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Review GuideExam I
General coverage will include lecture notes, readings, discussions, handouts through Sept. 6, as well as the specific assignments from the textbookconsult syllabus and announcements on blackboard. There have been several recurring --themes with almost all topics, so think about these with each topic: function is based on changing structure (function always has a structural basis); mechanism and adaptive significance; physiology is integrative in nature; and physiological change occurs in five time frames. The questions at the ends of the chapters are a good review of much of the material. Test coverage includes material from chapters 1, 2*,3 *, 6, 7 (*=minor coverage).

Specific Concepts, Ideas:

Introductory Principles:
Concept of homeostasisbe prepared to illustrate the various components of a homeostatic mechanism with an example o The existence of regulatory systems that automatically make adjustments to maintain internal constancy Temperature, water and salt content, pH, blood glucose Negative feedbackwhat is this? Positive feedback? o Negative feedback The system responds to changes in the controlled variable by bringing the variable back toward its set point; that is, the system opposes deviations of the controlled variable from the set point Ex: is essentially the same as homeostasis and occurs in all homeostatic systems o Positive feedback A control system that reinforces deviations of a controlled variable from its set point. Is much less common in physiological systems than negative feedback Birthing process in mammals: muscle contractions induce the release of hormones that stimulate ever-more-intense contractions. To expel fetus from uterus Relationship between structure and function; this general theme can be illustrated with every topic we cover o Regulation vs. conformity; homeostasis vs. regulation o Regulation: the animal maintains internal constancy in the face of external variability. Takes energy o Conformation: the animal permits internal and external conditions to be equal. cheap o Homeostasis is more broad of a term: contains regulation Regulation doesnt have to contain homeostasis Heart rate not homeostatic but is regulated

Time frames of physiological change--examples of acute, chronic, developmental, evolutionary physiological change o Acute: hear rate increase, breathing rate increase o Chronic: dogs get different winter/summer coats. Altitude acclimation o Developmental: growing up. puberty o Evolutionary: changes in beak structure, countercurrent blood flow in extremities of arctic fox o Biological clocks Paper on the mechanism of light flashing in fireflies what is the role of NO? octopamine? Luciferin/luciferase? Oxygen? o Role of NO: inhibit mitochondrial respiration in photocytes and thereby increase O2 levels in the peroxisomes o Role of Octopamine: activates NOS o Rule of Luciferin/luciferase: light production involves an adenosine triphosphate and O2 dependent luciferin-luciferase reaction occurring within photocytes in the firefly lantern o Oxygen Regulation of O2 supply to luciferin-containing organelles (peroxisomes_ withing photocytes. Regulate light production

Cellular Physiology:
Proteins and Enzymes: roles, basic concepts; Isozymes vs. interspecific enzyme homologs; o Proteins o Enzymes: are a type of protein Catalyze a chemical reaction in which covalent bonds are made or broken o Isozyme: different molecular forms of an enzyme produced by a single species: same function different forms in different locations o Interspecific enzymes homologs: different molecule forms in different species that have the same function LDH example; allosteric enzymes; how is enzyme activity regulated? o LDH is catalyst: helps a frog quickly turn pyruvic acid into lactic acid. Jumps away. LDH is not changed o Allosteric enzyme: increase the affinity of the molecules active site for the subrstrate or otherwise increases the catalytic activity of the enzyme by the binding of an allosteric modulator to its binding site on the enzyme molecule o Allosteric inhibitors and modulators: can inhibit by decreasing the enzymes affinity for substrate Concept of enzyme affinity vs. Km
o o enzyme affinity: a measure of the efficiency of the enzyme. measure by Km high Km equals low affinity low Km equals high affinity

Roles of proteinsyou should be able to think of at least five o Channel: simple diffusion of solutes: osmosis o Transporter (carrier): active transport o Enzyme: catalyzes chemical reaction: speeds up o Receptor: mediate the responses of a cell to chemical messages arriving at the outside face of the cell membrane o Structural Attach to other molecules to anchor intracellular elements to the cell membrane. Creates junctions between adjacent cells and other structural relations

What is meant by conformational change of a protein? How does that differ from denaturation? o Change in the 3D shape of a protein. Proper conformation is required for function 3D shape depends on primary structure (sequence) o Denaturation is the loss of a 3D shape, not the change. It may be reversible since primary structure does not change What are the roles of conformational changes in proteins o Change in function

Molecular ApproachesGenomics, etc.

What are genomics and transcriptomics? o Genomics: the study of the genomes of organisms o Transcriptomics: the study of which genes are being transcribed to make mRNA and the rates at which they are transcribed How are these useful in physiology? o Allows physiologists to see what transcripts are currently being used and for what What is a DNA microarray experiment, and what kind of information does it yield? o Method of rthe study of gene transcription o One microarray can permit investigation of thousands or tens of thousands of genes at a time Paper on Icefishesknow the details: unique features of icefishes and nototheniod fishes?; How was genomics useful in establishing when losses of Hb and Mb occurred? Is the loss of Hb and Mb in icefishes of adaptive value? Hb and NO oxygenase activity connection? Compensations for the loss of Hb and Mb and the roles of NO? o Compensation Lot more ozygen in cold water Low metabolic rate (measure of oxygen demand) Low competition (dont have to run away) Circumpolar current, hard for competitors to get in Large capillary density Large heart Greater cardiac output High mitochondria density

Digestive Physiology:
Brush borderwhat is it? o Mucosal surface of intestinal epithelium Secretions of the vertebrate digestive system and their control o Gastrin Secreted by stomach. Stimulated by food in stomach Increases motility of stomach Increase acid secretion Pepsin release Trophic: makes lining of stomach reproduce o CCK Secreted by Small intesting Stimulated by lipid, protein Decrease in motility Gall bladder contraction

Pancreatic enzyme secretion Secretin Secreted by small intestine Stimulated by acid Decrease stomach motility Secretion of bile NaHCO3 secretion o GIP Secreted by stomach Stimulated by Decrease stomach motility Increase in insuling Lactose, lactase; maltose, maltase; sucrose, sucrase; sucrase vs. amylase, different roles of proteases; relationship between digestive enzymes and diet. o Amylase is the first enzyme to act on starch or glycogen. Then maltase o Foregut vs. hindgut fermenters1 similarity, 2 differences o Similarity: Specialized chambers to support communities of fermenting microbes o Differences: Hindgut fermenters dont digest microbes Fermentation chamber position How is the small intestine structurally designed to carry out absorption? o Large surface area o Highly vascularized o Thin epithelial layer Digestion vs. Metabolism? Is digestion exergonic or endergonic? o both Types of digestive systemsbatch reactors, continuous flow, continuous flow with mixing o Batch reactor: sea anemone o Continuous flow Most vertabrates, arthropods o Continuous flow with mixing Ruminants, hindgut fermenters, molluscs Functional regions of the vertebrate digestive systemequivalents in humans o Head-gut, foregut, midgut, hindgut o Recetption of food o Conduction and storage o Early digestion o Compaction, elimination of undigested residues Timeframes in digestive physiology? Examples? o Acute: Peristalsis o Chronic: lengthening of intestines due to weather o Evolutionary: pythons break down stomach o Developmental: developing child gets nutrients. Tadpoles and frogs herbivore and carnivore o Rhythmic: biological clocks: acnimals with circadian rhythms of enzymes / hormones

Animal Energetics:

Anabolism vs. Catabolism; specific dynamic actionwhat is it? Why is BMR/SMR elevated?; BMR/SMRwhat is it? In molecular terms?; o Anabolism: synthesis: growth. Endergonic. Requires energy o Catabolis: exergonic, degradative o Specific dynamic action: Increase in metabolic rate caused by food ingestion Major categories of energy use in animals? o Carbohydrate, fat, protein Fat vs. carbohydrate as fuels for metabolism--advantages, disadvantages of both o Fat can produce lots of energy, but require lots of oxygen. Lightweight as energy source o Carb: less energy produced but require less oxygen. Heavy as a source Relationship between MR and body weightwhat is it? What are proximate (mechanistic) and ultimate (evolutionary) explanations for it? What are some of the physiological and ecological consequences of it? o Small mammals have higher metabolic rates than larger mammals (weight specific) o Large animals: increase in tissues with low MR: has to have a bigger skeleton to support its larger mass o Related to fractal theory and branching constraints of the transport system Factors affecting metabolic rate, direction of interaction? o Activity level o Temperature o After meal: python has to rebuild. People: digestion requires energy o Body size: smaller have higher o Environmental O2 o Age, gender, time of day, hormonal status o What forms of work is energy used for in an animal examples. o