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USMLE World Notes - Important Points

**Credits to Duncan Subendothelial Deposits are seen in SLE patients Subepithelial Humps are seen in !lomeruloneprhitis cute Poststreptococcal

Linear Subendothelial are seen in !oodpasture"s #$%pe II& Mesan'ial Deposits are seen in I' Nephropath%

Spi(e and Dome are seen in Membranous Subendothelial Humps are seen in Membranoproli)erati*e +ithrom%cin , administered to HI- . patients can pre*ent M%cobacterium *ium Ethambutol , inhibits arabinos%l trans)erase /hich pol%meri+es arabinose into arabinan etc0 Side E))ects 1 2ptic Neuritis 3i)ampin , inhibits bacterial DN dependent 3N thus pre*ents transcription o) DN into m3N 0 Isonia+id , inhibits m%colic acid s%nthesis0 44 5 !4363P4 !43 5 Creatinine Clearance6Inulin 3P4 5 P H 4ibroadenoma , cellular m%7oid stroma8 sometimes there are compressed c%stic spaces0 Spon'iosis - epidermal accumulation o) edematous )luid in the intercellular spaces0 Dipheno7%late , opiate anti-diarrheal structurall% related to Meperidine0 2ctreotide , 'ood )or secretor% diarrhea8 /hich is a Somatostatin nalo' Urease , con*erts urea to carbon dio7ide and ammonia and thus increases pH 3adiation $herap% - causes 9& DN )ormation o) )ree radical double strand brea(a'e :& pol%merase and

Methadone , has a lon' hal) li)e In 4etal Lun's - a)ter ;< /ee(s there is an increase in Lecithin )ter ;= /ee(s there is a rise in Phosphat%d%l'l%cerol Males /ith > ? reductase de)icienc% - )emini+ed e7ternal 'enitalia8 small phallus and H%pospadias are common0 3epair Dama'e , !l%cos%lase 1 Endonuclease 1 L%ase 1 DN Pol%merase 1 Li'ase H0 P%lori , most common cause o) duodenal ulcers CM- in immunocompromised , Mononucleosis 3etinitis in CM- , HI-. Patients Primar% CNS L%mphoma , most commonl% associated /ith IDS

S@uamous Cell Lun' Cancer , produces Parath%roid Hormone 3elated Peptide8 /hich in turn /ill decrease P$H Camp%lobacter , can be transmitted )rom domestic animals Shi'ella - is transmitted *ia )ecal oral in da% care centers Aeratin - mar(er o) epithelial cell ori'in0 Secretin - produced b% S endocrine cells in the duodenum8 that increases bicarbonate secretion )rom e7ocrine pancreas into the small bo/el0 lpra+olam , ben+odia+epine /ith the shortest hal) li)e8 /hich is used in cute n7iet%0 Dia+epam8 Chlordia+epo7ide and Clona+epam , lon'est hal) li)e8 used in proph%la7is0 Sheets o) Primiti*e Cells /ith Man% Mitotic 4i'ures , Medulloblastoma Most Common $umors in ChildrenB Piloc%tic stroc%toma - 3osenthal 4ibers Medulloblastoma - sheets o) small blue cells8 man% mitotic )i'ures Epend%oma , can cause H%drocephalus and )orm 3osettes 2rthostatic H%potension , side e))ects o) ? adrener'ic bloc(ers0 ML - has associations /ith t#9>89C&8 t#D8:9& and stained /ith M%elopero7idase0 uer 3ods are

CLL , deletion on Chromosome 9; Mantle Cell E L%mphoma , t#9989F& Dobutamine , causes increase in cardiac contractilit% and increase in Heart 3ate $umors o) Sch/ann Cells , are deri*ed )rom neural Crest Cells0 Patients /ith C!D , susceptible to 9& Staph Pseudomonas ;& Serratia Nocardia >& sper'illus ureus :&

3osenthal 4ibers , /ith 'ranular eosinophilic bodies are seen in Piloc%tic stroc%toma0 $he% are /ell di))erentiated comprised o) spindle cells /ith hair li(e 'lial proGections tropine , re*erses muscarinic e))ects but does not pre*ent the de*elopment o) nicotinic e))ects such as muscle paral%sis Pralido7ime , re*erses both muscarinic and nicotinic e))ects o) or'anophosphates b% Hrestorin'I cholinesterase0 Calcium , binds to $roponin C and then unco*ers tropom%osin sites8 thus allo/in' actin to bind to m%osin0 S ; Heart Sound , can be heard i) the patient lies do/n in Le)t Lateral Decubitus Position or E7hales Completel% 3E4 5 3enal Plasma 4lo/6 #9-Hematocrit& In Metabolic l(alosis , measure patient"s Urinar% Chloride

!erminoma - tumors o) Pineal !land8 )ormed in children and adolescents0 Will present /ith 9& Precocious Pubert% due to J-HC! Production #similar in testicular seminoma& :& 2bstructi*e H%drocephalus ;& Parinaud S%ndrome , paral%sis o) up/ard 'a+e0 Ultra*iolet Speci)ic Endonuclease , initiates repair b% nic(in' the strand at $h%mine Dimer0 $his en+%me is missin' in Keroderma Pi'mentosum SE3 , )unctions in s%nthesis o) Lipids8 Carboh%drate Metabolism and Deto7i)ication o) Harm)ul Substances Uretero Pel*ic Lunction , most common site o) obstruction Increased Intraocular Pressure , most common side e))ect o) treatment o) Erad%cardia /ith tropine0

Mutation in !l%coprotein , /ill cause chan'es in the host and the% mediate attachment to tar'et host cell0 c MP path/a% - ?:8 J9 and J: Inositol Path/a% , ?9 adrener'ic8 muscarinic8 choliner'ic Ion Channel , Nicotinic8 Choliner'ic0 mpicillin , must be added to treat in)ants /ith Menin'itis0 Ce)tria7one co*ers all or'anisms8 but Listeria Monoc%to'enis is (illed b% mpicillin0 E 9M 4i)th"s Disease , causes aplastic crises #bone marro/& Eaton Lambers S%ndrome - associated /ith Lun' Cancer8 similar to M%asthenia !ra*is0 ntibodies are a'ainst pre-s%naptic Calcium Channels0 M%otonic D%stroph% , triplicate repeat8 mo*ement )rontal baldness8 cataracts are seen0 Cannot Loosen Hand !rip0 Cholinomimetics , indicated in Urinar% 3etention Paral%tic Ileus and !laucoma HUS , a)ter E0 Coli , Microan'iopathic Hemol%tic nemia

Se'mental -iruses #3ota*irus and 2rthom%7o*irus& - capable o) !enetic Shi)t0 Pa'et"s Disease - increase in 2steoclasts8 then increase in 2steoblasts8 /hich /ill increase l(aline Phosphatase0 r'inase - en+%me in Urea C%cle produces Urea and 2rnithine )rom r'inine0 Minute -entilation - product o) $idal -olume and 33 and includes Dead Space0 Neuroph%sis , carriers )or 27%tocin and DH in Posterior Pituitar%0

Epinephrine , increases S%stolic EP #?9 E))ect& Increase Heart 3ate #J9 E))ect& Decreases Diastolic #J: E))ect& Pretreatment /ith Propranolol 1 eliminates J E))ects and Lea*es ? E))ects 2nl%0 Protein C De))icienc% in War)arin $herap% , /ill e7a''erate the response and cause H%percoa'ulable State /ith S(in Necrosis

Neonates /ith H%poth%roidism - /ea(8 pale8 dr%0 Macro'lossia and Umbilical Hernia c%clo*ir - incorporates into ne/l% replicated -iral DN Hemorrha'ic C%stitis in Children , Males& Uric deno*irus #especiall% in

cid precipitates - collectin' ducts due to Lo/ Urine pH0

Insulin - dru' o) choice )or !estational Diabetes0 ML - )ormation o) PML63 3 ? )usion 'ene8 unable to si'nal )or proper di))erentiaton uer 3ods , stained /ith m%elopero7idase Donepe+il , $7 )or l+heimer"s Disease8 is a Cholinesterase Inhibitor and also %ou /ould add -itamin E0 NMD 3eceptor in CNS o*erstimulation b% !lutamate , thou'ht to increase D S%mptoms0 $7 /ith Memantine #anta'onist& Earbiturates , increase duration o) Chloride Channel 2penin' Een+odia+epines , increase )re@uenc% o) Chloride Channels0 Serum 4ibrino'en , must be monitored in DIC0 Narcoleps% , de)icienc% or Lo/ Le*els o) Neurotransmitter 2re7in # H%pocretin& Ha/thorne E))ect - tendenc% o) a stud% population to a))ect an outcome due to /hat is studied0 Mullerian Inhibitor% 4actor , secreted b% Sertoli Cells Primar% in)ection /ith HS- , more spread out8 but 3eacti*ation is more Locali+ed to 9 side0 S-9<< Positi*e , Sch/annoma and Melanoma0 Eoth are )rom Neural Crest Cells0 $- L%mphoc%tes , Paracortical None E-L%mphoc%tes - !erminal Centers o) L%mph Node $urner S%ndrome - hea*il% meth%lated DN due to Lo/ $ranscription cti*it% #Heterochromatin is not transcriptionall% acti*e8 it"s too condensed&

deno*irus , lo/ 'rade )e*er8 throat pain8 phar%n'oconGuncti*itis8 can be transmitted in Summer Camps0 4ra'ile K - 'ene meth%lation8 and this is inacti*e8 because it"s condensed0 Eurr Cells8 Helmet Cells - Mechanical 3ed Cell Destruction0 Pt"s /ith Prosthetic -al*es0 When -accinated - -irus Entr% into cells is impaired0 Sotalol , J Eloc(er /ith Class III #Potassium Channel Eloc(er& Properties /ill cause Erad%cardia and O$ Prolon'ation0 Pre E- LL 1$d$ . CD 9< and CD 9M Pre $- LL 1 CD:8 CD;8 CDF8 CD>8 CDC8 CDD8 CD9a8 $d$ Leu(oc%te l(aline Phosphatase , decreased in CML8 increased or normal in Leu(emoid 3eaction /hich is ><8<<< WEC0 Homoc%stinuria #similar to Mar)an"s& , de)icienc% o) C%stathione S%nthase0 $7 /ith P%rido7ine Supplements #E=& 3in' Enhanced Lesions , $o7oplasmosis8 Sei+ures Dih%drobiopterin 3eductase , Co)actor )or Eoth Phen%lalanine H%dro7%lase and $%rosine H%dro7%lase0 2steoblasts con*ert to 2steoc%tes , osteoc%tes are connected b% !ap Lunctions0 Lecithinase , alpha to7in8 produced b% C0 Per)rin'es and has an abilit% to de'rade Lecithin8 main component o) Phospholipid Membrane $erminal Eronchioles , lined b% ciliated simple cuboidal epithelium0 Nipple 3etraction , in Ereast Cancer is usuall% due to in)iltration o) Cooper"s Li'ament b% Cancer0 Prepatellar Eursa , commonl% seen in roo)ers8 carpenters8 people /ho are (neelin' all the time0 cute M%elo'enous Leu(emia , is associated /ith t#9>89C&8 /here 'ene )or 3etinoic cid is trans)erred )rom Ch0 9C to Ch0 9> Sarcoidosis , presents /ith increased number o) CDF . $ cells0 Calcitonin , released )rom Para)ollicular cells o) $h%roid8 in response to increasin' le*els o) calcium0 It promotes calcium

absorption b% the bone and reducin' calcium absorption b% the intestines and thus decreasin' the le*els o) circulatin' calcium NS IDS - are the primar% cause o) papillar% necrosis and chronic interstitial nephritis Increased le*els o) Calcium8 Phosphate and 27alate , promote salt )ormation and thus stones Increased le*els o) Citrate and Hi'h 4luid Inta(e , pre*ent salt )ormation Cell Mediated Immune 3esponse , stimulates production o) Inter)eron !amma8 $umor Necrosis 4actor Eeta and IL 9: /hich in turn induces c%toto7ic $ cell response and eliminated intracellular or'anism such as Listeria Listeria Monoc%to'enes , !ram Positi*e 3od /hich produces -er% Narro/ Eeta Hemol%sis None on Sheep Elood 'ar and e7hibits $umblin' Motilit% and the onl% !ram Positi*e 2r'anism that produces LPS endoto7in #/hich is normall% )ound in !ram -& Succin%lcholine , depolari+in' NML bloc(er and usuall% elicits a )ast response /ithin =< seconds and lasts )or 9< minutes0 Eethanechol , muscarinic a'onist that impro*es bladder motilit% in post operati*e patients 27%butinin , antimuscarinic a'onist that is used in patients /ith urinar% incontinence Motor Inner*ation o) the $on'ue , pro*ided b% H%po'lossal Ner*e #9:&8 e7cept )or palato'lossus /hich is inner*ated b% -a'us Ner*e #9<& Sensation o) the $on'ue , nterior :6; is Mandibular Eranch o) $ri'eminal Ner*e8 Posterior 96; is b% !lossophar%n'eal Ner*e #M&0 !ustator% Inner*ation o) the $on'ue , nterior :6; is Chorda $%mpani b% 4acial Ner*e8 Posterior 96; is b% !lossophar%n'eal Ner*e0 H%percalcemia in Sarcoidosis , is b% macropha'es acti*ated -itamin D8 /hich is e7trarenall% produced8 it /ill in turn suppress P$H0 9st Phar%n'eal Pouch , e7ternal auditor% meatus8 primar% t%mpanic ca*it% and auditor% tube :nd Phar%n'eal Pouch , Palatine $onsils ;rd Phar%n'eal Pouch , $h%mus8 In)erior Parath%roid !land

Fth Phar%n'eal Pouch , Superior Parath%roid !land0 Phen%toin , causes increased e7pression o) Platelet Deri*ed !ro/th 4actor #PD!4&8 the% stimulate 'ro/th o) 'in'i*al cells0 Propranolol , used in $h%roto7icosis and /ill decrease the heart rate and Decreases Peripheral Con*ersion o) $F to $; MEN 9 , Parath%roid $umor #H%percalcemia&8 Pancreatic $umor #!astrin&8 Pituitar% denoma #Prolactin8 C$H& MEN :a , Medullar% Carcinoma o) the $h%roid #Calcitonin&8 Pheochromoc%toma and Parath%roid $umor MEN :b , Medullar% Carcinoma o) $h%roid8 Pheochromoc%toma8 Mar)anoid 4eatures6Mucosal Neuromas M%ocardial In)arction , is the most common cause o) Death in Diabetic Patients0 Carbama+epine , bloc(s -olta'e !ated Na Channels in Cortical Neurons8 and is used in $ri'eminal Neural'ia0 Causes Eone Marro/ Suppression and increase in DH /ill cause SI DH0 Ethosu7imide , bloc(s $-t%pe Calcium Channels and decreases Calcium current in $halamic Neurons8 used )or bsence Sei+ures0 $%pe : Diabetes , m%loid Deposition in the Pancreatic Eeta Cells0

$%pe 9 Diabetes , beta cells are destro%ed b% $ L%mphoc%tes8 loo( )or In)ection -on Hippel Lindau - autosomal dominant disorder characteri+ed b% cerebellar heman'ioblastomas8 clear cell carcinomas and pheochromoc%tomas0 ll patients ha*e a deletion o) -HL 'ene on Chromosome ;b0 c%clo*ir , can cause cr%stalline nephropath% i) h%dration is not pro*ided0 In C2 poisonin' , P2: is normal8 P Saturation o) 27%'en is decreased8 because C2 competes /ith 2 )or Heme Sites8 27%'en Content is decreased0 In nemia - P2: is normal8 P Saturation o) 27%'en is Normal8 27%'en Content is decreased In Pol%c%themia , P2: is normal8 P Saturation o) 27%'en is Normal8 27%'en content in the blood is Increased0 4oscarnet , is a p%rophosphate analo' and can chelate Calcium8 it /ill also cause Ma'nesium e7cretion and thus the side e))ects are

H%pocalcemia and H%poma'nesemia and thus there /ill be Sei+ures in patients ta(in' 4oscarnet0 In 3estricti*e Lun' Diseases , hi'h e7pirator% )lo/ rates occur despite Lo/ Lun' -olumes8 and that is due to Increased Elastic 3ecoil Pressure and Increased 3adial $raction on the air/a%s0 Henoch Schonlein Purpura , leu(oc%toclastic *asculitis due to deposition o) I' immune comple7es and presents /ith lo/ e7tremit% purpura8 abdominal pain8 arthral'ia and renal in*ol*ement0 L%mpho'ranuloma -enerium , is caused b% Chlam%dia $rachomatis8 and /ill present /ith pain)ul *esicular lesions0 cute Salic%late 2*erdose , at )irst there is a 3espirator% l(alosis8 because salic%lates stimulate medullar respirator% center and cause h%per*entilation0 Metabolic cidosis occurs due to accumulation o) acids8 and thus it"s a mi7ture o) 3espirator% l(alosis #lo/ PC2:& and Metabolic cidosis #lo/ plasma HC2;& Pre*ention o) 3ein)ection /ith In)luen+a , anti-hema''lutinin I'! antibodies in the blood and anti-I' antibodies in the mucus and nasophar%n70 Estro'en , /ill increase $E! le*els8 b% reducin' its destruction and thus /ill increase $F le*els0 So e7pect patients on Hormone $herap% to ha*e increased $F le*els0 canthosis Ni'ricans , Eeni'n 4orm is associated /ith Insulin Dependent Diabetes and Mali'nant 4orm is usuall% due to underl%in' !I denocarcinoma0 Nucleoside nalo's , c%clo*ir8 !anc%clo*ir8 -alac%clo*ir are nucleotide analo's that need to be con*erted into a Monophosphate 4orm b% Herpes -iral Ainases , $h%midine Ainases0 Cido)o*ir , is alread% a Nucleoside Monophosphate and thus doesn"t need to be con*erted to monophosphate and onl% needs to be con*erted into an acti*e $riphosphate 4orm0 Neuraminidase Inhibitors , pre*ent -irion 3elease )rom in)ected cells /ith Hemophilis In)luen+a0 mantadine , inhibits uncoatin' and disassembl% o) In)luen+a $o7in a)ter it has entered the cell0 3ibosomal 3N , is s%nthesi+ed in Nucleolus0 It"s the proteins that are s%nthesi+ed in 3E30

. $randelenbur' $est , chec(s )or dama'e to Superior !luteal Ner*e that inner*ates !luteus Medius and Minimus0 Ne/born born to Diabetic Mothers , /ill present /ith H%po'l%cemia and most o) the times the% present /ith Macrosomia8 $ransposition o) !reat -essels8 3enal 'enesis8 3ectal tresia0 H%po'%cemia is due to Eeta Cell H%perplasia8 and not because Insulin has crossed the Placenta8 because it doesn"t0 $hus /hen 'lucose crosses placenta into )etal blood8 the response o) the )etus /ill be Eeta Cell H%perplasia0 In C%anide poisonin' , m%l Nitrite is the antidote8 because Nitrites increase )ormation o) Methemo'lobin8 and Methemo'lobin has an increased a))init% )or C%anide0 Sodium $hiosul)ate also is used in C%anide Poisonin' /hich /ill )orm $h%oc%anite /hich is less to7ic0 3ecall Eias , /hen patients are selected /ho su))ered an ad*erse e))ect and the% are more li(el% to recall pre*ious ris( )actors0 Selection Eias , is /hen patients are selected b% pro*iders based on their se*erit% o) the disease0 4or E7ampleB se*erel% ill patients are more li(el% to enroll in cancer trials0 P0 eru'inosa , non-lactose )ermentin' #'ram ,& 3od and is the cause o) U$I in patients /ith Ind/ellin' Urinar% Catheters as /ell as patients on 3espirators0 InGections into 'luteal re'ion , must be tar'eted into Superior !luteal 3e'ion8 to a*oid inGur% to sciatic or 'luteal ner*es0 4oscarnet , is a p%rophosphate analo' and does not need to be con*erted intracellularl% to monophosphate )orm b% *iral $h%midine Ainase0 Its side e))ects include H%pocalcemia8 H%pma'nesemia and thus Sei+uresQQQQ Cushin'"s S%ndrome , is usuall% caused b% e7o'enous administration o) !lucocorticoids0 $hus the drenal Corte7 /ill appear shrun(en and trophied0 Sand Paper Li(e 3ash , ctinic Aeratosis8 that appears as crusted lesion on Sun E7posed reas in elderl%8 it ma% turn into Cutaneous Horns0 M%cobacteria , that 'ro/s as Serpentine Cords8 usuall% establishes -irulenceQQQ drenal Crisis , /ill present /ith shoc( s%ndromes in combination /ith H%ponatremia8 H%per(alemia and H%po'l%cemia8 and presence o) nuchal ri'idit%8 )e*er8 rash and *omitin' su''ests Neisseria Menin'itidis In)ection caused Waterhouse 4riedrichsen S%ndrome8 /here there is an drenal Hemorrha'e0

Primar% Mineralocorticoid E7cess , can be due to tumor o) Nona !lomerulosa8 /hich /ill cause H%po(alemia8 Eicarbonate 3etention and Sodium 3etention0 Which /ill in turn decrease 3enin0 Cushin' S%ndrome , primar% /or( up /ill include De7amethasone Suppression $est0 Where Cortisol Le*els /ould not be suppressed due to endo'enous Cushin' S%ndrome causin' Pituitar% denoma0 In norrhe7ia , le*els o) )at drop belo/ normal and this /ill in turn decrease pulsatile release o) !n3H0 cid 4ast Stain , stains m%colic acid and at )irst its placed into Carbol)uchsin and then /ill be treated /ith H%drochloric cid and lcohol Sn3NP #snurps& , are in*ol*ed in the process o) remo*in' 3N introns durin' S%nthesis and thus are necessar% )or s%nthesis o) Messen'er 3N Competent Patients , ha*e the ri'ht not to )ind out about their dia'nosis8 i) the% don"t /ant to0 Eeta Lactamase Inhibitors , Cla*ulinic cid8 Sulbactam and $a+obactam /ill inhibit destruction o) Eeta Lactam 3in' o) Penicillins0 bci7imab , inhibits bindin' o) !l%coprotein IIb6IIIa to 4ibrino'en0 !lan+mann $hrombasthenia , is a de)icienc% o) IIb6IIIa 'l%coprotein on platelet sur)aces0 Leu(otrienes , are s%nthesi+ed b% eosinophils8 basophils in asthmatics Histamine , bronchoconstrictor and is released b% mast cells0 Methacholine Challen'e , choliner'ic muscarinic a'onist used in testin' )or asthma -alproic cid , i) ta(en durin' pre'nanc%8 increases the ris( o) Neural $ube De)ects0 $est )or $emporal rteritis , )irst thin' to loo( at is Er%throc%te Sedimentation 3ate0 I) it"s ele*ated #R9<<& then the positi*e dia'nosis0 PrP , has an ? - helical structure and is usuall% )ound in Creut+)eld Lacob Disease8 /here there is a Spon'i)orm $rans)ormation o) !ra% Matter0 Spon'i)orm is because the abnormal protein accumulates in -acuoles and /ill )orm a Spon'e Li(e sur)ace0

Subacute Sclerosin' Encephalitis , complication o) Measles -irus in children and adolescents0 Usuall% )ound in t%pe o) Measles -irus that has an M-anti'en missin'0 Multiple Sclerosis , /ill present /ith *isual chan'es8 pain)ul e%e mo*ements and there /ill be Dem%elination o) 7ons8 but Ne*er a Loss o) Neurons8 7on Disruption or stroc%te De'eneration0 Herpes Encephalitis , usuall% a complication o) HS- 9 *irus in children and /ill in*ol*e $emporal Lobe Encephalitis0 Menin'itis caused b% E0coli , usuall% /ill in*ol*e a A-9 -iral Capsule that /ill be in)ectious0 E0coli /ill 'ro/ Pin( Colonies on Macon(e% 'ar0 $rans)used Elood , /ill contain citrate8 that is used to pre*ent clottin' o) the blood8 but in patients /ho are trans)used /ith lar'e amounts o) blood8 it /ill cause H%pocalcemia8 because it chelates Calcium0 4anconi nemia , patients /ill present /ith DN e7onuclease de)icienc%8 and /ill be similar mechanism to Keroderma Pi'mentosum0 War)arin $herap% , !amma Carbo7%late protein C and S #/hich are Natural nti Coa'ulants&8 and in patients /ith Protein C de)icienc%8 there /ill be an e7treme ris( o) $hrombosis0 Clopido'rel and $iclopidine , are DP anta'onists and /ill act b% bloc(in' interaction o) Li'ands /ith Platelet 3eceptors0 Patients on $iclopidine8 /ill ha*e Neutropenia and Mouth Ulcers as a side e))ectQQQQQ Cilosta+ol and D%p%ridamole , decrease Phosphodiasterase and thus increase c MP0 3 NA 3eceptor63 NA Li'and , are essential )or )ormation and di))erentiation o) 2steoclasts0 H%poestro'enic state #Lo/ Estro'en& /ill increase 3 NA and thus /ill cause an increase in 2steoclasts and thus in Increased Eone 3esorption0 -acuoles )ormed in CL Prion Disease , are accumulations o) lpha Helical Protein that became abnormal and these accumulations /ill )orm Spon'e)orm Encephalitis and /e /ill see PrP proteins in this disease0 C-peptide , can be used as a mar(er )or Endo'enous secretion o) Insulin b% J-pancreatic cells0 !l%buride /hich is a Sul)on%lUrea /ill increase the rate o) Insulin Secretion and Le*els o) C-peptide in $%pe II Diabetes0

Patients /ith MS a)ter Hot Sho/ers , /ill e7perience E7treme 4ati'ue a)ter ta(in' a Hot Sho/er8 because the Heat /ill Decrease the Speed o) 7onal $ransport0 M-CS4 and 3 NA receptors , are present on 2steoclasts0 Macropha'e ,Colon% Stimulatin' 4actor and 3 NA are present in 2steoclasts0 E0Coli causin' U$I , /ill e7press 4imbriae8 /hich are 4imbrial nti'ens8 /hich are used )or adhesion to Uroepithelial Cells0 Erunner"s !lands in Duodenum , /hich are uni@ue to Duodenum8 /ill secrete l(aline Mucous into the ducts0 Cilosta+ol and Dip%ridamole , /ill decrease the acti*it% o) Platelet Phosphodiesterase and thus /ill increase c MP0 lso the% /ill cause -asodilation o) rterioles0 Used in Peripheral rter% Disease , Intermittent ClaudicationQQQQQ n(%losin' Spond%litis , are associated /ith HL E-:C8 /hich are $SPE I HL class0 $%pe II HL Class are anti'ens that contain D38 DP and DO0 Ethosu7imide , bloc(s $-t%pe Calcium channels that tri''er and sustain rh%thmical burst dischar'es in thalamic neurons0 Phen%toin , bloc(s Na channels and thus decreases the )irin' o) neurons -alproic cid , bloc(s NMD receptors and a))ects A current0

Een+odia+epines , can cause da%time dro/siness and increase the ris( o) 4alls in Elderl%0 Mec(el"s Di*erticulum , remnant o) omphalomesenteric duct #*itellin' duct& and is a true di*erticulum8 that consists o) all the la%ers o) the intestinal /all #mucosa8 submucosa and muscularis& Po/er o) a stud% , 9-percenta'e /here it )ails0 So i) the data )ails :<P o) the time8 then 0D is a po/er o) stud%0 cute 3eGection - occurs /ithin /ee(s o) transplantation and primaril% mediated b% host $-l%mphoc%tes that act a'ainst donor MHC anti'ens0 $o pre*ent8 administer Calcineurin Inhibitor such as C%closporine0 Cricophar%n'eal Muscle D%s)unction , caused b% diminished rela7ation o) phar%n'eal muscles durin' s/allo/in'0 Usuall% occurs in elderl%8 /here the% present /ith cou'hin'8 cho(in' and recurrent aspiration0

Do7%rubicin , anthrac%cline chemotherapeutic a'ent /ill )orm )ree radicals in m%ocardium0 $he side e))ect is cardiac )ibrosis8 /hich /ill present /ith Dilated Cardiom%opath%0 Phospholipase C - )orms IP; and D ! )rom phospholipids0 nd IP; causes an increase in intracellular calcium8 /hich then acti*ates Protein Ainase C0 Lactase De)icient Patients - /ill present /ith a Normal Intestinal Mucosa0 Pol%c%stic 2*arian Disease Patients , /ill bene)it )rom therap% /ith Clomiphene8 /hich is an estro'en receptor anta'onist and /ill increase the release o) !n3H and stimulates o*ulation0 Eecause in PC2S the patients" o*aries /ill secrete estro'en /hich /ill )eedbac( inhibit !n3H8 and in treatment /ith Clomiphene8 these receptors /ill be suppressed and thus !n3H /ill secrete estro'ens and induce o*ulation0 Nimodipine , Calcium Channel Eloc(er8 used in sur'er% on Subarachnoid Hemorrha'e to pre*ent cerebral *asospasm0 sper'illosis , occurs in 2ld Lun' Ca*ities0 It /ill 'ro/ as a 4un'us Eall and /ill present in old ca*ities caused b% $E8 Sarcoidosis or Emph%sema0 Patients /ith sthma ma% ha*e a h%persensiti*it% reaction to sper'illus0 Erosions o) !astric Mucosa - are called erosions because the% do not penetrate Muscularis Mucosa8 /hen the% do8 then it"s called Ulcers0 Candida lbicans , /ill inoculate into serum at ;C de'rees )or ; hours /ill lead to )ormation o) H%phae )rom Seast0 Mitral -al*e Prolapse , the most common cardiac abnormalit% that predisposes to nati*e -al*e Eacterial Endocarditis0 MaGorit% o) 4ree Water , /ill be reabsorbed in the Pro7imal $ubule8 re'ardless o) the patient"s H%dration Status0 lpha 9 antitr%psin de)icienc% , should be suspected in all patients /ith premature onset #T>< %ears old& o) Chronic Eronchitis8 Emph%sema and D%spnea0 Histor% o) Neonatal Hepatitis /ith Cholestasis /ill hei'hten the suspicion o) 9 $ de)icienc%QQQ PC2: , is the most potent Cerebral -asodilator0 Patients /ith C2PD /ill usuall% ha*e lo/ P2: and Hi'h PC2: and thus /ill present /ith Increased Cerebral Circulation0 ortic 3e'ur'itation , /ill present /ith Widened Pulse Pressure and the patients /ill ha*e Head Eobbin'0

chondroplasia , the most common de)ect in these patients is the mutation o) 4ibroblast !ro/th 4actor 3eceptor #4!43-;& at the epiph%seal 'ro/th plate and the cells that are a))ected are Chondroc%tes0 $ri'eminal Neural'ia , is commonl% due to -: and -; ner*es o) CN- and /ill be treated b% Carbama+epine0 cute Necroti+in' Pancreatitis , MaGor 3is( 4actor )or dult 2nset 3espirator% Distress S%ndrome0 $hus patients /ill ha*e an ele*ated m%lase and Lipase0 betalipoproteinemia , is an inherited inabilit% to s%nthesi+e apolipoprotein E8 /hich is a component o) Ch%lomicrons0 $hus Lipids /ill accumulate in the Intestinal Epithelium8 because the% can"t be transported out0 3estin' Membrane Potential , is normall% about -C< m- and is due to Potassium E))lu7 and Sodium In)lu70 -alproate , is pre)erred in patients /ith Combined bsence Sei+ures and $onic Clonic8 not Ehtosu7imide /hich is onl% )or bsence Sei+ures0 C%stinuria , is due to de)ect in renal tubules8 /hich )ails to absorb amino acid C%steine0 $o test )or this8 /e do C%anide test /hich detects Sul)h%dr%l !roups and /ill detect presence o) C%stine0 Poststreptococcal !lomerulonephritis , /ill ha*e 'ranular deposits o) I'!8 I'M and C; in the mesan'ium and basement membrane0 Stapedius Muscle , inner*ated b% Stapedius Ner*e8 /hich is a branch o) CN-II0 Paral%sis o) Stapedius Muscle /ill cause H%peracusis0 Ipsilateral H%peracusis is usuall% seen in Eell"s Pals%8 /hich is a peripheral )acial ner*e pals%0 H%peracute 3eGection , that occurs immediatel% due to Pre)ormed ntibodies /ithin the recipient0 $his is a $%pe II H%persensiti*it% 3eaction0 Patients /ith Mitral Stenosis , mi'ht ha*e an 2penin' Snap8 /hich usuall% )ollo/s S: heart sound0 -SD , is usuall% heard at Le)t Midsternal Eorder and produces a Holos%stolic Murmur0 4i7ed Wide Splittin' , is present in patients /ith De)ect0 Which is a )i7ed /ide splittin' o) S:0 trial Septal

Phrenic Ner*e , /hich inner*ates diaphra'm8 arises )rom C;-C>0

Clubbed 4in'ers , patients /ill usuall% ha*e Eronchiectasis or other Lun' Diseases0 Uroporph%r%no'en S%nthase , is an en+%me de)icient in patients /ith Porph%ria0 Patients /ith Coronar% $hrombi , /ill ha*e a hi'h acti*it% o) Metalloproteinases in the clot and this /ill predispose to M%ocardial In)arction0 Colchicine , inhibits Leu(oc%te Mi'ration and Pha'oc%tosis b% Eloc(in' $ubulin Pol%meri+ation0 $he side e))ects are Nausea and Diarrhea8 should not be used in 3enal Insu))icienc% Patients or Elderl%0 Children /ith Measles , /ill bene)it )rom therap% /ith -itamin De))icienc% o) *itamin 8 /ill include 7erophthalmia8 ni'ht blindness8 (eratomalacia and corneal per)oration0 0

Strep -iridans , /ill be present a)ter Dental Sur'er%8 and /ill use De7trans as substrates to )acilitate adherence o) Strep -iridans to 4ibrin0 Inhaled nesthetics , /ill *asodilate Cerebral -asculature8 but /ill depress the blood )lo/ in Li*er8 Aidne%s8 Heart0 $C Patients Cause o) Death , is usuall% due to rrh%thmia /hich is precipitated b% Eloc(in' o) 4ast Sodium Channels in patients /ho o*erdose on $ric%clic nti Depressants8 /hich normall% inhibit reupta(e o) Norepinephrine and Serotonin0 Imipramine , /hich is a $C 8 /ill precipitate episodes o) Mania in patients /ho are depressed0 Mali'nant H%perthermia , usuall% occurs a)ter inhalation anesthetics /ere used and is treated /ith Dantrolene8 /hich 3%anodine 3eceptors and /ill inhibit the release o) Calcium into a c%toplasm0 Na)cillin or Methicillin , resistance is due to alteration o) Penicillin Eindin' Protein0 Which /ill alter the Eindin' o) Penicillin and thus cause 3esistance0 Enteropeptidase De)icienc% , /ill decrease con*ersion o) $r%psino'en to $r%psin in Intestines8 /hich /ill present /ith diarrhea8 'ro/th retardation and h%poproteinemia0 L%mphedema in Post Mastectom% Patients , /ill predispose to de*elopment o) L%mphan'iosarcoma o) L%mphatic Channels8 /ill occur 9< %ears a)ter the sur'er%0

Natural Ailler Cells , are responsible )or (illin' i) MHC I cells )ail to respond0 NA cells are CD9= and CD>=8 and do not re@uire $h%mus )or Maturation0 $he% are acti*ated b% IL 9: Sic(le Cell Patient , /ith Hb o) =<P and Hb S o) F<P /ill not de*elop pain)ul crises8 due to a hi'h number o) Hb 8 but /ill be protected )rom Plasmodium 4alciparum0 O$ Prolon'ation , /ill result )rom mutation o) A channel protein that contributes to dela%ed current o) cardiac action potential0 We'ener !ranulomatosis , /ill present /ith Crescents on Li'ht Microscop%0 Deciduali+ation o) endometrium , is seen in pre'nanc%8 it"s Gust another name )or a chan'e in the endometrium /ith 'estation Perchlorate8 Pretechnetate , are used to pretreat people /ith $h%roid Problems8 the% /ill bloc( iodide absorption *ia competiti*e inhibition0 denosine Deaminase , de)icient in SCID and accumulates and is to7ic to $-l%mphoc%tes0 denosine

H%dro7%lation o) L%sine to Proline , occurs in 3E3 and re@uires -itamin C0 Eone Speci)ic cti*it% l(aline Phosphatase , is indicati*e o) 2steoblastic

$artrase 3esistant cid Phosphatase8 H%dro7%proline and Deo7%p%ridinoline , indicati*e o) 2steoclastic cti*it%0 !lucocoricoid $herap% , number 9 cause )or therosclerosis , predisposes to 4ormation bdominal drenal Insu))icienc% ortic ne%urism

H%pertension , ris( )actor )or de*elopment o) ortic Dissections bdominal Pain due to Pancreatitis , is the presentin' si'n o) patients /ith H%pertri'l%ceridimea8 /here there are ele*eated le*els o) Ch%lomicrons Hepatitis E In)ection , /ill )ill up the c%toplasm /ith spheres and tubules containin' HbS '8 /hich 'i*es it eosinophilic 'round 'lass appearance Hepatitis C In)ection , /ill )orm l%mphoid accumulation in the portal tracts and cause )ocal areas o) macro*esicular steatosis0

Haloperidol , the dru' associated /ith the side e))ect o) Neuroleptic Mali'nant S%ndrome8 /hich presents /ith con)usion and muscle ri'idit%0 !lucocorticoids , are pre)erred as a short term therap% )or 3heumatoid rthritis8 and Methotre7ate is used )or Moderate to Se*ere 3heumatoid rthritis0 Neuronal Dama'e , /ill present /ith !liosis8 due to the death o) stroc%tes0 Calcium Channel Eloc(ers , /ill present /ith Eilateral S/ellin' and 4lushin' as a Side E))ect0 n(le

? Aetoacid Deh%dro'enase , is usuall% de)icient in Maple S%rup Disease and the treatment is to a*oid Eranched Chain mino cids8 such as Isoleucine8 Leucine and -aline0 !oodpasture"s S%ndrome , presents /ith Linear Deposits on I40 Minimal Chan'e Disease , presents in children /ith Selecti*e lbumin Loss Proteinuria0 4etal Hb4 , contains !amma !lobin instead o) Eeta !Lobin0 $hia+olidinediones #Pio'lita+one8 3osi'lita+one& , %ou must chec( )or Li*er 4unction $ests8 due to increased ris( o) Hepatoto7icit%0 nnular Pancreas , present due to Pancreatic Eud0 bnormal Mi'ration o) -entral

Con'enital Eicuspid ortic -al*e , presents /ith Calci)ication and /ill cause ortic Stenosis later on in Li)e0 Eupropion , doesn"t ha*e Se7ual D%s)unction Side E))ects and is an e7cellent choice opposed to SS3Is MaGor Easic Protein , secreted b% Eosinophils )unctions to (ill Helminths dult Pneumo*a7 , is an UnconGu'ated Pol%saccharide -accine0 Primar% Pulmonar% H%pertension , is usuall% due to idiopathic d%s)unction o) Pulmonar% rter% Endothelium $P , is a re'ulator% stimulus that acts to stimulate A $P Channels in Insulin Producin' Pancreatic Eeta Cells0 Ero/n Pi'ment Stones , results in the release o) J-'lucuronidase b% inGured hepatoc%tes0

S0 Pneumonia , is able to under'o trans)ormation on the a'ar8 i) combined /ith another bacteria E0Coli , is unable to under'o Pilus Mediated $rans)er o) DN ConGu'ation0 Strep0 -Iridans , produce De7trans )rom !lucose to coloni+e0 Con'enital $o7oplasmosis , presents /ith H%drocephalus8 Intracranial Calci)ications and Chorioretinits0 Coccidiom%cosis , produces Spherules in the Lun' $issue0 S%stemic Macroc%tosis , abnormal proli)eration o) mast cells and increased histamine secretion0 !astric H%persecretion /ill be seen in Macroc%tosis8 due to increased production o) !astric cid b% Parietal Cells0 $reatment /ith Statins , /ill increase LDL 3eceptor Densit%0 Neural $ube De)ects , /ill present /ith increased 4etoprotein and Increased cet%lcholinesterase lpha

Minimal l*eolar Concentration M C , best measure o) potenc% o) an inhaled anesthetics0 MHC Class I Molecule , consists o) a Hea*% Chain and a Eeta : Micro'lobulin Lactase De)icienc% , /ill present /ith Increased Stool 2smotic !ap8 Increased Ereath H%dro'en and Decreased Stool pH0 Patho'enesis o) Crohn"s Disease , presents /ith acti*it% o) $H9 cells8 /hich /ill increase production o) IL-: and Inter)eron !amma and thus increase production o) Macropha'es and thus !ranuloma 4ormation0 Leuprolide , !n3H 'onist8 /ill at )irst cause a $ransient Increase and then Decrease in $estosterone and DH$0 4actor - Leiden Mutation , causes 4actor -a resistance to Inacti*ation b% cti*ated Protein C8 patients /ill present /ith t%pical $hromboses0 Le'ionnaire"s Disease , caused b% Le'ionella Pneumonia causes disease in smo(ers8 /ith diarrhea8 headache and con)usion DD -P #Desmopressin& , increases *W4 release )rom the endothelial cells0 S F , causes an e7tra sound be)ore S 9 and that is due to a sti)) *entricle

Second !eneration # t%pical& nti Ps%chotics - Clo+apine8 3isperidone8 2lan+apine and Ouietiapine are used )or positi*e and ne'ati*e s%mptoms0 Echinococcus , usuall% causes c%sts in the li*er8 that i) are ruptured8 ma% cause naph%la7is0 C%anotic Spells , /here a patient /ill strain himsel) to *asoconstrict and thus re*erse 31L shunt8 are seen in $etrallo'% o) 4allot0 Diastolic 4ailure , /ill cause an increase onl% in ED-P8 /here a S%stolic /ill increase both ES and ED-P0 Eeni'n !lomus $umor , 'loman'ioma8 can produce a tender c%anotic nodule under the nail8 and the cells that caused this are in*ol*ed in $hermore'ulation0 Morphine , opioid a'onist8 that /or(s on Potassium Channel Conductance0 Ne'ati*e Predicti*e -alue , the probabilit% o) bein' )ree o) disease8 i) the result is ne'ati*e0 Small Cell Carcinoma , sho/s e*idence o) neuroendocrine ori'in0 Potassium Iodide , is added to decrease the upta(e o) th%roid b% the th%roid 'land in H%perth%roid Patients0 P$U , prop%lthiouracil8 bloc(s the en+%me $h%roid Pero7idase8 and thus decreases the )ormation o) $h%roid Hormone0 -entricular H%pertroph% , as /ell as *olume o*erload can induce )ormation o) NP and ENP )rom *entricular m%oc%tes and induce diuresis and natriuresis0 Sele'eline , an inhibitor o) M 2 $%pe E receptors8 in patients treated )or Par(inson it can protect )rom dama'in' o) dopaminer'ic neurons0 $reatment /ith Sele'eline and mantadine is a 4irst Step in mana'ement o) Par(inson Patients8 a)ter all the options are tried8 onl% then /e administer Carbidopa6Le*odopa0 C2K : Inhibitors , do not a))ect platelet )unction8 because it"s mostl% under C2K 9 control0 Maple S%rup Urine Disease , de)ect in ?-(etoacid deh%dro'enase8 /hich re@uires > co)actors #$hiamine P%rophosphate8 4 D8 N D and Coen+%me O& similar to P%ru*ate Deh%dro'enase0

3upture o) M%ocardium , is the most common complication o) MI ;-C da%s later0 H%potension8 Increased Lu'ular -ein Distention and Mu))led Heart Sounds are the si'ns0 Dietar% Ener'% , M (Cal per 'ram o) 4at8 F (Cal per 'ram o) Carbs and Protein and C (Cal per 'ram o) Ethanol0 Cardiac 2utput , 27%'en Consumption 6 di))erence0 rterio*enous 2:

Hepatitis -irus , can be inacti*ated b% boilin' )or 9 minute at D> de'rees8 treatin' /ith 4ormaldeh%de and Eleach0 O$ Prolon'ation , is usuall% caused b% Potassium Channel Eloc(ers8 miodarone is a Potassium Channel Eloc(er that doesn"t predispose to $orsades de Pointes0 reas o) Metaplasia , ma% be present in the duodenal ulcers created b% H0 P%lori In)ection0 Complications o) C4 , in US8 usuall% are Cardio3espirator% S%mptoms8 such as Pneumonia8 Eronchiectasis8 Cor Pulmonale and 2bstructi*e Pulmonar% Disease0 Standard De*iation , =DP is in the ran'e o) 9 SD8 M>P are in the ran'e o) : SD and MM0C P contain ; SD"s Increased 2steoid Matri7 , is a complication o) 3ic(ets Macropha'es loaded /ith P S Positi*e 'ranules , are usuall% seen in Whipple Disease8 i) there are si'ns o) Malabsorption in middle a'ed indi*iduals0 Lipo)uscin , is an accumulation o) Lipid Pero7idation accumulatin' in a'in' cells0 Ele*ated Serum lpha 4etoprotein , is usuall% present in Hepatocellular Carcinoma #Hepatoma& Complication o) C3ES$ , earliest dama'e is seen in small *essels8 /here it causes intimal thic(enin' Dama'e to Posterior H%poph%sis , /ill causes Diabetes Insipidus onl% )or a short period o) time0 Dama'e to H%pothalamic Nuclei , /ill cause a lon' term Diabetes Insipidus8 not the transient that is seen /ith dama'e to Posterior H%poph%sis $olcapone , is a C2M$ Inhibitor8 /hich ser*es to prolon' the a*ailabilit% o) Le*odopa in Par(inson Patients0 Chec( )or Li*er En+%mes /hen administerin'

Elastin"s abilit% to recoil /hen stretched , is due to L%s%l H%dro7%lase crosslin(in' Mitral -al*e Prolapse , is the most common predisposition to -al*e Eacterial Endocarditis0 Cerebellar $umor in a Child , is most li(el% a Medulloblastoma or Piloc%tic stroc%toma8 medulloblastomas are al/a%s solid and stroc%toma are solid and c%stic0 3enal Cell Carcinomas , are usuall% associated /ith -on Hippel Lindau and deletion o) -HL 'ene on Chromosome ;p0 Patients /ith splenic rupture , are usuall% susceptible to bacterial in)ections8 such as S0 Pneumonia8 H0In)luen+ae and N0 Menin'itidis0 Er'ono*ine , is an er'ot al(aloid that constricts *ascular smooth muscle b% stimulatin' alpha adrener'ic and serotoner'ic receptors and thus it can cause a Coronar% -asospasm0 N- cet%lc%steine , /or(s b% clea*in' Disul)ide Eonds /ithin Mucus !l%coproteins and thus Loosenin' the Mucus0 -itamin E De))icienc% , the most notable chan'es are seen in Ner*ous S%stem8 /here there is a de'eneration o) Spinocerebellar $racts8 dorsal columns and peripheral ner*es8 /hich is similar to 4riedrich"s ta7ia0 Pulmonar% E))ect o) -a'us Stimulation , is bronchoconstriction8 /hich /ill increase the /or( o) breathin'8 mucus production and air/a% resistance0 -0 Cholera , does not sur*i*e /ell in cidic pH0 So an% condition that causes achlorh%dia /ill cause -0 Cholera to proli)erate0 Durin' 3eco*er% )rom $N , patients tend to de*elop H%po(alemia8 due to hi'h *olume8 h%potonic urine0 Mutation in C4$3 'ene , in C4 patients /ill cause an abnormal )oldin' o) a protein and /ill result in de'radation o) a protein be)ore it reaches the cell sur)ace0 Ca*ernous Heman'ioma , is the most common beni'n tumor o) the li*er8 /hich on microscop% presents /ith blood )illed *ascular spaces *itaminosis o) -itamin , ma% cause a s@uamous epithelial metaplasia o) Pancreatic e7ocrine ducts8 seen in patients /ith C4

Coccidioides Immites , presents /ith spherules on microscop% and it loo(s li(e berries0 spiration Pneumonia , is usuall% seen in alcoholics8 sei+ures8 old a'e8 poor oral h%'iene8 the a'ents usuall% aspirated are 4usobacterium8 Eacteroides $hiopental , is an anesthetic and /ill cause a paral%sis8 )urther on it /ill dissol*e into the S(eletal Muscle $issue0 $etrallo'% o) 4allot8 $ranspostion o) !reat -essels and $runcus rteriosus , can be caused b% an abnormal mi'ration o) Neural Crest Cells0 Inhalation nesthetics , can cause a massi*e Hepatic Necrosis8 due to Halothane E7posure8 /here Halothane Metabolites produce autoantibodies a'ainst Hepatoc%tes0 $hiorida+ine , anti ps%chotic causes 3etinal Deposits #3etinitis Pi'mentosa&0 Chlorproma+ine usuall% causes Corneal Deposits0 N- cet%lC%steine , pro*ides Sul)h%dr%l 'roups and thus binds the to7ic metabolites o) cetaminophen8 and also it is use)ul in loosenin' the mucus plu's in C4 patients8 /here it brea(s sul)ide bonds b% pro*idin' Sul)h%dr%l 'roups0 m%otrophic Lateral Sclerosis , causes loss o) neurons in nterior Horn #LMN Lesion& /here it causes muscle /ea(ness and atroph%0 Dem%elination o) Lateral Corticospinal $ract #UMN Lesion& /ill cause spasticit% and h%perre)le7ia0 Nitrates and Hi'h Elood Pressure , nitrates cause *asodilation and 3e)le7 $ach%cardia (ic(s in /hen the bod% senses the drop in EP8 so to a*oid $ach%cardia8 %ou must administer Eeta Eloc(ers0 Loss o) Contractilit% o) a Muscle , usuall% occurs /ithin =< seconds o) Ischemia and Lactate /ill accumulate0 CE Inhibitors , ma% produce n'ioedema

S%mptoms o) 3a%naud Phenomenon , are usuall% treated /ith Calcium Channel Eloc(ers0 Hemiballismus , associated /ith /ild )lin'in' o) e7tremities on 9 side o) the bod% indicates dama'e to Subthalamic Nucleus8 usuall% due to a Lacunar Stro(e0 Menopause , is associated /ith increased le*els o) 4SH0 Eusprione , is a )irst line treatment o) !enerali+ed n7iet% Disorder and usuall% ta(es : or more /ee(s to sho/ )ull e))ect0

Primar% 2oc%tes , are arrested in Prophase o) Meiosis I8 and remain there until pubert%0 t pubert%8 it starts Meiosis II and 'ets arrested until )ertili+ation in Metaphase o) Meiosis II0 Classical Conditionin' , is /hen a person has a reaction to a stimulus8 li(e White Coat n7iet%8 /here White Coat is a Conditioned Stimulus )or n7iet%0 Le)t trial Enlar'ement , can impin'e Le)t 3ecurrent Lar%n'eal Ner*e and cause Hoarseness miodarone , Class III nti rrh%thmic and can cause $h%roid D%s)unction #it"s F<P Iodine b% Wei'ht&8 Corneal Deposits8 Elue S(in Discoloration8 Pulmonar% 4ibrosis or Li*er D%s)unction0 Mutation /ith 4 S 'ene , impairs C$L to delete sel) reactin' $L%mphoc%tes and thus can cause an auto-in)ection o) di))erent or'ans8 such as seen in SLE0 -PL , recei*es input )rom Spinothalamic and is a rela% )or Pain8 $emperature8 Proprioception0 -PM , is a rela% )or !ustator% Path/a%s Lateral !eniculate Eod% , path/a% )or -ision Medial !eniculate Eod% , path/a% )or uditor%0

2l)actor% , doesn"t ha*e a rela% throu'h the $halamus0 !l%coprotein in Whipple"s Disease , stains /ell /ith P S and is resistant to Diastase0 It stains 3ed /ith P S and is an e7cellent /a% to dia'nose Whipple"s HI- . Patients , o)ten under'o reacti*ation o) EE- -irus bsolute 3is( 3eduction 5 E*ent 3ate in Placebo #:>69<<< 5 :0>P& , E*ent 3ate in $reatment #9<69<<<59P& $hus it"s e@ual to 90>P or <0<9>0 Number Needed to $reat 5 96 33 NN$5 96<0<9>5<0== or ==P )lato7in , present in di))erent Molds o) !rain8 cause a mutation o) ! to $ o) p>; !ene and /ill cause Hepatocellular Carcinoma0 Usuall% seen in sian Countries0 Methacholine Challen'e , can be used in patients to dia'nose sthma8 since it"s a Muscarinic Choliner'ic 'onist8 it /ill increase Eronchial Smooth Muscle Contraction and Mucus Production0

Etanercept , lpha $umor Necrosis 4actor nta'onist8 and is used in treatment o) Se*ere 3heumatoid rthritis8 especiall% in patients /ho )ailed Methotre7ate $herap%0 Chec( )or PPD8 since it causes 3eacti*ation o) $uberculosis0 Woolsorter"s Disease , is caused b% Eacillis nthracis8 and has a structure /here it has D-!lutamate instead o) Pol%saccharide0 C2K : En+%me in Colon Cancers , increased e7pression o) C2K : en+%me8 has been seen in Colon denocarcinomas and Pol%posis8 so pre*ention /ith NS IDS has been use)ul 4e7o)enadine , Second !eneration minimal sedation nti Histamine that causes

Mucor 3hi+opus In)ection , causes )un'us in Aetoacidosis Diabetic Patients and must be Eiopsied to Dia'nose0 It branches at M< de'ree an'les and sper'illosis at F> de'rees Lamotri'ine , anticon*ulsant used in 3e)ractor% Partial Sei+ures and has been sho/n to cause a H%persensiti*it% 3ash as a Side E))ect0 Prolactinomas , associated /ith increased production o) Prolactin /ill suppress !n3H and thus causes 2steoporosis b% decreasin' le*els o) Estro'en0 therosclerotic Pla@ue , e7resses increased number o) PD!4 and causes adherence o) Platelets to it and thus increasin' Intimal $hic(ness0 Intususseption , usuall% seen in children less than : %ears o) a'e and are presented /ith a mass in the abdomen8 poor )eedin' and Currant Lell% Stool NS ID in cute !out , are the )irst line o) treatment in patients presentin' /ith cute ttac(s o) !out8 !lucocorticoids are used as a )irst line o) treatment in Elderl% Patients or those /ith 3enal 4ailure0 Loss o) Nissl Substance in Neurons , indicates an Irre*ersible Dama'e to a Neuron Le)t Sided Colon Cancers , usuall% present /ith 2bstruction $%pe o) S%mptoms8 /here 3i'ht Sided Colon Cancers present /ith Iron De)icienc% nemia8 since the% tend to bleed0 Mutation o) A-3as 'ene , usuall% causes an increase in !ro/th o) Colonic Pol%p0 Mutation in PC !ene , usuall% causes denomatous Pol%ps

Mutation o) p>; 'ene , usuall% causes a Mali'nant $rans)ormation o) denomatous Pol%ps0 2dds 3atio , is calculated )rom )ormula 235ad6bc 3elati*e 3is( , is Ua#a.c&V6Ub#b.d&V Incomplete closure o) Caudal 3e'ion , o) abdomen8 /ill cause e7troph% o) the bladder or cloaca e7troph% 4ibrates and Eile 3esins , /ill increase cholesterol content o) bile and increase the ris( o) 'allstones0 4ibrates are dru's li(e !em)ibro+il and Eile 3esins are Cholest%ramine E7tracellular Propeptidases , clea*e disul)ide rich e7tensions )rom procolla'en molecule and thus /ill )orm triple heli70 Niacin , decreases s%nthesis o) tri'l%cerides and -LDL8 b% suppressin' the release o) )att% acids )rom peripheral tissue0 Side E))ects are )lushin'8 /hich can be pre*ented b% administration o) spirin0 Shi'a Li(e $o7in , produced b% E0Coli are identical in structure to Shi'ella $o7in8 /or( b% inhibitin' =<S subunit o) ribosomal protein and thus pre*entin' protein s%nthesis $o7ic Shoc( S%ndrome , has superanti'en8 /hich interacts /ith MHC comple7 on anti'en presentin' cells and $-l%mphoc%tes and the% cause /idespread o) acti*ation o) $ cells /ith release o) IL-: )rom $-cells8 IL-9 and $N4 )rom macropha'es0 Hepatitis D anti'en , must be coated b% e7ternal coat HEs ' anti'en o) Hepatitis E -irus0 Elastom%cosis , can cause a pulmonar% disease in immunocompromised patients8 /here sper'illus ma% cause asper'illosis in old ca*ities created b% $E etc0 Methotre7ate , inhibits dih%dro)olate reductase and side e))ects include stomatitis #mouth ulcers& and hepatoto7icit%0 Eiops% in Hirschprun' Disease , must include the submucosa o) the narro/ part8 because usuall% submucosa and m%enteric ple7us are absent in this disease0 Postreptococcal !lomerulonephritis , is usuall% caused b% accumulations o) Immune !lobulin Deposits0 !lucose $ransport , into cells occurs b% 4acilitated Di))usion $C antidepressants , such as imipramine8 am%triptiline8 must be used /ith caution in patients /ith EPH8 because the% ha*e stron'

anti-choliner'ic side e))ects and ma% cause acute urinar% retention Enterococci , produce amino'l%coside modi)%in' en+%mes8 that trans)er chemical 'roups and /ill impair an antibiotic bindin' and thus resistance I' Protease , )acilitates Mucosal Penetration0

Nitr'l%cerin , /or(s primaril% as a -enodilator8 /here cardiac /or(load is decreased8 because the blood is collected in the *enous s%stem and thus the preload is decreased as /ell 3elease o) L%so+omal En+%mes , )rom ischemic tissue in the brain8 results in necrosis o) the tissue in the a))ected re'ion0 nencephal% , alon' /ith duodenal8 esopha'eal or intestinal atresia are the main cause )or Pol%h%dramnios8 /here the s/allo/in' is decreased0 $E Menin'itis , /ill result in a Communicatin' H%drocephalus8 /here the impaired )unction is o) rachnoid !ranulations0 3ho!am $herap% , /here the 3h- ne'ati*e mother is 'i*en an D !lobulin8 and that 'lobulin is I'!0 Common Peroneal Ner*e , is mostl% commonl% inGured in the trauma near the head o) )ibula and /ill cause 4oot Drop0 Calcium durin' Muscle Contraction , /ill cause an increased de'radation o) !l%co'en and ha*e it con*erted into !lucose-9phosphate0 3is( o) 4ractures is lo/er in Elac(s , some o) the ris( )actors o) osteoporosis are smo(in'8 menopause8 corticosteroid therap%8 Caucasian race8 ph%sical inacti*it%8 alcohol use0 Colla'en Molecule - has a triple heli7 )ormation8 /here there is a !l%cine mino cid in e*er% third positon0 Patients presentin' /ith si'ns o) Pol%dipsia , pol%uria but at the same time the% ha*e H%ponatremia8 are usuall% caused b% Ps%cho'enic Pol%dipsia8 or Patholo'ic Water Drin(ers0 ldosterone , increase sodium and /ater reabsorption in the collectin' ducts0 DH , increases /ater reabsorption in the collectin' tubules0 3etinoblastoma Protein #3b& , is a re'ulator o) !9 to S phase transition0 nti

p:C protein , is a cell c%cle inhibitor8 so mali'nant cells /ill ha*e lo/ number o) p:C cells0 !luconeo'enesis , is a maGor controller o) 'lucose8 durin' an o*erni'ht )ast8 /here it con*erts p%ru*ate to o7aloacetate and o7aloacetate to phosphoenolp%ru*ate0 DH acts in Medullar% Se'ment , o) collectin' duct8 /here it acts to absorb /ater ldosterone , mainl% acts in Cortical Se'ment o) Collectin' Ducts0 Staph0 Scalded S(in S%ndrome , produce E7)oliatin' E7oto7in8 and there is a presence o) Ni(ols(% Si'n0 Memor% Loss and Con)abulations , are hallmar(s o) Aorsa(o)) S%ndrome and are permanent de)icits8 /hich don"t chan'e /ith -itamin Supplementation0 3isperidone , is an anti-ps%chotic8 that bloc(s D: s%nthesis o) Dopamine8 and thus its side e))ects are H%perprolactinemia8 that /ill cause menorrhea0 *ascular Necrosis , o) )emoral head are the maGor complications o) Sic(le Cell nemia8 S%stemic Lupus and Steroid $herap%0 Dama'e to 2r'an o) Corti , occurs )rom prolon'ed e7posure to e7tremel% loud noises0 Er'ot Compounds , such as Per'olide and Eromocriptine8 are associated /ith Side E))ects that cause 3a%naud Phenomenon0 Enterococcal Endocarditis , is usuall% seen in elderl% patients /ho ha*e under'one a procedure such as colonoscop%8 /here Enterococcus has in)ected and caused Endocarditis !ro/th 4actors and PD!4 , rel% on $%rosine Ainase and M P path/a%s8 and 3 S protein is a part o) M P path/a%0 -illous denomas , can loo( li(e Cauli)lo/er and secrete a lot o) mucus8 that /ill cause diarrhea and thus H%po*olemia Ler*ell and Lan'e Nielsen S%ndrome , is associated /ith Neurosensor% Dea)ness and O$ prolon'ation0 3DS Patients , /ill ha*e a normal Pulmonar% Capillar% Wed'e Pressure8 /here there is no edema in*ol*ed0 3ed 3a''ed Muscle - is seen on the biops% in Mitochondrial M%opath%0 $his is a mitochondrial disease and thus onl% transmitted throu'h mother0

Caudal 3e'ression S%ndrome , /here Sacral 'enesis causes lo/er e7tremit% paral%sis is usuall% seen in mothers /ith poorl% controlled diabetes0 Niacin , is the most e))ecti*e in raisin' HDL le*els0 2me'a )att% acids /ill raise HDL but at *er% lo/ le*els0 Patients /ith C4- their s%mptoms mi'ht be corrected /ith administration o) Pancreatic En+%mes8 since the% ha*e its de)iciencies0 In)iltrati*e 2phthalmopath% , is usuall% seen in H%perth%roid Patients /here their ocular muscles are in)iltrated b% 'l%cosamino'l%cans and hence there is E7ophthalmos0 Eest indicator o) MS stenosis le*el , is a len'th o) inter*al bet/een S: and and 2S #openin' snap& Lipooli'osaccharide #L2S& , o) N0 Menin'itidis is analo'ous to Lipopol%saccharide o) !ram Ne'ati*e 3ods and this /ill determine the se*erit% o) the disease0 Usuall% seen in militar% recruits0 Patients older than => , are prone to de*elopin' pneumonia a)ter In)ection /ith In)luen+a8 and the causati*e a'ents are Strep0 Pneumonia8 Staph0 ureus and H0 In)luen+a Patients /ith Ntiphospholipid ntibod% S%ndrome /ith Lupus , present /ith positi*e -D3L test8 ha*e nti-Phospholipid ntibodies circulatin'0 $hese antibodies are associated /ith increased ris( o) $hromboses8 Miscarria'es CE , is e7pressed in the Lun' -ascular Endothelium and con*erts n'iotensin I to )unctional n'iotensin II Preload /ill increase End Diastolic Sarcomere Len'th , in the *entricular m%ocardium8 and /ill increase Stro(e -olume and Cardiac 2utput0 Insulin , acti*ated Protein Phosphatase in the cells8 and it /or(s throu'h $%rosine Ainase receptor in the cells to stimulate s%nthesis o) )att% acids8 protein8 'l%co'en0 Patients /ith Eilateral Cataracts and no Hepatic In*ol*ement , ha*e a de)icienc% o) !alacto(inase and thus !alactose is shi)ted and con*erted into !alactitol b% ldose 3eductase and thus it accumulates in the lens o) the e%e /ithout Hepatic In*ol*ement0 Patients /ith Classic !alactosemia , ha*e a de)icienc% o) !alactose 9-phosphate Urid%l $rans)erase de)icienc% and thus !9P accumulates and /ill cause lethar'%8 *omitin' and /ill present /ith Cataracts0

M%coplasma , lac(s a cell /all8 so antibiotics such as PCN8 Cephalosporins and -ancom%cin /ill not be e))ecti*e in these bacteria0 So it must be treated /ith $etrac%lcines and Er%throm%cin that act on 3ibosomal Subunits0 3eid Inde7 , is a ratio o) Mucus !land La%er to the total thic(ness o) cell /all and cartila'e8 and this is an inde7 o) pro'ression o) Eronchitis0 'ranuloc%tosis , mi'ht be caused b% nti-$h%roid Dru's8 so WEC counts must be chec(ed prior to administration0 Pituitar% pople7% , is a complication o) Hemorrha'e into E7istin' Pituitar% denoma0 It /ill present /ith Se*ere Headache and Cranial Ner*e In*ol*ement0 Crohn"s Disease /ill present /ith 27alate Stones , because impaired bile acid absorption8 caused b% )at malabsorption8 /ill cause the loss o) Calcium in the bile8 and since Calcium binds 27alate8 then there /ill be a )ormation o) 27alate Stones0 Capsule o) Strep0 Pneumonia , is the maGor -irulence 4actor8 and it /ill s/ell up /hen nti-Capsule a'ents are added0 Endocarditis caused b% Staph0 ureus , usuall% occurs in I- dru' abusers8 or indi*iduals /ith una))ected *al*es8 and primaril% a))ects the $ricuspid -al*e0 While Strep0 -iridans usuall% in*ol*ed Mitral -al*e and is due to dental /or( etc0 bsolute 3elati*e 3is( , is calculated E*ent 3ate #control& , E*ent 3ate #treatment& Ethanol and Pancreatitis , ethanol induces secretion o) Pancreatic Luice /ith a hi'h content o) Protein and Lo/ 4luid0 $hus the secretions are *iscous and /ill )orm plu's and obstruct bile )lo/0 Nasal Mucosal Ulcerations and !lomerulonephritis , is seen in We'ener"s !ranulomatosis and /ill ha*e nti-Neutrophil ntibodies #c- NC & Proton Pump Inhibitors , are the dru' o) choice )or !astrinomas8 /hich secrete !astrin0 cet%l Co , is an allosteric acti*ator o) !luconeo'enesis and acts b% increasin' acti*it% o) P%ru*ate Carbo7%lase0 Cortisol , increases the transcription o) en+%mes in*ol*ed in !luconeo'enesis

$C o*erdose , ma% ha*e a Ouinidine li(e Side E))ects /here the% mi'ht cause O3S and O$ inter*al prolon'ation and to re*erse that8 Sodium Eicarbonate must be used0 Di'italis $o7icit% , mi'ht be treated /ith supplementation /ith Potassium8 since it bloc(s Na6A channel $o calculate the 3is( , di*ide the number o) diseased indi*iduals b% the total number o) patients in the 'roup0 Subperiosteal $hinnin' , is a )eature o) H%perparath%roidism8 /here there is an increased resorption o) the bone0 l(aline Phosphatase , is a 'roup o) en+%mes in*ol*ed in man% di))erent or'ans8 such as li*er8 bone8 intestine8 (idne%0 $o clari)% /hether it"s the li*er in)ection8 %ou must measure !!$P le*els , /hich are !amma !lutam%l $ranspeptidase0 7onal 3eaction , is a repair o) a7ons8 /here there is a nucleus pushed to the side and the cell is compressed and )inel% 'ranular Nissl substance is seen0 Cortisol , sensiti+es *asoconstricit*e e))ects o) Catecholamines and thus e7erts Permissi*e E))ects on the -asculature0 Endo'enouse dministration o) $h%roid Hormone , such as Le*oth%ro7ine8 /ill increase the 4ree Le*els o) $; and thus in its turn suppress $3H and then $SH le*els0 Penta+ocine , is an opiod narcotic /ith partial a'onist acti*it% and /ea( anta'onist acti*it% on Mu 3eceptors0 dministration o) this dru' in patients dependent on opioids8 mi'ht tri''er an 2piod Withdra/al S%mptoms0 !$P , is s%nthesi+ed in the Succin%l Co reaction in $C c%cle8 and used as an ener'% source )or decarbo7%lation o) 27aloacetate to Phosphoenolp%ru*ate b% PEP Carbo7%(inase in !luconeo'enesis0 L%sine and Leucine , are strictl% Aeto'enic mino cids and /ould not increase blood Lactate Le*els in patients /ith P%ru*ate Deh%dro'enase De)icienc%0 Patients /ith 4riedrich"s ta7ia , present /ith de'eneration o) Dorsal Columns8 as /ell as ><P o) them /ill de*elop H%pertrophic Cardiom%opath%0 HEs ' - is a component o) the en*elope o) Hep0 E *irus and /ill )orm spheres and tubules0 $ransposition o) !reat rteries , results )rom )ailure o) orticopulmonar% Septum to Spiral durin' Septation0

ta7ia $elen'ectasia , is an autosomal recessi*e8 /here there is a Cerebral troph% that /ill lead to ata7ia8 these patients are also susceptible to DN radiation8 since the% ha*e a de)icienc% o) E7onuclease acti*it%0 $erbina)ine - is a common dru' used )or Dermatoph%tosis8 /here it inhibits s%nthesis o) Er'osterol b% inhibitin' En+%me S@ualene Epo7idase0 cute Pancreatitis , is usuall% caused b% !allstones and lcoholism8 hi'h le*els o) $ri'l%cerides lead to increased production o) 4att% cids0 stroc%tes , are )ound at the peripher% o) the in)arct8 and are responsible )or maintainin' the same )orm8 the% are responsible )or !liosis0 Supraspinatus , is an bductor o) the arm8 *ulnerable to inGur% due to impin'ement bet/een acromion and the head o) the Humerus0 Subscapularis , is responsible )or Medial 3otation o) the Latissimus Dorsi , is the maGor dductor o) the rm0 rm

Neurons do not store !l%co'en , and are hi'hl% sensiti*e to Ischemia8 pro)ound h%potension durin' Cardiac rrests /ill cause !lobal Cerebral Ischemia0 De Ouer*ain $h%roiditis , or !ranulomattous $h%roiditis8 presents a)ter -iral In)ections and /ill present areas o) in)ilitration b% L%mphoc%tes and Multinuclear !iant Cells0 Ceruloplasmin , and unabsorbed copper /ill be Secreted into Eile and e7creted Hepaticall% in the stool D%strophic Calci)ication o) ortic -al*es , is preceded b% the Cell Necrosis8 /here there is a destruction b% Calci)ication and that /ill cause ortic Stenosis0 Procolla'en , is s%nthesi+ed /ithin Endoplasmic 3eticulum8 then it"s released into E7tracellular Space b% transport throu'h !ol'i8 and then con*erted into Colla'en b% peptidases that /ill clea*e o)) N and C terminal portions0 2nl% then the% are crosslin(ed /ith other Colla'en Molecules a)ter residues are o7idi+ed b% L%s%l 27idase0 Malasse+ia 4ur)ur , are characteristics o) Pit%riasis -ersicolor and appear as Spa'hetti and Meatballs0 bdominal orta , is mostl% in*ol*ed in the process o) therosclerosis8 then )ollo/ed b% Coronar% rteries8 Popliteal8 internal carotids and -essels in the Circle o) Willis0

E7trahepatic Eiliar% tresia , is a con'enital obstruction o) E7trahepatic Eile Ducts seen b% the ;rd /ee( o) Li)e0 C peptide and Insulin , pac(a'ed to'ether into secretor% 'ranules and are released into an e7tracellular space0 4en)luramine and Phenteramine , e7tensi*e consumption o) ppetite Suppressors is associated /ith the ris( o) Pulmonar% H%pertension0 Which can pro'ress to Cor Pulmonale0 Henoch Schonlein Purpura , consists o) Leu(oc%toclastic n'iitis and associated /ith deposits o) I' and C;8 and is common in children bet/een ;-99 a)ter recent in)ection0 Lac( o) $ tubules , /ould lead to uncoordinated contraction o) indi*idual )ibers in m%o)ibrils0 Ureteric Eud , 'i*es rise to collectin' ducts8 minor and maGor cal%ces8 renal pel*is and ureters0 Metanephric Mesoderm , 'i*es rise to !lomerulus8 Eo/man"s capsule8 pro7imal8 distal con*oluted tubes and a connectin' tubule Pulmonar% -ascular Sclerosis , /ill occur in patients /ith Eisenmen'er Comple70 Lo/ -olume o) Distribution o) the Dru' , such as F-> L8 ma% be due to Hi'h Molecular Wei'ht8 Hi'h Plasma Protein8 H%drophillicit% and Hi'h Char'e Staph Epidermidis , must be treated /ith -ancom%cin and 3i)ampin0 Indirect In'uinal Hernias , are located Laterall% to In)erior Epi'astric -essels Direct In'uinal Hernia , is located Mediall% to In)erior Epi'astric -essel0 M 2 Inhibitors , such as Phenel+ine and $ran%c%promine8 are particularl% use)ul in treatment o) t%pical Depressions8 such as in patients /ith H%perpha'ia and Wei'ht !ain0 2steoarthritis , /ill present /ith Short Mornin' Sti))ness8 and /ill in*ol*e DIP and PIP Goints0 3heumatoid rthritis , /ill present /ith a Lon' Mornin' Sti))ness that /ill impro*e /ith E7ercise8 and /ill in*ol*e MCP and PIP Goints0

Spironalactone , ma% be used in a )emale that complains o) increased Hair !ro/th on her )ace8 since it /ill bloc( andro'en receptors at hair )ollicles and decrease production o) $estosterone0 C4$3 , is an $P 'ated transmembrane ion transporter that pumps Chloride ions out o) the cell a'ainst a Concentration !radient0 Lead $ime Eias , is an arti)icial increase in the sur*i*al time amon' tested patients8 /ho actuall% ha*e an unchan'ed dia'nosis Hepatitis E Prodromal Period , tha% mi'ht last )rom ;<-9D< da%s8 /ill present /ith the Serum Sic(ness S%mptoms8 /here patients /ill e7perience )e*er li(e condition8 s(in rash8 and l%mphadenopath%0 -0 Cholera , doesn"t in*ade the Intestinal Mucosa8 so it /ill present /ith /ater% mucus and some epithelial cells0 Chronic 3eGection o) a $ransplant , /ill present /ith 2bliterati*e Intimal Smooth Muscle H%pertroph% and 4ibrosis0 Improperl% 4itted Crutches , /ill impin'e the 3adial Ner*e and cause s%mptoms such as inabilit% to 4le7 the rm and Wrist $h%roid Hormones , alter !ene $ranscription b% Eindin' to 3eceptors Inside the Nucles0 Protein M , is a maGor -irulence 4actor o) Strep0 P%o'enes and Inhibits Pha'oc%tosis and Complement cti*ation Lancet Shaped !ram Positi*e Diplococci , is indicati*e o) Strep0 Pneumonia8 /hich is 2ptochin Sensiti*e0 Pol%ribos%l 3ibitol Phosphate #P3P& , is a part o) H0 In)luen+a Capsule and is part o) HIb -accine and its conGu'ated /ith Diphtheria and $etanus $o7oid0 Posterior Urethral $rauma , is associated /ith Pel*ic 4ractures8 and it /ill present /ith Inabilit% to -oid8 despite 4ull Eladder and Ele*ated Prostate on 3ectal E7am0 3etinal Dama'e in In)ants , /ill usuall% be due to 3eper)usion 27%'en Dama'e8 in in)ants born /ith 3espirator% Distress S%ndrome0 Use o) $erbutaline , /ill present in In)ants /ith Intracranial Hemorrha'e8 H%po'l%cemia8 H%pocalcemia and Ileus0

3e%e"s S%ndrome , due to S in patients treated )or In)luen+a or -aricella In)ection and /ill present /ith Micro*esicular Steatosis o) Hepatoc%tes0 Porcelain !allbladder , Calcium Ladden !allbladder and /ill increase the ris( o) !allbladder Carcinoma Hereditar% Pancreatitis , ma% be due to mutation /hich /ould acti*ated $r%psino'en to con*ert into $r%psin and it /ould auto di'est Pancreas8 be)ore it /ould be released into duodenum as normall%0 Lithium , causes Nephro'enic Diabetes Insipidus8 H%poth%roidism and associated /ith Ebstein"s nomal%0 2sler Weber 3endu S%ndrome , Hereditar% Hemorrha'ic $elen'ectasia8 ma% a))ect the Lips8 2rophar%n78 3espirator% $ract8 S(in8 !I tract0 -on Hippel Lindau , Capillar% Heman'ioblastomas in 3etina and Cerebellum8 presents /ith Con'enital C%sts in Li*er8 Aidne%8 Pancreas and Increased 3is( o) 3enal Carcinoma $uberous Sclerosis , ma% cause c%sts in the li*er8 (idne%8 but in CNS it /ill be Subepend%mal Hamartomas8 3enal n'iom%olipomas and Cardiac 3habdom%oma8 clinicall% /ill present /ith Sei+uresQQQ Stur'e Weber , /ill present /ith Cutaneous 4acial n'iomas8 as /ell as Leptomenin'eal n'iomas8 patients /ill ha*e Mental 3etardation8 Sei+ures and S(ull /ill ha*e $ram $rac( Calci)ications0 'in' , /ill present /ith Decreased -entricular Si+e at the and /ill cause Si'moid Septum0 pe7

4c Portion Closer to the Hin'e 3e'ion , is /here Complement Einds0 Heme , ser*es as a Ne'ati*e 4eedbac( on L S%nthase0 Dia'nosis o) ccute Intermittent Porph%ria is made b% increase in minole*ulinic cid and Porphobilino'en Duodenal Ulcers Location , is near P%lorus because o) the most cid Present0 In)ants /ith Eilateral 3enal 'enesis , /ill present /ith 3espirator% Problems8 since mniotic 4luid that needs to be s/allo/ed and urinated out8 is essential in the process o) Lun' Maturation

LH , stimulates Le%di' Cells to Produce $estosterone8 4SH /ill stimulate Sertoli Cells to Produce Inhibin E8 /hich /ill Ne'ati*el% 4eedbac( on LH and 4SH Until F hours , into Ischemia /ill not present /ith an% chan'es on Li'ht Microscop% Eosental , is an 2ral Endothelin 3eceptor in Patient /ith Pulmonar% H%pertension nta'onist and is used

3eper)usion rrh%thmia , ma% be due to 4ibrinol%tics that /ill cause 3eper)usion on rterial 3e-2penin'0 cute 4ibrinous or Serous Pericarditis , acute onset Pleuritic Chest that decreases on Sittin' Up and Leanin' 4or/ard0 Cardiac De)ects in Di!eor'e S%ndrome , are associated /ith $etrallo'% o) 4allot and Interrupted ortic rch ddition o) Spironolactone , /ill si'ni)icantl% 3educe Mortalit% in Heart 4ailure Patients8 since it /ill bloc( ldosterone0 Chocolate 'ar )or Neisseria !onorrhea , consists o) -ancom%cin8 Pol%mi7in and $rimethoprim0 Cr%ptococcus , that is 3ound Euddin' Seast /ith Clear halos /ill cause Menin'itis in HI- . Patients0 Do/n S%ndrome , patients /ill ha*e 2stium Primum Endocardial Cushion trial Septal De)ect0 Ni)edipine , is a selecti*e -ascular Calcium Channel Eloc(er and is di))erent )rom Calcium Channel Eloc(ers used in rrh%thmias Slo/ 2nset o) the Dru' nesthetic , is associated /ith Hi'h Solubilit% o)

$hromboc%topenia in Hospital Patients , is mostl% due to Heparin In)usions8 and is more present /ith Un)ractionated Heparin rather than Lo/ Molecular Wei'ht0 2n 2)) Phenomenon , seen in Par(inson Patients /here the% /ill ha*e da%s /ith Increased Mobilit% and other times /ith Decreased8 that is due to the e))ect o) L-Dopa $herap%0 Cauda E@uina S%ndrome , /ill present /ith Saddle nesthesia and Loss o) nocutaneous 3e)le78 and that /ill in*ol*ed a Lesion )rom S: , SF reas0 Di))erential C%anosis , in Upper and Lo/er E7tremities is due to PD 0

l+heimer"s Disease , mostl% a))ects Hippocampus and 4rontal Lobe lpha 98F !lucosidase , de)icient in Pompe"s !l%co'en Stora'e Disease is also Called cid Maltase C-M%c , is a nuclear Phosphoprotein and )unctions as $ranscription cti*ator that controls Cell Proli)eration8 Di))erentiation and poptosis Ecr , bl , encodes a Protein that Inhibits poptosis /hile Promotin' Mito'enesis and Increased $%rosine Ainase cti*it%0 Postreptococcal !lomerulonephritis , /ill present /ith Ele*ated nti Streptol%sin # S2& titers8 Decreased C ; and $otal Complement Le*els and presence o) Cr%o'lobulins0 CF Le*els are usuall% Normal0 ttributable 3is( Percent 3P , is calculated b% 33-9633

Celial Disease , must be dia'nosed /ith Colon Eiops% /here there is 4lattenin' o) Mucosa8 Loss o) -illi and Chronic In)lammator% In)iltration o) Lamina Propria0 polipoprotein E -F - ma% be in*ol*ed in )ormation o) Senile Pla@ues in l+heimer"s Disease Eeta HC! , is detected in maternal serum on the Dth da%8 but can ta(e as lon' as 990 Elastoc%st implants itsel) on the =th da% Hibernatin' M%ocardium , can be caused b% repetiti*e ischemia o) the m%ocardium or persisten h%poper)usion8 and /hen the blood )lo/ is restored it /ill re'ain the circulation and stren'th !luca'onoma , are pancreatic tumors that are characteri+ed b% necrol%tic mi'rator% er%thema8 er%thematous rash a))ectin' the 'roin Pancoast $umors , are Superior Sulcus $umors characteri+ed b% Ipsilateral Horner"s S%ndrome8 rib destruction and other upper e7tremities" de)icits in the distribution o) CD8 $9 and $: lanine , can be $ransaminated b% lanine minotrans)erase to P%ru*ate /ith mino !roup trans)erred to lpha Aeto'lutarate to )orm !lutamate HbS , /here char'ed !lutamic cid 3esidue is replaced b% Nonpolar H%drophobic -aline 3esidue at the =th position and /ill cause a''re'ation o) Hemo'lobin under H%po7ic Conditions Chemoreceptor $ri''er None , is located at the base o) Fth -entricle8 at the Dorsal Sur)ace o) Medulla0

Duration o) Diastole , is a critical )actor in determinin' Coronar% Elood 4lo/ Er'ot Compounds and Noner'ot Compounds , Directl% Stimulate Dopamine 3eceptors0 Er'ot Compounds #Eromocriptine and Per'olide& and Noner'ot Compounds #Pramipe7ole and 3opinerole& Patients on $hia+ides , ha*e o*erall hi'her le*els o) Calcium and thus it"s bone protecti*e8 so H%pocalciuria /ill decrease )ormation o) 3enal Stones Nonnucleoside 3e*erse $ranscriptase Inhibitors , do not need to be phosphor%lated to be acti*ated and some o) them areB Ne*irapine8 E)a*iren+ and Dela*irdine HI- ssociated Esopha'itis , is caused b% Candida8 CM- and Herpes -irus )ter M 2 $herap% , it /ill ta(e : /ee(s to re'enerate en+%me8 to ha*e ade@uate neurotransmitter metabolism Primidone - is metaboli+ed to Phenobarbital and PEM 8 all three are acti*e compounds that are nticon*ulsants Superior Mesenteric rter% S%ndrome , /hen $rans*erse Portion o) Duodenum is trapped bet/een SM and orta0 $hat can happen due to rapid /ei'ht loss0 Eroncho'enic Carcinoma , is the most common Lun' Cancer due to sbestos E7posure8 /here Mesothelioma is :nd Most Common0 MaGorit% o) nal 4issures , occur in the Posterior Midline Distal to the Dentate Line0 P%ra+inamide , is e))ecti*e in cidic En*ironment8 /here other $E dru's are e))ecti*e a'ainst e7tracellular m%cobacteria0 Li*er Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma , are : outcomes associated /ith mutation o) H4E protein /hich promotes attachment to $rans)errin Protein and 4acilitates Iron bsorption8 /hich are seen in Hemochromatosis cute 3heumatic 4e*er , is the most common cause o) Mitral Stenosis0 Where In)ecti*e Endocarditis is more associated /ith -e'etaions and Destruction o) the -al*es0 -alproic cid , is the )irst line therap% )or M%oclonic Sei+ures0 Where Phen%otin and Carbama+epine are 9st line in $onic Clonic Sei+ures0

Nephrotic S%ndrome , /ill present /ith loss o) and that"s /h% /ill present /ith $hrombosis

ntithrombin III

H0 In)luen+a E -accine , is mi7ed /ith Diphtheria and $etanus $o7oid8 and this in turn /ill Increase Immuno'enicit% o) the -accine8 /here ConGu'ate becomes $ cell dependent nti'en Carcinoid Heart Disease , /ill present /ith 4ibrous Intimal $hic(enin' /ith Endocardial Pla@ues and /ill be limited to 3i'ht Heart0 $he s%mptoms are )lushin'8 /hee+in' and diarrhea8 due to production o) Serotonin8 Aali(rein8 Erad%(inin8 Histamine etc0 Lispro and spart , are the best Short ctin' Insulins

H%drocele and Indirect Hernia , are )ormed b% a similar mechanism0 Eoth are caused b% incomplete 2bliteration o) Processus -a'inalis0 !allstone Ileus , /ill cause an obstruction o) the bo/el and /ill present /ith ir in the Eilliar% $ract0 Increased 4ecal Elood Loss , is the side e))ect o) S $herap%0 Eecause there is a loss o) !astric Protection in addition to Impaired Platelet ''re'ation0 HSP M< and HSP >= , are Heat Shoc( Proteins that bind Inacti*e Ninc 4in'ers that are in*ol*ed in Steroid Hormone S%nthesis0 Complications o) n(%losin' Spond%litis , ma% be impaired Pulmonar% -entilation due to de)ormation o) the spine8 and in the heart it /ill present /ith scendin' ortitis leadin' to Dilatation o) the ortic 3in'0 Colon Cancer , most common location )or this is scendin' Colon8 /hich /ill present /ith Eleedin'8 /here the Le)t Side that /ould in*ol*e 3esctoSi'moid 3e'ion /ould present /ith 2bstruction0 Spread o) Eroncho'enic Carcinoma , ma% present /ith 2bstruction and Compression o) Upper -asculature such as -ena Ca*a8 and patients /ill present /ith 4acial S/ellin'8 Dilated Carotids0 H%permeth%lation o) Histones , is the cause o) E7pression o) Huntin'ton Disease0 ltered !ene

!astroduodenal rter% , is mostl% eroded b% Posterior Duodenal Ulcers and can be a source o) Li)e $hreatenin' Hemorrha'e 4emoral Hernias , /ill present /ith a Eul'e in the Upper $hi'h8 and /ill be accentuated on -alsal*a Maneu*er0

Pol !ene Mutations , render the abilit% o) HI- 3etro*iral $herap% to ta(e its e))ect $reatment )or !onoccocal In)ection , must al/a%s in*ol*e treatment )or Chlam%dia8 since it o)ten co in)ects at the same time0 Ce)tria7one is used )or N0 !onnorhea and +ithrom%cin or Do7%c%cline are used )or Chlam%dia N4-(E Protein , acti*it% is reduced in Crohn"s Disease and this protein is responsible )or C%to(ine Production carbose and Mi'litol , are lpha !lucosidase Inhibitors that decrease cti*it% o) Membraine Eound Disaccharides on the Intestinal Erush Eorder0 Increase in c MP in -ascular Smooth Muscle , /ill cause -asodilation8 /hich is a Side E))ect o) Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors in H%potensi*e Patients0 4ibrinous or Sero)ibrninous Pericarditis , de*elops in :<P o) the Post MI patients bet/een da% : and F8 due to in)iltration o) In)lammator% Cells o) the $ransmural In)arction0 Dressler S%ndrome occurs on Da% C and is an utoimmune Process0 Niacin and 4ibrates #E+etimibe& , are the most use)ul $reatment in patients /ith H%pertri'l%ceridemia ir/a% 3esistance , is Minimal in Eronchioles and Ma7imal in Lar'e Se'ments o) Eronchi0 Cold ''lutinins , are antibodies that /ill be produced in 3esponse to M%coplasma Pneumonia In)ection8 also mi'ht be present /ith Ebstein Earr -irus In)ection Calcium Channel Eloc(ers , mi'ht present /ith and Erad%cardia - Nodal Eloc(s

Local De)ense a'ainst Candida , is produced b% $ cells8 that"s /h% /e see Local Candidiasis in HI-. Patients8 since their $ cell Le*els are Lo/ De)ense a'ainst S%stemic Candidiasis , is produced b% Neutrophils8 that"s /h% Neutropenic Patients /ill present /ith S%stemic Candidiasis $o pre*ent Neonatal $etanus , is to ensure that Mothers are -accinated /ith $o7oid to allo/ trans)er o) I'! $o7oid throu'h Placenta Cer*ical Cancer 3is( , Number 9 is Histor% o) Se7ual Partners8 since HP- can be transmitted

Endometrial Cancer 3is( , is due to Nulliparit%8 earl% Menarche and 2besit%8 /here increased Estro'en Stimulation o) the Endometrium Ereast and 2*arian Cancers , Number 9 3is( is 4amil% Histor% Minimal Chan'e Disease , is usuall% due to the Loss o) Pol%anion in the Easement Membrane8 /hich /ill lose the Char'e0 3i)ampin , is used as Proph%la7is a'ainst Menin'ococcal Diseases8 as it /ill Penetrate into 3espirator% $ract and Eliminate Nasophar%n'eal Coloni+ation Niacin , or Nicotinic acid has been used to treat H%perlipidemias8 the side e))ects o) 4lushin' are due to release o) Prosta'landins Le)t -entricular D%s)unction , /ill cause Pulmonar% -essel -asoconstriction and /ill contribute to Pulmonar% H%pertension Di'italis $o7icit% , /ill present /ith H%per(alemia and at times /ith Erad%cardia8 -entricular $ach%cardia or 4ibrillation Splittin' o) S: in /ith 3espiration Si7th ortic rteriosus SD , /ill be permanent and /ill not chan'e rteries and Ductus

rch , 'i*es rise to Pulmonar%

Neuropathic Incontinence , /ith Neuro'enic Detrusor Spasticit%8 /ill result )rom dama'e )rom $99 till L:8 /ill cause rela7ation8 since those ner*es inhibit it0 S:-SF are responsible )or e7citation o) the bladder MCHC , Mean Corpuscular Hemo'lobin Concentration is the best Inde7 in ma(in' Dia'nosis o) Hereditar% Spheroc%tosis8 Dia'nosis is best con)irmed /ith 2smotic 4ra'ilit% $est Musculocutaneous Ner*e , pro*ides inner*ation o) 4le7or Muscles o) upper arm Sensor% to the Lateral Part o) the rm Hapto'lobin , binds 4ree Hemo'lobin8 in Intra*ascular Hemol%sis8 due to destruction o) Er%throc%tes8 4ree Hemo'lobin Increases8 an E7ceeds le*els o) Hapto'lobin and thereb% Decreasin' the Le*els o) Hapto'lobin In HI- , Nucleocapsid Proteins p:F and pC are )rom ! ! !ene0 En*elope !l%coprotein 'pF9 and 'p9:< are )rom EN- 'ene0 $ranscription and $ranslation are )rom P2L 'ene0 $ $ and 3E- are re@uired )or 3eplication

Dietar% 4ructose , is Phosphor%lated in the Li*er to 4ructose 9 Phosphate and 3apidl% Metaboli+ed8 because it Doesn"t Pass throu'h P4A 98 /hich is a 3e'ulator% En+%me o) !l%col%sis0 Ecth%ma !an'renosum , is a Cutaneous Necrotic Disease and it"s associated /ith Pseudomonas ure'inosa0 P0 eru'inosa are common in Neutropenic8 Diabetic8 Eurn Patients0 !lucocorticoids and HI--9 Protease Inhibitors , are associated /ith Cushin'oid ppearance and 4at Distribution !out% rthritis , is a Side E))ect o) Niacin $herap%8 /hich increases Serum Uric cid0 Hepatoto7icit% ma% occur at Hi'h Doses0 In Diabetics it mi'ht cause H%per'l%cemia mphotericin E , Pol%ene nti)un'ul and its Side E))ects are 3enal 4ailure /ith H%po(alemia and H%poma'nesemia0 ntipha'oc%tic Pol%saccharide Capsule in H0 In)luen+a E , has 3ibose in it8 instead o) He7ose and ma% be the reason )or Increased -irulence Patients /ith Crohn"s Disease , are prone to de*elopin' !allstones0 Decreased Eile cid 3eabsorption and Loss in the 4eces /ill increase Cholesterol Le*els and )ormation o) !allstones Pol%m%ositis , presents /ith S%mmetrical Muscle Wea(nesses8 on Eiops% there is necrosis8 re'eneration8 lar'e amounts o) MHC I molecules in)iltrated /ith CDD $ cells0 Primar% Eiliar% Cirrhosis , Ducts and Cholestasis0 utoimmune Destruction o) Hepatic Eile

ll Sic(le Cell Patients , at some point /ill present /ith splenism and thus the increased ris( o) H0 In)luen+a and Strep0 Pneumonia In)ections L m%loidosis , is ssociated /ith Multiple M%eloma0

!enerali+ed L%mphadenopath% , is another Side E))ect o) Phen%toin8 /here it mi'ht present as a Lump in the Nec(0 Pol%c%stic 2*arian S%ndrome , is associated /ith Endometrial H%perplasia8 due to Unopposed E))ect o) Estro'en and Increased 3is( o) Endometrial Carcinoma0 Patients also ha*e a Hi'her 3is( o) De*elopin' $%pe II Diabetes Hemato'enous 2steom%elitis , /ill primaril% a))ect Metaph%sis o) the Eone8 due to 3ich -asculari+ation

-er% Lon' Chain 4att% cids , /hich Cannot Under'o Eeta 27idation8 is due to Pero7isomal bsence or De)ect8 /hich /ill lead to De)ects )rom Improper CNS M%elination Hal) Li)e , -d#0C&6CL0 9 Hal) Li)e is ><P8 : Hal) Li*es is C>P8 ; Hal) Li*es , DC0>P8 F Hal) Li*es , M;0C>P Sarcoidosis , /ill usuall% present in )rican mericans /ith Dr% Cou'h8 Pulmonar% In)iltrates and Hilar denopath%0 2n Eiops% it /ill be a Non Caseatin' !ranuloma MaGor SE o) Met)ormin , is Lactic Aidne%s and !I Upset0 cidosis8 /hich /ill dama'e the

nemia in SLE , is due to utoimmune Hemol%sis and /ill be due to )ormation o) I'! Warm ntibodies to 3ECs0 Which is characteri+ed b% Spheroc%tosis8 . Coombs $est8 and there /ill be $hromboc%topenia8 due to ntibodies a'ainst Platelets Een+odia+epines8 Earbiturates and lcohol , /ill Eind to ! E 3eceptor and Stimulate In)lu7 o) Chloride Ions into Neurons M%coplasma Pneumonia , can cause Hemol%sis8 due to similarit% bet/een nti'ens o) Cell Membrane o) M0 Pneumonia and Cell Membrane o) Er%throc%tes H%drocephalus E7 -acuo , there is a -entricular Enlar'ement in the Erain8 /hich is Due to troph% o) Cerebrum #Pic(s8 l+heimers&0 CS4 Pressure is Not Increased Common Peroneal #4ibular& Ner*e , is usuall% dama'ed /hen patients /ear a Cast and compress the head o) the 4ibula $a(a%asus and !iant Cell rteritis , are *er% similar in Mechanism0 $a(a%asus in*ol*es orta and its Eranches and it usuall% occurs in Patients Soun'er than F<0 I) Patients are older than F<8 /e presume it"s !iant Cell $emporal rteritis S(eletal Muscles are 3esistant to Calcium Channel Eloc(ers , because the% lar'el% Depend on Intracellular Calcium )or E7citation and Contraction Couplin'0 Where Smooth Muscle depends on E7tracellular Calcium PD!4 , is lar'el% secreted b% Smooth Muscle Cells and it /ill promote mi'ration to the ))ected Site o) In)lammation8 /ith Production o) Intimal $hic(enin' and Colla'en Deposition Palmar Er%thema , /ill be due to Cirrhotic H%perestrinism and it /ill also include !%necomastia8 $esticular troph%8 Spider Ne*i and Decreased Eod% Hair $NDs #$hia+olidinediones& , Ne/ !roup o) nti Diabetic Dru's8 Decrease Insulin 3esistance b% Eindin' to Pero7isome Proli)erator

cti*ated 3eceptor !amma8 /hich is a $ranscriptional 3e'ulator o) the !enes in*ol*ed in !lucose Metabolism Een+odia+epines , are 4irst Line in lcoholic Sei+ures8 because the% /ill Substitute lcohol E))ect on ! E 3eceptors denom%osis , presence o) Endometrial !lands in the Uterine M%ometrium8 and it /ill cause an Enlar'ement o) the Uterus /ith Eleedin'8 and Pain)ul Menses Endometriosis , presence o) Endometrial $issue 2utside o) the Uterus8 it /ill present /ith Pain)ul Menses8 D%spareunia8 but no Uterine Enlar'ement Cause o) Death in cute 3hematic 4e*er , in 3are Cases is M%ocarditis8 /here Mitral Stenosis ta(es %ears to )orm cute

denosine , is D2C in treatment o) Paro7%smal Supra*entricular $ach%cardia8 /here there are palpitations0 Side E))ects include 4lushin'8 Eurnin' in the Chest and Shortness o) Ereath Medullar% Spon'e Aidne% , is characteri+ed b% C%stic Dilatations o) Medullar% Collectin' Ducts0 Corte7 is spared0 Patients /ill present /ith Aidne% Stones and Hematuria0 Lidocaine , is *er% Speci)ic to Depolari+ed $issue such as Ischemic $issue0 $hat is /h% it"s a $reatment o) Choice in Post M%ocardial In)arction rrh%thmias D%splasia , is di))erent )rom Cancer8 because it"s 3e*ersible8 /here Cancer is not0 theroembolic Disease o) 3enal rteries , /ill present /ith 3enal 4ailure and Ei' $oe Discoloration in Elderl% Patients CE Le*els , in patients /ith Colon Cancer are usuall% used to Monitor $umor 3ecurrence Cr%ptococcus Neo)ormans , is the onl% 4un'us that has a Pol%saccharide Capsule8 that appears 3ed on Mucicarmin Stain and Clear Unstained None on India In( ;rd ortic rch , 'i*es rise to Common and Pro7imal Internal Carotid rteries0 Fth ortic rch , 'i*es rise to $rue Subcla*ian rteries ortic rch and portion o) rteries and Ductus

=th ortic rch , 'i*es rise to Pulmonar% rteriosus

MC , supplies Eroca"s and Wernic(e"s reas8 4rontal E%e 4ields8 4ace and rm reas o) Motor and Sensor% Corte7

Shi'a and Shi'a Li(e $o7in o) E0Coli , inacti*ated =<S Subunit o) the 3ibosome and thus inhibit Protein S%nthesis and E*entual Death 4ormation o) Eilliar% Slud'e , /ill be )ormed due to Incomplete Empt%in' o) !allbladder in 3esponse to CCA8 thus Eile /ill Precipitate Chloramphenicol , /ill cause plastic nemia8 it /ill bind to ><S Subunit and Inhibit Peptid%l $rans)erase En+%me Aallman"s S%ndrome , /ill present /ith Dela%ed Pubert% Plus nosmia8 /here there is a 4ailure o) !n3H Neurons to Mi'rate to 2l)actor% Placode and H%pothalamus0 Eo%s /ill be )eminine /ith Poorl% De*eloped Secondar% Se7ual Characteristics Intimal $ear , is the Initiatin' Process o) Dissectin' ne%urism ortic

Wea(ened -esicoureteral Lunction , /ill be due to 4re@uent Eladder In)ections and /ill 4acilitate 3e)lu7 Suppression o) C ? H%dro7%lase cti*it% , due to the dru's such as Clo)ibrate8 /ill reduce Solubili+ation o) Cholesterol into Eile and there /ill be E7cess Cholesterol De))icienc% o) Lipoprotein Lipase , /ill cause impaired $r%'l%ceride Clearance )rom Elood Stream0 Lipoprotein Lipase is secreted )rom Uniloculated dipoc%tes8 /hich are dipose $issue8 also b% S(eletal and Cardiac Muscle E))ect o) H%pothalamus on Prolactin , is Inhibitor% *ia Dopamine Production Senile Cardiac m%lidosis , is due to Depositon o) bnormall% 4olded #J Pleated Sheet& NP Deri*ed Proteins and is con)ined to Cardiac tria Women in Hemochromatosis , tend to not present until Menopause8 since Menstruations /ill be li(e Phlebotom%0 So Menopause8 the s%mptoms /ill (ic( in0 Neonates born to Hep E mothers , are at Hi'h 3is( o) Chronic Disease8 4ast HE- replication and Moderate Hepatic InGur% Mesothelioma , associated /ith sbestos E7posure8 it /ill present /ith Lon' Micro*illi and bundant $ono)ilaments8 /hich /ill di))er it )rom Eronchoal*eolar t%pe o) denocarcinoma8 /hich /ill present /ith Short Micro*illi )ter

$o pre*ent 3ecurrent Sei+ures , in patients /ith Status Epilepticus0 4irst Line o) $reatment is ddition o) Phen%toin to 3e'ular Een+odia+epine $herap%0 Corticosteroids , are the Stron'est and Most Predictable E))ects in patients /ith sthma Nitrates , mimic ction o) Endothelial Deri*ed 3ela7in' 4actor8 /hich /ill lead to Increased c!MP and M%osin Dephosphor%lation8 and 3educed Intracellular Calcium Isosorbide Mononitrate , is the most Eioa*ailable 2ral Nitrate0 Loss o) ! E Neurons in Striatum , is characteristic o) Huntin'ton due to Increased C ! 3epeats on Chromosome F cute calculous Cholec%stitis , is an cute In)lammation o) !allbladder /ithout )ormation o) Stones and it"s mostl% present in Hospitali+ed or Se*erel% ill Eth%lene !l%col In'estion , /ill lead to cute 3enal 4ailure /ith Precipitation o) 27alate Stones8 such as Calcium 27alate Cr%stals in Urine Partial Mole , has a $riploid Aar%ot%pe8 patient /ill present /ith -a'inal Eleedin' and Lo/er bdominal Pain $ertiar% S%philis , /ill present /ith Neuro In*ol*ement and !ummas0 $hat are Necroti+in' !ranulomas that appear on S(in8 Mucosa8 Subcutaneous $issue8 Eones and Within 2r'ans0 Similar to Chancre in Primar% S%philis Watershed reas , are Splenic 4le7ure and Distal Si'moid Colon8 are Most Susceptible to Ischemia Durin' H%potension and Lo/ Per)usion States Splenic H%pertroph% in P%ru*ate Ainase De))icienc% , is due to Increased Wor( to 3emo*e De)ormed Er%throc%tes )rom Circulation MacCon(e% 'ar , is used )or Man% Enteric Eacteria

$ha%er Martin -CN , is )or Neisseria Species #-ancom%cin8 Pol%m%7in and N%statin to remo*e all other bacteria& Elood 'ar , are used to distin'uish bet/een Enterococcal and NonEnterococcal In)ections0 Enterococcal such as E0 4aecalis and E0 4aecium /ill 'ro/ in both Eile Salts and =0>P H%pertonic Saline0 Where NonEnterococcal #Strep0 Eo*is& /ill 'ro/ in presence o) Eile Salts8 but Not =0> P Solution C%steine $ellurite 'ar , is )or Clostridium Diphtheria

Eordet !en'ou , is )or Eordetella Pertussis Primar% Eilliar% Cirrhosis , is due to utoimmune !ranulomatous Destruction o) Hepatic Eile Ducts and Cholestasis0 Side E))ects /ill include Pruritis8 /orse at Ni'ht0 !onococcal rhtritis , is a complication o) Neisseria !onorrhea8 and must be suspected in Se7uall% cti*e Soun' dults Slo/ cet%lators , are at increased ris( o) $o7icit% to certain dru's8 such as Isonia+id8 Dapsone8 H%drala+ine and Procainamide Imper)orate nus in an in)ant , ma% also be associated /ith abnormal de*elopment o) Urorectal8 Uro*esical and Uro*a'inal 4istulas Chronic 3eGection , mi'ht produce Chronic 2bstructi*e Lun' Disease and cause Eronchiolitis 2bliterans0 Patholo'% includes L%mphoc%tic In)lammation and Necrosis o) Eronchiolar Walls0 cute 3eGection , /ill present /ith Mononuclear In)iltration on Histolo'ical E7amination Eec("s $riad , o) H%potension8 L-D and Distal or Mu))led Heart Sounds is indicati*e o) $amponade Serine and $hreonine 3esidue Phosphor%lation , b% $%rosine Ainase can lead to Insulin 3esistance8 and can be caused b% $N4?8 Catecholamines8 !lucocorticoids and !luca'on Chronic S%stemic Use o) Steroids , /ill Promote 2steoporosis and cause -ertebral 4ractures8 b% Inhibitin' -itamin D and Promotin' P$H acti*it% naplastic $umors , bear no resemblance to the $issue o) 2ri'in Lacunar In)arcts , occur due to H%pertensi*e Easal !an'lia8 Pons and Internal Capsule rteriolosclerosis in

H%pertrophic Cardiom%opath% , ma% in*ol*e a mutation in Eeta M%osin Hea*% Chain and Cardiac Cell Sarcomere Protein #$roponin8 $ropom%osin& E7ternal Eranch o) Superior Lar%n'eal Ner*e , is susceptible to inGur% in patients under'oin' $h%roidectom%8 this ner*e inner*ates Cricoth%roid Muscle8 all other Muscles are inner*ated b% 3ecurrent Lar%n'eal Ner*e Intracranial Sch/annomas , are usuall% located in Cerebropontine n'le8 /hich is bet/een Pons and Cerebellum

2ctreotide , S%nthetic nalo' o) Somatostatin /ith a Lon' Hal) Li)e is used in Carcinoid S%ndrome0 Intrapartum ntibiotics , ma% be used to decrease Incidence o) !roup Eeta Strep Menin'itis in Ne/borns Disruption o) Macropha'e Pha'ol%sosomes , in Patients /ith Silicosis8 /ill ma(e them susceptible to In)ection /ith $E Neural $ube De)ects , are associated /ith Increased Le*els o) lpha 4etoprotein and cet%lcholinesterase Sei+ures Side E))ects , are usuall% seen in therap% /ith Eupropion8 Isonia+id and Imipenem $remor in patients , ma% be treated /ith nticholiner'ics8 such as Een+tropine8 but must be a*oided in patients /ith EPH and Closed n'le !laucoma Suspensor% Li'ament , must be occluded durin' Sur'er% to 3emo*e o*aries8 to reduce the ris( o) accidental li'ation o) Ureters Clonal $ Cell 3eceptor !ene 3earran'ement , is seen in Mali'nant L%mphadenopath% drenals , are the Most Common Site o) Metastases o) Lun' Cancers8 other sites include Eone8 Erain and contralateral Lun' Carotid Massa'e , /ill Increase 4irin' o) Earoreceptor 3ate thus Increasin' Paras%mpathetic Stimulation and thus Prolon' Node 3e)ractor% Period Crescent 4ormation , in Li'ht Microscop% is Dia'nostic o) 3P!N8 and there /ill be ccumulations o) 4ibrin8 Monoc%tes and Macropha'es $N4 ,? $herap% , is associated /ith 3eacti*ation o) Latent $uberculosis0 $hus PPD Screens are re@uired be)ore Initiatin' $herap%0 Dru's include #In)li7imab8 Etanercept& En*elope proteins 'pF9 , are 4usion Inhibitors that allo/ -irus to 4use /ith Membrane0 Dru's En)u*irtide are use)ul to pre*ent this 4usion !p9:< , is used )or -iral ttachment to CDF membrane on $ cells

pical Subpleural Elebs , /ill be seen in patients /ith Spontaneous Pneumothora7

Mi)epristone , is Pro'esterone nta'onist and is borti)icent8 Misoprostol is Prosta'landin nalo'8 that /ill cause Uterine Contractions and is used in combination /ith Mi)epristone Disseminated Histoplasmosis , is associated /ith Hepatosplenome'al% in Immunosuppressed Patients Pruritis , is usuall% a 4irst S%mptom o) Primar% Eilliar% Cirrhosis8 /here there are antibodies a'ainst Hepatic Eile Ducts and /ill cause Cholestasis Neisseria Menin'itis , /ill proceed )rom Phar%n7 into Elood8 then Choroid Ple7us and then Menin'es0 Where H0 In)luen+a /ill 'o )rom Phar%n7 to L%mphatics and then to Menin'es H%per I'M S%ndrome , /ill present /ith inabilit% o) E L%mphoc%tes to Under'o Isot%pe S/itchin'8 and /ill present /ith L%mphoid H%perplasia and 3ecurrent Sinus In)ections0 Most commonl% it"s due to absence o) CD F< Li'and on E L%mphoc%tes 4ibrom%al'ia , usuall% a))ects /omen o) :<->< and presents /ith Di))use Musculos(eletal Pain /ith pain in the Spine o) Scapula8 Lateral Epicond%le8 Medial 4at Pad in the Anees and pain associated /ith E7ercisin' $amo7i)en , in Ereast $issue is nti Estro'enic E))ect and H%perestro'enic E))ect in Endometrial $issue8 thus increasin' the 3is( o) Endometrial Cancers8 Pol%ps and H%perplasia Patients on Le*odopa , should not be ta(in' -itamin E= Supplements due to Increase Metabolism o) Le*odopa caused b% -itamin E = Hepatic n'iosarcoma - is associated /ith E7posure to rsenic8 Pol%*in%l Chloride and /ill e7press CD ;9 $umor Mar(ers $uberoin)undibular Dopaminer'ic Path/a% , is associated /ith connectin' H%pothalamus to Pituitar% and responsible )or Dopamine Inhibition o) Prolactin Sucrose , is a combination o) !lucose and 4ructose0 Lactose , is !alactose and !lucose Maltose , is !lucose and !lucose Corneal 3e)le7 , is associated /ith Nasocilliar% Eranch o) - 9 Ner*e0 Motor Component is due to 4acial Ner*e $emporal Eranch Con*ersion o) $%rosine to D2P H%dro7%lase , re@uires en+%me $%rosine


to Dopamine , Dopamine Decarbo7%lase

Dopamine to Norepinephrine , Dopamine Eeta H%dro7%lase Norepinephrine to Epinephrine , re@uire PNM$ #Phen%lethanolamine ,N- Meth%l$rans)erase& and Cortisol Increases $ranscription o) this En+%me Presence o) LeGunal Ulcers , is Hi'hl% Indicati*e o) !astrinoma8 there /ill also be Diarrhea and bdominal Pain 3espirator% cidosis , /ill be seen in patients /ith Heroin 2*erdose0 Eicarcbonate Le*els /ill be Lo/8 because it /ill ta(e :F hours )or Eicarb Le*els to Compensate Sudden Standin' or -alsal*a Maneu*ers , /ill increase Intensit% o) Murmurs in patients /ith H%pertrophic Cardiom%opath% I!4-9 o) the Li*er , is responsible )or !ro/th Hormone E))ect in Human !ro/th I!4 -9 )rom H%pothalamus , is not 3esponsible )or the !ro/th8 but more )or CNS cti*it% (athisia , usuall% present as )eelin' on the Ed'e8 3estlessness8 3estless Le' S%ndrome Side E))ects o) Protease Inhibitors , are usuall% associated /ith H%per'l%cemia8 Lipod%stroph% #Eu))alo Hump etc& and Inhibition o) pF>< Main Side E))ect o) Cholest%ramine , are !I Upset8 Increased $ri'l%ceridemia and Impaired bsorption o) Nutrients and Dru's End Sta'e 3enal Disease , /ill be associated /ith 2steitis 4ibrosa C%stica8 /ith 3etention o) Phosphorus8 Loss o) Calcium and cti*ation o) :ndar% H%perparath%roidism Dense Pi'ment containin' Epinephrine Metabolites , is seen in the L%sosomes o) the Li*er in patients /ith Dubin Lohnson S%ndrome Silicosis , /ill present /ith E'' Shell Calci)ication o) Lun' Hilar Nodes and Eire)rin'ent Particles Surrounded b% Colla'en 4ibers Eerilliosis , ma% present /ith Non Caseatin' !ranulomas Hamartomas , are the most common Eeni'n Lun' tumors composed o) Colla'en8 4ibrous and dipose $issue Small Cell Lun' Carcinoma , is usuall% associated /ith Neuroendocrine Mar(ers and /ill present in the Center o) the Lun' usuall% in Smo(ers

CE Inhibitors , can cause an Increase in Creatinine and Decrease in H%drostatic Pressure and Decreased 3enal Per)usion cute ppendicitis , is usuall% due to 2bstruction o) L%mph 4lo/ o) 4ecalith0 Eacterial In)ection /ill be a patho'enesis o) 2bstructed ppendi70 Positi*e Aussmaul Si'n , /ill be seen in Patients /ith Chronic Constricti*e Pericarditis0 Mids%stolic Clic( , is usuall% seen in Patients /ith Mitral -al*e Prolapse Immunocompromised Patients /ith R:<< CDF Count , /ill ha*e Strep0 Pneumonia as a cause o) their Lun' In)ections Incidence o) S@uamous Cell Carcinoma , and Esopha'eal denocarcinoma are no/ E@ual Smo(in' , is the most Important 3is( 4actor )or Pancreatic Cancer0 Diabetes8 Chronic Pancreatitis and 'e R>< are Stron' 3is( 4actors as /ell Datin' Error , /here the e7pectance Date /as miscalculated8 mi'ht be the most Important 3eason )or Increase in lpha 4etoprotein Di'o7in , /ill decrease - Nodal Conduction8 b% Increasin' Paras%mpathetic $one o) the Cardiac Muscle Pancreatic Pseudoc%st , is a most common complication o) cute Pancreatitis8 and is composed o) !ranulation $issue and 4ibrosis Lan'erhan Cells , present in Histioc%tosis ha*e a $ennis 3ac@uet Shape Intrac%toplasmic !ranules and are called Eirbect !ranules L A6S$ $ Si'nalin' Path/a% , is used b% Colon% Stimulatin' 4actors8 !ro/th Hormones and C%to(ines associated /ith $%rosine Ainase 3eceptors C%steine , becomes an Essential mino cid in patients /ith Homoc%stinuria8 /here there is a de)ect o) C%stathione S%nthetase and accumulation' o) Methionine therosclerotic Pla@ues /ith more C>P 2cclusion , are a cause o) Stable n'ina0 Where pla@ues that occlude less than C>P o) the Coronar% -essel /ill be s%mptomatic0 Ulcerated Pla@ue , /ith partiall% obstructi*e thrombosis is associated /ith Unstable n'ina or Subendocardial In)arction0

3uptured Pla@ue , is associated /ith $ransmural In)arction /ith a 4ull 2bstructi*e $hrombus 4riedrich"s ta7ia , is associated /ith De'eneration o) Spinocerebellar $racts8 A%phoscoliosis8 4oot bnormalities #Hi'h rch&8 H%pertrophic Cardiom%opath% and Increased 3is( o) Diabetes Mellitus Cle)t Lip , is associated /ith Impaired 4usion o) Ma7illar% Prominence and Medial Nasal Processes Cle)t Palate , is due to incomplete 4usion o) Palatine Shel*es o) Ma7illar% Prominences Spinal Scoliosis , is usuall% seen in Mar)an"s S%ndrome Coccioidis Immitis , presents as 4lu Li(e S%mptoms8 Cou'h and Er%thema Nodosum0 Will Ha*e $hic( Walled Spherules /ith Endospores Histoplasma Capsulatum , /ill present /ith Pulmonar% S%mptoms similar to $E8 and has 2*al Seast Within the Macropha'es #)ound in ca*es8 in)ested /ith bats& Elastom%cis , Lar'e 3ound Seast /ith Eroad Eased Eud8 presents /ith Pulmonar% Pneumonia Caspo)un'in , /hich are Echinocandins8 Inhibit S%nthesis o) Pol%saccharide !lucan and used as nti 4un'al0 Wilson"s Disease , /ill a))ect de'eneration o) Putamen as /ell as Dama'e to Easal !an'lia0 M P Ainase , si'nal path/a% includes 3 S Protein /hich is a ! Protein Colon denocarcinoma in UC Patients , /ill present in ;<s and /ill be Uni)orml% Spread out0 Unli(e Sporadic8 that arise in patients in =<s and more locali+ed to the Le)t Side0 Carcinoid S%ndrome , /hen Locali+ed to Intestine8 it"s products /ill be Metaboli+ed b% the Li*er and Patients /ill not ha*e S%mptoms0 When it"s Metastasi+ed to the Li*er8 then Secretor% Products are Not De'raded and Patients Will E7perience S%mptoms0 Carcinoid $umors , arise )rom Chroma))in Cells o) the Intestine8 ha*e Eosinophilic C%toplasm and 2*al Shaped Nuclei F Sta'es o) Lobar Pneumonia B 9& Con'estion #)irst :F hours& , -ascular Dilatation8 l*eolar E7udate Contains Mostl% Eacteria :& 3ed Hepati+ation #:-; Da%s& l*eolar E7udate , Er%throc%tes8

Neutrophils and 4ibrin ;& !re% Hepati+ation #F-= Da%s& No 3ECs8 mostl% Neutrophils and 4ibrin Pol%arteritis Nodosa , /ill present /ith 4ibrinoid Necrosis /ith $ransmural In)lammation o) rterioles8 )e*er8 malaise8 melena0 ssociated /ith Hep0 E In)ection lpha 9 ntitr%psin De))icienc% , presents /ith red-pin( P S !ranules o) Unsecreted 9 $ in Periportal Hepatoc%tes Hepatic bscess , /ill present /ith 4luid 4illed Ca*it% in the Li*er8 usuall% due to Staph ureus8 due to Hemato'enous Spread0 Where Entamoeba H%stol%tica /ill ha*e erobic and Non erobic Eacteria containin' bscess Hemosiderin Laden Macropha'es , are usuall% due to Ele*ated Pulmonar% Pressure8 secondar% to Le)t Sided Heart 4ailure Paraneoplastic Cerebellar De'eneration , is an utoimmune Process and presents /ith Limb and $runcal ta7ia8 D%sarthria0 2ccurs in patients /ith 2*arian8 Small Cell Carcinoma o) the Lun'8 Ereast and Uterine Cancers0 Space Constant , ho/ )ar alon' an a7on si'nal /ill tra*el is Decreased in patients /ith Multiple Sclerosis Class S/itchin' )or I'E , is due to IL-F and IL-9; produced b% $H: cells0 IL-> , is responsible )or Eosinophilia and Class S/itchin' and S%nthesis o) I' Central 3etinal rter% 2cclusion , presents /ith Painless8 Permanent Monocular Elindness and /ill ha*e Cherr% Macula Patients /ith Essential 4ructosuria , Metabolism o) 4ructose b% He7o(inase to 4ructose = Phosphate is primar% methode o) Metaboli+in' Dietar% 4ructose Carbamo%l Phosphate S%nthase and N- cet%l'lutamate S%nthetase , ha*e increased le*els o) mmonia and Neurolo'ical De)ects0 M%coplasma Pneumonia , /ill re@uire Cholesterol to 'ro/ on rti)icial Media8 due to Sin'le La%er o) Cholesterol Phospholipid Eila%er0 $he% Completel% Lac( Peptido'l%can Cell Wall8 En*elope or Capsule0 Usuall% seen amon' Militar% 3ecruits 2ptic Ner*e Dama'e , /ill cause neither pupil to react to Li'ht8 but /hen Li'ht is shined into an opposite e%e8 both e%es /ill Constrict due to Intact Motor 4unction

2cclusion o) 3i'ht Coronar% rter% , /ill result in $ransmural Ischemia o) Le)t -entricle8 producin' S$ Ele*ation in Leads II8 III and a*4 2cclusion o) L D , /ill result in /ith S$ Ele*ation in -9--F nteroseptal $ransmural Ischemia

2cclusion o) Le)t Circum)le7 , /ill result in $ransmural Ischemia o) Lateral Wall o) Le)t -entricle and S$ Ele*ation in -> and -= Combination o) Statins and 4ibrates , increases the 3is( o) M%opath% and Hepatoto7icit% Combination o) 4ibrates and Eile cid 3esins , /ill result in Increased 3is( o) Cholesterol Stones8 due to Increased Cholesterol in Eile Neuron Speci)ic Enolase8 Chromo'ranin , alon' /ith S%napthoph%sin are Neuroendocrine Mar(ers in Patients /ith Small Cell Carcinoma8 /hich is located Centrall% in Smo(ers0 Meniere"s Disease , characteri+ed b% $riad o) $innitus8 -erti'o and Sensorineural Hearin' Loss0 Due to Increased Pressure and -olume o) Endol%mph in -estibular pparatus ? ; chain o) $%pe I- Colla'en , is tar'eted b% anti-'lomerular basement membrane antibodies in !oodpasture"s S%ndrome Dru' Induced Nephritis , due to NS IDS /ill predominantl% a))ect Interstitium8 lea*in' !lomeruli Intact0 Eeta Endorphin and C$H , are deri*ed )rom the same 2ri'in0 Eeta Endorphin has Increased ))init% to Delta and Mu 3eceptors0 Pulsion Di*erticulitis , is usuall% seen in 2lder Patients due to Increased Pressure8 and /ill a))ect primaril% Si'moid Colon0 Li 4raumeni S%ndrome , utosomal Dominant S%ndrome8 due to Mutation o) p>; !ene and /ill cause Ereast8 Erain and drenal Corte7 Sarcomas and $umors mainl%0 Niacin , potentiates the e))ects o) nti H%pertensi*e Medications and Decrease the E))ect o) Diabetic Medications0 Eplerenone and Spironolactone , are ldosterone a usual $herap% )or Conn"s S%ndrome nta'onists are

Portal -ein $hrombosis , /ill present /ith Normal Li*er8 because the De)ect is Distal to the Li*er8 /ill cause Portal H%pertension /ithout a))ectin' the Li*er0

Pic("s Disease , is pronounced /ith 4rontal Lobe troph%8 and patients present /ith Dementia8 Mood Disturbance and Speech Di))iculties Estro'en and Pro'esterone in Pre'nanc% , Estro'en /ill cause Increased Cholesterol S%nthesis b% Upre'ulatin' HM! Co 3eductase and Pro'esterone /ill reduce Eile cid Secretion and Slo/ !allbladder Empt%in' Mudd% Ero/n !ranular Casts , are seen in Ischemic $ubular Necrosis in hospitali+ed patients0 Papillar% Necrosis , occurs in patients /ith Sic(le Cell8 Diabetes Mellitus8 nal'esic Nephropath% and 2bstructi*e P%elonphritis0 H%persensiti*it% to Intradermal InGections o) $obacco , are seen in Euer'er"s Disease8 /hich is $hromboan'itis 2bliterans amon' Hea*% Smo(ers0 2penin' Snap , is an abrupt 2penin' o) Stenosed Mitral -al*e0 -illous denomas , are more li(el% to under'o Mali'nant $rans)ormation8 unli(e $ubular denomas mi)ostine , thiol based c%toprotecti*e )ree radical sca*en'er used in patient on Cisplatin8 to pre*ent nephroto7icit%0

**Credits to Duncan