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JOINT PRIMARY AIRCRAFT TRAINING SYSTEM (JPATS)

FLYING FUNDAMENTALS STUDENT GUIDE

December 2007

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT Distribution authorized to the Department of Defense and US DoD contractors only for Administrative or Operational Use. Other requests shall be referred to ASC/YTLJ, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-7211. WARNING This document contains technical data whose export is restricted by the Arms Export Control Act (Title 22, U.S.C., Sec 2751 et seq) or the Export Administration Act of 1979, as amended (Title 50, U.S.C., App 2401 et seq). Violations of these export laws are subject to severe criminal penalties HANDLING AND DESTRUCTION NOTICE Handle in compliance with the Distribution Statement and destroy by any method that will prevent disclosure of the contents or reconstruction of the document.

FF FLYING FUNDAMENTALS

STUDENT GUIDE

LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES Insert latest change page, dispose of superseded pages. Date(s) of issue for original and change pages are listed below.

Revn 1.1 2.0 2.1

Date 9 February 2007 15 June 2007 15 December 2007

Reason for Revision Lesson comments through 10 Nov 06 Lesson comments through 10 Mar 07, editorial changes Flight Manual 1SS-069, AFMAN 11-248 C1, lesson comments through 1 Aug 07, editorial changes

Page # i to vi 1-1 to 1-34 2-1 to 2-56 3-1 to 3-38 4-1 to 4-34 5-1 to 5-70 6-1 to 7-8

Rev. # 2.1 2.1 2.0 1.1 2.1 2.0 2.1

Page # 90-1 to 90-2 A-1 to A-12

Rev. # 2.1 2.1

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FF FLYING FUNDAMENTALS

TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES .................................................................................................. ii TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................ iii PURPOSE..................................................................................................................................... iv UNIT CONTENTS ........................................................................................................................v UNIT MAP ................................................................................................................................... vi FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS ......................................................................................... 1-1 FF102 CLEARING, CROSS-CHECK, AND BASIC FLIGHT ......................................... 2-1 FF103 TAXI AND TAKEOFF .............................................................................................. 3-1 FF104 DEPARTURE AND CLIMB ..................................................................................... 4-1 FF105 TRAFFIC PATTERNS .............................................................................................. 5-1 FF106 LANDING.................................................................................................................... 6-1 FF107 FLYING FUNDAMENTALS REVIEW .................................................................. 7-1 FF190 FLYING FUNDAMENTALS EXAMINATION AND CRITIQUE .................... 90-1 APPENDIX A ANSWER KEYS .......................................................................................... A-1

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FF FLYING FUNDAMENTALS PURPOSE

STUDENT GUIDE

This student guide is designed to complement computer-aided instruction (CAI), mediated interactive lecture (MIL), and basic information found in the T-6A Flight Manual. It contains course objectives, references, assignments, graphics, and practice exercises. Before beginning each lesson, study the objectives. These tell you what you are expected to learn. The reading assignments preview the block of instruction and should be accomplished prior to CAI and MIL instruction. Graphics are intended to give you a personal, condensed version of the lesson with space provided for your notes. The practice questions are designed to give you an indication of how well you know the material and also provide an excellent review for the course test.

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FF FLYING FUNDAMENTALS

UNIT CONTENTS

LESSON FF101 FF102 FF103 FF104 FF105 FF106 FF107 FF190

MEDIA HRS CAI CAI CAI CAI CAI CAI MIL CAI 1.0 1.6 1.3 0.5 2.0 1.0 2.0 1.5 10.9

TITLE TOLD Computations Clearing, Crosscheck, and Basic Flight Taxi and Takeoff Departure and Climb Traffic Patterns Landing Flying Fundamentals Review Flying Fundamentals Examination and Critique TOTAL HOURS

PREREQs AE190 FF101 FF102 FF103 FF104 FF105 FF106 FF107

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FF FLYING FUNDAMENTALS

STUDENT GUIDE

UNIT MAP

CAI MIL UTD IFT OFT T-6A


Legend FF103 Taxi & Takeoff FF102 Clearing, Crosscheck & Basic Flight FF101 TOLD Computations

FF104 Departure & Climb

FF105 Traffic Patterns

FF106 Landing

FF107 Flying Fundamentals Review

FF190 Flying Fundamentals Exam & Critique

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FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS STUDENT GUIDE TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................... 1-1 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................... 1-2 OVERVIEW............................................................................................................................... 1-3 REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................... 1-3 STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS .................................................................................................... 1-3 LESSON OUTLINE .................................................................................................................. 1-3 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. 1-4 TOLD COMPUTATIONS ................................................................................................... 1-4 OPERATIONS DATA ..................................................................................................... 1-4 TAKEOFF ........................................................................................................................ 1-6 LANDING....................................................................................................................... 1-23 TAKEOFF AND LANDING DATA (TOLD) ............................................................. 1-25 LESSON QUESTIONS ........................................................................................................... 1-29

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FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS LIST OF FIGURES

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF101-1 TOLD Card .................................................................................................. 1-5 Figure FF101-2 Wind Components ....................................................................................... 1-7 Figure FF101-3 Crosswind Chart.......................................................................................... 1-8 Figure FF101-4 Wind 030 ..................................................................................................... 1-8 Figure FF101-5 Crosswind Chart Example.......................................................................... 1-9 Figure FF101-6 Gusty Wind ................................................................................................ 1-11 Figure FF101-7 Variable Wind............................................................................................ 1-12 Figure FF101-8 Tailwind...................................................................................................... 1-13 Figure FF101-9 Tailwind Example 1................................................................................... 1-14 Figure FF101-10 Tailwind Example 2................................................................................. 1-14 Figure FF101-11 Tailwind Example 3................................................................................. 1-15 Figure FF101-12 Takeoff Chart........................................................................................... 1-17 Figure FF101-13 Takeoff Summary .................................................................................... 1-18 Figure FF101-14 Takeoff Distance Example ...................................................................... 1-18 Figure FF101-15 Rotation and Obstacle Airspeed Table.................................................. 1-20 Figure FF101-16 Minimum Power Chart ........................................................................... 1-22 Figure FF101-17 Landing Distance Chart.......................................................................... 1-23 Figure FF101-18 Landing Summary................................................................................... 1-24 Figure FF101-19 Landing Example..................................................................................... 1-24 Figure FF101-20 TOLD Example........................................................................................ 1-26 Figure FF101-21 TOLD Example 2..................................................................................... 1-27 Figure FF101-22 TOLD Example 3..................................................................................... 1-28

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STUDENT GUIDE OVERVIEW

FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS

This lesson provides you with a discussion of takeoff and landing computations in accordance with Appendix A of the Flight Manual. At the completion of this lesson, you will be able to apply the applicable performance charts to flight planning scenarios. REFERENCES Personnel: None Media Facilities: CAI Workstation Support Resources: T-6A Flight Manual, T-6A Pilots Pocket Checklist, AFMAN 11-248 STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS Complete CAI lesson FF101, following along with this student guide. Complete practice questions provided LESSON OUTLINE This lesson is presented in three segments. The first segment is an introduction, segment two contains four academic topics, the third segment is an end of lesson quiz. Topics must be taken in sequential order, and all topics must be completed prior to attempting the lesson quiz. The estimated time to complete this lesson is 1.0 hour.

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FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS

STUDENT GUIDE

Introduction

TOLD Computations

Operations Data 1.1.2.0.1 1.1.2.0.2 Identify the purpose of obtaining operations data Match the type of operations data to each source

Operations Data Every mission that you fly as a military aviator will include a takeoff and landing. As you have already learned, there are many variables that affect aircraft performance both on the ground and in the air. The transitions to and from flight are especially affected by these factors. It is your responsibility as a professional aviator to have an understanding of these variables and to account for them in your mission planning.

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FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS

TOLD Card The Takeoff and Landing Data (TOLD) card is a preflight planning tool designed to present data in a standardized, easy-to-read format. This card contains information about: 1. Your aircraft 2. Departure and arrival field conditions 3. Takeoff and landing performance

Figure FF101-1 TOLD Card

Data Sources Data that is transcribed to the TOLD card comes from several different sources. Your aircraft gross weight comes from the weight and balance documents. Departure and destination weather comes from your preflight weather briefing.

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FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS Airfield information consisting of runway length, gradient, condition and specific restrictions comes from preflight planning. The performance related data on the TOLD card comes from the charts contained in Appendix A of the Flight Manual.

STUDENT GUIDE

Takeoff 2.1.0.0.2 1.1.4.1.3 1.1.4.1.4 2.1.0.0.1 Crosswind In the aerodynamics lessons, you learned that wind has a significant effect on aircraft performance. This is especially true during the critical takeoff and landing phases of flight. Since it is rare to take off or land into a direct headwind, how wind acting at some angle to the runway affects your aircraft must be considered. The Takeoff and Landing Crosswind chart is used to help you determine those effects. Identify variables that affect takeoff distance Cite the impact of runway conditions on TOLD computation Cite the relevance of aircraft performance charts and flying directives to TOLD computation Determine rotation speed and takeoff distance for initial takeoff

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FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS

Wind Components 1 Wind velocity can be broken down into headwind and crosswind components, with relation to the runway in use. The Takeoff and Landing Crosswind chart is designed to consider these wind components.

Figure FF101-2 Wind Components

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FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS Wind Components 2 The chart is comprised of the following: Wind angle lines: These lines represent the angle between the wind direction and the runway. Wind speed curves: These curves represent different wind speeds. Maximum crosswind component: These lines represent the maximum crosswind component for various runway conditions.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF101-3 Crosswind Chart

Crosswind Chart 1 Compute the headwind and crosswind components for the following data: Wind: 16020 Winds from 160 at 20 knots Runway: 13 Runway heading is 130 Determine the angle between the runway and the wind direction (30).

Figure FF101-4 Wind 030

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FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS

Crosswind Chart 2 Trace the wind angle line to the wind speed curve. Drop straight down to read the crosswind component on the bottom of the chart. Move straight across to read the headwind component on the left of the chart.

Figure FF101-5 Crosswind Chart Example

Wind Practice 1 Use the chart in your Flight Manual for this practice problem: Wind: 18020 Runway: 13 Crosswind component: ______ Headwind component: ______

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FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS Wind Practice 2 Use the chart in your Flight Manual for this additional practice problem: Wind: 12525 Runway: 09 Crosswind component: ______ Headwind component: ______ Wind Practice 3 Use the chart in your Flight Manual for this additional practice problem: Wind: 08530 Runway: 02 Crosswind component: ______ Headwind component: ______ Notice that this last problem has exceeded the maximum crosswind component of 25 knots for the T-6A. You should not take off in these weather conditions.

STUDENT GUIDE

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FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS

Gusty Wind When winds are reported as gusty, use the worst situation. This means you would enter the chart to find the strongest crosswind and the weakest headwind. Wind: 10010G20 10 knots gusting to 20 knots Runway: 07 Enter the chart with the 20 knot wind speed to find the strongest crosswind component. Enter the chart with the 10 knot wind speed to find the weakest headwind component. Figure FF101-6 Gusty Wind

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FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS Variable Wind When winds are reported as variable, the same basic rule applies. Find the least favorable crosswind and headwind components, the worst situation. Wind: 030V07015 Winds variable from 030 to 070 at 15 knots Runway: 09 Visualize the effect of each wind direction on the aircraft. In this case, the wind from 030 will provide the strongest crosswind and the weakest headwind components. You would enter the chart with the wind from 030 to find the least favorable conditions.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF101-7 Variable Wind

Gusty Wind Practice 1 Use the chart in your Flight Manual for this practice problem: Wind: 22010G25 Runway: 18 Crosswind component: ______ Headwind component: ______

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FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS

Gusty Wind Practice 2 Use the chart in your Flight Manual for this additional practice problem: Wind: 040V06015 Runway: 10 Crosswind component: ______ Headwind component: ______ Problems with the answers? Hint: Runway 10 is 100 heading. The winds at 040 will provide the strongest crosswind and the weakest headwind components.

Tailwind If the angle between the runway and the wind exceeds 90, the wind will be broken down into crosswind and tailwind components. Look at the following data: Wind: 06020 Runway: 18 Subtract the wind direction from the runway heading: 180 - 060 = 120 Figure FF101-8 Tailwind

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FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS Enter the chart at the 0 wind angle line, and mentally count by 10 increments until you reach 120.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF101-9 Tailwind Example

Trace this wind angle line to the wind speed curve and read the crosswind and tailwind components.

Figure FF101-10 Tailwind Example 2

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FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS

Tailwind Sample Work a sample problem using the following data: Wind: 04020 Runway: 27 Subtract the wind direction from the runway heading to find the wind angle: 270 - 040 = 230 Using the Takeoff and Landing Crosswind chart in your Flight Manual, enter the chart at the 0 wind angle line, and count to the 90 line Count back up to 180 And down to 230 This will correspond to the 50 wind angle line. Crosswind component = 15 knots Tailwind component = 13 knots Figure FF101-11 Tailwind Example 3

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FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS Tailwind Practice 1 Use the chart in your Flight Manual to find the crosswind and headwind/tailwind components for this practice problem: Wind: 05015 Runway: 31 Crosswind component: 14 knots Remember to subtract: 310 - 50 = 260 Start at 0 wind angle, count to 90, then back up to 180 and back down to 260. Tailwind component: 2 knots

STUDENT GUIDE

Tailwind Practice 2 Use the chart in your Flight Manual to find the crosswind and headwind/tailwind components for this practice problem: Wind: 30010G15 Runway: 18 Crosswind component: 13 knots Subtract: 300 - 180 = 120

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FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS

Count to the 90 line and then back up 30 to the 60 line. Follow the 60 line to 15 knots (worst case for crosswinds). Tailwind component: 8 knots Use 15 knots (worst case) to find the tailwind.

Takeoff Distance 1 The Takeoff Distance chart is used to determine the takeoff ground run distance and the airborne horizontal distance to clear an obstacle up to 50 feet tall. There are three versions of this chart in the Flight Manual, each for a different aircraft configuration (flaps takeoff, flaps up, flaps landing). The conditions associated with each chart are listed above the chart. The charts are entered with six different variables.

Figure FF101-12 Takeoff Chart

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FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS Takeoff Distance 2 This chart summarizes the effects of these variables.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF101-13 Takeoff Summary

Takeoff Distance Sample 1 Your preflight planning has revealed the following data: Temp: 20 C PA: Sea level Weight: 6100 lbs Runway gradient: 1% up Wind: 10 knot headwind Find takeoff distance with flaps takeoff. Enter the chart at the temperature grid. Trace right to the pressure altitude.

Figure FF101-14 Takeoff Distance Example

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FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS

Reflect down to the baseline, then follow the guidelines to the aircraft weight. Reflect down to the baseline, then follow the guidelines to the correct runway gradient.

Takeoff Distance Sample 2 Reflect down to the baseline, then follow the solid guidelines to the headwind component. (If you had a tailwind you would follow the dashed guidelines for a tailwind component.) Reflect down to the baseline, then follow the guidelines to the obstacle height. In this problem there is no obstacle, so trace straight down to read the takeoff distance of 1500 feet. The obstacle height slider provides the distance of the ground run plus the airborne distance required to climb to the obstacle height at obstacle climbout speed.

Takeoff Obstacles If a 50 foot obstacle is added to the previous problem, you can see that the distance required would be 2600 feet.

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FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS If a 30 foot obstacle is added, you would follow the guideline to 30, and then reflect down to find a distance requirement of 2200 feet.

STUDENT GUIDE

Rotation and Obstacle Airspeed Note the rotation and obstacle airspeed table on the upper right hand corner of the chart. Using the aircraft gross weight of 6100 pounds, interpolate the speeds in the chart to find a rotation speed of 84 KIAS and an obstacle climbout speed of 103 KIAS. During primary training, you will use a normal rotation speed of 85 KIAS. There may be times when you will use an airspeed derived from the charts. Your instructor will provide specific guidance when required. The goal of this lesson is to teach you how to use the charts.

Figure FF101-15 Rotation and Obstacle Airspeed Table

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FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS

Takeoff Practice Given the following data: Temp: 40 C PA: 2000 feet Weight: 6300 pounds Runway gradient: 0 Wind: 15 knot headwind Flaps: Takeoff Use the chart in your Flight Manual to find: Takeoff distance: ______

Obstacle clearance distance (50 foot): ______ Rotation speed: Obstacle speed: ______ ______

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FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS Minimum Power At 110 KIAS Now that you have determined the takeoff distance data, look at the Minimum Power At 110 KIAS chart. In the previous problem you calculated a takeoff distance of 2000 feet and a rotation airspeed of 86 KIAS at a pressure altitude of 2000 feet and 40 C. You would use the minimum power chart to determine the minimum torque required to meet these performance parameters.

STUDENT GUIDE

Minimum Power Sample Temp: 40 C PA: 2000 feet Enter the chart at the temperature grid. Trace up to the pressure altitude line. Reflect left to read the engine torque required. (84%) Therefore, on takeoff if your engine torque is not at least 84% then the takeoff data is invalid and the takeoff should be aborted.

Figure FF101-16 Minimum Power Chart

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STUDENT GUIDE

FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS

Landing 1.1.4.1.2 1.1.4.1.3 1.1.4.1.4 2.59.0.0.5 4.4.3.0.3 Cite the impact of weather/atmospheric factors on TOLD computation Cite the impact of runway conditions on TOLD computation Cite the relevance of aircraft performance charts and flying directives to TOLD computation Identify how landing speed, aircraft weight and winds affect landing distance Compare the effects of outside air temperature (OAT) on performance characteristics

Landing Chart The Landing Distance chart is used to determine the total landing distance. Note the landing conditions associated with this chart. This chart involves the same variables as the Takeoff Distance chart with the addition of an RCR slider. RCR values vary from 2 (poorest) to 26 (best) depending on runway conditions. The following is a simplified list of these values: Dry Icy RCR = 23 Figure FF101-17 Landing Distance Chart RCR = 05

Wet RCR = 12

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FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS Landing Performance Along with RCR, the same factors that affect takeoff performance also affect landing performance.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF101-18 Landing Summary

Landing Sample This chart is very similar to the Takeoff Distance chart and is worked in the same way. Ensure that you are on the landing chart with the correct configuration before you begin. Work through a sample problem. Temp: 25 C Pressure Altitude: 6000 feet Weight: 5900 pounds Runway Gradient: 2% up Wind: 12 knot headwind RCR: 23 Obstacle height: 0 Flaps: Landing Using an obstacle height of 0 provides ground roll distance of 1800 feet.

Figure FF101-19 Landing Example

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STUDENT GUIDE

FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS

Landing Data You will find later in training that normal final approach speed is 100 to 110 KIAS depending upon your configuration. Also you normally do not land over obstacles and use maximum braking as defined in the charts. This will result in actual landing distances larger than the ones computed. The goal of this lesson is to teach you how to use these charts.

Takeoff and Landing Data (TOLD) 1.1.4.1.1 TOLD Card In this lesson, you have developed the necessary skills required to compute takeoff and landing data. This data will be transferred to the TOLD card. The TOLD card provides a quick reference to performance information acquired during preflight planning. Identify the procedure for TOLD computation

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FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS In the next several screens you will work through a preflight scenario and complete a TOLD card.

STUDENT GUIDE

TOLD Card Sample Preflight planning has provided most of the information for the top half of the card. You will use the following data to complete your TOLD computations: Departure field Wind: 18015 Runway 13: Gradient 2% up Arrival field Wind: 21020 Runway 18: Gradient 1% down Use the chart in your Flight Manual to determine the headwind component. Be sure to verify the crosswind component is within limits. Annotate the headwind component on the TOLD card in your student guide.

Figure FF101-20 TOLD Example 1

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FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS

Wind Component The headwind component for takeoff is 10 knots. The headwind component for landing is 17 knots. Now, use the chart in your Flight Manual to compute takeoff distance and rotation speed with flaps takeoff. Annotate takeoff data on the TOLD card in your student guide.

TOLD Card Landing Takeoff distance is 1500 feet with a rotation speed of 86 knots. At this point, the TOLD card in your student guide should look like this. Now, use the appropriate Landing Distance charts in your Flight Manual to complete the TOLD computations. Annotate landing data on the TOLD card in your student guide.

Figure FF101-21 TOLD Example 2

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FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS Landing Distance 1 The landing distance immediately after takeoff with flaps landing is 1650 feet with an approach speed of 100 knots.

STUDENT GUIDE

Landing Distance 2 The landing distance at the destination with flaps landing is 1800 feet with an approach speed of 92 knots. The Landing Distance - Flaps Takeoff and Landing Distance Flaps Up charts operate in the same way.

Completed TOLD Card Your completed TOLD card should look like this.

Figure FF101-22 TOLD Example 3 Lesson Review Quiz

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STUDENT GUIDE

FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS

LESSON QUESTIONS EMBEDDED QUESTIONS (Ref: Segment/Topic/Question) 1. An increase in temperature would increase the takeoff roll. (B/2/1) a. b. True False

2. Given the following data: Temp: 22C Pressure altitude: 7000 feet Use the chart to find the minimum torque required. (B/2/2) a. b. c. d. 85% 90% 94% 98%

3. Which of the following factors will lengthen the landing roll? (B/3/1) a. b. c. d. A decrease in pressure altitude An increase in temperature An increase in headwind component A decrease in gross weight

4. Given the following data, use the chart in your Flight Manual to find the landing distance. (B/3/2): Temp: 15C Pressure altitude: SL Weight: 5600 pounds Runway gradient: 2% down a. b. c. d. 2000 feet 2200 feet 2500 feet 2700 feet Wind: 10 knot headwind RCR: 15 Obstacle height: 0 Flaps: Landing

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FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS LESSON REVIEW QUIZ QUESTIONS 1. Given the following data: Wind: 31015G25 Runway: 27

STUDENT GUIDE

Use the chart in your Flight Manual to determine the crosswind and headwind components. a. b. c. d. 2. Crosswind 9 knots, headwind 14 knots Crosswind 16 knots, headwind 11 knots Crosswind 16 knots, headwind 14 knots Crosswind 9 knots, headwind 11 knots

There are three different takeoff distance charts in the Flight Manual. Each chart is based on different ______. a. b. c. d. power settings weather weights configurations

3.

With flaps set to takeoff, find the takeoff distance with the following data: Temp: 10C PA: 4000 feet a. b. c. d. 1000 feet 1400 feet 2400 feet 3000 feet Weight: 6200 pounds Runway gradient: 2% down Wind: 5 knot headwind

4.

According to the chart in the Flight Manual, what would be the rotation speed for a 6200 pound aircraft taking off with flaps up? a. b. c. d. 80 knots 81 knots 94 knots 109 knots

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FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS

5.

Find the minimum power required at 110 KIAS given the following data: Temp: 35C PA: 5000 feet a. b. c. d. 76% torque 83% torque 93% torque 100% torque

6.

An increase in pressure altitude would ______ takeoff distance and ______ landing distance. a. b. c. d. increase; increase increase; decrease decrease; decrease decrease; increase

7.

Given the following data: Temp: 0C Weight: 5400 pounds Runway gradient: 1% up Find the landing distance. a. b. c. d. 1500 feet 1800 feet 2100 feet 2800 feet Wind: calm Obstacle height: 0 Flaps: Landing Pressure Altitude: 2000 feet RCR: 23

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FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS ADDITIONAL PRACTICE QUESTIONS 1. Given: Runway: 20, Wind: 18020 Find: Crosswind component: ______ Headwind component: ______ 2. Given: Runway: 17, Wind: 12525 Find: Crosswind component: ______ Headwind component: ______ 3. Given: Runway: 15, Wind: 08530 Find: Crosswind component: ______ Headwind component: ______ 4. Given: Runway: 10, Wind: 05015 Find: Crosswind component: ______ Headwind component: ______ 5. Given: Runway: 30, Wind: 25018G30 Find: Crosswind component: ______ Headwind component: ______ 6. Given: Runway: 18, Wind: 14010G25 Find: Crosswind component: ______ Headwind component: ______

STUDENT GUIDE

7.

Given: Runway: 100, Wind: 040V06015 Find: Crosswind component: ______ Headwind component: ______

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FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS

8.

Given: Temp: 10C Weight: 6300 lbs. Find: Takeoff distance: ________ Obstacle clearance distance: ________ Rotation speed: ________ Obstacle speed: ________ Runway gradient: +0.5 Flaps: Takeoff PA: 3000 feet Wind: 10 knot headwind Obstacle height: 50 feet

9.

Given: Runway 04 PA: 100 feet Flaps: Takeoff Find: Takeoff distance: ________ Obstacle clearance distance: ________ Rotation speed: ________ Obstacle speed: ________ Temp: 40C Wind: 01010 Runway gradient: -0.2 Weight: 6300 lbs.

Obstacle height: 0 feet

10. Given: Runway 17 Runway gradient: +0.5 Wind: 21010G15 Obstacle height: 20 feet Find: Landing distance: ________ Approach speed: ________ Touchdown speed: ________ Temp: 20C PA: 1000 feet Weight: 6000 lbs. Flaps: Landing

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FF101 TOLD COMPUTATIONS

STUDENT GUIDE

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STUDENT GUIDE

FF102 CLEARING, CROSS-CHECK, AND BASIC FLIGHT

FF102 CLEARING, CROSS-CHECK, AND BASIC FLIGHT STUDENT GUIDE TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................... 2-1 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................... 2-2 OVERVIEW............................................................................................................................... 2-3 STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS .................................................................................................... 2-3 HANDOUTS N/A.................................................................................................................... 2-3 LESSON OUTLINE .................................................................................................................. 2-3 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. 2-4 CROSS-CHECK ................................................................................................................... 2-4 INSTRUMENT CROSS-CHECK .................................................................................. 2-4 COMPOSITE CROSS-CHECK ................................................................................... 2-10 BASIC FLIGHT.................................................................................................................. 2-13 STRAIGHT AND LEVEL FLIGHT............................................................................ 2-13 TRIM............................................................................................................................... 2-17 TURNS ............................................................................................................................ 2-22 CLIMBS AND DESCENTS .......................................................................................... 2-26 LEVEL OFF ................................................................................................................... 2-30 AIRSPEED CHANGES................................................................................................. 2-31 RADIO PROCEDURES................................................................................................ 2-33 CLEARING ......................................................................................................................... 2-40 CLEARING .................................................................................................................... 2-40 LESSON QUESTIONS ........................................................................................................... 2-49

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FF102 CLEARING, CROSS-CHECK, AND BASIC FLIGHT LIST OF FIGURES

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF102-1 Control Instruments .................................................................................... 2-5 Figure FF102-2 Performance Instruments ........................................................................... 2-6 Figure FF102-3 Performance Instruments 2 ........................................................................ 2-6 Figure FF102-4 Hub and Spoke Concept ............................................................................. 2-9 Figure FF102-5 Composite References ............................................................................... 2-10 Figure FF102-6 Seat Position ............................................................................................... 2-10 Figure FF102-7 Composite Heading Reference ................................................................. 2-11 Figure FF102-8 Composite Bank Reference....................................................................... 2-11 Figure FF102-9 Composite Pitch Reference ....................................................................... 2-12 Figure FF102-10 Cockpit References.................................................................................. 2-12 Figure FF102-11 Wind Effects............................................................................................. 2-14 Figure FF102-12 Crabbing................................................................................................... 2-14 Figure FF102-13 Trim Aerodynamics................................................................................. 2-18 Figure FF102-14 Skids and Slips ......................................................................................... 2-23 Figure FF102-15 Composite Bank References ................................................................... 2-24 Figure FF102-16 Maintaining Altitude and Airspeed ....................................................... 2-24 Figure FF102-17 Load Factors ............................................................................................ 2-25 Figure FF102-18 One-Third Rule........................................................................................ 2-25 Figure FF102-19 Climb Types ............................................................................................. 2-26 Figure FF102-20 Climbing Turns........................................................................................ 2-29 Figure FF102-21 Descending Turns .................................................................................... 2-29 Figure FF102-22 Level Off Lead Point ............................................................................... 2-30 Figure FF102-23 Steep Descents .......................................................................................... 2-30 Figure FF102-24 Deceleration.............................................................................................. 2-32 Figure FF102-25 Trim Changes........................................................................................... 2-33 Figure FF102-26 Facility Callsigns...................................................................................... 2-35 Figure FF102-27 Who, You, What Technique ................................................................... 2-35 Figure FF102-28 Transponder Codes ................................................................................. 2-39 Figure FF102-29 Critical Area............................................................................................. 2-44 Figure FF102-30 Side to Side Scan Pattern ........................................................................ 2-45 Figure FF102-31 Clock Positions......................................................................................... 2-46 Figure FF102-32 NACWS Correlation ............................................................................... 2-46

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STUDENT GUIDE OVERVIEW

FF102 CLEARING, CROSS-CHECK, AND BASIC FLIGHT

This lesson is designed to introduce you to the basic skills you will need to fly effectively. The cross-check segment shows you how to monitor the performance of the aircraft. Basic Flight, the next segment, describes how to fly the basic maneuvers that make up an entire mission when you put them together. In Clearing, you will review limitations on vision, and you will be introduced to scan patterns and clearing techniques. REFERENCES Personnel: None. Media Facilities: Student CAI Workstation. Support Resources: T-6A Flight Manual, AFMAN 11-248, T-6A Flying Fundamentals Student Guide. STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS Read AFMAN 11-248, sections on cross-check, clearing, radio procedures and basic aircraft control in Chapters 1 and 2. Complete CAI lesson FF102, following along with this student guide. Complete the practice questions provided. HANDOUTS N/A LESSON OUTLINE Topics in this lesson must be taken in sequential order. All topics must be completed prior to attempting the end of lesson quiz. The estimated time required to complete this lesson is 1.6 hours.

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FF102 CLEARING, CROSS-CHECK, AND BASIC FLIGHT

STUDENT GUIDE

Introduction

Cross-check

Instrument Cross-check 3.2.0.0.1 3.2.0.0.4 3.2.0.0.5 3.2.0.0.6 Define terminology and concepts related to instrument cross-check Identify procedure to perform instrument cross-check Identify the control and performance concept of attitude instrument flying Identify different instrument cross-check techniques

Cross-check Basics A good cross-check is simply checking your cockpit indications to be sure the aircraft is doing what you want it to do. The instrument cross-check uses only instrument references, while the composite cross-check uses outside visual references in addition to the instruments. Small, positive corrections will allow you to perform flight maneuvers with skill and precision.

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Control and Performance Concept When you are flying on instruments, you will control the aircraft attitude and power setting to produce the desired aircraft performance. This is called the control and performance concept of instrument flight.

Control and Performance 2 The three basic categories of instruments are: Control instruments Performance instruments Navigation instruments This lesson will be concerned only with the control and performance instruments.

Control Instruments The control instruments display immediate attitude and power indications. They are calibrated to permit attitude and power adjustments in definite amounts. Remember that small, positive corrections will help you fly more smoothly.

Figure FF102-1 Control Instruments

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FF102 CLEARING, CROSS-CHECK, AND BASIC FLIGHT In the T-6A, the control instruments are the: EADI PEDD

STUDENT GUIDE

Performance Instruments The performance instruments indicate the actual performance of the aircraft. Indications on these instruments are a result of setting and maintaining specific settings on the control instruments. The basic performance instruments are the: ASI Altimeter VSI Figure FF102-2 Performance Instruments

Performance Instruments 2 The following are also performance instruments that you will bring into your crosscheck as your skills improve: AOA AOA Indexer Turn and Bank Indicator EHSI Figure FF102-3 Performance Instruments 2

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Attitude Flying Use the flight controls and PCL to make attitude and power setting adjustments on the control instruments and maintain aircraft control. Pitch and bank control is maintained by reference to the EADI. Power control is maintained by reference to the primary engine data displays. An incorrect setting on one of the control instruments will be reflected on one or more of the performance instruments.

Recognizing Errors You will set and maintain a specific attitude and power setting on the control instruments to achieve desired aircraft performance. An incorrect pitch setting will be noticed on the VSI and the altimeter. The VSI is a trend instrument, and will normally provide the first indication. Failure to maintain wings-level flight will become apparent on the EHSI.

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FF102 CLEARING, CROSS-CHECK, AND BASIC FLIGHT An incorrect power setting will normally be seen first on the ASI, but will also be seen on the VSI and altimeter if left uncorrected.

STUDENT GUIDE

Control and Performance Steps 1 The procedural steps for the control and performance concept are: Establish. Set and maintain an attitude and power setting on the control instruments. Trim. Trim until control pressures are neutralized. Good trim techniques will help you fly smooth, precise maneuvers. Cross-check. Cross-check the performance instruments to ensure the attitude and power setting you set are giving you the desired aircraft performance.

Control and Performance Steps 2 Adjust. Make specific adjustments to the aircraft attitude and/or power setting, and repeat the last three steps.

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Cross-check Techniques A good technique to use to maintain straight and level flight is to use a hub and spoke method of cross-check. This means you spend most of your time referencing the EADI, and you cross-check one performance instrument at a time.

Straight and Level Crosscheck video

Turn Techniques The cross-check technique during turns is a little different. Since you are normally turning to a heading, the EHSI is important to cross-check for your lead point and roll out heading.

Figure FF102-4 Hub and Spoke Concept

Descent For a descent, you must be aware of your altitude and descent rate. In this case, the altimeter and VSI increase in importance.

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FF102 CLEARING, CROSS-CHECK, AND BASIC FLIGHT Composite Cross-check 2.10.1.0.1

STUDENT GUIDE

Identify techniques for inside/outside cross-checks for various phases of flight

Composite References Composite cross-check is a twostep process of achieving an attitude by aligning part of the aircraft with a landmark or feature in the environment and verifying that the aircraft has attained the desired position by cross-checking performance instruments. For example, orienting the airplane so that the horizon appears just below the canopy bow will approximate a 10 nose low descent. Figure FF102-5 Composite References

Seat Position To properly use consistent composite pitch references, you must sit at the same height on every flight. A technique discussed in the previous unit to ensure you sit at the same height for each flight was to adjust the seat so that it appears that the top of the glass on the EADI is touching the bottom portion of the CWS panel. With the seat in this position you should be able to see the upper part of the EADI just below the glare shield.

Figure FF102-6 Seat Position

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Composite - Heading Here you can see how much easier it is to notice a small heading error using composite references. The same 2 heading change is difficult to see on the EHSI. Looking outside at the horizon makes the change in heading much easier to see. Note the difference in the position of the tower. Figure FF102-7 Composite Heading Reference

Composite - Bank Compare the 20 bank difference on the EADI and using outside references. Now look at the horizon. Notice that it crosses at different points on the glareshield and canopy bow when you are in a bank. Setting and maintaining bank angle by aligning cockpit references with the horizon is one of the fundamentals of composite flight.

Figure FF102-8 Composite Bank Reference

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FF102 CLEARING, CROSS-CHECK, AND BASIC FLIGHT Composite - Pitch The composite pitch reference is the position of the nose of the aircraft relative to the horizon. Look at the effects of the 5 pitch difference, and how it appears on the EADI and using composite references. Use composite references as your primary attitude reference in place of the EADI.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF102-9 Composite Pitch Reference

Outside References The cockpit environment offers many references you can use to help you fly, maintain attitude, and clear simultaneously. Here are some handy visual cues you can use. Aligning the point labeled on the cockpit with the horizon puts the aircraft in the pitch described on the corresponding button. Figure FF102-10 Cockpit References

Composite Scan Composite crosscheck video

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Basic Flight

Straight and Level Flight 2.3.1.0.1 2.11.0.0.4 Identify the relationship of aircraft heading to aircraft ground track Identify techniques for maintaining straight and level flight

Basic Aircraft Control Straight and level flight is the most basic of flight maneuvers. It teaches you how to use the flight controls, how to crosscheck your instruments, how to trim, and how to divide your attention to accomplish all required tasks. Basic aircraft control is maintained by setting your attitude reference for what you think is level flight, and then cross-checking your performance instruments to ensure you are straight and level.

Coordinated Flight To fly smoothly, you need to maintain coordinated flight. This means that the position of the flight controls aligns the fuselage of the aircraft with the flightpath. This is accomplished by using the rudder to keep the ball in the turn and bank indicator centered. All you need to do is step on the ball to send it back toward the center.

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FF102 CLEARING, CROSS-CHECK, AND BASIC FLIGHT Wind Effects If you fly on a calm day, the aircraft will go where you point it. The problem is that you will rarely fly on a calm day. On this graphic you can see the effect of the wind on your flightpath. If you fly a constant heading, a crosswind will blow you laterally across the ground.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF102-11 Wind Effects

Homing If you ignore the wind and continually fly to your point or landmark, you will not fly a straight path. Your groundtrack will curve due to the wind and the corrections you must make to fly to your point. This is homing.

Crabbing The solution is crabbing. This means adjusting your heading into the wind so you fly a straight groundtrack. You will recognize the need to crab as you drift off course or groundtrack.

Figure FF102-12 Crabbing

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Here you can see how you might need to crab when flying in the traffic pattern. Notice that no crab is required when flying directly into the wind or with a direct tailwind. You must always be aware of wind drift and be prepared to correct for it. As a general rule, if you are flying at 200 KIAS, 1 of crab is required for approximately 3 knots of crosswind.

Heading Deviations As you are flying, you may get distracted by other cockpit duties and drift off heading, altitude, or airspeed. A heading deviation is caused by not keeping your wings level and not keeping the turn and bank ball centered, and you will see it on the EHSI. If you notice a heading deviation, level the wings first, and then check the EHSI for the required correction.

Heading Corrections If you notice a heading deviation, you will need to make a correction back to your desired heading.

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FF102 CLEARING, CROSS-CHECK, AND BASIC FLIGHT Use the following rules of thumb: If the deviation is less than 30, correct using a bank angle equal to the number of degrees off. If the deviation is more than 30, use 30 of bank to make the correction. Remember to also incorporate a correction for wind effects when determining your heading.

STUDENT GUIDE

Airspeed/altitude Deviations An altitude deviation will appear on the altimeter, but the VSI will move before you see a significant change on the altimeter. Let the VSI stabilize before attempting to correct. If you have the aircraft trimmed to a near level flight attitude, the VSI will settle down. Do not chase the VSI. Airspeed deviations show up on the ASI and are normally caused by an incorrect power setting. Cross-check your VSI and altimeter. If the aircraft is climbing or descending, the airspeed deviation is most likely due to improper trim or pitch setting.

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Altitude Corrections Set up your altitude corrections using a definite pitch change. For altitude deviations less than 300 feet, use approximately 2 of pitch change at cruise airspeeds. Set 2 of pitch using the EADI or make a small pitch change using composite references and cross-check the EADI.

Airspeed Corrections If the airspeed deviation is not accompanied by an altitude deviation, the solution is a power change and trim adjustment. If you are slow, select a power setting slightly above the power required for level flight. As the airspeed approaches your desired airspeed, reduce power. If youre fast, do the opposite. The exact power setting will vary depending on temperature, pressure, gross weight, and other factors, so a good cross-check is required.

Trim 2.11.1.0.1 2.11.0.0.3 Specify function and operation of aircraft trim motors/surfaces Define the terms and concepts related to trim

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FF102 CLEARING, CROSS-CHECK, AND BASIC FLIGHT Trim Trim is designed to balance the aerodynamic forces on the aircraft so the pilot will not need to physically hold the control surfaces in the desired position. When you use trim, you position the control surfaces to maintain the desired attitude. Changes in airspeed result in the need for trim changes.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF102-13 Trim Aerodynamics

Trim Control Surfaces In the T-6A, the following control surfaces provide pilot controlled trim functions: Ailerons provide roll trim. Rudder trim tab provides yaw trim. Elevator trim tab provides pitch trim.

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Trim Techniques Proper trim technique results in the aircraft being able to maintain the desired attitude with your hands off the controls. Hands off means you can rest your hand lightly on the stick and not need to apply pressure to maintain your attitude. Always maintain positive control of the aircraft. To use trim, set the desired attitude with control pressures. As you hold this attitude, apply short bursts of trim until you no longer need to hold the controls in position.

Yaw Trim Techniques You have a visual indicator for yaw trim--the ball in the turn and bank indicator. While the TAD will help keep the aircraft nearly trimmed in yaw, it will not do the whole job. As you crosscheck your performance instruments, glance at the ball. If its not centered, apply rudder to center the ball by stepping on the ball and then trim off the pressure with the rudder trim switch on the PCL.

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FF102 CLEARING, CROSS-CHECK, AND BASIC FLIGHT Power changes will usually require a change in rudder trim due to the torque generated by the engine and the propeller. The larger the power change, the larger the trim change.

STUDENT GUIDE

Pitch and Roll Trim To use pitch trim, set the desired pitch attitude with positive stick pressure. As you hold this attitude, apply short bursts of trim to relieve the control pressure. Proper roll trim can be tricky. You may not initially be able to feel the pressure in a condition that requires roll trim. As a technique, you may release pressure from the stick briefly (about 1 second), and see if the aircraft starts to roll. If it does, apply trim against the roll and check it again. Good roll trim technique will help heading control.

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Recognizing Out of Trim Condition Recognizing when your pitch trim is improperly set is usually fairly simple. You will find yourself holding pressure on the stick or you will notice a climb or descent on the VSI and altimeter. Left uncorrected, you will probably see an airspeed deviation as the airplane tries to fly at the airspeed for which it is trimmed. Incorrect yaw trim is normally apparent on the turn and slip indicator. Keep the ball centered. Improper roll trim is usually indicated by difficulty maintaining heading. When you cross-check other performance instruments, look at your checklist, or even just look for traffic, the aircraft will start to roll and your heading will drift.

Trim Corrections If you cant seem to get it sorted out, check the ball. It is possible to use the trim surfaces and create a situation where the aircraft is trimmed for uncoordinated flight. This would mean you are flying straight but are in a skid. Center the ball first, and then correct the pitch and roll trim.

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FF102 CLEARING, CROSS-CHECK, AND BASIC FLIGHT As a technique, you can use the REA trim acronym to help you remember to trim in this order: Rudder Elevator Aileron

STUDENT GUIDE

Turns 2.15.0.0.9 2.15.0.0.10 2.15.1.0.1 Identify parameters related to turns Identify techniques for turns Identify the relationship of a centered ball on turn and bank indicator to coordinated flight

Rolling In Turns involve coordination of aileron, rudder, and elevator inputs. To begin the turn, simultaneously apply pressure to the ailerons and rudder. The ailerons will roll the aircraft, and the rudder maintains coordinated flight. When you reach the desired bank angle, neutralize the aileron and rudder inputs.

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Rolling In 2 As you are rolling in, increase back pressure on the stick to maintain level flight. The amount of back pressure depends on the bank angle. At shallow banks (30 or less), little back pressure is required. At higher bank angles, more will be necessary.

Coordinated Flight The goal is to fly smooth, coordinated maneuvers. To maintain coordinated flight, the aircraft must remain streamlined into the relative wind. Your best indication of this is the ball in the turn and slip indicator. A good cross-check, positive rudder inputs, and proper use of rudder trim will help you maintain coordinated flight. Failure to maintain coordinated flight in a turn will result in a slip or a skid. Figure FF102-14 Skids and Slips

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FF102 CLEARING, CROSS-CHECK, AND BASIC FLIGHT Composite References Using composite references to set and maintain your bank angle will help you fly more smoothly. Look at the references for the following bank settings: 30 45 60

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF102-15 Composite Bank References

Maintaining Altitude and Airspeed Any time you are in a turn, you must generate more lift to maintain level flight. More lift means more drag, and more drag means you need more power. In shallow bank turns, a small power addition is normally required. As the bank angle increases, more power is required. You will need to increase power about 5% to perform a level 60 bank turn at 160 KIAS. Remember to reduce the power back to the cruise setting as you roll out to maintain the same airspeed you started with.

Figure FF102-16 Maintaining Altitude and Airspeed

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G Forces This table shows the G forces required to maintain level flight at the specified bank angle. Remember, as you roll into the bank, you should smoothly increase back pressure to establish the appropriate G loading.

Figure FF102-17 Load Factors

Rolling Out To roll out of your turn properly, simply reverse the roll in process. Start by determining a lead point to begin your roll out on heading. Using 1/3 your bank angle works well for smooth roll outs. As you reach your lead point, make a coordinated aileron and rudder input to eliminate the bank. If you trimmed the elevator during the turn, you may need to trim the nose down when rolling out to prevent ballooning on roll out. As you reach wings level, take out the aileron and rudder inputs. As you complete the rollout, reset cruise power. Cross-check the altimeter and VSI to ensure you are level, and the ASI to be sure you set the proper power setting.

Figure FF102-18 One-Third Rule

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FF102 CLEARING, CROSS-CHECK, AND BASIC FLIGHT Climbs and Descents 2.3.0.0.13 2.3.0.0.14 2.3.0.0.15 2.42.0.0.1 2.42.0.0.3 Climb Types There are two important types of climbs. These are normal rate of climb and best rate of climb. Best rate gets you to altitude in the shortest time. For most climbs in the T-6A, you will use a constant airspeed climb at 160 KIAS using maximum power. Climbing at 160 KIAS provides for a good climb rate while allowing improved forward visibility for clearing. Best rate is approximated by the climb profile outlined in the Flight Manual, which gets you to cruise altitude as quickly as possible. This is also a constant airspeed climb, one where the power and airspeed are constant and you vary the pitch to maintain airspeed. Identify parameters related to performing climbs Define terminology and concepts related to climbs Identify climb techniques Define terminology and concepts related to descents Identify descent parameters

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF102-19 Climb Types

Descent Types There are also two basic types of descents--constant airspeed and constant rate.

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For a constant airspeed descent, maintain your airspeed by adjusting pitch. Your power is normally fixed in a constant airspeed descent. A maximum range descent is a type of constant airspeed descent. In a constant rate descent, you will maintain constant airspeed and your desired descent rate by varying pitch and power. An ILS final approach is an example of a constant rate descent. This graphic depicts a constant rate descent at 500 fpm and 120 KIAS, typical for an ILS final.

PAT Principle The PAT principle is simply a technique you can use to remember how to make smooth, continuous corrections. The acronym stands for: Power Attitude Trim To employ this technique, lead with the power change and set your pitch attitude using either composite or instrument references. Hold the pitch attitude and trim off the stick forces. Now cross-check the power setting and the airspeed, and then recheck power, recheck attitude, and trim.

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FF102 CLEARING, CROSS-CHECK, AND BASIC FLIGHT Climb Techniques Transitioning from straight and level flight to a climb requires changes in power and pitch. First, add power and pull back on the stick (increase back pressure) to set your climb pitch picture. The T-6A has excellent power response, so adding power smoothly in coordination with the pitch change will produce the best results. Once the climb is established, trim off the back pressure and crosscheck your airspeed. Significant climbs will usually be made at MAX power so you can get to cruise altitude quickly. Climbs of a thousand feet or less could easily be accomplished using a reduced power setting to make the transitions smoother.

STUDENT GUIDE

Descent Techniques Beginning a descent from straight and level flight is similar to beginning a climb, except power is reduced. Smoothly coordinating the pitch and power change will allow you to maintain the desired airspeed. Once stabilized in the descent, trim off the control pressures and cross-check pitch and airspeed.

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The power setting and airspeed requirements for most descents are up to the pilot. Steep, idle power descents are not appropriate for all circumstances. Moderate rates of descent and pitch attitudes will work well for most situations.

Turning Climbs Turning climbs and descents simply combine two basic flight maneuvers. For constant airspeed climbing turns, your pitch attitude will be lower than during a straight climb. In a constant airspeed climb, the amount of lift you produce is fixed. When you turn you use some of this lift to turn, resulting in a lower pitch attitude and less climb capability.

Figure FF102-20 Climbing Turns

Turning Descents For constant airspeed descending turns, your pitch attitude will be lower than during a wings level descent. When you turn you use some lift to turn, resulting in a lower pitch attitude and an increased descent rate. The steeper the bank, the more rapidly you will descend. Figure FF102-21 Descending Turns

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FF102 CLEARING, CROSS-CHECK, AND BASIC FLIGHT Leveloff 2.6.0.0.1 2.6.0.0.3 Lead Points Lead points are computed to allow a smooth transition from a climb or descent to level flight. Experience has shown that 10% of your vertical speed will work well. The example shows a 200 foot lead point for a climb rate of 2000 fpm on the VSI.

STUDENT GUIDE

Identify the lead points for level-off from climbs and descents Identify procedure to perform level-off from climb

Figure FF102-22 Level Off Lead Point

Steep Descents During steep descents (greater than 6 nose low), its a good idea to cut your pitch attitude in half about 1000 feet above your level off altitude. This will decrease your descent rate and make it easier to determine a lead point and level off smoothly.

Figure FF102-23 Steep Descents

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Airspeed changes 2.12.0.0.1 2.12.0.0.2 Identify parameters to airspeed/configuration changes Identify effects of trim aid device on changes in airspeed for straight and level flight

Acceleration Changing airspeed is one of the most basic flight maneuvers. On the surface, it is relatively simple, but you must keep up with the subtle changes in pitch and trim. To accelerate, increase the power to a setting above that which will be required for the desired airspeed. It is not necessary to use maximum power for all accelerations. As you approach your new airspeed, slowly retard the PCL to the new power setting. As the aircraft is accelerating, it will tend to climb. Use the PAT principle to set the power and pitch attitude required to hold the new airspeed. Continually trim off the control pressures and cross-check.

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FF102 CLEARING, CROSS-CHECK, AND BASIC FLIGHT Deceleration To slow down, you simply reverse the procedure for accelerating. You also have a speed brake that will help you slow down, if you need it. Realize that the larger the power reduction, the more rapidly pitch and trim will change. Lowering the speed brake, landing gear, or flaps will make you decelerate more quickly, so be prepared. As you get to the new airspeed, set the power, cross-check the new pitch picture, and trim off control forces. Notice the different pitch attitudes required for level flight at various airspeeds in a clean configuration.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF102-24 Deceleration

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Trim Changes All airspeed changes require trim changes. If you dont keep up with trim during accelerations and decelerations, you will find yourself climbing or descending. In addition, you must be aware that a change in power produces a change in torque. That change will require a rudder trim adjustment. The TAD will help with trim during power changes, but it will not keep the aircraft in trim. The TAD will lag slightly and will not center the ball. Thats the pilots job. During accelerations, expect to trim left and down. For decelerations, expect to trim right and up. Figure FF102-25 Trim Changes

Radio Procedures 1.9.2.0.1 1.9.2.0.3 1.9.3.0.1 2.64.0.0.1 2.64.0.0.2 4.13.0.0.5 Cite radio terminology for each phase of flight operations Identify radio procedures Specify transponder code requirements for each scenario Define terminology and concepts related to radio procedures Identify characteristics of radio procedures Interpret information obtained from ATIS

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FF102 CLEARING, CROSS-CHECK, AND BASIC FLIGHT General Procedures Communication is a critical link in successful military flying. While all the required radio calls and chatter may seem confusing at first, in time it will all become second nature. The following guidelines should prove helpful as you develop your skills and confidence on the radio. Before you begin to transmit, Pause and listen - make sure you wont step on or transmit at the same time as another transmission Think about what youll say keep your call clear and concise During normal operations in the T-6A, the pilot actually flying the aircraft is responsible for all radio calls. When necessary, the pilot not flying the aircraft may use the radio provided the pilot actually flying is first notified.

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Facility Callsigns This graphic shows the callsigns for several ground agencies youll often need to communicate with.

Figure FF102-26 Facility Callsigns

Who, You, What Technique If your local procedures dont have a specific call for your situation, the Who, You, What technique should cover most any situation. To use the Who, You, What technique, you need to know who you want to talk to. This is the first part of the basic call, and it lets everyone know who you are calling. The second part is your call sign. This lets the ground agency know who is calling. The third and last part is what you want. If its a mandatory call, like acknowledging a new heading, clearly make the required statement. If you need to ask for something specific, just say Request. The controller will get back to you. Figure FF102-27 Who, You, What Technique

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FF102 CLEARING, CROSS-CHECK, AND BASIC FLIGHT Examples Now that you have covered the basics, you will go learn about some of the more common radio calls and the reserved transponder codes to prepare you to fly the T-6A. On the following screens, you will learn about: Requests Numbers ATIS Taxiing Takeoff Standard replies Transponder codes

STUDENT GUIDE

Common Requests Some of the more common requests are listed here. You will get more practice with these radio procedures as you progress through training. Change of altitude Change of route Request to leave frequency Request for a specific approach procedure

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Numbers In general, numbers are spoken as individual digits except for hundreds and thousands. 4500 feet 15,000 feet frequency 354.2 Flight Level 190 heading 070

ATIS Listening to ATIS is one of the things you will do before you taxi. The ATIS broadcast will include sky condition, winds, altimeter, temperature, and active runway, among other things. Each ATIS transmission is identified by a phonetic letter, and you will need to relay that letter to ground control on your taxi call.

Taxi For a local mission from your home airfield, the taxi call is a simple request for permission to taxi. You should already have listened to ATIS, so your call should be something similar to this:

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FF102 CLEARING, CROSS-CHECK, AND BASIC FLIGHT Laughlin ground, Texan 22 taxi with Echo The reply will let you know the active runway and will give you any information that has changed since the ATIS broadcast. It will be similar to this: Texan 22 taxi to 13 right, altimeter 29.95.

STUDENT GUIDE

Takeoff The takeoff radio call is also fairly standard. As you approach the runway, you will call the controlling agency and let them know your position. Call only when you are ready for takeoff. This could be your call: Laughlin Tower, Texan 45 number 2. Tower will normally reply with clearance for takeoff, clearance to taxi into position and hold, or clearance to hold short. You must acknowledge any of these clearances. Since you called number 2, you would likely hear: Texan 45, hold short Your acknowledgement might sound like this: Texan 45, holding short.

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Replies Certain radio transmissions must be acknowledged. These include radio frequency changes, changes in heading, changes in altitude, and changes in altimeter settings. When you acknowledge a new altitude assignment, include your current altitude in the transmission. There are five sample radio calls from different parts of a normal mission represented by the graphic.

Transponder Codes There is one other procedure that falls under fundamental radio procedures. It involves the use of transponder codes reserved for use under certain situations. Normally, you will set your transponder to the code assigned. If you have an emergency, twoway radio failure, or are being hijacked, set the code indicated in the chart. The last reserved code is 1200. That indicates you are operating under visual flight rules, and simply helps other aircraft and controlling agencies keep track of your location.

Figure FF102-28 Transponder Codes

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FF102 CLEARING, CROSS-CHECK, AND BASIC FLIGHT Clearing

STUDENT GUIDE

Clearing 2.10.0.0.1 2.10.0.0.3 2.10.0.0.4 Define terminology and concepts related to clearing Identify the procedure to perform clearing Determine clearing techniques for various phases of flight

See and Avoid Concept The See and Avoid concept is the pilots best defense against a midair collision. It is the theory upon which our flight rules are based. To properly clear, you must be able to perform both halves of the concept. You cant avoid what you cant see, so you must learn to use your eyes to give you the best chance to see other aircraft. Realize that the greatest danger is presented by an object that appears stationary in the windscreen. This object is on a collision course. To avoid the collision, maneuver the aircraft out of the way. If you have a choice, maneuver behind the other aircraft. This places your velocity vector behind the other aircraft, avoiding the collision and giving you the best chance of keeping sight of the other aircraft

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Sight Limitations 1 There are four sight limitations we will review. The first is visual accommodation. This is simply the time it takes your eyes to change focus, normally 2 - 3 seconds. Because you routinely focus on the instrument panel during your crosscheck, you must allow time for your eyes to focus at a distance if you hope to see another aircraft. To help your eyes focus, pick out a point on the horizon or on the ground a few miles away before moving your eyes to the area you want to clear. Empty field myopia is the second limitation. This is a condition in which the eyes, having nothing readily available in the visual field in which to focus, focus automatically at about 9 feet. A pilot experiencing this condition would be unable to see objects at a range as close as 100 feet. This can occur on gray days or over water with blue water and blue sky. The solution is the same one used for accommodation. Pick a distant point and focus.

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FF102 CLEARING, CROSS-CHECK, AND BASIC FLIGHT Sight Limitations 2 Binocular vision is the third limitation. This means that your mind tends to ignore things you dont see with both eyes. This can occur when the other aircraft appears behind or near the canopy bow, wing, or other part of the aircraft. The solution is to move your head to ensure you can see what you are looking for with both eyes. The final limitation is narrow field of vision. While you can see over a wide range, you can only focus and classify an object in about a 15 area. Your eyes will perceive motion outside this area and tend to snap to the moving object, but the moving object is not on a collision course. To make up for the narrow field of view, you must clear specific areas one at a time. Sweeping your eyes will not work because your eyes have not had time to focus and classify objects.

STUDENT GUIDE

Environment 1 The environment also presents some problems with clearing.

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Haze creates a situation where empty field myopia is a problem. With poor visibility and everything the same shade of gray, you may have difficulty seeing a traffic conflict in time to avoid it. The higher your airspeed, the less time you have.

Environment 2 Glare is also an environmental concern. Glare is a problem on very clear, sunny days or at altitude over a cloud deck. Flying toward the sun also creates glare problems. Glare makes it difficult to clear because it becomes almost painful to look where you need to look. To combat glare, use your dark visor or sunglasses. You can also block out the sun with your hand while you look for traffic, the same way an outfielder battles the sun looking for a fly ball.

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FF102 CLEARING, CROSS-CHECK, AND BASIC FLIGHT Environment 3 Lack of contrast is the final environmental factor to discuss. An airplane is difficult to see against a cluttered background like many different buildings or multi-colored terrain.

STUDENT GUIDE

Critical Area Aviation experience has shown that the threat of midair collision can be best avoided by keeping the area 60 to either side and 10 above and below the nose of the aircraft clear of other traffic. This graphic depicts the critical area for clearing.

Figure FF102-29 Critical Area

Scan Pattern 1 To keep the critical area clear, and to allow for visual limitations and environmental factors, you will need to develop a good scanning pattern. This graphic depicts a front to side scan pattern. To be effective, you should: Pause for 2-3 seconds to allow for accommodation Search a 20 segment at a time

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Focus on a point on the horizon to fight myopia Cover the critical area

Scan Avi 1

Scan Pattern 2 This graphic shows a side to side scan pattern. You can use either of these techniques as a starting point to develop a scan pattern you are comfortable with and can depend on. Realize that when you are notified of specific traffic, its time to search that area. You can restart the scan after the potential conflict is passed.

Figure FF102-30 Side to Side Scan Pattern

Scan Avi 2

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FF102 CLEARING, CROSS-CHECK, AND BASIC FLIGHT Clock Positions Air traffic controllers will call known traffic out to you using a clock position. If traffic is called out, its time to shift your clearing emphasis to that area. You can resume your normal scan after the traffic is clear. This graphic displays the clock positions and provides some cockpit references between the 10 and 2 oclock positions. The leading edge of the wingtips provide good 3 and 9 oclock references. High: Traffic above horizon Low: Traffic below horizon

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF102-31 Clock Positions

NACWS Just like radar advisories from the air traffic controllers, the NACWS system will provide you the position of potential traffic conflicts. In addition to position, NACWS will provide an altitude above or below you, if available. This helps you focus your scan in elevation as well as bearing. The advisory pictured is about 3 miles away, 45 left, and 800 feet high. The top graphic shows you where this traffic would appear in your windscreen.

Figure FF102-32 NACWS Correlation

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Crew Procedures Of course, one of the best resources you have to assist in clearing is another pilot in the aircraft. When flying dual, both crewmembers are responsible for clearing! The pilot not flying the aircraft should call out any hazards they see using clock position and relationship to the horizon (high, level, or low). If time is critical and a collision imminent, the pilot not flying should take immediate control of the aircraft and do whatever is necessary to avoid the hazard.

General Techniques The most important place to clear is your flightpath. Your flightpath is roughly approximated by your nose position. If you are climbing, clear ahead of the aircraft and slightly up. You might be coming up under another aircraft. In a descent, clear ahead and down. If you are descending rapidly, clearing turns would help. A clearing turn is a series of banks that move the nose of the aircraft out of the way so you can clear below the nose.

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FF102 CLEARING, CROSS-CHECK, AND BASIC FLIGHT Prior to a turn, clear the direction of the turn. Set the bank using composite references and clear your flightpath during the turn. Even in a turn, your flightpath is out the windscreen, so place your emphasis there.

STUDENT GUIDE

Other Techniques In addition to using onboard systems, radar advisories, and the other crewmember, knowing and adhering to established groundtracks can help prevent conflicts by providing right of way rules to be followed along with defined points of entry. In addition, you can often locate other aircraft in the traffic pattern as they report their position on the radio. Specific pattern techniques for clearing will be covered in the traffic pattern lesson.

Lesson Quiz Questions

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LESSON QUESTIONS EMBEDDED QUESTIONS (Ref: Segment/Topic/Question) 1. Click on the performance instrument that will provide your first indication of an incorrect pitch setting. (B/1/1)

2. Which of the following instruments is a control instrument? (B/1/2) a. Electronic attitude direction indicator (EADI) b. Electronic horizontal situation indicator (EHSI) c. Altimeter d. Vertical speed indicator (VSI) 3. During straight and level flight, your primary reference is the EADI, with airspeed, altitude, and heading cross-checks. Which performance instrument increases in importance during a turn? (B/1/3) a. b. c. d. ASI EHSI VSI Primary engine data display

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STUDENT GUIDE

4. Click on the performance instrument that provides your first indication of failure to maintain zero bank in straight and level flight. (B/1/4)

5. Use composite references as your primary attitude reference in place of ______. (B/2/1) a. b. c. d. the control instruments the performance instruments the EADI the EHSI

6. Each of the following statements associates a type of deviation from level flight with a cause. Select the INCORRECT relationship. (C/1/1) a. b. c. d. An airspeed deviation is normally caused by an incorrect power setting. An altitude deviation is normally caused by an improper pitch setting. A heading deviation is normally caused by failure to correct for winds. A heading deviation is normally caused by failure to maintain a zero bank angle.

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7. Match the type of trim control with the appropriate trim surface by dragging and dropping the trim labels to the aircraft target areas on the right. (C/2/1) Pitch Roll Yaw

8. Which statement best describes the relationship between the ball on the turn and slip indicator and coordinated flight? (C/3/1) a. b. c. d. The ball should follow aircraft bank. In a left turn, it should deflect left, center for level flight, and right for a right turn. The ball should be centered for coordinated flight, regardless of bank angle. Centering the ball is a good indication of coordinated flight only in straight and level flight. The position of the ball has no relation to coordinated flight. The trim position indicators show coordinated flight.

9. How many Gs does it take to perform a level 60 bank turn? (C/3/2) a. b. c. d. 1.4 2 3 It depends on airspeed.

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FF102 CLEARING, CROSS-CHECK, AND BASIC FLIGHT 10. An ILS final approach is a good example of a rate descent. (C/4/1) a. b. True False

STUDENT GUIDE

11. Select the response that most accurately reflects the relationship between pitch and bank when comparing a constant airspeed, constant power straight climb and a constant airspeed, constant power, climbing turn. (C/4/2) a. b. c. d. The more bank you use, the higher the pitch attitude you will need to maintain airspeed. The climb pitch attitude for a given airspeed and power setting will be constant regardless of bank. As the bank angle decreases, the pitch attitude will decrease to allow for induced drag. As the bank angle increases, the pitch attitude will lower to maintain the desired airspeed.

12. You are doing a climb and plan to level off at 12,000 feet. You have the cockpit indication in the graphic on the right. To accomplish a smooth level off, how large a lead point should you use? (C/5/1) a. b. c. d. 100 feet 130 feet 160 feet 180 feet

13. Which of the following statements is TRUE? (C/6/1) a. b. c. d. Airspeed changes in level flight do not require you to change trim. A change in power setting will only effect pitch trim. Once you have the aircraft in trim, you wont have to change the trim settings. Power changes normally require elevator and rudder trim adjustments.

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14. You need to make a radio call to the controlling agency, but it isnt one of the standard local area radio calls. What information should you provide to the controlling agency? (C/7/1) a. b. c. d. You should state your call sign, your tail number, and your destination. You should state your point of departure, who you are talking to, and what you want. You should state what you want, your call sign, and the controlling agency. You should state the controlling agency, your call sign, and what you want.

15. Select the transponder code you would set if you experience a two-way radio failure. (C/7/2) a. b. c. d. 1200 7500 7600 7700

16. Visual accommodation, empty field myopia, and limited field of vision are three visual limitations that affect clearing. Select the statement concerning clearing that is FALSE. (D/1/1) a. b. c. d. Limited field of vision allows you to sweep your eyes across the horizon to pick up traffic conflicts. Letting your eyes focus for 2 to 3 seconds in a specific area allows time for visual accommodation. Empty field myopia can occur when there is haze restricting visibility so outside references are all gray. Due to binocular vision, you are less likely to attend to objects that remain with the visual field of one eye.

17. Which of the following helps you clear? (D/1/2) a. b. c. d. NACWS Radios Specific ground tracks All of the above aid in clearing.

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FF102 CLEARING, CROSS-CHECK, AND BASIC FLIGHT LESSON REVIEW QUIZ QUESTIONS 1. Which of the following choices lists only performance instruments? a. b. c. d. 2. Airspeed indicator, altimeter, VSI VSI, EADI, altimeter Primary engine data display, EADI, airspeed indicator Altimeter, EHSI, primary engine data display

STUDENT GUIDE

Which performance instrument will provide the first indication of an incorrect pitch setting during level flight? a. b. c. d. Airspeed indicator Altimeter EADI VSI

3.

Each of the following statements associates a type of deviation from level flight with a cause. Select the correct relationship. a. b. c. d. An airspeed deviation is normally caused by an incorrect power setting. An altitude deviation is normally caused by failure to maintain a zero bank angle. A heading deviation is normally caused by failure to correct for winds. An altitude deviation is normally caused by an improper power setting.

4.

You are in straight and level flight when you notice a heading deviation. What is normally the cause of a heading deviation? a. b. c. d. Failure to maintain zero bank angle Improper use of the TAD An incorrect power setting Poor pitch control

5.

You are 20 off your desired heading. What bank angle will you use to make your correction? a. b. c. d. 10 20 30 45

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6.

You notice the aircraft is out of trim. In what order should you trim the control surfaces? a. b. c. d. Aileron, elevator, rudder Elevator, aileron, rudder Elevator, rudder, aileron Rudder, elevator, aileron

7.

Adjusting your heading so you fly a straight line groundtrack is called ______. a. b. c. d. homing crabbing drifting heading

8.

You are in straight and level flight when you notice the ball on the turn and slip indicator is not centered. What does this indicate? a. b. c. d. The TAD is not operating. The aircraft is out of roll trim. The aircraft is out of pitch trim. The aircraft is out of yaw trim.

9.

Which statement best describes the relationship of pitch and power when comparing a level turn to straight and level flight? a. b. c. d. Pitch and power will be the same in a level turn as in straight and level flight. Power will be higher, but pitch will be the same. Pitch will increase, but power will stay the same. Both pitch and power increase to perform a level turn.

10. You are descending to 4000 feet at 200 KIAS. Your VSI indicates a 1500 fpm descent. At what altitude will you begin your level off? a. b. c. d. 3800 4150 4200 4400

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STUDENT GUIDE

11. Your call sign is Texan 22, and you have been told to change to frequency 351.8. Select the correct phraseology for your response. a. b. c. d. Texan twenty too, tree fifty wun ait Texan twenty too, tree fife wun ait Texan too too, tree fife wun point ait Texan too too, tree fifty wun ait

12. What information would not normally be transmitted through ATIS? a. b. c. d. Current altimeter Clearance to taxi Active runway Sky condition

13. What is the correct transponder code for an emergency? a. b. c. d. 1200 7500 7600 7700

14. Visual accommodation refers to the time it takes your eyes to focus. To ensure you will be able to see and recognize traffic, how long should you clear a given area to be sure your eyes have had sufficient time to focus? a. b. c. d. second 1 second 2-3 seconds 4-5 seconds

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FF103 TAXI AND TAKEOFF FF103 TAXI AND TAKEOFF STUDENT GUIDE TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................... 3-1 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................... 3-2 OVERVIEW............................................................................................................................... 3-3 REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................... 3-3 STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS .................................................................................................... 3-3 LESSON OUTLINE .................................................................................................................. 3-3 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. 3-4 TAXI PROCEDURES .......................................................................................................... 3-4 TAXI.................................................................................................................................. 3-4 TAKEOFF PROCEDURES............................................................................................... 3-17 TAKEOFF RESTRICTIONS ....................................................................................... 3-17 TAKEOFF ...................................................................................................................... 3-19 CROSSWIND TAKEOFFS .......................................................................................... 3-28 LESSON QUESTIONS ........................................................................................................... 3-32

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FF103 TAXI AND TAKEOFF LIST OF FIGURES

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Figure FF103-1 Taxi Request................................................................................................. 3-4 Figure FF103-2 Taxi Clearance ............................................................................................. 3-5 Figure FF103-3 Taxi Hold Short Clearance ......................................................................... 3-6 Figure FF103-4 Progressive Taxi........................................................................................... 3-6 Figure FF103-5 Ground Crew Signals .................................................................................. 3-7 Figure FF103-6 Taxiway Markings....................................................................................... 3-8 Figure FF103-7 Runway Markings ....................................................................................... 3-9 Figure FF103-8 Airfield Lighting .......................................................................................... 3-9 Figure FF103-9 Taxi Out...................................................................................................... 3-10 Figure FF103-10 Taxi Power ............................................................................................... 3-10 Figure FF103-11 NWS Warning.......................................................................................... 3-11 Figure FF103-12 Resonance Caution .................................................................................. 3-11 Figure FF103-13 Taxi Speeds............................................................................................... 3-12 Figure FF103-14 Minimum Radius Turn Caution ............................................................ 3-12 Figure FF103-15 Minimum Radius Turn ........................................................................... 3-13 Figure FF103-16 Normal and Differential Braking Turns ............................................... 3-13 Figure FF103-17 Aileron & Elevator During Taxi ............................................................ 3-14 Figure FF103-18 Clearing During Taxi .............................................................................. 3-15 Figure FF103-19 Obstacle Clearance .................................................................................. 3-15 Figure FF103-20 Taxi Spacing............................................................................................. 3-16 Figure FF103-21 Light Gun Signals .................................................................................... 3-16 Figure FF103-22 Barriers-Cables........................................................................................ 3-17 Figure FF103-23 Barrier Caution ....................................................................................... 3-18 Figure FF103-24 Barriers-Net ............................................................................................. 3-18 Figure FF103-25 Static Takeoff Power ............................................................................... 3-21 Figure FF103-26 Takeoff Power .......................................................................................... 3-22 Figure FF103-27 Rotation on Takeoff................................................................................. 3-22 Figure FF103-28 Reference Point ........................................................................................ 3-23 Figure FF103-29 Torque Effect ........................................................................................... 3-24 Figure FF103-30 Brakes on Takeoff.................................................................................... 3-25 Figure FF103-31 Proper Pitch Attitude .............................................................................. 3-26 Figure FF103-32 Nose High Attitude .................................................................................. 3-26 Figure FF103-33 Nose Low Attitude ................................................................................... 3-27 Figure FF103-34 Initial Climb ............................................................................................. 3-27 Figure FF103-35 Crosswind Effects .................................................................................... 3-28 Figure FF103-36 Crosswind Rudder Control .................................................................... 3-29 Figure FF103-37 Crosswind Aileron Control..................................................................... 3-30 3-2 Version 1.1/Jan 07

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FF103 TAXI AND TAKEOFF

This lesson discusses T-6A taxi and takeoff operations. Ramp procedures, airfield markings, ground crew/light gun signals will be discussed for both day and night time operation. Normal and crosswind takeoff procedures will also be discussed. Upon completion of this lesson, you will understand the terminology, characteristics, parameters, and procedures for taxi and takeoff operations. REFERENCES Personnel: None Media Facilities: Student CAI Workstation Support Resources: T-6A Flight Manual, AFMAN 11-248, T-6A Flying Fundamentals Student Guide STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS Review applicable portions of AFMAN 11-248, Chapters 1 and 4 Read applicable portions of T-6A Flight Manual Complete CAI lesson S-FF103, following along with this student guide. Complete the practice questions provided. LESSON OUTLINE Topics in this lesson must be taken in sequential order. All topics must be completed prior to attempting the end of lesson quiz. The estimated time required to complete this lesson is 1.3 hours.

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FF103 TAXI AND TAKEOFF Introduction

STUDENT GUIDE

Taxi Procedures

Taxi 1.11.0.0.1 1.11.0.0.2 1.11.0.0.3 1.11.0.0.4 1.11.0.0.5 1.11.0.0.6 1.11.0.0.7 1.11.0.0.8 1.14.0.0.1 7.1.3.0.1 7.4.0.0.1 7.4.0.0.2 7.4.0.0.3 Define terminology and concepts related to taxiing Identify characteristics related to taxiing to runway Identify parameters related to taxiing to runway Identify procedure to taxi to the runway Identify appropriate taxi speed for various ramp conditions and locations Identify ramp markings, signs and lights Determine approximate power requirements for various taxi conditions Identify procedures to obtain taxi instructions Identify procedure to taxi to takeoff position Identify taxiway identification procedures day and night Identify ground crew ground signals for both day and night operations Explain the meaning of selected taxi clearances Identify light gun signals used in radio failure or other emergency situations

Taxi Clearance Before taxiing the aircraft, you must obtain clearance from tower/ground control. The standard radio call for taxi clearance is: Agency being called Aircraft identification Current position on the airport Figure FF103-1 Taxi Request Type of operation planned (VFR/IFR)

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Point of first intended landing

Ground Control When tower/ground control responds, make sure you listen very carefully to their response. You can normally expect to be cleared to taxi to a specific departure runway and to be given the current winds and altimeter setting. In addition, tower/ground control may issue specific taxiway routing to follow. Unless specified otherwise, when told to taxi to a runway, you are cleared to cross all other taxiways and runways along the route except the departure runway itself.

Figure FF103-2 Taxi Clearance

Restricted Clearance Often you will be issued a restricted taxi or hold short clearance to a point on the airport somewhere short of the departure runway. When this type of clearance is issued, you will be given instructions on what to do once you reach the hold short point.

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FF103 TAXI AND TAKEOFF Read Back Requirement When given a restricted taxi clearance you must fully understand the instructions. To ensure this, pilots are required to read back to the controller any hold short or restricted clearances.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF103-3 Taxi Hold Short Clearance

Progressive Taxi When operating at an unfamiliar airfield, its a good idea to have the approach books airfield diagram available for reference. If youre still not sure of the proper route, you should request progressive taxi.

Figure FF103-4 Progressive Taxi

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When you request progressive taxi, ground control will issue step-by-step routing directions until you reach the departure runway or parking ramp. At a large airport with numerous runways and taxiways, this can be a big help in preventing you from accidentally ending up where youre not supposed to be.

Ground Crew Signals When you begin your taxi, you will normally have a ground crew member issuing taxi signals. Study the signals in this graphic. You must know each of these signals in order to safely work with a ground crew member. Note that the same signals are used at night, however, the ground crew will use lighted wands.

Figure FF103-5 Ground Crew Signals

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FF103 TAXI AND TAKEOFF Taxiway Markings Along with the ground crew signals, you need to be familiar with the different airfield taxiway, ramp, and runway markings. Taxiways are marked with a single, yellow line painted down the middle. Some taxiways also have edge markings if the taxiway edge does not correspond to the edge of the pavement. There are two types of edge markings: 1. Continuous Double Yellow Line (not shown): Define taxiway edge from an abutting paved surface that is not intended for use. Do not cross double yellow lines. 2. Dashed Double Yellow Line: Define taxiway edge where it joins other pavement that is intended to be used (ramp, parking area, etc,). It is permissible to cross these lines.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF103-6 Taxiway Markings

Hold Short Lines Another taxiway marking you need to be familiar with is the runway Hold Short Line. Runway hold short lines consist of either 4 lines, (2 solid and 2 dashed) or 2 lines (1 solid and 1 dashed).

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Runway Markings Runways are marked in a variety of ways, usually based on the type of approaches available. For the purpose of this lesson however, there are just a few key markings you need to be aware of. Runways are normally marked with a dashed white centerline and solid white runway edge markings. If taxiing and you notice the centerline changing from yellow to white, you know youve entered a runway.

Figure FF103-7 Runway Markings

Night Markings At night, many of the airfield markings are lighted. Below is a list of just some of the different colored lights used to mark the airfield: Taxiway Edges: Blue Lights Runway Edges: White Lights Stationary Obstacles: Red Lights Make sure you use extra caution at night and taxi at a safe speed. When operating at night, DO NOT use unlighted taxiways. You will receive more detailed information about night airfield markings in a later lesson.

Figure FF103-8 Airfield Lighting

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FF103 TAXI AND TAKEOFF Taxi Procedure 1 Before taxiing, visually clear to the front and rear and signal the crew chief you are ready to taxi. Make sure the area around the aircraft is clear of personnel and obstructions and check the taxiway in both directions for other aircraft, fuel trucks, etc. To initiate the taxi, engage the nose wheel steering, slowly release the brakes, and if needed, add a small amount of power. While taxiing you should keep your left hand on the PCL, with your right hand on the stick. You should position your feet with the arches placed on the rudder pedals and the toes near but not quite touching the brakes.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF103-9 Taxi Out

Taxi Procedure 2 The T-6A will generally taxi quite easily using only idle power. On rare occasions, most likely when taxiing uphill and/or into the wind, power above idle may be needed.

Figure FF103-10 Taxi Power

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Use caution that the aircraft does not get too fast when taxiing with a tailwind and/or downhill. If speed becomes excessive, the proper technique is to use brakes to slow the aircraft below desired taxi speed, then release brakes allowing the aircraft to accelerate back to normal speed. When you again reach desired taxi speed, repeat the process. Following this procedure avoids excess wear and tear caused by continuously riding the brakes.

NWS Warning While you are taxiing, there is an important warning you need to keep in mind when operating the nose wheel steering.

Figure FF103-11 NWS Warning

Resonance Caution Youll also need to be aware of this caution from the Flight Manual.

Figure FF103-12 Resonance Caution

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FF103 TAXI AND TAKEOFF Taxi Speed Its hard to set any specific rule for safe taxi speed. Whats safe under some conditions may be hazardous at other times. The primary requirement for safe taxiing is to maintain safe, positive control of the aircraft. A general rule of thumb is to taxi no faster than a person can walk when operating in a congested area, and no faster than a brisk walk when outside the congested area.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF103-13 Taxi Speeds

Minimum Radius Turns Caution

Figure FF103-14 Minimum Radius Turn Caution

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Figure FF103-15 Minimum Radius Turn

Turning the Aircraft Normal turns are initiated by engaging the NWS and applying rudder in the desired direction of turn. Tighter turns can be made by applying a small amount of inside brake or differential braking during the turn. If making a sharp turn, nose wheel steering should be disengaged to prevent excessive wear to the steering system and tire.

Figure FF103-16 Normal and Differential Braking Turns

Braking Techniques When taxiing, you need to be careful how you apply the brakes. Excess braking in a turn can rapidly accelerate the turn rate and cause the tires to skid or skip along the pavement. Too little braking will cause you to go wide on the turn.

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FF103 TAXI AND TAKEOFF When applying brakes, use a smooth, even application until you reach the correct pressure. The only way to judge the correct pressure is by the feel of the toe brakes and their response to the application. It will take some getting used to but with practice, proper brake application will become second nature.

STUDENT GUIDE

Aileron and Elevator During Taxi When taxiing in a strong crosswind, wind striking the tail surface may cause the aircraft to weathervane (point into the wind) and the upwind wing to rise. Nose wheel and rudder steering will counter the weathervaning and deflecting the ailerons into the wind will prevent the upwind wing from rising. If a strong tailwind is encountered, you will need to hold forward elevator to keep the tail from rising.

Figure FF103-17 Aileron & Elevator During Taxi

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Clearing/Obstacle Avoidance When taxiing, it is vital that you remain alert and visually check the location and movement of everything along your taxi path. If required to accomplish a checklist while taxiing, perform items one at a time with only quick glances inside. Also make sure you monitor the radio to keep aware of other aircraft movements and possible changes to your taxi instructions. Figure FF103-18 Clearing During Taxi

Obstacle Clearance If an obstacle obstructs your taxi path, Air Force regulations require that you do not taxi past it if there will be less than 25 feet of wingtip clearance. If the obstacle will pass between 10 and 25 feet of your wingtip, you must use a wing walker. This requirement is waived for locally based aircraft if taxi lines are marked and obstructions are either permanent or other aircraft parked on established parking spots. Anything closer than 10 feet from the wingtip must be moved before you can continue taxi. Naval requirements vary somewhat between aircraft and location so you will need to discuss this issue with your IP.

Figure FF103-19 Obstacle Clearance

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FF103 TAXI AND TAKEOFF Taxi Spacing When taxiing behind other aircraft, spacing should be maintained in accordance with local procedures. In the absence of any local guidance, a safe distance for taxiing directly behind another aircraft is 150 feet. If staggered in trail, the distance can be reduced to 75 feet. This will ensure you avoid the other aircrafts exhaust fumes and any foreign object damage that may result from their prop or jet wash.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF103-20 Taxi Spacing

Light Gun Signals If radio communication is lost while taxiing, tower will attempt to direct your aircraft using light gun or Aldis Lamp signals. The table to the right shows the type and meaning of each signal used. If you lose communication, observe the tower for these signals. During daylight hours acknowledge the signals by moving the ailerons or rudder. At night, acknowledge by blinking the landing or navigation lights.

Figure FF103-21 Light Gun Signals

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Takeoff Procedures

Takeoff Restrictions 2.1.0.0.10 2.1.2.0.2 2.1.3.1.3 2.1.5.0.3 4.1.0.0.6 Identify takeoff limitations Identify procedures for each type of takeoff restriction Identify runway surface limitations Identify crosswind limitations Cite barrier restrictions for takeoff

Runway Surface Restriction There are some restrictions you need to be aware of regarding takeoffs in the T-6A. The first restriction to be aware of is that the T-6A is limited to operating on hard surfaced runways (concrete, tarmac or similar) only. Non-emergency operation on unimproved surfaces is not allowed.

Cable Barrier Restrictions Many runways you operate on will have barriers or arresting cables installed at the approach and/or departure end. The T-6A has limited capability for taxiing over certain raised cables. A listing of the cables is found in Section V of the Flight Manual.

Figure FF103-22 Barriers-Cables

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FF103 TAXI AND TAKEOFF When taxiing over the cables keep your speed as slow as possible and steer to avoid nose and main landing gear contact with the cable support donuts. You must plan to takeoff and land beyond any arresting cables.

STUDENT GUIDE

Barrier Cautions Section V of the T-6A Flight Manual contains these cautions about runway barriers.

Figure FF103-23 Barrier Caution

Net Barrier Restrictions Taxiing over lowered net barriers (BAK 15) should be avoided if at all possible. If contact with a lowered net barrier is unavoidable, reduce power to idle, and discontinue braking before contacting the lowered barrier. You may resume braking once clear of the lowered barrier. In the unlikely event that the webbing catches on the aircraft, you may experience directional control problems.

Figure FF103-24 Barriers-Net

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Wind Limitations Here are some restrictions you need to be aware of: Maximum crosswind component for takeoff is 25 knots for FLAPS TO and FLAPS UP settings. Takeoff with FLAPS LDG setting is not recommended with greater than 10 knots crosswind component. The maximum crosswind component for landing and touch and go is 25 knots (AETC limits touch and go landings to 20 knots) for all flap settings. The maximum permissible crosswind for a wet runway is 10 knots and for an icy runway is 5 knots. The maximum tailwind component for takeoff is 10 knots.

Takeoff 2.1.0.0.6 2.1.0.0.8 2.1.0.0.9 2.1.4.0.2 2.1.4.0.3 Identify the flight control manipulation required for takeoff Identify parameters related to takeoff Identify takeoff procedures Identify instrument references for normal takeoff attitude Identify outside visual references for normal takeoff attitude

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FF103 TAXI AND TAKEOFF Takeoff Clearance As you approach the runway hold short line, switch to tower or the appropriate controlling agency. As you switch frequencies, listen carefully to avoid cutting out other transmissions. When ready for takeoff, contact the controller using the standard radio call or local procedures. If told to taxi into position and hold or hold short you must read back that clearance.

STUDENT GUIDE

Takeoff: General Information Since the takeoff requires both ground and in-flight operation, you must learn to use the controls during the transition from ground movement to airborne flight with maximum smoothness and coordination. Skill in blending these functions will improve your ability to control the airplanes direction of movement during takeoff roll and liftoff.

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Takeoff Options During your training you will practice two different types of takeoffs: Static takeoff Rolling takeoff Initially, you will practice only static takeoffs. Later, as you become more proficient at controlling the aircraft, you and your instructor will have the option to perform a rolling takeoff.

Static Takeoff: NWS For a static takeoff, bring the aircraft to a complete stop on the runway prior to initiating the takeoff. Make sure the nose wheel is centered and disengage nose wheel steering. While holding the brakes with sufficient pressure to prevent creeping, advance the power to 25 - 30% torque and check engine instruments.

Figure FF103-25 Static Takeoff Power

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FF103 TAXI AND TAKEOFF Static Takeoff: Brakes When you are ready to takeoff, smoothly release the brakes by dropping your heels to the deck so that the toes or balls of the feet are on the rudder portion only, not on the toe brakes. Once brakes are released, smoothly advance the PCL to MAX and cross-check the engine instruments.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF103-26 Takeoff Power

Static Takeoff: Stick As you reach 85 knots, gradually apply back stick pressure to raise the nose wheel slightly off the runway and establish a takeoff attitude of 8 -10 nose high. A good visual reference for the rotation attitude is to place the spinner on the horizon.

Figure FF103-27 Rotation on Takeoff

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Rolling Takeoff Rolling takeoffs are performed in much the same manner as a static takeoff and are often used to aid traffic flow in a busy pattern. To perform a rolling takeoff, taxi onto the runway, align the aircraft with the runway heading, ensure the nose wheel is centered and disengage nosewheel steering. You may have to taxi straight ahead slightly to make sure the nose wheel is properly aligned. In a rolling takeoff you do not bring the aircraft to a stop. Once youre properly aligned with the runway, advance power to MAX, cross-check engine instruments, and begin your takeoff roll.

Aim Point Maintaining directional control during takeoff is of primary importance. Prior to starting the takeoff roll, its a good technique to select a distant reference point (runway centerline, trees, building, etc.) that you can keep your nose pointed at during the takeoff. Using a distant reference point will help you detect deviations in your ground track early enough to make timely corrections.

Figure FF103-28 Reference Point

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FF103 TAXI AND TAKEOFF Power Control Another way to help your directional control and prevent sudden swerving is to always advance the PCL smoothly and continuously. Abrupt application of power may cause the airplane to yaw sharply due to the effects of torque and/or P-factor. Because of the T-6As engine torque effect, you will need approximately one-half right rudder initially during takeoff roll even though the TAD is engaged. In addition, to help counter torque effect hold the stick aft and slightly to the right to counter the nose from digging in.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF103-29 Torque Effect

Directional Control During takeoff roll you maintain directional control using smooth, prompt, and positive rudder corrections. Expect to need right rudder and be ready to use whatever rudder pressure is needed to make sure you keep the nose pointed at your reference point and the aircraft tracking straight down the runway.

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As speed increases, the flight controls will gradually become more effective and you will need progressively smaller rudder deflections to maintain directional control.

Directional Control: Rotation While in the rotation attitude with the main gear still on the ground, directional control with the rudder and ailerons is critical. Make sure you keep the nose straight and the wings level during rotation or you may find yourself in a rapid unplanned roll or turn just as the main gear lifts off.

Directional Control: Brakes A final tip about maintaining directional control on takeoff: keep your heels on the floor and feet off the brakes. You must avoid using the aircraft brakes for steering purposes. Using the brakes will cause slower acceleration, lengthen takeoff distance, can result in severe swerving, and may even lead to overheated brakes and a brake fire. During the takeoff roll, brakes are for stopping, not steering.

Figure FF103-30 Brakes on Takeoff

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FF103 TAXI AND TAKEOFF Liftoff: Proper Attitude Once you have the proper takeoff attitude of 8 - 10 established, maintain the aircrafts pitch attitude and allow the aircraft to fly itself off the runway.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF103-31 Proper Pitch Attitude

Liftoff: Nose High Attitude You must avoid forcing the aircraft airborne prematurely by establishing an excessively high pitch attitude. If this happens, the angle of attack may become excessive, causing the airplane to settle back to the runway or even stall.

Figure FF103-32 Nose High Attitude

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Liftoff: Nose Low Attitude If on the other hand, sufficient back pressure is not held to maintain the correct takeoff attitude, the airplane may also settle back to the runway. This occurs as the angle of attack is decreased and lift diminishes to a degree where it will not support the airplane. The bottom line is that you must hold the attitude constant after rotation until liftoff.

Figure FF103-33 Nose Low Attitude

Initial Climb As the airplane reaches sufficient flying speed, it will fly itself off the runway. When safely airborne with a positive rate of climb, raise the landing gear and flaps and adjust the pitch attitude slightly to compensate for the loss of lift. Confirm the landing gear and flaps are up and engine instruments are checked. As the aircraft accelerates, continue to increase forward stick pressure to maintain the desired climb airspeed (140-180 KIAS) and trim to relieve the pressure on the stick. If obstacle clearance or noise abatement are not factors, 160 - 180 KIAS will result in improved forward visibility during the climb.

Figure FF103-34 Initial Climb

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FF103 TAXI AND TAKEOFF Crosswind Takeoffs 2.1.5.0.1 2.1.5.0.2 Overview The first step in making a good crosswind takeoff is to detect the crosswind and anticipate its impact on your takeoff. Once youve done that, applying the correct aileron and rudder directional control inputs becomes much easier. Get in the habit of noting the controller reported winds and the windsock (or other indicators) whenever you take the runway. That way youll detect the presence of a crosswind and be able to anticipate its effect on your takeoff roll. Identify factors affecting crosswind takeoff Identify procedure for crosswind takeoff

STUDENT GUIDE

Effects on Takeoff When crosswinds are present, two things will tend to occur. First, as the wind strikes the tail surface, the aircraft will tend to weathervane (nose turns into the wind). Secondly, crosswinds can cause the upwind wing to rise leading to a skipping action as the aircraft attempts to fly on only one wing.

Figure FF103-35 Crosswind Effects

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During these skips, the aircraft will tend to move sideways on the runway imposing a great deal of stress on the landing gear and tires. Of course, the major hazard of both weathervaning and skipping is the possible loss of directional control.

Directional Control: Rudder Use rudder to maintain directional control and counter the tendency for the aircraft to weathervane. Usually, a crosswind takeoff requires downwind rudder pressure (i.e., left crosswind requires right rudder) in order to keep the nose from weathervaning. Figure FF103-36 Crosswind Rudder Control In the T-6A, the tendency of the aircraft to yaw left due to engine torque/P-factor will help counteract the weathervaning tendency caused by a crosswind from the right. On the other hand, it will aggravate the aircraft tendency to swerve left if the crosswind is from the left. This means that flying the T-6A with a left crosswind on takeoff, you must anticipate the need for increased right rudder to maintain directional control.

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FF103 TAXI AND TAKEOFF Directional Control Key The key to good directional control in a crosswind takeoff is to stay focused on your reference point. If the nose tracks left of the point, add right rudder. If it moves right of the point, use the left rudder. Following this basic procedure makes directional control pretty simple.

STUDENT GUIDE

Crosswind Aileron Control The next thing you need to do is counter the tendency for the upwind wing to rise in a crosswind. You do this by holding the proper amount of aileron INTO the wind. As you begin your takeoff roll, hold (up to full) aileron into the wind. As the aircraft accelerates and the ailerons become more effective, you must gradually reduce the aileron deflection to keep the wings level. Keep in mind though that you will need to keep in at least some aileron throughout the takeoff roll.

Figure FF103-37 Crosswind Aileron Control

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Takeoff: Summary On crosswind takeoffs, crosscontrolling the aircraft (aileron into the wind and rudder away from the wind) requires a good deal of skill to master. Not enough control input and the aircraft may lose directional stability. Too much control input, and you may find yourself with an unplanned yaw or wing low attitude at liftoff. Remember to always check the winds and to anticipate their impact on your takeoff. If you then simply keep focused on your reference point and make timely corrections, youll soon find youve mastered the crosswind takeoff. Lesson Review Quiz

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STUDENT GUIDE

LESSON QUESTIONS EMBEDDED QUESTIONS (Ref: Segment/Topic/Question) 1. Unless specified otherwise, when told to taxi to a runway, you are cleared to cross all other taxiways and runways along the route. (B/1/1) a. True b. False 2. Which of the highlighted signals at right is the correct marshalling signal for Slow Down? (B/1/2)

3. Which of the highlighted signals at right is the correct marshalling signal for Left Turn? (B/1/3)

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4. Normal power setting for taxiing the T-6A is ______. (B/1/4) a. IDLE b. 20% torque c. 30% torque d. 40% torque 5. A general rule of thumb is to taxi no faster than ______ when operating in a congested area, and no faster than ______ when outside the congested area. (B/1/5) a. person can jog; a sprint b. a person can walk; a brisk walk c. 20 knots; 25 knots d. 30 knots; 50 knots 6. In the absence of local guidance, if you are taxiing directly behind another aircraft, a safe spacing to maintain is ______ feet. (B/1/6) a. 25 b. 50 c. 75 d. 150 7. If you observe this light signal from tower while taxiing, what action should you take? (B/1/7)

(Flashing Green)

a. Taxi clear of the runway in use b. Continue taxi c. Stop d. Return to starting point on airport

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STUDENT GUIDE

8. If the nose or a main landing gear contact an arresting cable support donut, you must have the aircraft inspected by qualified maintenance personnel prior to next flight. (C/1/1) a. True b. False 9. The maximum crosswind allowed for takeoff in the T-6A with FLAPS TO or FLAPS UP is ______ knots. (C/1/2) a. 10 b. 15 c. 20 d. 25 10. What are the two types of takeoff options available to a pilot? (C/2/1) a. Headwind and tailwind b. Static and rolling c. Stop and go d. Max power and reduced rolling 11. For a static takeoff, set power between ______ and ______ % torque prior to brake release. (C/2/2) a. 25; 30 b. 40; 50 c. 50; 60 d. 80; 100 12. On takeoff in the T-6A, rotate between ______ and ______ nose high at 85 KIAS. (C/2/3) a. 2; 3 b. 5; 6 c. 8; 10 d. 12; 15 13. In the T-6A, expect to need approximately _____right rudder initially on takeoff roll. (C/2/4) a. one-quarter b. one-half c. three-quarter d. full

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14. Brakes should be used during takeoff to assist in maintaining directional control. (C/2/5) a. True b. False 15. Once the proper takeoff attitude is established, maintain the aircrafts pitch ______. (C/2/6) a. until 85 KIAS then raise the nose to 15 b. and if liftoff does not occur by 85 KIAS, abort the takeoff c. and allow the aircraft to fly itself off the runway d. and adjust power to 95% 16. As the aircraft accelerates, maintain the desired climb airspeed of ______ KIAS. (C/2/7) a. 120-160 b. 140-160 c. 140-180 d. 150-180 17. On takeoff, a crosswind can cause the aircraft to ______ into the wind and the ______. (C/3/1) a. weathervane; downwind wing to rise b. weathervane; upwind wing to rise c. drift; rudder to vibrate d. drift; elevator to vibrate 18. To control the effects of crosswinds on takeoff, hold the proper amount of aileron ______ the wind to counter the tendency for the ______ to rise. (C/3/2) a. away from; nose b. into; nose c. away; wing d. into; wing LESSON QUIZ QUESTIONS 1. If issued a hold short clearance you are required to read it back to the controller. a. True b. False

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FF103 TAXI AND TAKEOFF 2. If youre not sure of the proper taxi route, you should request ______. a. directive taxi instructions b. progressive taxi instructions c. instructional taxi directions d. a local pilot to come to the aircraft and assist you

STUDENT GUIDE

3. If you find yourself taxiing on a single yellow line with dashed double yellow lines along both sides of the pavement, you are most likely on a ______. a. runway b. temporary ramp c. Navy base d. taxiway 4. In absence of local guidance, a safe distance to maintain taxiing directly behind another aircraft is 150 feet. If staggered in trail, this distance can be reduced to ______ feet. a. 25 b. 50 c. 75 d. 100 5. If you observe a flashing white light from tower while you are taxiing, what action should you take? a. Continue taxiing b. Takeoff c. Return to starting point d. Stop 6. What is the maximum tailwind component for takeoff in the T-6A? a. 5 knots b. 10 knots c. 15 knots d. 20 knots

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7.

On takeoff in the T-6A, rotate between 8 and 10 nose high at ______ KIAS. a. 60 b. 85 c. 100 d. 120

8.

When taking off, the PCL should always be advanced ______ and ______. a. rapidly; fully b. smoothly; continuously c. smoothly; part way at a time d. rapidly; continuously

9.

In the T-6A, the tendency of the aircraft to ______ due to engine torque/P-factor will help counteract the weathervaning tendency caused by a crosswind from the right. a. yaw right b. roll left c. yaw left d. pitch up

10. Usually, a crosswind takeoff requires ______ to maintain aircraft directional control. a. upwind elevator b. downwind elevator c. upwind rudder d. downwind rudder

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FF104 DEPARTURE AND CLIMB FF104 - DEPARTURE AND CLIMB STUDENT GUIDE TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................... 4-1 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................... 4-2 OVERVIEW............................................................................................................................... 4-3 REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................................... 4-3 STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS .................................................................................................... 4-3 LESSON OUTLINE .................................................................................................................. 4-3 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. 4-4 DEPARTURE AND CLIMB ............................................................................................... 4-4 ATC INSTRUCTIONS.................................................................................................... 4-4 IFR DEPARTURE ......................................................................................................... 4-10 VISUAL FLIGHT RULES (VFR) DEPARTURE ...................................................... 4-13 DEPARTURE PROCEDURES .................................................................................... 4-16 CLIMB ............................................................................................................................ 4-17 LESSON QUESTIONS ........................................................................................................... 4-22

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Figure FF104-1 Departure Flow ............................................................................................ 4-4 Figure FF104-2 ATC Departure Instructions ...................................................................... 4-6 Figure FF104-3 Radar Departure ......................................................................................... 4-8 Figure FF104-4 Aircraft Limitations .................................................................................... 4-9 Figure FF104-5 Ranger-Five Departure ............................................................................. 4-10 Figure FF104-6 Runway Headings ...................................................................................... 4-11 Figure FF104-7 Altitude Restrictions.................................................................................. 4-12 Figure FF104-8 Ground References .................................................................................... 4-14 Figure FF104-9 Corpus Christi VFR Departure................................................................ 4-15 Figure FF104-10 160 KIAS Climb Picture ......................................................................... 4-17 Figure FF104-11 Climbing Turn ......................................................................................... 4-20 Figure FF104-12 Climb Airspeeds....................................................................................... 4-20 Figure FF104-13 140 KIAS Climb Picture ......................................................................... 4-21

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FF104 DEPARTURE AND CLIMB

This lesson discusses basic information and procedures for performing departures and climbs in preparation for aircrew training and initial flight lessons. REQUIREMENTS Personnel: None Media Facilities: Student CAI Workstation Support Resources: T-6A Flight Manual; T-6A Flying Fundamentals Student Guide; AFMAN 11-248 STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS Review applicable portions of AFMAN 11-248, Chapter 4 Review T-6A Flying Fundamentals Student Guide Complete CAI lesson FF104, following along with this student guide. Complete the practice questions provided. LESSON OUTLINE Topics in this lesson must be taken in sequential order. All topics must be completed prior to attempting the end of lesson quiz. The estimated time required to complete this lesson is 30 minutes.

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STUDENT GUIDE

Introduction

Departure and Climb

ATC Instructions 2.4.0.0.2 2.4.0.0.3 2.4.0.0.4 Purpose The departure is a maneuver which allows an aircraft to safely and efficiently transition from the takeoff phase to the next phase of flight. The next phase of flight may take an aircraft to another airport, to a local training area, or even return the aircraft back into the departure airport. Figure FF104-1 Departure Flow Identify departure tracks from Air Traffic Control (ATC) instructions Define terminology and concepts related to departure Identify parameters related to departure

Types of Departures There are two types of departures: Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) Departure Visual Flight Rules (VFR) Departure

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IFR Departure Design The IFR Departure is designed for use when flying in instrument flight conditions IMC where you cannot see the ground and are under the control of an air traffic controller. Even though the weather may be clear, most of the missions you will fly in your military career will be flown using an IFR Departure.

ATC Departure Instructions 1 This lesson discusses two of the most common IFR Departures. The first type will provide you with verbal air traffic control (ATC) departure instructions prior to takeoff. These instructions are normally requested and received in the parking space prior to taxiing.

ATC Departure Instructions 2 Normally, to insure you understand the ATC instructions, you will read back the entire clearance to the controller as it was read to you. Therefore, you need to copy down the instructions as they are initially read to you.

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FF104 DEPARTURE AND CLIMB Your instructor will provide you with techniques for copying clearances later in your flight training.

STUDENT GUIDE

ATC Departure Instructions 3 On the graphic you see the written instructions you just heard and a depiction of the flight path to be flown.

Figure FF104-2 ATC Departure Instructions

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Verbal Depiction-Headings As you can see, these instructions include: Headings - When directed to fly a runway heading in a departure, you maintain a magnetic course that matches the runway designation. For example, if a departure dictates fly runway heading and you are departing 13L, you fly a heading of 130.

Verbal Depiction-Radials Radials or tracks - inbound and outbound to a NAVAID, such as radial 184 outbound from Corpus Christi

Verbal Depiction-Altitude Altitudes

Verbal Depiction-Alt Restrictions Altitude restrictions - minimum and maximum altitudes

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FF104 DEPARTURE AND CLIMB Verbal Depiction-Radio Freqs Radio frequencies and transponder codes - radio frequencies and transponder codes needed to tune the RMU You need to copy these instructions and understand them prior to takeoff so you can fly them after takeoff.

STUDENT GUIDE

Radar Departure It is possible the departure air traffic controller may change these initial instructions once you contact them after takeoff. These airborne instructions are called radar vectors or a radar departure. They normally include vector headings and/or assigned altitudes and amend any previous instructions or clearances you received earlier. These changes may be necessary to sequence your aircraft to avoid other airborne aircraft or to expedite your departure from the airport area. Obviously, if you receive new instructions they should be followed as directed.

Figure FF104-3 Radar Departure

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Radar Vector Example

Departure Procedures There are a couple of important items you need to keep in mind when flying ATC departure instructions. First, at anytime during the departure that you are unsure or do not understand the instructions or clearances, query the controller. Second, the controller does not know the climb capabilities of your aircraft. Therefore, you need to inform the controller if you cannot meet an assigned altitude by a certain point.

Figure FF104-4 Aircraft Limitations

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FF104 DEPARTURE AND CLIMB IFR Departure 2.4.0.0.1 2.4.0.0.3 2.4.0.0.4

STUDENT GUIDE

Identify departure tracks from published instrument departures Define terminology and concepts related to departure Identify parameters related to departure

IFR Departure Procedures IFR departure procedures are published in flight information publications (FLIP). You will learn more about the different publications in later lessons. For now, just become familiar with the basic structure of a typical IFR departure procedure. This is important because you may be required to fly local IFR departures early in your training.

Departure Depiction This is a typical IFR departure depiction. The upper portion displays a plan view of the ground track of the departure for each departure runway. The lower portion has written departure instructions for each departure runway. These instructions describe and correlate with the ground track in the upper portion of the depiction. Figure FF104-5 Ranger-Five Departure

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Dept Construction-NAVAIDs Like the verbal departure, the IFR departure procedure is constructed using: NAVAIDs - includes the identifier and frequencies used to tune in to the NAVAID on the RMU. In this example, TRUAX would be tuned for the majority of the departure

Dept Construction-Headings Headings - in the plan view and in the written description Runway headings (see airport diagram page in approach book) Aircraft headings

Figure FF104-6 Runway Headings

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FF104 DEPARTURE AND CLIMB Dept Construction-Courses Courses or radials - inbound and outbound to a NAVAID, such as inbound course 203 to TRUAX, radial 213 outbound from TRUAX, and radial 184 outbound from Corpus Christi

STUDENT GUIDE

Dept Construction-Arcs Arcs - a circular course around a NAVAID measured in nautical miles using DME to specify a ground track; for example, portions of the 7 DME arc around the NAVAID TRUAX are used to define portions of the departure.

Dept Construction-Alt Restrictions Altitude restrictions - minimum and maximum altitudes during departure

Altitude Restrictions If there is a line below a number as shown in the example, then the number signifies a minimum altitude. You must be at or above that altitude. A line above the number indicates a maximum altitude. You must be at or below that altitude. Figure FF104-7 Altitude Restrictions

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Lines above and below define a mandatory altitude, and indicate that you must be at that specified altitude. Numbers without any lines are considered recommended altitudes.

Dept Construction-Radio Freqs Radio frequencies - all radio frequencies needed to communicate with ground agencies while flying the departure are located on the upper left hand corner

Dept Construction-Spec Instructions Special instructions - additional information that may assist in flying departure; such as this table of Minimum Climb Rates

Visual Flight Rules (VFR) Departure 2.4.0.0.3 2.4.0.0.4 Define terminology and concepts related to departure Identify parameters related to departure

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FF104 DEPARTURE AND CLIMB VFR Departure Intro As discussed earlier, most of the missions you will fly in your military career will be flown using an IFR departure. However, you will have a requirement to fly VFR departures, especially during your pilot training missions. Mission requirements normally dictate the type of departure flown.

STUDENT GUIDE

Ground References A VFR departure is flown using ground references for navigation. The cockpit instruments are used as a backup. Some examples of ground references are: Cities and Towns Roads Bridges Railroad tracks Terrain features (hills, streams, etc.) Figure FF104-8 Ground References

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VFR Dept Depiction Here is a ground track depiction for a NAS Corpus Christi VFR departure flown by local training aircraft to the training areas. To sequence the training aircraft in an efficient and orderly flow, there are written instructions that point out ground references to follow.

Figure FF104-9 Corpus Christi VFR Departure

VFR Dept Example

Published VFR Procedures VFR departures are often flown using ground points you have selected to depart from the airfield. Most VFR departures are developed and planned by the aircraft pilots. However, at some airfields there are published VFR departure procedures. They will usually be available from Base Operations.

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FF104 DEPARTURE AND CLIMB Departure Procedures 2.4.0.0.5 Identify departure procedures

STUDENT GUIDE

Departure Procedures 1 1. Understand departure instructions. Prior to takeoff, you need to make sure you receive and understand departure instructions. Study the instructions and set up your aircraft instruments to fly the departure.

Departure Procedures 2 2. Resolve questions and aircraft limitations. This was discussed earlier. You must ensure you understand the departure instructions. To fly the departure incorrectly could lead to disaster. At best, the air traffic controller will be extremely upset with your performance. Also, remember to inform the controller if your aircraft performance is below what is required to meet departure restrictions.

Departure Procedures 3 3. Adhere to the published or verbal departure instructions.

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The instructions are designed to safely and quickly sequence your aircraft with other aircraft in a departure flow. Deviations from the departure instructions without clearance could result in a mid-air collision. To help you avoid this during the departure, refer to the departure instructions.

Climb 2.3.0.0.2 2.3.0.0.4 2.3.0.0.5 2.3.0.0.6 2.3.0.0.3 Identify required control inputs to maintain climb Define terminology and concepts related to climb Identify parameters related to climb Identify procedures for climb Identify purpose of climb

Standard Climb For most climbs in the T-6A, you will use a constant airspeed climb at 160 KIAS using maximum power. Remember, in these climbs power remains constant and you vary the pitch to maintain airspeed. Climbing at 160 KIAS provides for a good climb rate while allowing improved forward visibility for clearing. Figure FF104-10 160 KIAS Climb Picture

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FF104 DEPARTURE AND CLIMB Climbing After Takeoff For climbs to altitude after takeoff accelerate to 160 KIAS by maintaining the takeoff pitch attitude (8-10 nose high) as a starting point and adjust the pitch slightly as necessary to maintain airspeed. An initial pitch attitude of approximately 10-12 will maintain 160 KIAS.

STUDENT GUIDE

Pitch Picture Remember what you learned in your Basic Flight lesson earlier? Set the visual climb picture using your composite pitch reference, trim the aircraft, and check the aircraft performance on the instruments using composite cross-check techniques. As a starting composite pitch reference for 10 - 12, place the horizon between the top of the glareshield and the base of the AOA indexer.

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Climbing from Altitude To initiate a climb from a cruise airspeed above 160 KIAS, simultaneously increase the power to maximum and the pitch to above the normal pitch picture (say 15). Then, as the airspeed bleeds down toward 160 KIAS lower the pitch to approximately 10-12. You will be trading airspeed for altitude. Thats the way to use kinetic energy to your benefit.

Corrections 1 The 10-12 nose up will put you very close to the correct pitch attitude to maintain airspeed. Therefore, if you notice an airspeed deviation which needs to be corrected, the correction should be small (1-2).

Corrections 2 Once the airspeed decreases to 160 KIAS, lower the pitch slightly and trim the aircraft. The new pitch setting will be slightly higher than before the correction. Check the result using the control and performance method.

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FF104 DEPARTURE AND CLIMB Climbing Turns Remember a wings-level climb gives you the most lift and therefore, the best rate of climb for the selected climb airspeed. As was discussed in Aero and Flying Fundamentals, when you roll into a turn, the loss of vertical lift increases as the angle of bank increases. So if you must turn during a climb, and you will, use shallow-bank (less than or equal to 30) turns to maintain a good rate of climb.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF104-11 Climbing Turn

Climb Airspeeds Before you complete climbs, you need to review one additional climb airspeed. 140 KIAS: Best Rate of Climb T-6A achieves altitude in the shortest time. Useful during cross-country training to save fuel.

Figure FF104-12 Climb Airspeeds

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Pitch Picture-140KIAS You might ask; What is a good pitch picture for the best rate of climb airspeed of 140 KIAS? The answer is use approximately 14 nose up pitch with maximum power. a good visual reference is to place the horizon on the bottom of the standby magnetic compass scale.

Figure FF104-13 140 KIAS Climb Picture

Lesson Review Quiz

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LESSON QUESTIONS EMBEDDED QUESTIONS (Ref: Segment/Topic/Question) 1. You receive the following ATC departure instructions when you call for clearance prior to takeoff: Navy 452 cleared as filed. Maintain 10,000. On departure fly runway heading until passing 1000, then turn left to heading 210 to intercept the Corpus Christi 184 radial. Cross LOCOE intersection at or above 8000. Departure Control frequency will be 307.9. Squawk 5471. Based on these instructions, when do you stop flying heading 210? (B/1/1) a. Once you reach 10,000 feet. b. Intercepting the Corpus Christi 184 radial c. Passing 1000 feet d. Maintain heading 210 until cleared. 2. Review the departure instructions again. Navy 452 cleared as filed. Maintain 10,000. On departure fly runway heading until passing 1000, then turn left to heading 210 to intercept the Corpus Christi 184 radial. Cross LOCOE intersection at or above 8000. Departure Control frequency will be 307.9; squawk 5471. If your aircraft was not capable of climbing to 8000 feet or above by LOCOE intersection what should you do? (B/1/2) a. b. c. d. Refuse the clearance Do not takeoff Inform the controller Maintain runway heading longer before turning to heading 210

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3. Study the departure depiction and instructions on this graphic. No matter which runway you use to takeoff, which mile arc do you fly? (B/2/1) a. 4 b. 5 c. 6 d. 7

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4. Study the departure depiction and instructions on this graphic. You have just taken off on Runway 31L Click and drag the T-6A below to the point of the chart where you will be flying the 203 course inbound, then click the Judge button. (B/2/2)

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5. Study the departure depiction and instructions on this graphic. You are flying the departure for RWY 13L/R. Click and drag the T-6A below to the point of the depiction where you will be flying on the 213 radial off the TRUAX NAVAID, then click the Judge button. (B/2/3)

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6. Study the departure depiction and instructions on this graphic.You are flying the departure for any runway. Click and drag the T-6A below to the point of the depiction where you will be flying on the 184 radial off of Corpus Christi NAVAID, then click the Judge button. (B/2/4)

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7. Study the departure depiction and instructions on this graphic. You have taken off on Runway 13R. What is the minimum altitude crossing the TRUAX 213 radial? (B/2/5) a. b. c. d. 1000 ft 2000 ft 3000 ft 5000 ft

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8. When you are flying a VFR departure, what is your primary reference to maintain your departure ground track? (B/3/1) a. b. c. d. NAVAIDs Ground points Other aircraft Radar vectors

9. A VFR departure routing may have either formal instructions or be developed by the pilot flying the aircraft. (B/3/2) a. b. True False

10. Using your mouse, place the correct departure procedures in the boxes below the graphic. (B/4/1)

a. b. c. d. e.

Resolve questions and aircraft limitations Deviate to expedite the departure Adhere to the departure instructions State acceptable departure instructions Receive and understand departure instructions

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11. In the T-6A the climb airspeed used to provide a good rate of climb and improved forward visibility is ______. (B/5/1) a. b. c. d. 125 KIAS 140 KIAS 160 KIAS 180 KIAS

12. In the T-6A what type of climb will you normally use? (B/5/2) a. b. c. d. Constant rate climb at 160 KIAS and 2000 ft/min Constant airspeed climb at 140 KIAS Constant airspeed climb at 160 KIAS Constant rate climb at 140 KIAS and 2000 ft/min

13. What is the correct procedure for performing a climb to altitude after takeoff? (B/5/3) a. b. c. d. Hold the takeoff attitude, accelerate to 200 KIAS and adjust pitch to 20 nose high until the airspeed bleeds to 140 KIAS then adjust pitch to maintain airspeed. Hold the takeoff attitude, accelerate to 140 KIAS and adjust pitch attitude to approximately 15 nose high to maintain airspeed. Hold the takeoff attitude, accelerate to 200 KIAS and adjust pitch attitude slightly to maintain airspeed. Hold the takeoff attitude, accelerate to 160 KIAS and adjust pitch attitude slightly to maintain airspeed.

14. If you notice the airspeed is 5 knots fast, what pitch adjustment should you make to correct back to 160 KIAS? (B/5/4) a. b. c. d. Lower the nose slightly Raise the nose slightly Reduce power slightly Increase power slightly

15. During a normal climb, you notice the airspeed is 155 KIAS. What corrections should you make to correct back to 160 KIAS? (B/5/5) a. b. c. d. Raise the nose slightly Lower the nose slightly Reduce power slightly Increase power slightly

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16. Because of the loss of vertical lift in a climbing turn, what procedures should you follow if you must turn in a climb? (B/5/6) a. b. c. d. Use steeper banks (>30) to limit the time spent in the turn. Use shallow-bank (<= 30) turns, decrease the pitch and increase airspeed to make up for the loss of lift. Use shallow-bank (<= 30) turns to maintain a good rate of climb. Use steeper banks (>30), decrease the pitch and increase airspeed to makeup for the loss of lift and limit the time spent in the turn.

17. In the T-6A the best rate of climb airspeed is ______. (B/5/7) a. b. c. d. 125 KIAS 140 KIAS 160 KIAS 180 KIAS

LESSON REVIEW QUIZ QUESTIONS 1. You are taxiing to depart on Runway 31C at Laughlin AFB and receive the following ATC departure instructions: Texan 23 is cleared as filed. Maintain FL 240. On departure fly runway heading until passing 2000 feet, then turn right to heading 070 to intercept the Laughlin 023 radial direct to Rocksprings. Cross Rocksprings NAVAID at or above FL 240. Departure Control Frequency will be 264.8; Squawk 5130. Based on these instructions when do you stop flying heading 070? a. b. c. d. Once you reach 10,000 ft Intercepting the Laughlin 023 radial Passing 2000 ft Maintain heading 070 until cleared

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2.

Study the departure depiction and instructions on this graphic. When you fly either runway departure you should join the 7 DME mile arc at ______ feet minimum. a. b. c. d. 1000 2000 2500 3000

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3.

Study the departure depiction and instructions on this graphic. You have taken off on Runway 31L. From which heading do you turn right to heading 355? a. b. c. d. 130 203 213 Runway heading

4.

Which one of the following is NOT a general procedure for executing a departure procedure? a. b. c. d. Resolve questions and aircraft limitations Adhere to the published departure or verbal departure instructions Receive and understand departure instructions State acceptable departure instructions

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5.

What is the correct procedure for initiating a climb from a cruise airspeed above 160 KIAS? a. Simultaneously increase the power to maximum and the pitch to above the normal climb pitch picture until the airspeed bleeds off to 160 KIAS then lower the pitch to maintain speed. Increase the power to maximum and the pitch to the normal climb pitch and allow the airspeed to bleed off to 160 KIAS then maintain airspeed. Simultaneously decrease the power and increase the pitch above the normal climb pitch picture until the airspeed bleeds off to 160 KIAS then increase power to maximum and lower the pitch to maintain airspeed. Decrease the power and the pitch to the normal climb pitch and allow the airspeed to bleed off to 160 KIAS then increase power to maximum to maintain airspeed.

b. c.

d. 6.

In the T-6A what type of climb will you normally use? a. b. c. d. Constant rate climb of 140 KIAS and 2000 ft/min Constant rate climb of 160 KIAS and 2000 ft/min Constant airspeed climb of 140 KIAS Constant airspeed climb of 160 KIAS

7.

When you are flying a VFR departure, what is your primary reference to maintain your departure ground track? a. b. c. d. Aircraft instruments NAVAIDs Ground points Other aircraft

8.

When you roll into a turn, the loss of ______ increases as the angle of bank increases. a. b. c. d. horizontal lift power vertical lift airspeed

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS STUDENT GUIDE TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................... 5-1 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................... 5-2 OVERVIEW............................................................................................................................... 5-4 REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................... 5-4 STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS .................................................................................................... 5-4 LESSON OUTLINE .................................................................................................................. 5-4 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. 5-5 NORMAL PATTERNS ........................................................................................................ 5-5 GENERAL TRAFFIC PATTERN ................................................................................. 5-5 OVERHEAD PATTERN .............................................................................................. 5-13 FINAL TURN ................................................................................................................. 5-21 FINAL APPROACH...................................................................................................... 5-25 AOA PATTERN (USN ONLY) .................................................................................... 5-33 CLOSED PATTERN ..................................................................................................... 5-37 STRAIGHT-IN APPROACH ....................................................................................... 5-42 GO-AROUNDS ................................................................................................................... 5-47 GO-AROUNDS .............................................................................................................. 5-47 BREAKOUT AND REENTRY ......................................................................................... 5-53 BREAKOUT................................................................................................................... 5-53 REENTRY ...................................................................................................................... 5-58 LESSON QUESTIONS ........................................................................................................... 5-62

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS LIST OF FIGURES

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Figure FF105-1 Traffic Pattern Segments ............................................................................ 5-7 Figure FF105-2 Pattern Parameters...................................................................................... 5-9 Figure FF105-3 Crabbing..................................................................................................... 5-10 Figure FF105-4 Pattern Wind Analysis .............................................................................. 5-11 Figure FF105-5 Conflict Points............................................................................................ 5-12 Figure FF105-6 Overhead Pattern ...................................................................................... 5-14 Figure FF105-7 Break Spacing ............................................................................................ 5-14 Figure FF105-8 Break Conflicts .......................................................................................... 5-15 Figure FF105-9 Breakpoint Straight Through................................................................... 5-16 Figure FF105-10 Break Picture ........................................................................................... 5-16 Figure FF105-11 Pattern Displacements.............................................................................. 5-17 Figure FF105-12 Adjusting Displacement for Winds ........................................................ 5-17 Figure FF105-13 Double the Crab Technique.................................................................... 5-18 Figure FF105-14 Configured on Downwind ....................................................................... 5-18 Figure FF105-15 Universal Perch Reference...................................................................... 5-19 Figure FF105-16 Perch Wind Adjustments........................................................................ 5-20 Figure FF105-17 Final Turn ................................................................................................ 5-21 Figure FF105-18 Normal Final Turn Pitch Picture........................................................... 5-21 Figure FF105-19 No-Flap Final Turn Pitch Picture .......................................................... 5-22 Figure FF105-20 Normal Final Turn Checkpoints............................................................ 5-23 Figure FF105-21 No-Flap Final Turn Checkpoints ........................................................... 5-24 Figure FF105-22 Rolling Out on Final ................................................................................ 5-25 Figure FF105-23 Establishing Aimpoint on Final.............................................................. 5-26 Figure FF105-24 Wing Low Crosswind Method................................................................ 5-28 Figure FF105-25 Insufficient Aileron Demonstration ....................................................... 5-28 Figure FF105-26 Too Much Aileron Demonstration ......................................................... 5-29 Figure FF105-27 On Glidepath............................................................................................ 5-29 Figure FF105-28 Aimpoint ................................................................................................... 5-30 Figure FF105-29 Headwind Correction.............................................................................. 5-30 Figure FF105-30 Tailwind Correction ................................................................................ 5-31 Figure FF105-31 AOA Indicators........................................................................................ 5-33 Figure FF105-32 AOA Pattern Checkpoints ...................................................................... 5-34 Figure FF105-33 Closed Pattern.......................................................................................... 5-37 Figure FF105-34 Closed Pull Up.......................................................................................... 5-38 Figure FF105-35 Level Off from a Closed .......................................................................... 5-39 Figure FF105-36 Closed Downwind .................................................................................... 5-41 Figure FF105-37 Straight-in Key Points ............................................................................. 5-42 5-2 Version 2.0/Jun 07

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Figure FF105-38 Requesting a Straight-in ......................................................................... 5-43 Figure FF105-39 Straight-In Glidepath Intercept............................................................. 5-45 Figure FF105-40 Straight-In Glidepath Depictions........................................................... 5-46 Figure FF105-41 Go-around Procedures............................................................................ 5-48 Figure FF105-42 Offset Position.......................................................................................... 5-49 Figure FF105-43 Go-Around Choices................................................................................. 5-50 Figure FF105-44 Final Turn Go-Around ........................................................................... 5-51 Figure FF105-45 Final Turn Go-Around Hazards............................................................ 5-52 Figure FF105-46 Breakout Conflict Points ........................................................................ 5-53 Figure FF105-47 Clearing Visually..................................................................................... 5-55 Figure FF105-48 Pattern Breakouts ................................................................................... 5-56 Figure FF105-49 Overhead Breakout Ground Tracks ..................................................... 5-56 Figure FF105-50 Breakout from a Straight-in................................................................... 5-57 Figure FF105-51 Reentry Point Breakout.......................................................................... 5-58 Figure FF105-52 VFR Pattern Parameters........................................................................ 5-61

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS OVERVIEW

STUDENT GUIDE

This lesson is designed to introduce you to common Air Force traffic pattern operations. It covers terminology, procedures, and techniques used to fly safely in the pattern. REFERENCES Personnel: None Media Facilities: Student CAI Workstation Support Resources: T-6A Flight Manual, AFMAN 11-248, T-6A Flying Fundamentals Student Guide STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS AFMAN 11-248 Chapter 5, Sections 5.1 5.10, 5.13 5.17, 5.31 (USN Students Only). Review T-6A Flying Fundamentals student guide. LESSON OUTLINE Topics in this lesson must be taken in sequential order. All topics must be completed prior to attempting the end of lesson quiz. The estimated time required to complete this lesson is 2 hours.

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Introduction

Normal Patterns

General Traffic Pattern 2.46.0.0.1 2.46.0.0.4 2.46.2.0.1 2.46.5.0.1 2.46.6.0.1 Define terminology and concepts related to normal traffic pattern Identify normal traffic pattern procedures Identify the procedure to maintain ground track Identify 90-to-initial leg of normal traffic pattern Identify 45-to-initial in normal traffic pattern

Traffic Pattern Purpose Youve just completed an excellent hour in the working area, and are returning to land. There are six other students from your flight already in the pattern. How will you get your landing practice in with all those other airplanes in the way? The answer is by following the local traffic pattern procedures. Each base has specific traffic pattern procedures designed to help prevent conflicts, assign traffic priority, and provide the opportunity for everyone to get the most out of their training time.

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS Specific traffic pattern procedures can vary a great deal from base to base. This lesson will cover a generic JPPT traffic pattern. Your IP will cover local procedures and terminology applicable to your base.

STUDENT GUIDE

Local Pattern References Most of your pattern flying in the T-6A will be at your home base and auxiliary field. These patterns are normally flown over specific ground tracks using ground references to help you stay on course. Your IP will point out ground references you can use at your home and auxiliary fields.

Universal Pattern References 1 While pattern ground references work fine for your home and auxiliary fields, what happens when you have to land at an unfamiliar airfield? The answer is that you must know how to execute a safe and efficient pattern when the only reference available is the runway itself. After all, a basic rule of traffic pattern operations is that the runway is the primary ground reference.

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Universal Pattern References 2 While training at your home and auxiliary fields, work on using the runway as a universal reference point. This lesson and your IP will suggest some references for you to start with. The ability to fly a pattern with only the runway as a reference will come in very handy later in your JPPT training. More importantly, it will help you build the judgment and skills you must have after you graduate.

Traffic Pattern Segments Here is an illustration of a typical traffic pattern. In general, most traffic patterns can be divided into two segments: Outside or box pattern Inside or overhead pattern The following frames address which portions of the pattern constitute each of the above segments. Figure FF105-1 Traffic Pattern Segments (See a larger version of graphic on page 5-61)

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS Outside Pattern Segments The outside portion of the traffic pattern consist of: Crosswind Outside downwind 90 to initial 45 to initial Initial The outside pattern is normally flown when traffic conflicts prevent you from directly entering the overhead pattern or when a practice straight-in or Emergency Landing Pattern (ELP) is desired.

STUDENT GUIDE

Overhead Pattern Segments The overhead pattern is used to maximize your opportunities to practice landing the aircraft. The overhead pattern consists of: the break inside downwind the perch the final turn final approach The overhead pattern is discussed in detail during the next topic.

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Radar Entry and VFR Entry Radar Entry is another pattern segment often depicted on local pattern diagrams. It is normally used to sequence aircraft into the pattern as they return from the working areas or auxiliary field. The VFR Entry Point is a pattern segment normally used by aircraft reentering the pattern after a breakout. Breakout and VFR reentry procedures will be discussed later in this lesson.

Pattern Altitude and Airspeed During training in the T-6A, normal pattern altitude and airspeed are 1000 feet AGL and 200 KIAS. About 50% torque will maintain 200 KIAS at pattern altitude.

Figure FF105-2 Pattern Parameters

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS Maintaining Track As stated earlier, you are expected to fly a specific ground track when operating in the traffic pattern. To maintain this ground track, you must adjust for winds at pattern altitude by crabbing the aircraft. Determine the wind direction by noting the forecast winds during briefing, listening to the controller, looking at the wind sock, noticing the direction smoke or dust drifts, and by judging your drift based on pattern references.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF105-3 Crabbing

Crabbing As a rough guide, expect to use 1 of crab for each 3 knots of crosswind at pattern altitude. For instance, if you are holding 5 of crab to maintain track on outside downwind, there is approximately 15 knots of crosswind at pattern altitude.

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If you also determine the crab on 90 to initial, you will know how much headwind or tailwind you will have on initial at pattern altitude.

Combining the outside downwind and 90 to initial wind vectors will give you a pretty good idea of the direction and velocity of the winds at pattern altitude. You will use this information to adjust your pattern.

Figure FF105-4 Pattern Wind Analysis

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS Turns For turns in the pattern, use bank as required (approximately 60) and add power as needed to maintain airspeed during the turn (normally about a 5% increase). You want to perform crisp turns in the pattern to minimize the time you spend belly up and to allow you more time to clear for other aircraft.

STUDENT GUIDE

Conflict Points In the high tempo environment of the traffic pattern, its critical that you monitor pattern radio calls and visually clear for other aircraft. Highlighted in this graphic are some pattern hot spots where the potential for traffic conflicts is very high. You must be particularly vigilant when clearing in these areas and be prepared to execute a breakout should a conflict develop. The possible conflicts that can occur at each of these points will be covered throughout this lesson.

Figure FF105-5 Conflict Points

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Initial Before getting into the overhead pattern, take a look at the procedures for initial. When turning onto initial, plan the rollout so your ground track is aligned with the runway centerline or as directed locally. Call initial to the controlling agency in accordance with your local procedures. If planning a full stop, you normally will add fuel remaining (in pounds) to the radio call on initial.

Overhead Pattern 2.47.0.0.4 2.48.0.0.1 2.48.0.0.4 2.48.1.0.1 2.48.1.0.4 2.48.2.0.1 2.48.3.0.1 2.48.5.0.1 Identify straight through on initial procedure Define terminology and concepts related to 360 degree normal overhead pattern procedure Identify 360 degree normal overhead pattern procedure Define terminology and concepts related to break Identify procedure for performing break Identify procedure to rollout on downwind Identify procedure to configure aircraft to land Identify the procedure to rollout on final approach

Overhead and Break Overview The overhead pattern is a set of two 180 turns designed to take you from over the runway, through a turn to downwind to slow and configure, followed by a descending turn to align the aircraft on final approach.

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS The break is a 180 decelerating, level turn to downwind, normally performed between approach end and 3,000 feet down the runway. The exact point of the break is affected by existing wind conditions and pattern saturation.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF105-6 Overhead Pattern

Break Conflicts 1 The break is the first of those pattern hot spots mentioned in the last topic. Before beginning the break, ensure you clear inside downwind. You must not break into traffic that is already on inside downwind. In order for traffic not to be a conflict, the aircraft on inside downwind should be at least abeam or past you before you break.

Figure FF105-7 Break Spacing

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Break Conflicts 2 In addition to inside downwind traffic conflicts, there are two other situations where you normally do not execute the break: When there is an aircraft on a straight-in between 5 and 2 miles. When there is an aircraft flying an emergency landing pattern between the high key and low key pattern positions. Straight-in approaches will be discussed later in this lesson. You will learn about emergency landing patterns in a later lesson.

Figure FF105-8 Break Conflicts

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS Breakpoint Straight Through If you are unable to execute a break by the end of the break zone (3000 feet down the runway unless specified otherwise), follow the procedures for breakpoint straight through. To carry straight through on initial, simply maintain pattern altitude and 200 KIAS then turn crosswind at the departure end of the runway (or as directed locally). If required by local procedures, make a radio call to the controlling agency (i.e., Breakpoint straight through). Before you turn crosswind, ensure you clear below for any aircraft that may be taking off or pulling up into the closed pattern.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF105-9 Breakpoint Straight Through

Break Once you have determined that you are clear to break, smoothly roll into approximately 60 of bank. The angle of bank and back pressure will vary according to wind conditions. Adjust the PCL as required (approximately 10% torque) to slow the aircraft to between 120 to 150 KIAS as you trim to relieve stick pressures.

Figure FF105-10 Break Picture

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Runway Displacement As you rollout on inside downwind, check for proper runway displacement. The proper displacement for a normal pattern (no wind) is for the runway to be slightly outside the fuel filler cap with flaps LDG and aligned with the inside leading edge of the blue wingtip paint with flaps TO. For a no-flap pattern (no wind), the runway should be aligned with the wingtip. When crosswinds are significant, you must adjust your runway displacement. To compensate for an undershooting or angling wind, less downwind displacement is needed. With an overshooting wind, you will need to fly a wider inside downwind to create more displacement from the runway.

Figure FF105-11 Pattern Displacements

Figure FF105-12 Adjusting Displacement for Winds

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS Maintaining Ground Track With a crosswind present, once you have the proper displacement established, you must crab in order to maintain your spacing. As a rule of thumb, double the crab you had on initial to maintain ground track on inside downwind. If you had 5 of crab on initial, roll out of the break on a heading that will give you 10 of crab. The graphic shows you coming up initial for runway 31L, holding heading 315 to maintain track. When you roll out on inside downwind, plan on heading 120 to compensate for the wind.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF105-13 Double the Crab Technique

Configuring for Overhead On inside downwind, with proper displacement established, slow and configure the aircraft to land. Ensure you are below 150 KIAS, confirm GEAR CLEAR with your IP (if presolo, wait for your IP to respond) then lower the landing gear and set flaps as desired.

Figure FF105-14 Configured on Downwind

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As airspeed decreases towards 120 KIAS, retrim the aircraft and increase pitch to maintain level flight (horizon about 1/4 up the windscreen). With gear and TO flaps, approximately 35% torque will maintain 120 KIAS. For LDG flaps, set about 45%. With flaps UP, about 25% will work well. Complete the Before Landing check and recheck your altitude, airspeed, and displacement. You should be in level flight at 120 KIAS as you approach the perch.

Perch Point In a no wind situation, your perch point will be abeam your rollout point. Plan your final turn to roll out approximately 1/2 mile from the runway. Approaching the perch, select a rollout point on the ground to use as a reference during the final turn. A good universal reference for the perch point is when the runway is approximately 45 behind the wingline. As you view the runway from the cockpit, this point is just before the end of the landing runway goes behind the middle canopy bow.

Figure FF105-15 Universal Perch Reference

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS Adjusting Perch for Winds When winds are a factor you need to adjust your perch point in order to roll out at 1/2 mile on final. With a headwind, you need to roll off the perch early since the wind will tend to blow you away from the runway. If there is a tailwind on final, you need to extend the point where you roll off the perch.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF105-16 Perch Wind Adjustments

Final Turn Conflicts The perch point is another pattern hot spot you have to be careful of. When you arrive at the perch DO NOT start the final turn if: another aircraft is in the final turn and not in sight a straight-in is inside 2 miles and not in sight an ELP is inside low key and normal spacing cannot be maintained you cannot maintain normal pattern size and safe spacing If the above traffic conflicts prevent you from initiating the final turn, you must execute a breakout.

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Final Turn 2.48.0.0.4 2.48.5.0.1 Identify 360 degree normal overhead pattern procedure Identify the procedure to roll out on final approach

Final Turn Overview In the final turn you must divide your attention between the airspeed indicator, rollout point, and the runway. As you execute the final turn, try to visualize and project your descent path around the turn, over the rollout point, and down the final approach. Your goal at roll out is to be on the extended runway centerline, approximately 1/2 mile from the runway, on a 3 to 4 glidepath. This should put you about 150 200 feet above the ground at rollout.

Figure FF105-17 Final Turn

Final Turn 1 To begin the final turn, simultaneously lower the nose, adjust power to approximately 15% (12% for no-flap pattern), and roll into approximately 30 of bank. A good memory aid for beginning the final turn is Pitch - Power - Roll. For a normal pattern, once you get the turn established, adjust pitch and bank to set the horizon in the upper 1/3 of the windscreen (2/3 ground - 1/3 sky picture).

Figure FF105-18 Normal Final Turn Pitch Picture

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS For no-flap patterns, adjust this picture to approximately 1/2 ground - 1/2 sky.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF105-19 No-Flap Final Turn Pitch Picture

Final Turn 2 After starting the final turn, slow to: 110 KIAS (LDG flaps) 115 KIAS (TO flaps) 120 KIAS (flaps UP) Check your attitude, airspeed, and altitude to make sure the turn is going as planned. Confirm your configuration then make a gear down radio call to the controlling agency (i.e., TEXAN 22, GEAR DOWN). Add NO-FLAP to the gear down call if flying a no-flap landing and/or FULL STOP if planning to make a full stop landing (unless local procedures dictate otherwise). DO NOT make a gear-down call until the gear indicates DOWN AND LOCKED and you have confirmed the gear position with your IP.

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Final Turn 3 Take a look at the highlighted portion of this graphic. The airspeeds and altitudes shown depict where you should be at the halfway point if you are on the proper descent profile for a normal final turn (altitudes shown are in AGL). Use these numbers to check and adjust your descent rate. If you find yourself above or below these airspeeds or altitudes halfway through the turn, adjust your pitch and/or power to correct back to profile.

Figure FF105-20 Normal Final Turn Checkpoints

Final Turn 4 In addition to checking your descent profile at the halfway point, crosscheck that your heading is within approximately 90 of runway heading. If you have completed more than 90 of turn by the halfway point, shallow out your bank to avoid an angling final. If it is less than 90, you need to increase bank to prevent a possible overshoot.

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS Final Turn 5 Planned bank angle for the final turn is approximately 30. This allows a cushion for increasing or decreasing bank angle so you can roll out on final without angling or overshooting. You may increase bank angle up to a maximum of 45 in the final turn. If you will overshoot at 45 of bank, execute a go-around. You should then adjust downwind displacement slightly wider on subsequent patterns so that you can fly the final turns at 30 bank.

STUDENT GUIDE

No-flap Final Turn For a no-flap pattern, the altitudes at the halfway point and rolling out on final are the same as a normal pattern. The difference on a no-flap pattern is that you must maintain 120 KIAS minimum throughout the final turn and 110 KIAS on final.

Figure FF105-21 No-Flap Final Turn Checkpoints

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Completing the Final Turn Once you rollout on final, establish crab into the wind. Realize that you will have to raise the nose slightly to set the proper attitude. Now you are ready to fly final approach.

Final Approach 2.48.0.0.4 2.48.5.0.1 Identify 360 degree normal overhead pattern procedure Identify procedure to rollout on final approach

Rolling Out on Final On final approach, slow to and maintain: 100 KIAS (LDG flaps) 105 KIAS (TO flaps) 110 KIAS (flaps UP)

Figure FF105-22 Rolling Out on Final

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS To maintain the proper descent rate on final, set the pitch picture so your aim point (represented by the yellow dot and blue cross) is about halfway up the windscreen for an approach with flaps LDG. Either the runway threshold or runway numbers work well as a visual aimpoint. Allow your airspeed to bleed off to final approach speed, then increase power to approximately 18-20% torque to hold it.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF105-23 Establishing Aimpoint on Final

Final Approach Objectives On final approach you have two primary objectives: maintain runway alignment maintain a smooth, constant glidepath

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Maintaining Alignment On final approach, as in the final turn, the aircraft will be affected by the wind. You must know how to compensate for crosswinds on final if you expect to maintain runway alignment. Earlier this lesson covered how crabbing into the wind will allow the aircraft to maintain ground track. In the T-6A however, the landing gear struts are not stressed to continually withstand the side loads imposed by landing in a crab. Since you dont land the T-6A in a crab, during final approach you will transition to another technique that compensates for the crosswind. This technique is known as the wing-low method.

Wing-Low Method As you initially rollout on final, you may allow the aircraft to briefly crab into the wind. The amount of crab required will indicate how much control deflection will be needed as you transition to the wing-low method. Again, you do not want to land the aircraft in a crab.

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS To establish wing low on final, first apply rudder to align the nose with the runway. Second, apply aileron opposite the rudder to stop the drift and keep the flight path aligned with the runway. Finally, maintain approach airspeed by increasing power to compensate for the increased drag caused by applying crosswind controls. A good acronym for remembering the above steps in proper order is RAP. It stands for Rudder, Aileron, Power.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF105-24 Wing Low Crosswind Method

Wing-Low Demo

Insufficient Aileron Demo It is relatively easy to use the right amount of rudder required to align the nose with the runway, but the proper amount of aileron required can be difficult to determine. In this video, you will see the effect of using insufficient aileron to stop the drift with the crosswind. The result is that the aircraft will drift with the wind and lose runway alignment. Figure FF105-25 Insufficient Aileron Demonstration

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Too Much Aileron Demo If you use too much aileron to correct for the drift, the aircraft will start an uncoordinated turn into the wind. Applying more rudder will stop the turn, but the nose will not be aligned with the runway. It will point away from the wind, and you will be slipping down final.

Figure FF105-26 Too Much Aileron Demonstration

Glidepath The second and most difficult objective on final approach is visualizing and maintaining the correct glidepath all the way to the point you transition to land. A good glidepath for a normal pattern in the T-6A will be about 3 to 4, or just what youre looking at if you roll out on final at 150-200 feet AGL at 1/2 NM from the runway. On a no-wind day, depending upon flap setting, the runway numbers will appear roughly as shown in the graphic.

Figure FF105-27 On Glidepath

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS Aimpoint You can think of aimpoint in either of two ways: the aimpoint can always be the same spot in the windscreen (shown as the dot in the graphic) or, the aimpoint can always be the same point on the ground (the cross in the graphic) Either technique will work. Its up to you and your instructor to determine what works best for you.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF105-28 Aimpoint

Headwind Since you will rarely land on a calm day, you must be prepared to deal with headwinds and tailwinds on final. To adjust for a headwind, your pitch attitude down final will be slightly higher to make up for the increase in time you spend flying into the wind. Your power setting will also be higher and landing will be assured later than with calm winds. In the graphic, you can see how the dot is moved down the runway and how the cross appears lower in the windscreen.

Figure FF105-29 Headwind Correction

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Tailwind To compensate for tailwinds on final, you need to do just the opposite. Because your groundspeed is higher, you must descend faster to land in the proper part of the runway. In this graphic, you can see how the dot is short of the runway threshold and how the cross appears higher in the windscreen. In this case, less power is required on final, and landing will be assured sooner than with calm winds.

Figure FF105-30 Tailwind Correction

Gusty Wind Procedures When landing in gusty wind conditions, increase final approach airspeed by 1/2 of the gust factor up to a maximum 10 knot increase. Assume reported winds are 10 knots gusting to 18 and you are flying final approach at 105 KIAS with TO flaps. To determine the gust factor, subtract the steady state winds (10 knots) from the maximum reported gust (18 knots). This will give you a total gust factor of 8 knots (18 -10 = 8).

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS Now divide the 8 knot gust factor by 2 to determine how much to increase final approach speed (8 / 2 = 4). Add the gust increase to your no-wind final approach speed to determine your gust corrected final approach speed (4 + 105) = 109 KIAS gust corrected approach speed. Again, you are limited to a maximum approach speed increase of 10 KIAS. This means that even if the gust factor is over 20 knots, you still only add 10 knots to your no-wind approach speed.

STUDENT GUIDE

Strong Crosswind Procedures If crosswinds are greater than 10 knots, use TO flaps and plan to touchdown at approach speed minus 10 knots (approximately 95 knots). The additional airspeed over the normal TO flap touchdown speed of 85-95 knots will provide you with the capability for more control during the landing. Due to the increased airspeed anticipate the aircraft floating further than normal.

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AOA Pattern (USN Only) 2.50.4.0.1 AOA System In this topic, you will learn how to use the AOA system to fly an overhead pattern. An AOA landing utilizes the normal landing pattern while maintaining optimum AOA throughout the final turn. The AOA overhead pattern may be used when you will fly your operational aircraft. Also, if the airspeed indicator should malfunction, an AOA pattern and approach could be flown. The AOA system includes the AOA gauge and indexer. Identify procedure to perform an AOA visual approach to landing

Figure FF105-31 AOA Indicators

AOA Pattern Entry The initial leg, break, and closed pull up during an AOA pattern is flown the same as a normal pattern. Once on inside downwind, slow below 150 KIAS, extend the landing gear, and set takeoff flaps.

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS AOA Downwind When flying inside downwind for an AOA pattern, configure early enough to ensure the aircraft is at optimum (on speed) AOA with a stabilized power setting by the time you reach the perch.

STUDENT GUIDE

On Speed AOA Indication The on speed AOA indication is the amber center donut on the AOA indexer (10-11 units on the AOA gauge). You will maintain this indication until landing is assured. Maintaining on speed AOA will result in an airspeed less than the 120 knots minimum you normally fly on inside downwind. This means you will need a slightly higher pitch attitude and power setting in order to maintain level flight.

AOA Perch Start the final turn using 30 bank. Bank angle in the turn normally will be slightly less since airspeed is lower, but up to 45 bank may be used to prevent overshooting final.

Figure FF105-32 AOA Pattern Checkpoints

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AOA Final Turn During the final turn, scan the AOA indexer, AOA gauge, rollout point, and intended point of landing. Use the same altitude checkpoints as for a normal pattern and try to visualize and project your descent path around the turn, over the rollout point, and down the final approach. Maintain the on speed AOA indications throughout the turn.

AOA Corrections To correct AOA deviations, use pitch changes to adjust AOA and power changes to adjust descent rate or glidepath. The illuminated AOA indexer chevron points in the direction the nose needs to be moved. If the green upper (slow) chevron is illuminated, your AOA is higher than optimum and your airspeed is too slow to maintain the current glidepath. To correct for this situation, lower the nose slightly then add power to maintain the desired glidepath.

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS If your pitch attitude is too low, the lower red (fast) chevron will illuminate indicating less than optimum AOA and excessive airspeed for the current glidepath. To correct, raise the nose slightly then reduce power as required to maintain the desired glidepath.

STUDENT GUIDE

AOA Final Plan to rollout on final at 150200 feet AGL approximately 1/2 NM from the runway. Because of the slower airspeed, your pitch attitude on final for an AOA pattern will be slightly higher. This will cause your aimpoint to appear slightly lower in the windscreen. Realize that landing will be assured later during an AOA pattern. Since your final approach airspeed is slower, you have less energy to lose before touchdown. Maintain final approach power throughout the roundout until the sink rate has been arrested. At that point, smoothly reduce power to idle and accomplish a normal touchdown.

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Closed Pattern 2.54.0.0.1 2.54.0.0.4 Definition A closed pattern is a quick and easy way to increase the number of opportunities you have to practice landings. It is also the quickest way to get the aircraft on the ground following a goaround or touch-and-go while using the least amount of fuel. The maneuver begins on takeoff leg at a minimum of 140 KIAS and ends with the aircraft on downwind with a minimum of 140 KIAS. As a good technique, try to roll out on downwind with 150 KIAS (max gear lowering speed). The ground track is depicted in the graphic. It is an extension of the normal pattern ground track. Define terminology and concepts related to closed pattern Identify procedure for performing closed pattern

Figure FF105-33 Closed Pattern

Requesting Closed You may request closed on departure leg no sooner than the locally designated point with a minimum of 140 KIAS. Request entry to the closed pattern by radio call to the controlling agency.

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS Closed Pattern Conflicts Normally, DO NOT request a closed if: there is a straight-in between 5 and 2 miles there is an aircraft on initial you do not have spacing on an aircraft already on closed downwind there is an aircraft flying an emergency landing pattern between either the request high key or high key position (depending on local procedures) and the low key pattern position Keep in mind these restrictions represent procedures for a generic pattern. Local modifications to the above criteria always take precedence.

STUDENT GUIDE

Pulling Closed After you request a closed and have it approved, clear the area, smoothly advance the PCL to an appropriate power setting (normally MAX), and start a climbing turn to the downwind leg.

Figure FF105-34 Closed Pull Up 5-38 Version 2.0/Jun 07

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Use approximately 60 of bank to establish the correct downwind displacement and set about 15 to 25 nose-high for the climb. In the closed pull up, you need to monitor your altitude, airspeed, and displacement. This can be challenging since you are climbing, turning, and accelerating all at the same time.

Altitude To control your level off altitude, you must monitor your climb rate. Since you will probably get to pattern altitude while still in the turn, use a lead point of about 200 feet and roll toward 90 of bank without increasing G loading. This decreases your vertical lift and allows the nose to start falling down. As the nose gets to the level flight picture for 45 of bank, roll out to 45 of bank and continue the turn to downwind. Figure FF105-35 Level Off from a Closed

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS Airspeed The T-6A has quite a bit of excess power, so keeping your airspeed under control can be a challenge. Keep in mind that minimum airspeed throughout the closed pull up is 140 KIAS. As a technique, if your airspeed builds to 170 KIAS or more during the pull-up, reduce power to about 50%. As you approach pattern altitude, set your power at approximately 35% and shoot to roll-out on downwind between 150 - 140 KIAS.

STUDENT GUIDE

Closed Avi

Displacement Set your displacement on closed downwind using the same references discussed earlier in the overhead pattern topic. During your pull-up, use a combination of bank and Gs to control the displacement and roll out on the desired ground track. If you under or overshoot your ground track, correct back immediately. Remember that the maximum bank during the pullup is 90.

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Closed Downwind Once you arrive on downwind, establish level flight and check your displacement. Maintain 150 - 120 KIAS on downwind and delay configuring until abeam the break zone. If required by local procedures, make a radio call to report closed downwind to the controlling agency. Add departing to the call if you plan to leave the pattern. If planning a full-stop landing, state your fuel remaining.

Figure FF105-36 Closed Downwind

Configuring Once you are abeam the break zone, reduce power to approximately 20%, slow to 120 KIAS, lower the landing gear (confirm GEAR CLEAR with IP), and set your flaps as desired. As you approach 120 knots with the aircraft configured, set approximately 35% (TO flaps), 45% (LDG flaps), or 25% (flaps UP) to maintain your altitude and airspeed. From this point on, the procedures are identical to the overhead pattern procedures discussed earlier.

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS Straight-in Approach 2.55.0.0.1 2.55.0.0.4

STUDENT GUIDE

Define terminology and concepts related to straight-in approach Identify procedure for performing straight-in approach

Straight-In Overview The straight-in approach is used when conditions require a landing with minimum maneuvering or gradual airspeed changes. Examples of these conditions include flight control malfunctions, electrical or pitot/static problems, and structural damage. During your training, a straightin is probably the first approach you will fly. The procedures are relatively simple, but you must understand them thoroughly to prevent possible traffic conflicts. Again, the procedures discussed in this lesson are for a generic straight-in. Your local procedures may vary.

Straight-In Key Points There are three key points for the straight-in approach you will fly in JPPT. They are: where you request a straightin the 5 mile point the 2 mile point Figure FF105-37 Straight-in Key Points 5-42 Version 2.0/Jun 07

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Requesting Straight-In There are generally three points where you can request a straightin. They are: radar entry outside downwind VFR entry point If your request for a straight-in is not approved, maintain pattern altitude at 200 KIAS and proceed to initial.

Figure FF105-38 Requesting a Straight-in

Enroute to 5 Miles After you receive approval for a straight-in, descend at the locally designated point from 1000 feet AGL to 500 feet AGL. You will also begin slowing from 200 KIAS to 150 KIAS. You should plan to be at 150 KIAS at the 5 mile point. Fly the same ground track as you would going to initial.

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS 5 Mile Call When you reach the 5 mile point, make a radio call to the controlling agency in accordance with your local procedures. If planning a full stop, you normally will add fuel remaining (in pounds) to the 5 mile radio call.

STUDENT GUIDE

5 to 2 Mile Procedures After you are cleared for the straight-in, begin to configure for final approach. Below 150 KIAS lower the landing gear (confirm GEAR CLEAR with IP) and set flaps as desired. Slow to 100 KIAS for LDG flaps, 105 KIAS for TO flaps, or 110 KIAS for a no-flap approach. Maintain 500 feet AGL and complete the before landing check before reaching the 2 mile point. When you reach the 2 mile point, make a gear down call. Add no-flap and/or full stop to the gear down call as appropriate (unless local procedures dictate otherwise). Again, DO NOT make the gear-down call until the gear indicates DOWN AND LOCKED and you have confirmed the gear position with your IP.

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Glidepath Intercept 1 Maintain 500 feet and approach airspeed until you reach the proper glidepath picture. The first scene in this graphic depicts the level flight picture prior to glidepath intercept (yellow dot represents the aircrafts flight path).

Glidepath Intercept 2 The second scene in this graphic depicts the visual glidepath intercept point for a straight-in at 500 feet AGL. This will normally occur between 1 1/4 and 1 2/3 miles from the runway(3-4 glidepath). Notice that the top of the spinner cap is touching the runway threshold (blue cross). For a flaps LDG approach, establish final approach glidepath by lowering the nose to place the threshold approximately 1/2 of the way up the windscreen (yellow dot superimposed over blue cross). As you intercept glidepath reduce power slightly to maintain approach speed.

Figure FF105-39 Straight-In Glidepath Intercept

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS Glidepath Intercept 3 For flaps TO or flaps UP approaches, you will normally set your final approach pitch picture slightly higher. This graphic depicts the approximate no-wind final approach picture and aim point for each flap setting.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF105-40 Straight-In Glidepath Depictions

Final Approach Demo

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Go-Arounds

Go-Arounds 2.57.0.0.4 2.56.0.0.4 Definition A go-around is simply what you do to abort an attempted landing. It can be executed from the final turn, final-approach, roundout, or flare and can be initiated by the pilot or directed by the runway controller. This lesson will discuss procedures for a go-around on final approach and in the final turn. Go-arounds from the roundout and flare are discussed later in the lesson on landings. Identify procedure for performing go-around from final approach Identify procedure for performing go-around from final turn

Overview Not every pattern you fly will be perfect. There will be times when you find yourself too high or low on final, overshooting or undershooting the final turn, or not having required spacing with other aircraft. In each of these situations, a go-around is usually your best course of action.

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS The sooner a poor approach is recognized and the go-around is started, the safer you will be. There should be little need for a runway controller to direct a goaround. As the pilot, when you recognize a dangerous situation is developing you must initiate a go-around. Never wait until the last second to go-around and never try and salvage a bad pattern.

STUDENT GUIDE

Procedure Once you have decided to goaround from final approach, accomplish the following: Power - MAX Start a climb When you are sure you will not touch down, state GEAR CLEAR (if you are pre-solo wait for your IP to respond) then raise the gear and flaps Climb to 500 feet AGL and accelerate to 200 KIAS maximum (unless directed otherwise by local procedures)

Figure FF105-41 Go-around Procedures

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Keep in mind that you will often be slow and configured when initiating a go-around. Be careful to avoid any abrupt or excessive control inputs that could lead to a stall.

Clearing Runway During a go-around, you must not overtake an aircraft that is ahead of you or overfly one that is on takeoff. To avoid this, you execute a clearing turn and establish your aircraft in what is called the offset position. To establish the offset position, first ensure you are at a safe altitude and airspeed, then turn approximately 20 using a shallow-banked, coordinated turn. When you are well clear of the runway (offset far enough to keep any conflicting traffic in sight), execute another turn to realign with the runway. Unless local procedures dictate otherwise, offset to the downwind side of the runway.

Figure FF105-42 Offset Position

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS Post Go-Around Options After completing a go-around, you have three options available: request closed turn crosswind depart the pattern

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF105-43 Go-Around Choices

Closed Pattern from Go-Around If you elect to request a closed, you must be aware of your altitude and airspeed at the start of the pull up. A closed pull up from go-around altitude and 200 KIAS uses more bank and less power than a closed from takeoff leg at 140 KIAS. If you had to clear to the inside (offset), you will normally overshoot your desired closed downwind displacement. Thats acceptable, but you need to correct back in a timely manner.

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Final Turn Go-Arounds Normally, if you are in the final turn and recognize that you must go-around, you wait to perform the actual go-around procedure after rolling out on final. For example, if flying a planned low approach, you should complete your normal final turn then execute the go-around. There are situations however, for example a significant overshooting or undershooting final turn, where you will need to begin the go-around while still in the turn.

Figure FF105-44 Final Turn Go-Around

Final Turn Go-Around Procedures To execute a go-around while in the final turn: use power as required to maintain a safe airspeed start a climb (or continue descent) to 500 feet AGL state GEAR CLEAR (if you are pre-solo wait for your IP to respond) then raise the gear and flaps accelerate to 200 KIAS offset from the runway if required

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS Final Turn Go-Around Hazards 1 Go-arounds from the final turn present some potential dangers, particularly if you are overshooting. If you are going to overshoot, its best not to try to save the pattern by using excessive bank, bottom rudder, and pulling more Gs. Doing these things sets up a classic overshooting final-turn stall; a situation from which recovery can be very difficult. This video shows the results of trying to salvage a bad pattern.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF105-45 Final Turn Go-Around Hazards

Final Turn Go-Around Hazards 2 Angling finals also present some dangers. If you use lower than required power settings and raise the nose to hit your altitude checkpoints on final, you may set yourself up for an undershooting final turn stall. This is simply a case of allowing your airspeed to get too slow. It is easily avoided if you maintain proper airspeeds in the final turn.

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Go-Around Avi This video shows a go-around from the final turn where you clear the runway to prevent a conflict with the formation on landing roll.

Breakout and Reentry

Breakout 2.44.0.0.1 2.44.0.0.4 2.44.1.0.1 Overview A breakout is simply a turn away from a traffic conflict. In the overhead pattern, it is normally combined with a climb to deconflict flight paths with other aircraft in the pattern. The procedures described in this lesson are generic in nature and your local procedures may vary. Define terminology and concepts related to local breakout Identify local breakout procedures Identify rule for determining appropriate breakout situations

Conflict Points There are several points in the pattern where ground tracks merge. When you approach one of these points, you must clear for other traffic. If a conflict exists, one of the aircraft must breakout to prevent a possible collision.

Figure FF105-46 Breakout Conflict Points

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS Right of Way 1 Which aircraft breaks out is determined by a locally specified list of traffic pattern priorities. When a conflict develops, the aircraft with the lowest priority breaks out. Below is a sample list of typical JPPT pattern priorities and is not all inclusive: 1. Emergency aircraft, regardless of position in the pattern 2. Practice emergency landing pattern aircraft inside the high key or straight-in aircraft between 5 and 2 miles 3. Formation aircraft, regardless of position in the pattern 4. Aircraft on initial from radar entry

STUDENT GUIDE

Right of Way 2 5. Aircraft already in the pattern 6. Aircraft entering the pattern from VFR entry point

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Clearing Visually The primary method of detecting conflicts in the pattern is visually. Using good composite scan techniques while clearing will allow you to see and avoid pattern conflicts. If the potential traffic stays in the same spot in the windscreen or moves only slightly, you are on or near a collision course. Breakout when you recognize this situation. This graphic shows what a conflict might look like as you approach 45 to initial. Figure FF105-47 Clearing Visually

Clearing With Radios You can also use the radios to help you clear in the pattern. Pattern radio calls let you know where other aircraft are and helps you focus on where to clear.

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS Pattern Breakouts To execute a breakout from the pattern, perform a climbing turn away from the conflicting traffic. Add power and climb to the locally directed breakout altitude. Accelerate to 200 KIAS and proceed to the reentry point. This graphic depicts a breakout from 45 to initial. Breakout altitudes from the overhead pattern will vary depending on your training base. Normally, breakout altitude is 500 or 1000 feet above normal pattern altitude.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF105-48 Pattern Breakouts

Breakout Ground Tracks Once you breakout you must navigate to the reentry point. This graphic depicts typical breakout ground tracks from 45 to initial and the perch. Use extreme caution if more than one aircraft is breaking out at the same time. You must see and avoid the other aircraft since you are both going to the reentry point. Figure FF105-49 Overhead Breakout Ground Tracks

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Breakout from the Perch When breaking out from inside downwind or the perch, add power and begin a climb away from the runway. Once climbing, confirm GEAR CLEAR with your IP then raise the gear and flaps, accelerate to 200 KIAS, climb to breakout altitude, and proceed to the reentry point. Since you will likely be slow and configured, use extreme caution breaking out from inside downwind. Never attempt to break out once you have started the final turn. If you recognize a conflict after starting the final turn, execute a go-around.

Straight-In Breakout Follow local area procedures to execute a breakout from a straight-in. Straight-in breakouts are normally performed between the 5 and 2 mile points when a traffic conflict develops or if directed by the controller. Once inside the 2 mile point, you normally will not perform a breakout. Instead, you should plan to execute a go-around.

Figure FF105-50 Breakout from a Straight-in

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS At many bases a low breakout procedure is utilized when breaking out from a straight-in. To perform a low breakout, make a level turn toward the reentry point while maintaining 500 feet AGL. If configured, confirm GEAR CLEAR with your IP then raise the gear and flaps. Accelerate to 200 KIAS, and follow the locally specified ground track.

STUDENT GUIDE

Reentry Point Breakouts If you reach the reentry point and encounter a conflict with traffic on outside downwind, you will have to breakout again. To execute a breakout from the reentry point, add power, climb back to breakout altitude, and follow the locally specified ground track. Ensure you are at breakout altitude if you have to cross above the reentry ground track.

Figure FF105-51 Reentry Point Breakout

Reentry 2.45.0.0.1 2.45.0.0.4 Define terminology and concepts related to traffic pattern reentry Identify traffic pattern reentry procedures

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Reentry Definition The traffic pattern reentry procedure is designed to get you back into the traffic pattern following a breakout. The reentry maneuver is designed to place your aircraft wings-level at pattern altitude and airspeed no later than 1 NM prior to the published entry point. This may involve descending from the high breakout altitude or climbing from a low breakout altitude.

High Breakout Reentry To reenter the pattern from an overhead breakout, you will need to lose 500 to 1000 feet in a descending turn while following the locally specified ground track. Ensure you are clear of the outside downwind ground track before descending to pattern altitude. Plan your turn so that you will be wings-level at 1 NM prior to the reentry point. Once level on the reentry leg, report CALLSIGN, VFR ENTRY (unless specified otherwise by local procedures). On the reentry leg, ensure you clear outside downwind for any traffic conflicts. If there is a conflict, you must breakout again.

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS Reentry Demo

STUDENT GUIDE

Low Breakout Reentry When executing a low breakout from a straight-in approach, make sure you have cleared the outside downwind ground track before initiating a climb back to pattern altitude. To reenter the pattern from a low breakout, make a climbing turn and follow the locally specified ground track. Again, you should plan your turn so that you will be wings-level at 1 NM prior to the reentry point.

Lesson Review Quiz

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Figure FF105-52 VFR Pattern Parameters


Position Radar Entry Takeoff Leg Outside Downwind VFR Entry Point 90-Initial 45-Initial Initial Break Point Inside Downwind Perch Point Final Turn 200 KIAS Slow to 150 KIAS 120 KIAS Minimum 115 KIAS 1000 AGL 1000 AGL 1000 AGL 600 to 700 AGL at way point 1/2 NM at 150 to 200 AGL 50% 10% 35% Wings Level 60 Bank 1/4 Ground 3/4 Sky 2/3 Ground 1/3 Sky 30 to 45 bank Aimpoint halfway up windscreen Clean Clean Gear and TO Flaps Gear and TO Flaps Gear and TO Flaps initial none none 200 KIAS 1000 AGL 50% Wings Level Clean none Airspeed 200 KIAS 160 KIAS Altitude 1000 AGL Climb to 1000 AGL Torque 50% MAX Pitch/Bank Wings Level Climb Picture Configuration Clean Clean Radio Calls (Callsign,) radar initial request closed (optional at minimum of 140 KIAS)

15%

gear down

Final

105 KIAS

18 to 20%

none

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LESSON QUESTIONS EMBEDDED QUESTIONS (Ref: Segment/Topic/Question) 1. Using your mouse, drag the labels for outside downwind, 90 to initial, and initial into the proper location on the graphic. (B/1/1) Outside downwind Initial 90 to initial

2. Normal altitude, airspeed, and power setting for the T-6A on initial are ______. (B/1/2) a. 1000 feet AGL, 150 KIAS, and 50% power b. 1200 feet AGL, 180 KIAS, and 36% power c. 1200 feet AGL, 200 KIAS, and 60% power d. 1000 feet AGL, 200 KIAS, and 50% power 3. You are flying up initial and are crabbing left 6. Approximately how much crosswind is at pattern altitude? (B/1/3) a. b. c. d. 6 knots 12 knots 18 knots 30 knots

4. You should use approximately ______ of bank for turns in the traffic pattern. (B/1/4) a. b. c. d. 5-62 15 30 45 60 Version 2.0/Jun 07

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5. The graphic depicts a standard overhead traffic pattern. Using your mouse, drag the labels and drop them in the appropriate locations in the graphic. (B/2/1)

The break The perch Inside downwind

6. To ensure you have appropriate spacing to begin the break, the aircraft in front of you should be ______. (B/2/2) a. b. c. d. abeam you on inside downwind halfway through the break at the perch clear of downwind

7. This graphic depicts the proper no-wind displacement for a no-flap overhead pattern. (B/2/3) a. b. True False

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8. To maintain proper displacement and ground track on downwind, ______. (B/2/4) a. b. c. d. use half the crab you held on initial use the same amount of crab you held on initial use double the crab you held on initial use double the crab you held on 90 to initial

9. Field elevation is 1000 feet MSL and pattern altitude is 2000 feet MSL. For a normal pattern with TO flaps, what should your altitude, airspeed, and configuration be halfway through the final turn? (B/3/1) a. b. c. d. 1400-1500 feet, 120 KIAS, gear down, flaps TO 1600-1700 feet, 115 KIAS, gear down, flaps TO 1600-1700 feet, 110 KIAS, gear down, flaps TO, speed brake extended 1700-1800 feet, 115 KIAS, gear down, flaps TO, speed brake extended

10. When applying the wing-low method, you should apply aileron and rudder simultaneously to align the aircraft with the runway. (B/4/1) a. b. True False

11. You are landing Runway 31, and the winds are from 300 at 10 knots. Under these conditions, the numbers would appear ______ in the windscreen and landing would be assured _______ than in a no-wind situation. (B/4/2) a. b. c. d. higher; sooner lower; sooner higher; later lower; later

12. You are applying the wing-low method to align the aircraft with the runway. If you fail to apply aileron after using the rudder to align the nose of the aircraft with the runway, the aircraft will ______. (B/4/3) a. b. c. d. drift into the wind drift with the wind begin an uncoordinated turn into the wind begin an uncoordinated turn away from the wind

13. The break for an AOA pattern should be flown to achieve more displacement on downwind. (B/5/1) a. b. True False

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14. The on speed AOA indication is the amber center donut on the AOA indexer or ______ units on the AOA gauge. (B/5/2) a. b. c. d. 3-4 7-9 10-11 12-14

15. You see this indication in the final turn of an AOA pattern. What action should you take? (B/5/3) a. b. c. d. Check airspeed and continue. Green is good for AOA. Lower the nose slightly then add power to maintain the desired glidepath. Raise the nose since you put the stick toward the indication, and reduce power. Reduce power, because the indexer tells you how to move the PCL.

16. When flying an AOA pattern final turn, use pitch changes to adjust descent rate or glidepath and power changes to adjust AOA. (B/5/4) a. b. True False

17. Which of the following conditions would NOT preclude you from requesting a closed? (B/6/1) a. b. c. d. An aircraft is on initial. An aircraft calls gear down. There is a straight-in between 5 and 2 miles. There is traffic on closed downwind you do not have spacing behind.

18. Minimum airspeed throughout the closed pull up is ______ KIAS. (B/6/2) a. b. c. d. 100 120 140 160

19. After rolling out on closed downwind, you should slow down and configure as soon as possible. (B/6/3) a. b. True False

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20. What is the proper airspeed and configuration at the 2 mile point for a no-flap straight-in? (B/7/1) a. b. c. d. 100 KIAS, gear down, speed brake extended 110 KIAS, gear down 110 KIAS, gear down, speed brake extended 120 KIAS, gear down

21. You are on outside downwind and have requested a straight-in. The controller replied Negative straight-in. What action should you take? (B/7/2) a. b. c. d. Do a 360 turn opposite the direction of traffic and repeat your request. Breakout of the pattern and go to the reentry point. Descend to 500 feet AGL, slow to 150 KIAS, and repeat your request at the 5 mile point. Maintain pattern altitude and 200 KIAS. Proceed to initial.

22. A go-around can be initiated by the pilot or directed by the runway controller. (C/1/1) a. b. True False

23. Which of the following is NOT a normal course of action following a go-around? (C/1/2) a. b. c. d. Requesting a straight-in Turning crosswind Requesting a closed Departing the pattern

24. Failing to execute a timely go-around could result in a dangerous situation. Which of the following situations could result in an overshooting final-turn stall? (C/1/3) a. b. c. d. Using excessive bank, bottom rudder, and pulling more Gs in an attempt to align your aircraft with the runway Misanalyzing the winds and trying to stretch your final turn Having too much displacement for a normal pattern Maintaining 10-11 units AOA in the final turn

25. Which of the following is NOT normally a point of conflict in the pattern? (D/1/1) a. b. c. d. The turn from outside downwind to 90 to initial The turn from 45 to initial onto initial Rolling off the perch Turning from the reentry point onto outside downwind

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26. Which of the following is the primary method of recognizing and avoiding conflicts in the pattern? (D/1/2) a. b. c. d. NACWS Radio calls from other aircraft Visually clearing Information from the controller

27. You are flying a left hand normal overhead pattern. Which of the following properly describes a breakout from the perch? (D/1/3) a. b. c. d. Perform a level turn away from final. Raise the gear and flaps then accelerate to 200 KIAS. Begin a climbing right turn. Once climbing, raise the gear and flaps. Accelerate to 200 KIAS and climb to breakout altitude. Perform a climbing left turn and raise the gear and flaps. Climb to breakout altitude and accelerate to 200 KIAS. In the final turn, level off at 500 feet AGL and turn away from traffic. Raise the gear and flaps then accelerate to 200 KIAS.

28. When should you be level at pattern altitude and 200 KIAS during a traffic pattern reentry? (D/2/1) a. b. c. d. Before crossing outside downwind As you turn onto outside downwind Before you turn onto the reentry leg 1 NM prior to the reentry point

LESSON REVIEW QUIZ QUESTIONS 1. What is the normal pattern altitude and airspeed for the T-6A? a. b. c. d. 500 feet AGL and 150 KIAS 500 feet AGL and 200 KIAS 1000 feet AGL and 150 KIAS 1000 feet AGL and 200 KIAS

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FF105 AIR FORCE TRAFFIC PATTERNS 2.

STUDENT GUIDE

You are holding 10 of crab on outside downwind. How much crosswind at pattern altitude does this indicate? a. b. c. d. 5 knots 10 knots 20 knots 30 knots

3.

In a no-wind situation, a good reference for proper displacement on inside downwind with flaps TO is to place the runway ______. a. b. c. d. slightly outside the fuel filler cap aligned with the wingtip above the wing just inside the flap aligned with the inside leading edge of the blue wingtip paint

4.

You held 7 of crab as you flew up initial. How much crab will you plan to hold on inside downwind? a. b. c. d. 3.5 7 14 21

5.

For a normal pattern, you should plan to roll out on final at _____ AGL, _____ NM from the runway. a. b. c. d. 150 - 200; 1/2 300 - 400; 3/4 400 - 500; 1 500 - 600; 1 1/2

6.

The airspeed for a normal final turn with LDG flaps is _____ KIAS. a. b. c. d. 100 110 115 120

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7.

You are flying wing-low down final due to crosswinds. What would be the indication that you have too much aileron in? a. b. c. d. The aircraft will start an uncoordinated turn into the wind. The aircraft will drift with the wind. The aircraft will drift into the wind. The aircraft will start an uncoordinated turn away from the wind.

8.

You are flying final approach with TO flaps to runway 17. Reported winds are 170 at 10 knots gusting to 32 knots. What airspeed should you maintain on final approach? a. b. c. d. 100 105 115 116

9.

The minimum airspeed for beginning a closed pull up is ______. a. b. c. d. 120 130 140 150

10. After completing a go-around from the final turn, you will be at _____ feet AGL and ______ KIAS. a. b. c. d. 500; 150 500; 200 1000; 150 1000; 200

11. Once inside the 2 mile point on a straight-in, you will NOT normally perform a breakout. a. b. True False

12. You are wings-level 1 NM prior to the reentry point when you notice a conflict with an aircraft on outside downwind. You should ______. a. b. c. d. continue since the aircraft on outside downwind must breakout breakout accelerate to 250 KIAS so that you can enter the pattern ahead of the aircraft on downwind adjust your ground track to enter the pattern behind the aircraft on downwind

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FF106 LANDING FF106 LANDING STUDENT GUIDE TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................... 6-1 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................... 6-2 OVERVIEW............................................................................................................................... 6-4 REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................... 6-4 STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS .................................................................................................... 6-4 LESSON OUTLINE .................................................................................................................. 6-4 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. 6-5 LANDING.............................................................................................................................. 6-5 LANDING......................................................................................................................... 6-5 LANDING IRREGULARITIES................................................................................... 6-14 TOUCH-AND-GO LANDING...................................................................................... 6-27 CROSSWIND LANDING ............................................................................................. 6-30 GO-AROUND/WAVEOFF FROM ROUNDOUT ..................................................... 6-32 TAXI/PARKING............................................................................................................ 6-35 LESSON QUESTIONS ........................................................................................................... 6-40

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FF106 LANDING LIST OF FIGURES

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF106-1 Landing Phases ............................................................................................ 6-5 Figure FF106-2 Roundout ...................................................................................................... 6-6 Figure FF106-3 Attitude Control........................................................................................... 6-6 Figure FF106-4 Power Adjustments ..................................................................................... 6-7 Figure FF106-5 Touchdown Flap Settings............................................................................ 6-8 Figure FF106-6 Roundout Caution ....................................................................................... 6-8 Figure FF106-7 Braking ....................................................................................................... 6-10 Figure FF106-8 Brake Warning 1 ....................................................................................... 6-11 Figure FF106-9 Nose Wheel Steering.................................................................................. 6-12 Figure FF106-10 Nose Wheel Steering Warning ............................................................... 6-13 Figure FF106-11 Brake Warning 2 ..................................................................................... 6-14 Figure FF106-12 Roundout Too High................................................................................. 6-14 Figure FF106-13 Roundout Too Low.................................................................................. 6-15 Figure FF106-14 Porpoising................................................................................................. 6-16 Figure FF106-15 Floating ..................................................................................................... 6-17 Figure FF106-16 Ballooning................................................................................................. 6-18 Figure FF106-17 Bouncing ................................................................................................... 6-18 Figure FF106-18 Ground Effects Chart.............................................................................. 6-19 Figure FF106-19 Ground Effect .......................................................................................... 6-20 Figure FF106-20 Runway Width Illusions 1....................................................................... 6-21 Figure FF106-21 Runway Width Illusions 2....................................................................... 6-21 Figure FF106-22 Runway Length Illusion.......................................................................... 6-22 Figure FF106-23 Runway Slope Illusions ........................................................................... 6-22 Figure FF106-24 Terrain Features ...................................................................................... 6-23 Figure FF106-25 Hydroplaning ........................................................................................... 6-23 Figure FF106-26 Hydroplaning Types ................................................................................ 6-24 Figure FF106-27 Hydroplaning Factors: Speed................................................................. 6-24 Figure FF106-28 Hydroplaning Factors: Water Volume.................................................. 6-25 Figure FF106-29 Hydroplaning Factors: Weight .............................................................. 6-25 Figure FF106-30 Other Hydroplaning Factors .................................................................. 6-26 Figure FF106-31 Stopping Hydroplaning Aircraft............................................................ 6-27 Figure FF106-32 Torque Effect ........................................................................................... 6-28 Figure FF106-33 Elevator Trim........................................................................................... 6-29 Figure FF106-34 Crosswind Conditions ............................................................................. 6-30 Figure FF106-35 Crosswind Controls ................................................................................. 6-30 Figure FF106-36 Drag Increase ........................................................................................... 6-31 Figure FF106-37 Impact of Winds on Lift.......................................................................... 6-31 6-2 Version 2.1/Dec 07

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Figure FF106-38 Crosswind Touchdown ........................................................................... 6-32 Figure FF106-39 Directional Control ................................................................................. 6-32 Figure FF106-40 Go Around/Waveoff Reasons................................................................. 6-33 Figure FF106-41 Go-Around/Waveoff Procedure............................................................. 6-34 Figure FF106-42 Clear Runway .......................................................................................... 6-35 Figure FF106-43 Taxi/Parking Safety ................................................................................ 6-35 Figure FF106-44 Request Taxi Clearance.......................................................................... 6-36 Figure FF106-45 Taxi Power ............................................................................................... 6-37 Figure FF106-46 Min Radius Turns ................................................................................... 6-37 Figure FF106-47 Obstacle Clearance.................................................................................. 6-38 Figure FF106-48 Taxiway/Parking Spot Markings........................................................... 6-38 Figure FF106-49 Ground Crew Hand Signals ................................................................... 6-39 Figure FF106-50 Aircraft Shutdown .................................................................................. 6-39

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FF106 LANDING OVERVIEW

STUDENT GUIDE

This lesson discusses the characteristics, parameters, and procedures for landing the aircraft. Common landing irregularities and corrective procedures will also be discussed as well as touch and go landings and crosswind landing procedures. Go-around/waveoff from the flare and taxiing to park are also covered. REFERENCES Personnel: None Media Facilities: Student CAI Workstation Support Resources: T-6A Flying Fundamentals Student Guide, AFMAN 11-248 STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS Read T-6A Flight Manual, Section II. Read AFMAN 11-248, Chapter 5, Landing sections. Complete CAI lesson FF106, following along with this student guide. Complete the practice questions provided. LESSON OUTLINE Topics in this lesson must be taken in sequential order. All topics must be completed prior to attempting the end of lesson quiz. The estimated time required to complete this lesson is 1 hour.

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Introduction

Landing

Landing 1.1.4.0.1 2.50.0.0.3 2.50.0.0.4 2.50.1.0.1 2.50.0.0.9 State the factors affecting takeoff and landing velocity Identify parameters related to landing Identify procedure for performing landing Identify procedure to transition to touchdown Identify warnings and cautions related to performing landing

Landing Phases To help you better understand the factors involved in landing technique, the landing has been divided into three phases: Roundout Touchdown Landing roll

Figure FF106-1 Landing Phases

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FF106 LANDING Roundout The goal of the roundout is to establish the proper attitude for the aircraft to settle gently onto the runway at touchdown. To properly set up for the roundout, plan to cross the runway threshold approximately 10 knots below final approach speed.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF106-2 Roundout

Attitude Control During the roundout you will gradually decrease the rate of the aircrafts descent as you approach touchdown. You do this by smoothly increasing backpressure to increase the pitch attitude until the proper landing attitude is reached. For a flaps LDG approach, the proper landing attitude is approximately the same pitch picture you use for takeoff. Pitch attitudes will be slightly lower for flaps TO or flaps UP landings. Figure FF106-3 Attitude Control

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Power Adjustments As you establish the landing attitude, airspeed will gradually begin to bleed off and the aircraft will settle gently onto the runway. Use power adjustments coordinated with elevator pressure to control the rate of descent. Retard the PCL with a smooth reduction to idle at or just before touchdown.

POWER DECREASE

Figure FF106-4 Power Adjustments

Landing and Aircraft Weight Aircraft weight, primarily a factor of fuel on board, will have an impact during the approach and flare. A heavier aircraft has a higher lift requirement and will develop a sink rate more quickly. The proper combination of pitch and power adjustments is required to overcome this tendency.

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FF106 LANDING Touchdown Target touchdown speed is 80 KIAS for LDG flaps, 85 KIAS for TO flaps, and 90 KIAS for flaps UP. Increase each of these speeds by 5 knots if landing with greater than 750 pounds total fuel remaining.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF106-5 Touchdown Flap Settings

Figure FF106-6 Roundout Caution

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Gusty Wind Landing Like final approach, gusty wind conditions require you adjust your landing speeds to compensate for any loss of lift that may occur during a gust. When landing in gusty wind conditions, increase landing threshold and touchdown speeds by 50% of the gust increment up to a maximum increase of 10 knots. In addition, the use of LDG flaps is not recommended during gusty wind conditions.

Nose Wheel After the main wheels have touched down, smoothly lower the nose wheel to the runway.

Directional Control During the high speed portion of the landing roll, directional control should be maintained with the rudder. Ailerons will also be needed in a crosswind situation. We will discuss crosswind landings in detail later in this lesson.

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FF106 LANDING Braking 1 Once the nose wheel is on the runway, smoothly apply brakes (below 80 KIAS) while increasing backstick pressure. This decreases the weight on the nose gear and counteracts the wheelbarrow effect of braking with the stick forward. Increasing backstick pressure also concentrates aircraft weight on the main landing gear which enhances braking effectiveness. Continue to increase backstick and brake pressure as the aircraft decelerates on landing roll. DO NOT allow the nose gear to lift off the runway.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF106-7 Braking

Braking 2 To use the brakes, slide your feet up on the rudder pedals so toe pressure can be applied to the top of the pedals. If rudder pressure is being held at the time brakes are needed, try to maintain the rudder pedals in position as you slide your feet up. Try to apply brakes while the aircraft is rolling in a straight line.

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Brake Warning 1

Figure FF106-8 Brake Warning 1

Differential Braking As groundspeed decreases below 80 KIAS and the flight controls become less effective, you can use differential braking to assist in maintaining direction control during landing roll. Differential braking is simply applying pressure on a single brake or, applying uneven pressures on both brakes.

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FF106 LANDING Nose Wheel Steering 1 As you prepare to exit the runway, first ensure the aircraft is at a safe taxi speed (you can cross check the GPS ground speed readout as a point of reference). To exit the runway, release brakes, bring the stick forward, ensure the rudder pedals are neutralized, then engage nose wheel steering. As you make your turn off the runway, avoid applying brakes with nose wheel steering engaged.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF106-9 Nose Wheel Steering

Nose Wheel Steering 2 Nose wheel steering is intended for use at taxi speeds only. At higher speeds, nose wheel steering is extremely sensitive and easily over controlled. Utilize nose wheel steering above taxi speed only if you are unable to maintain directional control using rudder and differential braking. If nose wheel shimmy is encountered, apply stick back pressure to relieve weight on the nose wheel, then gently release pressure to re-establish nose wheel runway contact.

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Nose Wheel Warning

Figure FF106-10 Nose Wheel Steering Warning

Exit Runway With the aircraft slowed to taxi speed, exit the runway at the first available turnoff or as locally directed. Do not complete any after landing checklist items until you are clear of the runway.

After Landing Checks Once clear of the runway, contact ground control for taxi clearance, retract the flaps and complete the After Landing checklist.

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FF106 LANDING Brake Warning 2

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF106-11 Brake Warning 2

Landing Irregularities 2.50.0.0.2 2.50.0.0.5 2.50.0.0.6 2.50.0.0.7 1.1.4.0.3 1.1.4.0.4 1.1.4.0.5 Identify causes, effects, and proper recoveries for landing irregularities Identify how ground effect influences landing characteristics Recognize how different terrain features affect landing characteristics Identify how various day/night conditions and runway widths and shapes cause visual illusions Define the types and causes of hydroplaning State the conditions under which hydroplaning occurs State the method utilized to stop an airplane that is hydroplaning

Roundout Too High There are a number of errors you might make while developing landing proficiency. One of these errors is rounding out too high. If you begin the roundout too early or too aggressively, you will find yourself running out of airspeed while still well above the runway. This can lead to a stall or a dropped in landing with a firm touchdown. Figure FF106-12 Roundout Too High

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FF106 LANDING

If you have adequate airspeed and runway remaining, you may be able to correct for a high roundout by releasing some backpressure to lower the nose and prevent airspeed from bleeding off too rapidly. As you then approach the normal roundout point, reestablish the proper landing attitude. Be careful you dont lower the nose while too close to the runway. This could result in landing nose wheel first, possibly causing it to collapse. If at anytime you feel you are approaching a stall or need to lower the nose excessively, GO AROUND.

Roundout Too Low Another common error is rounding out too late or too rapidly. Being late to start the roundout and pulling the stick back too rapidly in an effort to prevent a touchdown can easily cause an accelerated stall. This is a dangerous situation which may lead to an extremely hard touchdown.

Figure FF106-13 Roundout Too Low

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FF106 LANDING In the event of a hard touchdown, immediately add power to increase thrust, lift, and controllability and enable you to recover and go around. As you initiate recovery, maintain the landing attitude since the main gear will likely contact the ground a second time. If you have added power and established the proper attitude, the second contact will usually be moderate.

STUDENT GUIDE

Porpoising Porpoising is a condition encountered during landing where the aircraft bounces between the nose wheel and main gear. It is caused when the nose wheel contacts the runway before main gear touchdown and is most likely when landing with an excessive airspeed. If immediate corrective action is not taken the porpoise can become very violent and lead to aircraft structural damage. If porpoising is encountered DO NOT ATTEMPT TO COUNTER WITH CONTROL INPUTS Immediately position the controls to the takoff attitude to prevent the nosewheel from contacting the runway. Simultaneously advance PCL to MAX

Figure FF106-14 Porpoising

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FF106 LANDING

Go around and do not raise landing gear.

Floating Floating is brought on by excessive airspeed in the roundout, either from poor power control, improper use of flaps, or diving off excessive altitude. Floating can result in touchdowns well beyond the normal point on the runway. Recovery depends upon the amount of floating and the runway remaining. If floating is slight, correct by gradually increasing pitch attitude as landing speed is approached and allow the aircraft to land. Avoid prolonged floating, especially in strong crosswinds. If in doubt about recovery, go around.

Figure FF106-15 Floating

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FF106 LANDING Ballooning Ballooning occurs when the aircraft is rounded out too rapidly or the nose is raised to the landing attitude before lift has sufficiently dissipated. The altitude gained during a balloon depends on the airspeed and rate at which the pitch attitude is increased. If the ballooning is slight, you may usually complete the landing. Maintain directional control, hold a constant landing attitude, and let the aircraft settle onto the runway. When ballooning is pronounced, execute a go around.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF106-16 Ballooning

Bouncing Bouncing is similar to ballooning, except that it is caused by striking the runway too hard. The height of the bounce depends upon the force with which the aircraft strikes the runway, speed at the point of touchdown, and the amount of backpressure held. If the bounce is slight, continue with the landing. Maintain directional control and smoothly adjust pitch to landing attitude just prior to touchdown. Figure FF106-17 Bouncing

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If the bounce is severe, go around immediately. Continue the go-around even if a second bounce occurs. Do not attempt a landing from a severe bounce as the aircraft may stall before a landing can be made. Leave the landing gear extended if a hard touchdown occurred.

Influence of Ground Effect A phenomenon known as ground effect is a factor in every landing. Starting at about one wing span distance above the ground induced drag will start to decrease due to ground effect. As you approach the ground, induced drag can be reduced as much as 48%, primarily due to reduction of the strength of wingtip vortices and wing downwash. Figure FF106-18 Ground Effects Chart

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FF106 LANDING Ground Effect While induced drag is significantly reduced, lift remains virtually unchanged which can result in the aircraft floating, extending the touchdown point further down the runway.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF106-19 Ground Effect

Visual Illusions There are several visual illusions which can cause difficulty in executing a proper landing. These landing illusions are caused by differences in runway widths, lengths, slopes, and terrain features.

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Wide Runways Runway widths can cause dangerous visual illusions. A wider than normal runway can cause you to flare too high or land short of the runway.

Figure FF106-20 Runway Width Illusions 1

Narrow Runways On the other hand, a runway which is more narrow than normal will make your approach appear too high and cause you to flare too late.

Figure FF106-21 Runway Width Illusions 2

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FF106 LANDING Runway Length Runway length can also potentially cause landing problems. If you are familiar with landing on short runways, you will tend to misjudge the distance to a long runway and think you are closer to the runway than you actually are. If you are familiar with landing on long runways, you will also tend to misjudge the distance to a short runway and think you are farther from the runway than you actually are.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF106-22 Runway Length Illusion

Runway Slope A runway which slopes upward from the approach end will make you think you are too high and thus cause you to flare too low. Figure FF106-23 Runway Slope Illusions A runway which slopes downward from the approach end will make you think you are too low, and cause you to flare too high.

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Effect of Terrain Features Various terrain features can affect aircraft control during landing. Hills or buildings near the approach end of the runway can contribute to varying winds across the approach path. Plowed fields, parking lots, bodies of water, or other surface features will produce vertical air currents which can cause the aircraft to gain or lose lift.

Figure FF106-24 Terrain Features

Hydroplaning Hydroplaning is a particularly hazardous landing situation. Hydroplaning occurs when the aircraft tires lose contact with the runway surface and ride on a layer of water or other material between the tires and the runway. In a total hydroplaning situation, the tires can lose all contact with the runway resulting in complete loss of braking control and nose wheel steering.

Figure FF106-25 Hydroplaning

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FF106 LANDING Types of Hydroplaning There are three types of hydroplaning: Dynamic - the aircraft tires ride on a layer of water on the runway. Viscous - similar to dynamic, the tires ride on a film of oil, rubber deposits, or other foreign matter. This is particularly true on a very smooth runway surface. Rubber reversion - the tires ride on a layer of steam generated from burning rubber caused by a locked brake.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF106-26 Hydroplaning Types

Hydroplaning Factors There are a number of conditions which can contribute to hydroplaning. The primary factors include: Speed - At higher speeds, the aircraft is generating more lift, essentially making the aircraft lighter on the landing gear. Figure FF106-27 Hydroplaning Factors: Speed

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Water volume - Although hydroplaning is more likely with half an inch or more of water on the runway, even moisture from dew or fog can create hydroplaning conditions.

Figure FF106-28 Hydroplaning Factors: Water Volume

Aircraft weight - the lighter the aircraft (as with lower fuel loads), the greater the risk of hydroplaning.

Figure FF106-29 Hydroplaning Factors: Weight

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FF106 LANDING Other circumstances which contribute to hydroplaning are worn tire tread, smooth or uneven runway surfaces, or tire pressure.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF106-30 Other Hydroplaning Factors

Hydroplaning Speeds Hydroplaning can occur at a speed of 9 times the square root of the tire pressure. For example, the T-6A main landing gear tire pressure is approximately 225 lbs. The square root of 225 is 15. Multiplying 9 by 15, you find that the T-6A main landing gear can hydroplane at a speed of 135 KIAS.

Avoiding Hydroplaning To avoid hydroplaning, adjust the flare to touchdown more firmly. This will help get the weight of the aircraft on the main gear and the tires in contact with the runway surface.

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Stopping a Hydroplaning Aircraft If you find yourself in a hydroplaning situation, maintain directional control with the rudder, and avoid sharp braking. Once the aircraft tires have regained contact with runway, gently pump the brakes to avoid lockup.

Figure FF106-31 Stopping Hydroplaning Aircraft

Touch-and-Go Landings 2.51.0.0.3 2.51.0.0.4 2.51.0.0.6 Purpose The touch-and-go landing is a training maneuver designed to allow you to practice landings without having to stop and taxi back for another takeoff. Identify parameters related to touch and go landing Identify procedure for performing touch and go landing Identify effects of TAD during touch-and-go landing

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FF106 LANDING Configuration Set flaps and landing gear and trim the aircraft as you would for a normal landing (or crosswind if conditions require it). Touch and go landings are normally accomplished using TO or no flaps. However, you may accomplish a touch and go with LDG flaps following a landing from a practice emergency landing pattern. Execute the roundout, and touchdown on the main landing gear.

STUDENT GUIDE

Power Control At touchdown for a touch-andgo landing, move the PCL smoothly to MAX power while maintaining directional control with rudder. You should anticipate adding right rudder as power is advanced to counter the torque increase from the engine. (Note that in a crosswind situation you would also keep the upwind wing down with aileron) Figure FF106-32 Torque Effect

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Attitude Control As the power comes up, establish takeoff attitude. The aircraft will become airborne when the proper airspeed is reached.

Elevator Trim If you have trimmed the elevator properly on final approach, the back stick trim will tend to fly the aircraft off the runway as flying speed is attained. You may have to use forward stick pressure during the touchand-go to compensate for the tendency of the nose to pitch up. This forward pressure may be significant if you elected to trim during the flare. In cases where you have trimmed during the flare, use caution and be prepared to apply substantial nose down trim during and/or after the touch-and-go.

Figure FF106-33 Elevator Trim

TAD Effects The rudder trim aid device (TAD) will sense torque, airspeed, altitude, and pitch rate changes during the touch-andgo maneuver and compute and apply a rudder trim position automatically to assist you in maintaining directional control.

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FF106 LANDING With the TAD off, rudder trim will require manual input by the pilot.

STUDENT GUIDE

Crosswind Landing 2.52.0.0.3 2.52.0.0.4 Identify parameters related to crosswind landing Identify procedure for performing crosswind landing

Crosswind Conditions Since runways are fixed installations, winds will not always be aligned with the runway centerline. Wind speeds fluctuate, and wind gusts can be present. These crosswind situations will require adjustments in normal landing techniques, airspeeds, and aircraft configuration. These adjustments were discussed in your previous lesson on traffic patterns.

Figure FF106-34 Crosswind Conditions

Crosswind Controls Once you are on final, you should establish crosswind controls. Once you have the proper crosswind attitude established it should be maintained throughout the roundout and touchdown. Figure FF106-35 Crosswind Controls

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Additional Power Requirement This cross control method increases drag on the aircraft. For this reason, you will have to increase power to maintain your approach airspeed.

Figure FF106-36 Drag Increase

Impact of Winds on Lift In many cases, changes in crosswind direction or speed (gusts) during the approach can cause a sudden loss of lift. You must be alert and ready to make necessary changes in power, pitch, bank, and heading to maintain your airspeed, descent rate, and runway alignment.

Figure FF106-37 Impact of Winds on Lift

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FF106 LANDING Touchdown To keep the aircraft aligned with the runway you must maintain crosswind controls throughout the roundout and touchdown. This means you will normally touchdown on the upwind main gear first, then the downwind main gear. Once both main gear have touched down you lower the nose wheel onto the runway.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF106-38 Crosswind Touchdown

Directional Control Once you are on the ground and rolling out, maintain directional control of the aircraft using rudder and ailerons. As airspeed decreases, larger control deflections will be required.

Figure FF106-39 Directional Control

Go-Around/Waveoff From Roundout 2.58.0.0.3 2.58.0.0.4 Identify parameters related to go-around/waveoff from roundout Identify procedure for performing go-around/waveoff from roundout

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Why Go-Around/Waveoff There will be times during a roundout when a safe landing cannot be accomplished. For example, you may be too high, too fast, in an unsafe attitude, or poorly aligned with the runway. You could also find yourself without required spacing on the airplane in front of you, encounter wake turbulence from a landing or departing aircraft, or be distracted by other events in the pattern or a malfunction with your aircraft.

Figure FF106-40 Go Around/Waveoff Reasons

Go-Around/Waveoff Decision Whatever the case may be, never try to salvage a bad landing. If you recognize a potentially dangerous situation developing, do not hesitate to go-around/waveoff. Executing a timely go-around/ waveoff is much easier than explaining a crumpled aircraft.

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FF106 LANDING Go-Around/Waveoff Procedure To execute a goaround/waveoff from the roundout, accomplish the following: Power - MAX Establish a climb When you are sure you will not touch down, state GEAR CLEAR (if you are pre-solo wait for your IP to respond) then raise the gear and flaps Climb to 500 feet AGL and accelerate to 200 KIAS maximum (unless directed otherwise by local procedures) Keep in mind that you will be slow and configured when initiating a go-around/waveoff from the roundout. Be careful to avoid any abrupt or excessive control inputs that could lead to a stall.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF106-41 Go-Around/Waveoff Procedure

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Clearing the Runway Dont forget to offset from the runway to avoid overtaking an aircraft ahead of you or overflying one on takeoff.

Figure FF106-42 Clear Runway

Taxi/Parking 7.4.0.0.4 7.5.1.0.1 7.5.1.0.2 Identify procedure for taxiing to parking Identify procedure to park aircraft Identify taxi/parking clearances

Taxi/Parking Safety Following a full stop landing, you obviously need to return the aircraft to the ramp parking area. This will necessitate taxiing on taxiways and ramps active with other aircraft and ground support equipment and personnel. Safety is paramount. It is imperative you heed the directions of ground control and ramp personnel.

Figure FF106-43 Taxi/Parking Safety

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FF106 LANDING Request Taxi Instructions After landing and turning off the active runway, you will contact ground control for taxi instructions. Switch your radio(s) to the ground control frequency and notify them of your location and intention to return to the parking ramp.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF106-44 Request Taxi Clearance

Ground Control Clearance Ground control will normally issue a taxi clearance to your parking area.

Taxi Procedures Use nose wheel steering and differential braking to maintain directional control as you taxi to park. Remember that nose wheel steering operation is limited to ramp speed and parking only.

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Taxi Power An idle setting on the PCL will normally produce sufficient thrust for you to taxi. Ensure you avoid sustained operation at the restricted propeller RPM range of 62 to 80%.

Figure FF106-45 Taxi Power

Min Radius Turns If a minimum radius turn is necessary, you can accomplish it by using power, full rudder, and differential braking. Ensure you disengage the nose wheel steering if making sharp turns with differential braking.

Figure FF106-46 Min Radius Turns

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FF106 LANDING Obstacle Clearance You are responsible for maintaining obstacle clearance minimums while taxiing to park. Remember that a wing walker must be used if obstacles are between 10 and 25 feet from the aircraft. If there is less than 10 feet of clearance from an obstacle, you can not taxi past it. You will need to have it moved or find an alternate taxi route.

STUDENT GUIDE

Figure FF106-47 Obstacle Clearance

Parking Taxi to parking following local area procedures, controller instructions, and taxiway/ramp markings. Most parking spots designate where to position your nose wheel with a line across the taxi line. There will normally be a ground crew member available to guide you into your parking space and let you know when to stop. The ground crew member will use the same hand signals to help you park that you learned in the taxi lesson. It is imperative you know the meaning of each signal and comply immediately with any directions.

Figure FF106-48 Taxiway/Parking Spot Markings

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Figure FF106-49 Ground Crew Hand Signals

Aircraft Shutdown Once you have arrived at your parking spot, its time to shut down the engine and make sure all aircraft systems are off or properly secured. As with any other phase of flight, following the appropriate shutdown checklist is very important. After exiting the aircraft, you will complete a postflight exterior walk-around inspection. Figure FF106-50 Aircraft Shutdown Lesson Review Quiz

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STUDENT GUIDE

LESSON QUESTIONS EMBEDDED QUESTIONS (Ref: Segment/Topic/Question) 1. During the roundout, elevator back pressure is adjusted to maintain proper ______. (B/1/1) a. b. c. d. thrust angle pitch attitude altitude stall speed

2. During landing, retard the PCL with a smooth reduction to IDLE ______. (B/1/2) a. b. c. d. at or just before touchdown at the runway threshold once landing is assured just before the roundout

3. As groundspeed decreases below 80 KIAS and the flight controls become less effective, you can use ______ braking to assist in maintaining direction control during landing roll. (B/1/3) a. b. c. d. aerodynamic maximum differential nose wheel

4. The three phases of landing are the roundout, touchdown, and _______. (B/1/4) a. b. c. d. go-around/waveoff landing roll power control taxi

5. If you suspect you may have hot brakes, you should remain clear of other aircraft or parking areas. (B/1/5) a. b. True False

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6. If the roundout is executed too high, the tendency is to run out of ______ and drop it in or stall. (B/2/1) a. b. c. d. power airspeed thrust rudder control

7. Ballooning can be brought on by ______. (B/2/2) a. b. c. d. rounding out too late rounding out too rapidly heavy aircraft weight lack of power

8. Within about one wing span distance above the ground, there will be ______ in induced drag while lift remains virtually unchanged. (B/2/3) a. b. c. d. a significant increase little if any change a significant decrease a slight increase

9. A long narrow runway can cause an approach to appear ______. (B/2/4) a. b. c. d. too low too high too fast too slow

10. Hills or buildings near the approach end of the runway can contribute to unpredictable wind currents on the approach path. (B/2/5) a. b. True False

11. Viscous hydroplaning is more likely on a ______ runway surface. (B/2/6) a. b. c. d. dry hot smooth uneven

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STUDENT GUIDE

12. When trying to stop a hydroplaning aircraft, maintain directional control with the rudder, and avoid ______. (B/2/7) a. b. c. d. oversteering sharp braking elevator movement sudden aileron deflection

13. Following touchdown in a touch-and-go, directional control is maintained primarily with the ______. (B/3/1) a. b. c. d. elevator rudder throttle ailerons

14. In a touch-and-go, anticipate adding ______ after power is advanced to counter the torque increase from the engine. (B/3/2) a. b. c. d. down elevator left rudder up elevator right rudder

15. Crosswind controls should be established once you are ______. (B/4/1) a. b. c. d. at the roundout point on the downwind leg on final approach in level flight at 500 feet AGL

16. Because cross controls increase drag, you will have to make power adjustments to maintain your ______. (B/4/2) a. b. c. d. approach airspeed altitude approach attitude approach angle

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17. Shifts in crosswind direction or speed (gusts) during the approach can cause ______. (B/4/3) a. b. c. d. engine failure propeller overspeed a sudden loss of lift none of the above

18. On a go-around/waveoff from the roundout raise the gear and flaps ______ . (B/5/1) a. b. c. d. immediately after you level off at pattern altitude when you are sure you will not touch down once power is set to MAX

19. When should you contact ground control for taxi instructions? (B/6/1) a. b. c. d. On the runway during rollout Before entering the parking ramp After turning off the active runway After touchdown

20. What setting on the PCL will normally produce sufficient thrust for taxi? (B/6/2) a. b. c. d. IDLE MAX TAKEOFF CRUISE

21. What action should be taken before making sharp turns with differential braking? (B/6/3) a. b. c. d. Reset rudder trim Disconnect nose wheel steering Center the rudder pedals Turn the TAD off

22. The ground crew signal shown indicates what action? (B/6/4) a. b. c. d. Stop Turn left Cut engine Start engine

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FF106 LANDING 23. The marshaller in this graphic is giving the signal for ______. (B/6/5) a. b. c. d. stop slowdown cut engine check flight controls

STUDENT GUIDE

LESSON REVIEW QUIZ QUESTIONS 1. A wide, short runway will cause a visual illusion which may cause a pilot to land ______. a. b. c. d. 2. further down the runway on one side of the runway short of the runway at too high an airspeed

Heavier aircraft weight will produce a higher lift requirement and contribute to a ______. a. b. c. d. lower thrust requirement quicker sink rate shorter landing roll lower stall speed

3.

When power is advanced following touchdown in a touch-and-go landing, right rudder will be required to compensate for increased ______. a. b. c. d. drag lift airspeed torque

4.

When landing behind another aircraft, particularly a large type, ______ is one hazard which could require a go-around. a. b. c. d. foreign object damage wake turbulence hydroplaning visual illusion

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5.

Following a full stop landing, you should retract the flaps and complete the after landing checklist after you ______. a. b. c. d. touchdown roll out to the end of the runway clear the active runway reach the parking area

6.

In the initial portion of the rollout of a crosswind landing, directional control is maintained using rudder and ______. a. b. c. d. braking aileron throttle elevator

7.

Ground effect normally occurs within ______ of the ground. a. b. c. d. 10 feet one fuselage length 20 feet one wingspan

8.

Touchdown with flaps LDG should occur at an airspeed of approximately ______ KIAS. a. b. c. d. 75 80 85 95

9.

In a crosswind landing, cross controls will require power adjustments to maintain airspeed. This is primarily due to increased ______. a. b. c. d. thrust lift weight drag

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FF107 FLYING FUNDAMENTALS REVIEW FF107 FLYING FUNDAMENTALS REVIEW STUDENT GUIDE TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................... 7-1 OVERVIEW............................................................................................................................... 7-2 REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................... 7-2 STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS .................................................................................................... 7-2 LESSON OUTLINE .................................................................................................................. 7-2 LESSON QUESTIONS ............................................................................................................. 7-3

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FF107 OVERVIEW

STUDENT GUIDE FLYING FUNDAMENTALS REVIEW

This lesson provides a review of Flying Fundamentals. Subject matter is taken from the following lessons: FF101 TOLD Computations, FF102 Clearing, Cross-check, and Basic Flight, FF103 Taxi and Takeoff, FF104 Departure and Climb, FF105A Air Force Traffic Patterns, and FF106 Landing. REFERENCES T-6A Flying Fundamentals Student Guide AFMAN 11-248 T-6A Flight Manual STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS Review FF101, FF102, FF103, FF104, FF105 and FF106 student guides. Review appropriate portions of AFMAN 11-248. Review appropriate portion of the T-6A Flight Manual. LESSON OUTLINE Topics in this lesson will be presented in sequential order. Follow along with the instructor using the student guides provided for FF101 through FF106.

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LESSON QUESTIONS EMBEDDED QUESTIONS (Ref: Segment/Topic/Question) 1. 2. 3. 4. What information is needed to complete the TOLD card? (B/1/1) What should you do if winds are reported as either gusty or variable? (B/1/2) What are the six variables used to compute takeoff distance using the takeoff distance chart? (B/1/3) Compute takeoff distance. (B/1/4) Temp: 20 C Pressure altitude: sea level Weight: 6000 pounds Runway gradient: 1% upslope Wind: 15 knot headwind Obstacle: none 5. 6. 7. 8. What is the effect of increased temperature on takeoff distance? (B/1/5) In computing landing distance data, what is total landing distance? (B/1/6) What is RCR, and what are the specific values? (B/1/7) Computing landing distance (B/1/8) Temp: 30 C Pressure altitude: 5000 feet Weight: 6000 pounds Runway gradient: 1% upslope Wind: 10 knots tailwind RCR: 23 Obstacle height: 0 Flaps: landing 9. What should you do before entering the computed headwind component into the appropriate block on the TOLD card? (B/1/9)

10. What is an instrument cross-check? (B/2/1) 11. What term describes setting and maintaining aircraft parameters using outside visual reference and aircraft instruments? (B/2/2) 12. What are the two categories of flight instruments? (B/2/3)

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13. Which performance instruments will give you the first indications of incorrect pitch and bank angle setting? (B/2/4) 14. What is coordinated flight? (B/2/5) 15. What is crabbing? (B/2/6) 16. What is the standard pitch correction for altitude deviations less than 300 feet? (B/2/7) 17. What is the purpose of trimming the aircraft? (B/2/8) 18. Turns involve the coordination of which aircraft control surfaces? (B/2/9) 19. As you roll into a turn, what other control inputs must you make besides rudder? (B/2/10) 20. In a constant airspeed and power climb, how will your attitude in a climbing turn compare to a wings-level climb? (B/2/11) 21. What is the technique to smoothly lead a level-off from a climb or descent? (B/2/12) 22. When accelerating, how will the aircraft tend to react? (B/2/13) 23. How would you pronounce these on the radio? (B/2/14) a. b. c. 1500 feet FL290 Heading 035

24. Which airborne radio calls should be read back? (B/2/15) 25. What are the meanings of the following transponder codes? (B/2/16) a. b. c. d. 7700 7600 7500 1200

26. When are you authorized to cross all taxiways and runways along your route except the departure runway itself? (B/3/1) 27. Which taxi clearances are you required to read back? (B/3/2)

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28. What is wrong with this picture? Note the winds are 100/30, the active runway is 18, and the ground speed is 15 knots. (B/3/3)

29. As the takeoff roll progresses, why will smaller rudder inputs be needed? (B/3/4) 30. During takeoff, when are the wheel brakes used? (B/3/5) 31. What control inputs should be made during a no-wind takeoff? (B/3/6) 32. On this DP, when departing from runway 31L, where are you restricted to maintain at or above 5000 feet? (B/4/1)

33. What is the normal climb speed for the T-6A? (B/4/2) 34. During a normal climb, you observe the airspeed to be 155 knots. What correction is necessary? (B/4/3) 35. What is the purpose of the best rate of climb? (B/4/4) 36. What is normal traffic pattern airspeed and altitude? (B/5/1)

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STUDENT GUIDE FLYING FUNDAMENTALS REVIEW

37. When must you normally proceed straight through initial and NOT execute a break? (B/5/2) 38. Your goal at final turn roll out is to be on the extended runway centerline, approximately ______ mile from the runway approximately ______ feet above the ground. (B/5/3) 39. What factors would preclude you from requesting a closed pattern? (B/5/4) 40. During a straight-in, when do you make your gear down radio call? (B/5/5) 41. True or false? A go-around can be initiated by the pilot or directed by the runway controller. (B/5/6) 42. Normally, what is the breakout altitude? (B/5/7) 43. Where is the entry point for the 360 overhead pattern? (B/6/1) 44. When do you perform the Before Landing Check? (B/6/2) 45. In the turn to final, plan your bank angle for ______. (B/6/3) 46. During the high-speed portion of the touchdown and rollout, how should directional control be maintained? (B/7/1) 47. When can the wheel brakes be used for directional control? (B/7/2) 48. What visual illusions might affect your landing/flare? (B/7/3) 49. What is the purpose of the touch-and-go landing? (B/7/4) 50. How should the aircraft be positioned at touchdown in a crosswind landing? (B/7/5) LESSON REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. As temperature decreases, what happens to takeoff distance? What is RCR? What is a composite cross-check? Which instrument is used to maintain pitch and bank? Which is the primary instrument used in the hub and spoke method? What is a skid in a turn? In a turn, how do you compensate for loss of lift? To achieve cruise altitude as quickly as possible, you should use what climb speed? What information should be included in a standard request for taxi clearance?

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10. What does this ground crew signal indicate?

11. When can the wheel brakes be used during takeoff? 12. What does this figure mean on this DP?

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13. When initiating a climb from cruise with the airspeed above 160 KIAS, what is the first action taken? 14. For Air Force overhead traffic patterns, when do you lower the landing gear, and below what airspeed? 15. How do you perform a breakout from an Air Force overhead pattern? 16. In the Navy traffic pattern, where are the landing gear and flaps normally lowered? 17. During the approach turn in a Navy overhead traffic pattern, when should you execute a waveoff? 18. While landing, what effect will a wide runway have?

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FF190 FLYING FUNDAMENTALS EXAMINATION

FF190 FLYING FUNDAMENTALS EXAMINATION AND CRITIQUE STUDENT GUIDE OVERVIEW The FF190 Flying Fundamentals Examination and Critique tests your retention of material covered in FF101 TOLD Computations, FF102 Clearing, Cross-check and Basic Flight, FF103 Taxi and Takeoff, FF104 Departure and Climb, FF105 Traffic Patterns, and FF106 Landing. This is a one-hour, closed-book examination consisting of 47 questions. Applicable T-6A performance charts are provided if required. No study materials will be allowed in the testing area. LESSON OBJECTIVES The objectives for this examination are randomly selected from the lessons within the Flying Fundamentals unit. Individual lesson objectives are listed in the respective student guides. REFERENCES FOR TEST PREPARATION T-6A Flight Manual AFMAN 11-248 FF101, FF102, FF103, FF104, FF105, and FF106 Student Guides STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS 1. Review FF101, FF102, FF103, FF104, FF105, and FF106 Student Guides 2. Read T-6A Flight Manual, Sections I and II 3. Read AFMAN 11-248, applicable sections HANDOUTS Applicable T-6A performance charts

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STUDENT GUIDE

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STUDENT GUIDE

APPENDIX A ANSWER KEY

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FLYING FUNDAMENTALS ANSWER KEYS

FF101 Told Computations 1. 2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. TRUE B B D B C Embedded Questions 3. B 4. C Lesson Review Quiz Questions 5. B 6. A 7. A

2.

3.

4. 5. 6. 7.

Additional Practice Questions Crosswind component: 7 knots 8. Takeoff distance: 1600 feet Headwind component: 19 knots Obstacle Clearance: 3000 feet Rotation speed: 86 KIAS Obstacle speed: 104 KIAS Crosswind component: 18 knots 9. Takeoff distance: 1800 ft Headwind component: 18 knots Obstacle clearance distance: 1800 ft Rotation speed: 86 KIAS Obstacle speed: 104 KIAS Crosswind component: 27 knots 10. Landing distance: 2800 ft Headwind component: 27 knots Obstacle speed: 96 KIAS Touchdown speed: 85 KIAS Crosswind component: 12 knots Headwind component: 10 knots Crosswind component: 23 knots Headwind component: 12 knots Crosswind component: 16 knots Headwind component: 8 knots Crosswind component: 13 knots Headwind component: 7 knots

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FLYING FUNDAMENTALS ANSWER KEY

STUDENT GUIDE

FF102 CLEARING, CROSSCHECK, AND BASIC FLIGHT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Click on the VSI A B Click on the EHSI C C Embedded Questions 8. B 9. B 10. True 11. D 12. D 13. D 14. D 15. C 16. A 17. D

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

A D A A B D B

Lesson Review Quiz Questions 8. D 9. D 10. B 11. C 12. B 13. D 14. C

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FF103 TAXI AND TAKEOFF 1. True Embedded Questions 10. B

2.

11. A

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

A B D B True D A B D C C

12. C 13. B 14. False 15. C 16. C 17. B 18. D Lesson Review Quiz Questions 6. B 7. B 8. B 9. C 10. D

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FLYING FUNDAMENTALS ANSWER KEY FF104 DEPARTURE AND CLIMB 1.

STUDENT GUIDE

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Embedded Questions B 10. a. Receive and understand departure instructions b. Resolve questions and aircraft limitations c. Adhere to the departure instructions C 11. C D 12. C Above the TRUAX NAVAID on the 203 13. D course inbound past 7 DME arc Below the TRUAX NAVAID on the 213 14. B radial outbound On the Corpus Christi 184 radial past the 15. B 24.5 DME intersection D 16. C B 17. B A Lesson Review Quiz Questions B 5. A D 6. D D 7. C D 8. C

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FF105A TRAFFIC PATTERNS (USAF) Embedded Questions 6. A 7. A 8. C 9. B 10. B 11. D 12. B 13. B 14. C 15. B 16. B 17. B 18. C 19. B 20. B 21. D 22. A 23. A 24. A 25. A 26. C 27. B 28. D

1.

2. 3. 4. 5.

D C D

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. A-6

D D D C A B

Lesson Review Quiz Questions 7. A 8. C 9. C 10. B 11. A 12. B Version 2.1/Dec 07

FLYING FUNDAMENTALS ANSWER KEY FF105N TRAFFIC PATTERNS (USN) 1. 2. C Embedded Questions 4. D 5. C 6. C 7. A 8. A 9. B 10. B 11. B 12. A 13. A 14. A 15. A

STUDENT GUIDE

3.

Downwind

Abeam/180

The 90 Position

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

B C B B B

Lesson Review Quiz Questions 6. C 7. D 8. B 9. A 10. A

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STUDENT GUIDE FF106 LANDING 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. B A C B A B B C B A C B C B D B C Embedded Questions 13. B 14. D 15. C 16. A 17. C 18. C 19. C 20. A 21. B 22. A 23. C Lesson Review Quiz Questions 6. B 7. D 8. B 9. D

FLYING FUNDAMENTALS ANSWER KEYS

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FLYING FUNDAMENTALS ANSWER KEY

STUDENT GUIDE

FF107 Flying Fundamentals Review Embedded Questions 1. Aircraft information: weight and balance Departure and arrival field conditions (weather & airfield data): preflight and operations briefing c. Aircraft takeoff and landing performance: Flight Manual charts in Appendix A 2. Use the chart to calculate the strongest crosswind and weakest headwind. 3. Temperature, Pressure altitude, Gross weight, Runway slope, Wind, Obstacle height 4. Takeoff distance: 1200 feet 5. As temperature increases, takeoff distance also increases. 6. Total ground distance from the 50-foot obstacle height to a full stop with charted configuration 7. Runway Conditions Reading (RCR) a. 26 best condition b. 23 dry c. 12 wet d. 05 icy e. 02 worst condition 8. Total landing distance: 3100 feet 9. Verify that the crosswind component is within acceptable limits. 10. Setting and maintaining aircraft parameters using reference only to the aircraft instruments 11. Composite cross-check 12. Control, Performance and Navigation 13. a. Incorrect pitch: VSI, then altimeter b. Incorrect bank angle: EHSI and turn and bank indicator 14. Flight in aerodynamic balance without skid or slip 15. Adjusting your heading in order to fly a straight ground track 16. 2 17. Trim balances aerodynamic forces on the aircraft to relieve the pilot from having to forcefully hold aircraft controls in the desired position. 18. Aileron, rudder, and elevator 19. You must increase back pressure on the stick to maintain level flight. 20. It will be lower because the turn results in a loss of lift and a resultant decrease in climb rate. 21. Lead level-off altitude by 10% of the vertical velocity. 22. It will seek the trimmed airspeed by climbing. If power is added, right rudder and trim will also be needed to compensate for propeller effects. The Trim Aid Device will also provide some assistance. 23. a. one thousand, fife hundred feet a. b.

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24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

b. flight level two niner zero c. heading zero tree fife Heading changes, Altitude changes, Altimeter changes 7700 Emergency, 7600 Two-way radio failure, 7500 Hijack notification, 1200 Operating under VFR When tower/ground control clears you to taxi to a runway Any clearance that includes hold short instructions a. Taxiing on an unusable surface b. Contacting donuts or cable faster than 5 knots c. Exceeding maximum crosswind component d. Incorrect aileron crosswind controls As speed increases, the controls will become more effective. Only for stopping (abort), not steering Right rudder You must be at 5000 feet at the NGP VORTAC. 160 KIAS Lower the nose slightly Achieves cruise altitude as quickly as possible and is also the most fuel efficient 1000 feet AGL and 200 KIAS a.

29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37.

Reach end of the break zone and have: 1) Insufficient spacing with aircraft on inside downwind 2) Aircraft on straight-in between 5 and 2 miles 3) Aircraft on ELP between high key and low key b. If you must proceed straight through initial, turn crosswind at departure end or as directed locally 38. 1/2 NM from the runway; 150 - 200 39. a. Straight-in between 5 and 2 miles b. Aircraft on initial c. Spacing with aircraft on closed downwind d. ELP between request high key (depending on local procedures) and low key 40. At the 2 NM point 41. True 42. 500 to 1000 feet above normal traffic pattern altitude 43. Initial 44. On downwind. Also, maintain level flight and 120 KIAS. 45. 15 to 20, but never exceed 30 of bank 46. With the rudder (ailerons in a crosswind) 47. Once the nose wheel is on the runway (below 80 KIAS) 48. Runway width, Runway length, Runway slope, Terrain features 49. Allows landing practice without having to taxi back A-10 Version 2.1/Dec 07

FLYING FUNDAMENTALS ANSWER KEY

STUDENT GUIDE

50. Fuselage aligned with runway, Touchdown on upwind gear, Ailerons added as necessary to counter drift Lesson Review Questions 1. It decreases. 2. Runway Conditions Reading, which is a report of runway braking characteristics 3. Maintaining aircraft parameters by using both outside references and instruments 4. EADI 5. EADI 6. The aircraft is turned with excessive rudder. The ball will be deflected to the outside of the turn. 7. Apply back pressure on the control stick. 8. Best rate of climb 9. Aircraft ID, current position on the airfield, type of operation, and intended first destination 10. Right turn 11. Only for stopping, not steering 12. Maintain between 3000 feet and 6000 feet 13. Simultaneously increase power to maximum and the pitch to above the normal climb pitch picture 14. On inside downwind; 150 KIAS 15. Execute a climbing turn away from traffic. Maintain 200 KIAS and proceed to the reentry point. 16. On downwind and the 180 point, respectively 17. If there is not at least 90 of turn between you and the aircraft ahead, or if you roll out on final and the aircraft ahead has not landed 18. It can make you flare too high or short of the runway.

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