened by drought stress suffers more damage from stem borer pests. The Water Efficient Maize for Africa (WEMA) project is a 5country multi-institutional initiative to address drought and insect pests in maize, with the objective to increase yields by 20-35% under moderate drought, and to reduce yield losses due to stem borers using both conventional and recombinant DNA techniques. A drought tolerance CspB gene from Bacillus subtilis, and an insect resistance gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) for stem borer pest control have been introduced to elite maize germplasm. The WEMA project has an internal biosafety strategy to ensure compliance with biosafety regulations set by the National Biosafety Authority (NBA) that regulates handling, research, development and commercialization of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in line with the Kenya Biosafety Law 2009. WEMA project developed biosafety facilities that meet international and national standards including a biosafety level II laboratory and greenhouse at
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Kabete and a confined field trial (CFT) site at Kiboko. WEMA has trained own personnel and has contributed to biosafety compliance trainings for policy makers, local administrators, scientists, technicians and regulators on the management of GM research facilities and materials. While ensuring the set standard operating procedures for handling the GM maize, WEMA has made two applications and obtained three approvals and notifications and five plant import permits for testing DT and Bt maize in Kenya. The WEMA project has also grown one insect protected maize and four drought tolerant CFTs in compliance with all biosafety regulations. Details on the achievements, challenges encountered, and lessons learnt during research and development for drought tolerant and insect protected maize in Kenya will be discussed.

BIOSAFETY AND BIOETHICS AT THE INTERNATIONAL MAIZE AND WHEAT IMPROVEMENT CENTER (CIMMYT) Stephen Mugo CIMMYT is devoted to research which will provide sustainable increases in agricultural productivity and improve the quality of life of millions of farmers and consumers in developing countries. Its work with multiple countries and technologies at the trait discovery and applied sciences levels often requires legal and biosafety regulatory environments. CIMMYT acknowledges and endorses the safe transfer, handling and use of biotechnologies, minimizing any adverse effects that they may have on the conservation and sustainable use of the biological diversity as well as to the general environment and human health. To this end, CIMMYT developed a Biosafety Policy and Procedures on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) since 2002. A CIMMYT Biosafety and Bioethics Committee (BBC) oversees the implementation of these Policy and Procedures that mirror international and national regulations and guidelines on GMOs and provide detailed operational measures seeking to ensure their safe production and use. The BBC and guidelines also govern conventional technologies with important risk dimensions for example the implementation of quarantine sites to contain maize lethal necrosis (MLN) disease in Kenya. World-class standard operating procedures are conducted at the CIMMYT biosafety facilities that include laboratories, greenhouses and confined field trial sites. CIMMYT also joined the Excellence Through Stewardship (ETS) program the first biotechnology industry-coordinated initiative to provide stewardship and quality management programs. CIMMYT has a serving biosafety officer and is in the process of recruiting a lead Scientist for biotechnology opportunities and stewardship that will further ensure and oversee the implementation of state-of-the-art stewardship practices and adherence to laws and regulatory standards. These measures have ensured that several laboratory, greenhouse and field GM wheat projects have been carried out in in Mexico and several GM maize projects carried out in Mexico and Kenya without non-compliance issues. Details of these and the lessons learnt that can benefit our partner institutions and countries will be presented.

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BASELINE STUDIES ON INSECT RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR BT-COTTON IN KENYA Waturu C. N., Muriuki S. J. N. and Taracha C. Measures of Insect Resistance Management (IRM) are usually applied to delay the evolution of resistance in pest populations exposed to a pest management tool. The core of an IRM strategy is based on the biology of the key target pest and the pest-crop interaction. Therefore, insect resistance management plans should be tailored to the specific local needs. Studies geared towards the development of an IRM strategy for Bt-Cotton in Kenya were designed and implemented. The objectives of the studies were to identify refuges of non-Bt plants where populations of the African bollworm may build up to mate with any resistant insects from the Bt-cotton plants, to establish baseline susceptibility of the African bollworm (Helicoverpaamigera) populations to the protein Cry2Ab2 toxin and to produce a comprehensive review of the scientific literature on the basic biology and ecology of lepidopteran pests impacting cotton production in Kenya. The study established that the alternative hosts supported higher larval populations than cotton. These included cowpeas, pigeon peas, sorghum, sunflower, chickpea, tomatoes and beans. This study gave a good indication of possible hosts that have potential in insect resistance management in Bt-cotton agro-ecosystem. Susceptibility of H. amigera to Cry2Ab2 toxins showed a clear detrimental effect on larval growth confirming that the Kenyan population of H.amigera was highly susceptible to Cry2Ab2 proteins. Pests of cotton including the African bollworm, Spiny bollworm(Eriasbiplaga), Pink bollworm (Pectinophoragossypiella), red spider mites(Tetranychustelarius), Cotton stainer (Dysdercus spp.), Cotton jassid (EmpoascaSpp), tobacco whitefly(Bemisiatabaci) and Cotton lygus (Lygusvosseleri) have continually featured as the most important pests of cotton in Kenya. These findings will provide a basis for developing an IRM strategy for Bt-Cotton that will sustain the products effectiveness. It is hoped that the strategy once developed will minimize the selection pressure on the African bollworm and ensure compatibility with integrated pest management.

INTROGRESSION OF NUTRITIONAL TRAITS AND EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE OF IMPROVED SORGHUM EXPRESSING THE ENHANCED NUTRITION Kimani E., Obukosia S., Mwasame E., Nzeve D., Aseta A., Gichuki S., Wambugu F., Ngichabe C., Kamanga D., Njuguna M., Gaffney J., Che Ping, Albertsen M., Zhao, Zuo-Yu, Mburu K. and Korir A Sorghum is a high energy valued food for more than 300 million people in arid and semi-arid regions of Africa. The African biofortified sorghum project has made progress in improving the bioavailablility of iron and zinc, pro-vitamin A, and improved protein digestibility and quality in sorghum, through genetic engineering by lowering the expression of genes encoding for lysine ketoglutaratereductase, gamma kafirin and myoinositol kinase enzyme in one event (ABS 032) and introduction of phytoene synthase (psy), carotenoid desaturase (crtI) and low phytic acid (lpa) genes in ABS188. In Kenya, we are introgressing these genes into local varieties and evaluating the backcrosses under confined field trial. Preliminary data shows no significant differences (>0.05) of the ABS 032 backcrosses with KARI Mtama1 (parent), for plant height, number of leaves, leaf length, leaf width, grain yield, 100 seed weight and number of tillers. The presence of the marker gene was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction.
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DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSGENIC VIRUS RESISTANT CASSAVA UNDER THE VIRCA PROJECT D. W. Miano, T. Alicai, M. Halsey, H. M. Obiero, T. Munga, P. Anderson, S. T. Gichuki, A. Bua and Nigel Taylor The VIRCA (Virus Resistant Cassava for Africa) project is a collaborative program between Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI), Kenya, National Crops Resources Research Institute (NaCRRI), Uganda and Donald Danforth Plant Science Center (DDPSC), USA. The projects goal is to develop farmer-preferred cassava varieties with resistance to viral diseases cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) and cassava mosaic disease (CMD) using pathogen-derived RNAi technology. The project includes all aspects of the intellectual property, technology development, regulatory, biosafety, quality control, communication and distribution components required for a genetically modified crop development and delivery process. Discussed in this paper is the progress made in the laboratory, greenhouse and confined field trials (CFTs) and future activities towards the approval and release of farmer-preferred virus resistance cassava varieties.

GENETIC TRANSFORMATION OF SORGHUM (SORGHUM BICOLOR L. MOENCH) WITH CHITINASE AND CHITOSANASE GENES FOR ANTHRACNOSE TOLERANCE Linus KosamboAyoo Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.)Moench) is an important staple food and fodder crop in Africa and Asia. Fungal diseases such as anthracnose which is caused by Colletotrichumsublineolum reduce sorghum yields. Genetic engineering can be used to confer tolerance to plant diseases such as anthracnose. The tolerance can be developed by introducing genes encoding antifungal proteins such as chitinases and chitosanases that hydrolyse fungal cell wall. Chitinasesendolytically hydrolyse the -1,4-linkages of chitin; whereas chitosanases hydrolyse the -1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and Dglucosamine residues in a partially acetylated chitin polymer. Particle bombardment was used to genetically transform a sorghum genotype from Kenya, KAT 412, with chitinase (harchit) and chitosanase (harcho) genes isolated from Trichodermaharzianum. The genetic transformation also included introduction of herbicide resistance pat gene. Successful genetic transformation of KAT 412 with the two antifungal genes and the herbicide resistance gene was achieved. Transgenic sorghum plants coexpressing the two anti-fungal genes and the herbicide resistance bar gene were developed. Expression of the harchit and harcho in the transformants was confirmed by southern blot and quantitative real time PCR. In planta and ex plantaC. sublineolum infection assays were carried out using one-week old seedlings to determine tolerance to anthracnose. Seedlings from a transgenic line were found to be significantly more tolerant to anthracnose than the parent wild type. The transgenic line was further compared with other wild type sorghum cultivars. The comparison revealed a genotype-dependent difference in anthracnose response. The transgenic line was found to be more tolerant than the sorghum line SDSH 513 but less tolerant than KAT L5. This demonstrated the existence of a genetic diversity that can be utilised to pyramid genes for higher tolerance to anthracnose. Antifungal genes can be introduced into other agronomically elite sorghum lines for fungal diseases resistance and enhanced productivity.

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EXPRESSION OF DROUGHT INDUCED GENES ENHANCES GRAIN PRODUCTIVITY UNDER WATER LIMITED ENVIRONMENT Steven Maina Runo, Leta Tulu Bedada, Miccah Songelael Seth, WondyifrawTefera, CharlessMugoya, Clet Wandu Massiga, Richard Okoth Oduor, Eduardo Blumewald and Machuka Jesse Drought is one of the major abiotic constraints contributing to low productivity in maize. In tropical region, it causes grain yield losses of as high as 70% while complete crop failure is also common depending on the severity of drought. Drought diminishes crop productivity mainly by causing premature leaf senescence. It is now possible to delay drought induced leaf senescence in order to enhance tolerance to drought and stabilize crop yield through bioengineering. The ipt gene codes for isopentenyl transferase (IPT) enzyme, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of cytokinin (CK) and enhances tolerance to drought by increasing the foliar level of CK that delays drought-induced leaf senescence in transgenic crops. The current study aimed to genetically transform locally adapted elite and commercial tropical maize genotypes with ipt gene to develop drought stress tolerance through Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Ten maize genotypes adapted to Ethiopian and the Eastern and Central African (ECA) countries were evaluated for in vitro regeneration ability using immature zygotic embryos as explants. Six genotypes (Melkassa-2, Melkassa-6Q, [CML387/CML176]-B-B-2-3-2-B[QPM], CML395, CML442 and CML216) were identified as the best regenerating ones having potential for improvement through genetic transformation. Subsequently, the ipt gene was sub-cloned into the pNOV2819 binary vector to take advantage of the pmi gene as plant selectable marker and mannose as selective agent. The pNOV2819 binary vector carrying the ipt gene was introduced into the Agrobacterium strain EHA101 which was subsequently used to transform immature zygotic embryos obtained from the six genotypes. Among the six genotypes studied, transgenic plants were successfully regenerated in Melkassa-2 and CML216 with regeneration efficiency of 87.5 and 59.6 %, respectively. Transgenic plants were analyzed using PCR, Southern blot and RT-PCR. Based on PCR results, transformation efficiencies were found to be 97.4 and 100% for Melkassa-2 and CML216, respectively, indicating stringency of the pmi/mannose based selection system for maize transformation. Southern blot analysis indicated stable integration of the transgene into the genome of CML216 with 2-3 copy numbers in five independent events. In drought assay carried out in the glasshouse transgenic plants expressing the ipt gene maintained higher leaf relative water content (RWC) and total chlorophyll concentration during the drought period and produced significantly higher grain yield compared to the wild type (WT) plants. The ipt gene was observed to improve drought tolerance in tropical maize by delaying drought induced leaf senescence. It was concluded that the transgenic line developed can be further tested for tolerance to drought under contained field trials. Furthermore it can be used in breeding programs to improve drought tolerance in other commercial tropical maize genotypes through conventional breeding. GENETIC TRANSFORMATION OF BANANAS FOR RESISTANCE TO XANTHOMONAS WILT DISEASE L. Tripathi International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), C/o ILRI, PO Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya
Banana (Musa sp) represents one of the most important world food crops after maize, rice, wheat and cassava. Many pests and diseases have significantly affected banana cultivation. Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, is one of the most important diseases and currently considered as the biggest threat to banana production in the Great Lakes region of Africa including Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Kenya, Tanzania and Burundi. The pathogen is highly contagious and its spread has endangered the livelihood of millions of farmers who rely on banana for food and income. All banana varieties in Africa are vulnerable to BXW. Overall economic losses were estimated at $2 billion
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over a decade, arising from price increases and significant reductions in production. BXW can be managed by following cultural practices; however, the adoption of these practices has been inconsistent as these techniques are labor intensive. The development of disease resistant bananas remains a high priority since farmers are reluctant to employ labor-intensive disease control measures and there is no host plant resistance among banana cultivars. In the absence of natural host plant resistance among banana cultivars, researchers at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and the National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO), in partnership with the African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF), have developed hundreds of transgenic lines expressing the Hypersensitive Response Assisting Protein (Hrap) or Plant Ferredoxin Like Protein (Pflp) gene originated from sweet pepper. These transgenic lines have exhibited strong resistance to BXW in the laboratory and glasshouse tests. The best 65 resistant lines were planted in a confined field trial (CFT) in Uganda for further evaluation. All transgenic lines tested had significantly higher resistance in comparison to control non-transgenic plants under field conditions. Twelve of these transgenic lines had shown absolute resistant to BXW with both mother and progenies plants in CFT. Aside from full resistance to BXW, the transgenic lines also showed flowering and yield (bunch weight and fruit size) characteristics comparable to nontransgenic plants, indicating there are no observable unintended impacts. These lines will be further tested in multi-location trial in Uganda. These lines will be evaluated for environmental and food safety in compliance with Uganda biosafety regulations, risk assessment and management, and seed registration and release procedures, and anticipating to release this product to farmer in 2020. This study is a significant step toward development of transgenic bananas resistant to BXW, which will boost the available arsenal to fight this epidemic disease and save livelihoods in Africa. Our results demonstrated that constitutive expression of the sweet pepper Hrap and Pflp genes in banana resulted in enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas wilt. Therefore, we are currently generating more transgenic lines with additional cultivars of bananas preferred by farmers in Kenya.

AFRICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS RESISTANCE IN CATTLE BY A TRANSGENIC APPROACH Mingyan YU, Charity MUTETI, Moses OGUGO, Steve KEMP Genetics Group, Biosciences, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) African trypanosomiasis, caused by extracellular protozoan parasites ( Trypanosoma), is a major disease in cattle that affects agricultural production in broad regions of Africa. The parasites are transmitted between mammals by infected tsetse flies ( Glossina sp.) during blood feeding. Both wild and domestic animals are potential reservoirs of the parasites for human infection resulting in human sleeping sickness. In order to control the disease, we proposed a new strategy for creating resistance in cattle to African trypanosomiasis by a transgenic approach. Using the technique of somatic cell nuclear transfer (cloning), we aim to establish genetically modified cattle on the background of a Kenyan indigenous breed Kenyan Boran, which carry a gene that imparts resistance to African trypanosomes. The gene, apoL1, encodes the key trypanolytic component of baboons protective Trypanosome Lytic Factor (TLF) against both cattle and human infective trypanosomes. TLFs are only found in humans, gorillas, sooty mangabys, mandrills and baboons and govern resistance to different African trypanosome species. Baboons are remarkably resistant to all African trypanosomes due to its TLF, specifically apoL1. Previous research with transgenic mice has shown that the baboon apoL1 product was able to confer protection to the mice against trypanosome infection. Therefore, we hypothesize that expression of baboon apoL1 in cattle will also endow endogenous resistance to trypanosomes. As the proof of concept step, we have successfully set up and tested the platform for somatic cell nuclear transfer using Boran bovine embryonic fibroblasts (BEFs). In total, two cloned calves were born by caesarean section operation. One calf survives up to today and is in good health. The next step is to establish genetically modified cattle with transgenic BEFs.
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POSTERS AND EXHIBITIONS

MOLECULAR ANALYSIS FOR GENE EXPRESSION OF BETA CAROTENE GENES IN TRANSGENIC CASSAVA Kipkemboi P. T1, Malinga J. 2, Nyende A. B.1, Gichuki S. T2. And Wanjala B.2 1. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology 2. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute Cassava is an important food for millions of people around the world. The starchy root crop ranks third after maize and rice as a major food crop in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA). Among the Worlds grown starchy crops, cassava has the lowest protein/energy ratio. It is deficient in protein, iron, zinc, provitamin A and vitamin E. Many of the poor in the SSA suffer from Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD). Strategies applied to address the VAD include pharmaceutical supplementation, conventional breeding and food fortification. The former is not practical due to its inaccessibility and unaffordability in rural areas. Conventional breeding is the most desirable but is challenged with the cassava heterozygosity and poor seed set. Cassava biofortified with pro-vitamin A can help reduce VAD among the undernourished communities that rely upon it for sustenance. BioCassava Plus project has developed trasnsgenic cassava that expresses beta carotene in roots using root specific patatin promoter. Intensive screening of the biofortified cassava is an important package for risk assessment through establishing integrity of the promoter gene and genes driving beta carotene expression. This study aimed at molecular analysis for gene expression of crtB and DXS genes using PCR and RT-PCR on both the roots and leaves. DXS and PSY genes were present and expressed in both the roots and leaves.

LATEX AGGLUTINATION PLEUROPNEUMONIA

TEST

KIT

FOR

RAPID

DIAGNOSIS

OF

CONTAGIOUS

CAPRINE-

Anderson Wambugu, Reuben Soi and Abuu Oriko Kenya Agricultural Research Institute; Biotechnology centre; P.O. Box 57811 00200 Nairobi Contagious caprine-pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a disease of goats caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae which has a predilection for the lungs and causes death in susceptible goats within a few days after exposure if no interventions are instituted. Once an animal is exposed to the disease, its immune system responds by production of specific antibodies to the mycoplasmas antigens. The latex agglutination test is a rapid pen-side test intended to confirm the presence of the specific antibodies either in whole blood or in the separated serum obtained from clinical cases. Test results are reported with reference to known positive and negative control sera. Equal volumes of Latex beads coated with mycoplasma antigen are mixed with either whole blood or separated serum and rocked for 1-2 minutes at room temperature. Results are observed and recorded immediately. The kit contents include Latex beads coated with mycoplasma antigen, a 12 well test plate,10 l. reagent droppers to dispense LAT beads, test and control samples.
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GMOS: EFFICACY, SAFETY AND PROFIT Marion Mutugi JKUAT MITIGATING HEALTH CONCERNS AND RIGHTS OF CONSUMERS IN RELATION TO GMO FOODS Monica Wekesa, Wanjiru Kamau and Moses Atong KBIOC/KOAN

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Biosafety Recognition Awards 2013


Program Overview The NBA has created a Biosafety Recognition Ward Program to identify and celebrate extraordinary individuals who have made significant contributions to help others in the field of Biosafety in Kenya. This Program honours exceptional and inspiring individuals who have made a difference in promoting Biosafety, serves as role models and contributes to food security, the fight against infectious diseases, environmental, animal and public health protection. Four (4) individuals and one (1) group with excellence in ANY of the following areas will be awarded: Medical, laboratory , research and Public health Environment , plant and animal Biosafety Facilities and Maintenance Advocacy and regulations Advocacy groups/associations

Selection mechanism: 1. Nominations can be made by anyone by filing the nomination form. Nominations should be emailed to the Chief Executive Officer, National Biosafety Authority (NBA): ceo@biosafetykenya.go.ke or 2013conference@biosafetykenya.go.ke 2. Staff from National Biosafety Authority and the NBA Board do not qualify for this Award 3. Awards to be presented during the 2 nd National Biosafety Conference in Nairobi on August 9, 2013 4. Winners will be chosen by a selection committee based on the criteria outlined in the nomination form.

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2012 Biosafety Recognition Awardees:


1. 2. 3. Name Awardees Medical, laboratory , research and Dr Peter Mark Tukei, public health Agriculture, environment , plant and Dr Simon T. Gichuki animal Biosafety Facilities and Maintenance Mr James Kipruto Lelei Affiliation
In charge American Public Health Laboratory (APHL) Kenya Office

4.

Advocacy and regulations

5.

Advocacy group or Association(s)

Head, KARI Biotechnology Centre and KARI IBC Secretary Chief Institute Engineer, Kenya Medical research Institute (KEMRI). Professor Norah Khadzini Executive Director, African Olembo Biotechnology Stakeholders Forum (ABSF) African Biosafety Regional Biosafety body of Association (AfBSA) professionals

From left: (Seated) Mr. James Lelei, Prof. Norah Olembo, Dr Peter Tukei, Dr Simon Gichuki, Mr Murenga Mwimali, Mr Nicholas Mwikwabe- AfBSA. Standing are NBA Management and Board Members. Full biographies are available on our website: www.biosafetykenya.go.ke

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NATIONAL BIOSAFETY AUTHORITY


Championing for a Biosafe Nation
VISION STATEMENT A World-class Biosafety Agency. MISSION STATEMENT To ensure and assure safe development, transfer, handling and use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in Kenya. OUR CORE VALUES
Integrity Professionalism Transparency Accountability

Commission for University Education Building Redhill Rd, off Limuru Rd (Route 108) Roselyn area, Gigiri P.O. Box 28251 00100 NAIROBI. Tel: +254 202678667 or 0713 854132 Email: info@biosafetykenya.go.ke Website: www.biosafetykenya.go.ke biosafetykenya @biosafetykenya

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