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SUNY Series in Contemporary Continental Philosophy Dennis] Schnid, editor BEING AND TIME A Translation of Sein und Zeit MartTIN HEIDEGGER Translated by Joan Stambaugh [STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK PRESS Origa published by Max Niemeyer Vera Tblnge, © 158. Pubes by Sate Univer f New Yoo Pe Albany © 1886 State Universi af New York Allighs reseed Printed nthe Unite Sites af America No part ofthis book my be usd or reprodced in ay abner whoever ‘without writen permislon. No pr ath book maybe tore in tira System or anime any form o by any mean nding leone ‘eeoratic magete wpe mechanic petcopring recording ‘therwte without the por prion a wring a he publi For infomation, addres tte Univers of New York Pres, ‘90 tte Src, Suite 70, Albany, NY 12207 Production y Mari .Semerad Marketing by Naney Farell “Typing by Baker Typing brary of Congres Catling in Publication Dia Heidegger Marin, 19891976 [Senn Ze Engh) Being and tine / Martin Hedge; rasa Joan Stambaugh em — (SUNY seer in conerporay continents posoni) Tncldesbograpicl ference and index ISBN 0701425777 Gardcove ~ ISBN O14 26785 (pbk) L-Onvolgy. 2 Spuceand time 1 Samaugh Joan, 19 aero fLases 106 lide ons Dedicated EDMUND HUSSERL, in frndiip and admiration ‘Todnauberg is Baden, Black ort 8 Api 1926, CONTENTS ‘Translators Preface sa ‘Author's Preface tothe Seventh German Eaton it (exergue] sie INTRODUCTION ‘The Exposition ofthe Question ofthe Meaning of Being The Nec, Src, end Priority ofthe Question of Beng 1 1. The Necesity ofan Explicit Retieve ofthe Question of Being 2, The Formal Siractre ofthe Question of Being 5. The Ontological Prony ofthe Question of Being 4. The Onde Priority ofthe Question of Belng IL The Double Tash in Working Ou th Question of Beng ‘The Method ofthe Foetigaton and Ti One 18 5. The Ontological Analysis of Dain the Exposure ofthe Horizon for an Interpretation ofthe Meaning of Being in General 3 5, The Task of Destrucring ofthe History of Ontology 17 17. The Phenomenological Method af the Investigation 28 "The Concept of Phenomenon, 25 ‘i. The Concept of Loges Pa €.The Preliminary Concept of Phenomenology 80 8. The Outline of the Treatie x PART ONE “The Imerpretation of Dase in Terms of. “Temporalty and the Explication of Tame 3 the ‘Transcendental Horizon ofthe Question of Being DIVISION ONE: The Preparatory Fundamental Anais of Desc ‘The Exposition of the Tash of a Preparatory Anal of Dain ‘9, The Theme ofthe Analytic of Dasein 10. How the Analy of Daseln to be Dssnguished from Anthropology, Psjehology, and Biology 11. The Esstentl Analyte and the Interpretation of Primitive Dascin The Dificules in Securing {Natural Concept ofthe World” 1, Beinginche World in Geert the Fandamental Constitution of Dain 12. A Preliminary ketch of Being the Wold in ‘Terms ofthe Orientation toward Being as Such 13, The Exempliicauon of Beingin in 2 Founded Mode: Kooning the World TDL, The Worldines of he World 14, The Idea ofthe Worldiness ofthe World in General ‘Analysis of Environmental and ‘Worllines in Genera 15, The Bing of Beings Encountered Inthe Surrounding World 16, The Worldly Character of the Surrounding World Making elf Known in Innerworldly Beings 17. Reference and Signs 18, Relevance and Significance: ‘The Worldliness ofthe World ' Contrast between Out Anais of Wordiness and Descartes Inexprtation ofthe World 19, The Determination ofthe “Word” ak Res Exes £20, The Fundamens ofthe Ontological Definition ofthe "World” 21, Hermeneutieal Discusion ofthe CCareeian Ontology af the World” ‘6 The Aroundnes of the Surrounding World and the Spaialty of Dasein 2 a7 ry 0 0 oe 22, The Spaialiy of Innerworlly Things at Hand 28. The Spaiality of Beinginthe World 24, The Spatialiy of Dasein and Space IV. Being th Word as Being with (and Beng a Sef The “They” 25. The Approach tothe Extent Question ofthe Who of Dasein 126, The Midasein of the Other and Everyday Beingwith 27, Everyday Being One's Self and the They Ve Being a Such The Task ofa Thematic Anais of Beingin ‘The Existential Constitton of the There Dasein ae Attunement Fear ata Mode of Attunement Dasein ¢ Understanding Understanding and Interpetation ‘Statement a3 Derivative Mode of Intexpretaton Desein and Discourse: Language 1 The Everyday Being ofthe There and the Fling Prey of Daseln, Idle Tak Curiosity Ambiguity Falling Prey and Throwaness geste gees VI. Corea th Beng of Dosen 89. The Queston ofthe Peoria Totaity ‘ofthe Structural Whole of Din 40, The Fundamental Atunerment of Angst san Eminent Dislosednes of Dasein 41, The Being of Dasein as Care 42! Confirmation ofthe Existential Interpretation ‘of Dasein ax Care in Terms ofthe Pre ontological Seincerpretaton of Dascin 48. Dasein, Worldjnes and Realy ‘Realy at Problem of Being and the Demonstrablit ofthe “Esteral World” », Reality ar an Ontological Problem Realy and Care 6 o wz wr 108 uo ns ir Bs 125 136 131 1 138 Ms 150 156 137 138 ea 164 169 169 v2 18 18s 186 187 195, 15, nga Tine 4, Dascin, Dislosednes, and Trath ‘The Traditional Concept of Truth and Is Ontological Foundations The Primordial Phenomenon of Trith and the Derivative Character ofthe ‘Traditional Concept of Fath The Kind of Being of Truth andthe Presupposiion of Truth ‘DIVISION TWO: Dascin nd Temporalty 45, The Result ofthe Preparatory Fndamental Anajss ‘of Deaein and the Task of «Prinord Existential Interpretation of This Being he Posie Being Whol of Dosen ‘and Beingtcerd Death 46. The Seeming mpossiblty of Ontologlaly Grasping snd Determining Descin t+ Whole 47. The Possibility of Experiencing the Death of Others and the Possibility of Grasping Dasein a 4 Whole 48, What is Outstanding. End, and Totaly 40. How the Extenial Analy of Death Dilfer rom ‘Other Posse Interpretations of This Phenomenon 50, A Preliminary Sketch ofthe Extent and ‘Ontological Structure of Death Si, Beingtoward:Death and the Ererydaynest of Dasein 52. Everyday BelngtowardDeath and the ‘Compete Existential Concept of Desth 58, Exstenal Project ofan Authente Being toward Death TL The Atestation of Dasen fom Authentic. PointicyofBeing, end Reoleness 54. The Problem ofthe Attestation of an Authentic Exitenil Possbity 155, The Existential and Ontological Foundations of Conscence 56. The Character of Comcience a Call 57. Conscience athe Call of Care 58. Understanding the Summons and Guilt 59. The Existential Interpretation of Conscience snd the Vane Interpretation of Conscence 196 198 21 208 ais ats 219 219 za 2 229 a 233 330 240 a7 a7 250 251 253 258 m1, Vv. mints 60, The Extent Structure ofthe Authentic Potentaltyof Being Atested in Conscience The Authentic Pty forBeinga Whole of Dosen, and Tenporaity asthe Ortlogial Mering of Coe G1. Preliminary Sketch ofthe Methodial Step from Outing the Authentic Benga Whole of Dascin to the Phenomenal Exposition of Temporsity 62. The Existenelly Authentic PotemaliyforBeing2 Whole of Dasein 3s Antldlpatry Reslateness, 63. The Hermeneutial Staton at Which We Have Arrive for Interpreting the Meaning of ‘Being of Care, and the Methodial Character ofthe Esistental Analyte in General 4, Care and Selfhood 155, Temporal asthe Ontological Meaning of Care (65, The Temporaity of Dasein and the Tasks Aning from Itofa More Pimordal Retrieve ofthe Existential Analyse Tomporaliy and Boedeyness 67, The Basie Content ofthe Existential Coneituion of Dasein, and the Preliminary Sketch of Its Temporal Interpretation 68, The Temporaity of Disclosednest in General 4. The Temporalty of Understanding 1. The Temporaliy of Attunement, The Temporalty of Falling Prey ‘The Temporalty of Discourse 69, The Temporalty of Beinginthe World and the Problem ofthe Transcendence of the Work ‘The Temporal of Greumapect Taking Care ‘The Temporal Meaning ofthe Way in which, CGitcumspect Taking Care Becomes Mesliied {nto the Theoretical Diconery of ‘Things Objectivey Present inthe World «The Temporal Problem of the Transcendence ofthe World 70. The Temporaity of the Spatacy Characteristic of Das 171. The Temporal Meaning ofthe Everdayness of Daseln a a 270 8 38 335 V. Tomporaliy ond Historic "72, Existental and Ontological Exposition ‘ofthe Problem of History 78. The Vulgat Understanding of History and the Occurrence of Dascin 74, The Essential Constitution of Historcigy 75. The History of Dasein and World History 76. The Existential Origin of Historiography hom the History of Daseln "7. The Connection ofthe Foregoing Exposition ofthe Problem of Historic wih the Investigations ‘of Dilthey and the eas of Count Yorck VL. Temporal amd Within Tienes asthe Origin of the Valger Const of Time 78. The Incompleteness ofthe Foregoing ‘Temporal Analysis of Dasein. 179, The Temporaityof Dascin and Taking Care of Time 80, Time Taken Cate of and Within Timencss 81, Within Timeness and the Genes ofthe ‘Vulgar Concept of Time 12, The Contras ofthe Existential and Ontological (Connection of Temporal, Dasein, and World Tine with Hegel's Interpretation ofthe Relation benween Time and Spit ‘2 Hegel's Concept of Time ', Hegel’ Interpretation of the Connection ‘between Time and Spirit '5. The Existential and Temporal Analytic of Dasein and the Question of Fundamental Ontlogy {to the Meaning of Being in Genera, Notes Lexicon “1 mn M6 350 354 388 2363 am am 3 a7 85 8 se 07 a9 TRANSLATOR’S PREFACE ‘There are many reasons that Beng and Time pote special problems for i tranator and forthe readers ofan Engi language ansaon Three aspects ofthe text ate especialy noteworthy and so need To be commented upon here Fit one nec o bes nd tn Being tnd Tine, Heidegger has introduced large numberof German neat Bums. Words, such a Bfndiceit, which woud be realy neigh to 2 German reader since thas a clear relation to an everyday German Drase (oie bind Sie ch?—Hlow are you ding?) appear here a5 Hesegger's own coinage and so pose a challenge even toa German reader: Typically, Heidegersneologms have strong connection ‘everyday phases or wor and 30 exit acurous mk of srangenest nd famary, Second Heidegger frequently employ quite common ‘ocabulary in uncommon ways: Here the most nb example Isis {ie ofthe word Dan wich, bess having a long history a pil Soplic term is for example, ne ofthe categories in Hegel Sines Tag ra wor that bongs to everyday conersaton, One of Heldeg BcF> introns in Being end Tine eto reapproprat that word and fe new meaning without completly repudiating its everyday sense ‘again a German reader might find asort of alehenyof fait sn ‘erangeness in Heidegger's we of uch words Tid, natoalone fs Heidegger using que raion pafosopical vocabulary in Bing and Time at be goes to great lenge to move sich words Into nev and ‘rather urraitona sess, Words such as Wabrhet rth") and Sin (Cocing" are only the most obvious examples of the problema trans torand reader ace. ‘Such ae some of the srs of transion problems that are espe cially ample by the natre of thin text.Thee remain of course te i ing end Tine ‘nual problems hat belong tothe project of wansating German into English But these problems, wile demanding a cert viglance on the past ofboth the translator and the reader, ae nt insurmountable Soune hve decades ago Macquarre and Robinson published a trarala: tion of Bring and Tomes in doing were at he foreltont of bringing Heidegger’ work into English, That translation itself ame to shape the ‘way in whch Heidegger's work was discussed in English. Ar three “Seades of translations of Heidegger's other works by a arte of ua lators some ofthe decisions that were made in hat early tranaation of ‘Being and Time tight ow need tobe reconsidered. The present randation atterpls to ake into account the nights ‘ofthe past tiny years of Heidegger scholarship in English, This trans lon was bogun some time ago and has undergone changes over the years a colleagues have offered suggestions, Some individual tans tions wl no doubt stil provoke controversy and, because Heidegger language 30 rich and mulUvalen, would key do so no matter how they were talated. Ba itis hoped hat dis translation wil remedy some ofthe inflctes and errors ofthe previous aration, and open {productive debate about some ofthe more orginal and til puzzling Tug of dis tex To that end, afew very brit remarks about some ofthe tenincogia decslons may be inorder to help vient the reader to rome ofthe choices made here and to some ofthe llerative wan Tatons that might well be borne in mind bythe reader. However, in ‘he end, the uanshaton wil need to jest itselin the reading twas Heidegger’ express wish that in future translations the word Das shoul be hyphenated Uroughout Being and Tie pra ‘ce he himself instigated for example in chapter 5 of Division One. ‘Thus the reader wl be less prone to assume he o she understands it to refer to “exntence” (whieh is dhe orthodox translation of Dae) and ‘ith that ranean srrepitoany bring song ll srt of pyeholoieal ‘Connotatons, twas Heidegger's insight that human beng = uncanny: tre do not how who, or what, that, altwough, or perhaps precisely boca, we are “Ss the case with German nouns in gener the terms Dosen an “Angst which remain untranslated, ren capitalization: no eer English fxpressions are capitalized, including the term “being” Capitalizing “ing” although it has the dubious mert of treating “bela” as some thing unique, sks implying that cis some kindof Sper Thing oF tan scenieat being. But Heidegger's use of the word “being” ino sense {eters the word to something ke a being expecially nota transcendent Being, Heidegger doce not want to subnets word, yet capitallz ing de wor in English docs tend to imply fx that. The er word for beng Eign, appropriation,” “Belonging together" and Dar Geert Tran Pre 2 (the Four) expres tions that fst constitute any possible relate oF ‘things, and thos confirm ths oneabstantalsng inenton "Another peclly problematic word is Vall which doesnot rally mean “lig” bu speak rather of ling prey” to something (he word, In other words, itis a kind of mosion® thai nable ro go Anywhere, While one might render the substantive (das Veal / te Vey) as “ensnarement," choose to translate ica “entangle ment” to avo the connotation ofa tp, "The word Bani, hich Ihave tranated a “attunement,” red some qualification and special comment. Another legtimate rane lation for this word i isponiton” (hee one could elr tothe Frene ‘ranlation which uses dspstion). But despite quite compelling reasons tons “disposton,"T decided tha “atanement” atthe better cholee ‘only becauve it sees beter able to avoid suggesting that there ar py ‘hological connotations cavied in Heidegger nals of Bechet The talation of the word Bewadins here at “relevance” a0 needs a comment. While one might opt fora different vanslation, ‘maely “tution,” seems tha such choice leaves the meaning of the ‘word foo broad and vague, and that I fall to capare the dsunction Heidegger makes between Bowandoi, which has primarily wo do with thing and Situation, whichis more applicable to people “The crucial tro of words Senge, Bogen, aud Farge was ren dered as “eae,” "taking cae and "concern respectively A sbift fom the previous translation of Being and Tine needs to be noted her. Mac iquari and Robinson had wed “concern aa transaton for besrgen: Iowever, [have choren to use the word “concern” asa tansltion for ‘Fnrg, which involves human jie. Thavetandated baogen a “tak ing ere” (a opposed to the Macquarie and Robinson translation of "foletude") because i refers more to errands and matters that one takes care of or sees. Heidegger sometimes uses the word Andee with an article (ie “Anda, bt for the most part the word appeare without an arte. 1 have followed him in this and a0 use “ers rater than “the others" ‘The emphasis on the other) so strongly expressed in Sarre asa threat to subjectivity, slacking in Hedegger Afterall, we belong to others: we scoters to. Vorlayfn. Anticipation is perhaps too weak. Macquarie and Robinson's “running forward in thought vemed abit awkward. Butit may be the better cholee ‘Nake was consistenly rendered as "eames," whereas in earlier ‘versions often used “clorenes”3¢ wel “The word Wiedrhlung, which I have translated as *etieal,” ‘ould also be translated a Yecaptlation” since at word i sed ia susie to refer to what Heidegger seems to intend by Wisderolung. In ‘musi (Spell inthe sonata frm) recapitulation refers tothe rear ‘of the inital dheme ater the whole development section, Becase of ‘new plac in the piece, that same theme x aow heard ferent ‘One final word, hic ins departre fom the previous tranlaton, reeds to be noted. Augenblick, which Ihave translated a mmoment” (2s ‘opposed to Macquarie and Robinson’ “moment of vision" should help pick up dhe temporal connotations ofthe word an alo shed sme ofthe almost mystical sense of the previous tansaion, Here the reader ‘might do well t associate the word with the Engish expression “in Ue Tbling ofan eye” o the French op dae ‘The nonnumerical notes at the botom of the pages are Heeg ‘ges own notes made inthe margin on the ocason of subsequent re reading. ‘Tish to thank Dennis Schmidt for his valuable and helpful ug gestions. Thanks are due to Theodore Kisel forthe lesion. Lalo wish {o thank the Alexander von HumbolStiftung for its generows Sop- port enabling me to complete thi ransation AUTHOR'S PREFACE TO THE SEVENTH GERMAN EDITION ‘The text of Being and Time fest appeared inthe spring of 1927 inthe Jahrbuch fir Phanomenolgie und phanonanolgicheForhang, Vo. VI, ‘and ie was published simultancouly a separate volume, “The present reprint, whichis the teveth edition, s unchanged With respect othe text, but hae been newly revised with regard to que ‘ations and punctuation. The page numbers ofthis reprint agree with those of the eater editions except for minor deviations. ‘The designation “First Half” which previows editions bore, hat been deleted After a quarercenary the second half culo longer be added without the fist being presented anew. Nonetheless, ie path stl remains a necessary one even today, ifthe question of Being 0 move aur Dosen. or the cucidation of that question the seader may refer tomy Engrg in die Maps which is eing published bythe same press as this text. That work presents the text of lecture course delivered in the summer semester of 1935, on rip ine pv ave noe sect ‘epitvev iro dv gers) wdtae pone, ot 8p 0 pa ta iv 8 opener oes ae “For manifestly you hae tong been aware of what you mean when you ae the expres bang’ Wey Fowever, ho we o think we derstand hae noe become perplexed Do we nour tne bare an aneer to the uct on of what we realy mean by he word ing? Nose AM, So i iting hat we shore sew te ution oman og ate we ona po Plesed ator Inabity to understand the expreston ing? Nott al So tof al we mut een a Uundersanding for the meaning of this question. Our Simin the fling weet werk ou the questo {tthe meaning of Sg ant do 1 comers. Out ‘Provisional am s the interpretation ts the ow ble hoon for any understanding whatever of "put the reasons for making this ur aim, she Investigations which sich purpose rele an the path tote achievement, call for ome inrodutony INTRODUCTION ‘The Exposition of the Question of the Meaning of Being I The Necessity, Structure, and Priority of the Question of Being 1 The Nees of an Esp Retief the Question of Beng “This question has today been forgoten—although our time considers itself progressive in again afimng “metaphysics” All the same we bealee that we are spared the exertion of rekinding a gguntomacha per ts ousas ("a Bate of Giants concerning Being” Pato, Sopkt 24be6-246eI], But the question touched upon here is hardly ana tray one sustained the avid research of Pato and Atoll bu from then om ceated tobe heard ara thrmati quem fetal invetigaton. What these two thinkers achieved has been preserved in various di torted and “camouflaged” forms down to eget’ Logi: And wit then, ‘was wrested from phenomena bythe highest exertion of thought, albeit Inflagmens and fast beginnings, has long snce been rvlzed Not ony that On the foundation of the Greck pet of departure {or the interpretation of being 2 dogma has aken shape which not only declares that the question of the meaning of being i superfluous but Sanctions its neglect Ils said that "belng” Is dhe most universal and {he emptlest concept Asch it rests every attempt at definition, Nor docs this most univer and thus indefinable concept need ay defi tion. Everybody uses it constandy and aso already understands what is ‘meant by it Ths what woubled ancient philosophsing and kept toby ‘rte of is obscurity has become obvious, clear a dy, sch that who- ‘ver persists in asking about itis accused of an error of method. Being and Tie mt At the beginning of this inquiry the prejudices that constantly inal and repeatedly promote the Hea that a questioning of beng isnot ‘needed cannot be ditcused in detail The ae rooted in ancent onto ‘97 itself, That ontology can in tum only be interpreted adequately lander the guidance ofthe question of beng which has been darted nd answered beforehand. One must proceed with regard to the sil {rom which the fundamental ontological concepts grew and with refer fence tothe sultable demonstration ofthe categories and their com pletenese. We therefore wish to discuss these prejudices only to the Extent thatthe necesy ofa retrieve ofthe quetion ofthe meaning of being becomes evident. There ae Ue such prejudices, "Reig ithe mort “univer” coneept on ot ataloy malts pontin Mad gud prio cai sub apprehension estes, cues intelecs ead noma qcigu goreeniAn ending of ‘bing alway already contained in everyting we apprehend in beng." But the “universality” of “being” not that of gens. "Belng” does not ‘delimit the highest egon of beings o far as they are conceptually atc Ulated according to genus and species: ce oom gens ("Being is noe a [gem] The “universality” of being "surpasses" the unieraityof gems ‘According tothe designation of medieval ontology, “being” is 3 ra {erndens. Aristotle himself understood the unity ofthis transcendental “niversal ae oppoted to the marafod of he highest generic concep with material content, athe uniy of analogy. Despite his dependence “pon Plato's ontological postion, Aistode placed the problem of beng ‘oma fundamentally ew bars with dis discovery. To esure, he too did ‘ot any the obscurity ofthese categoria connections. Meira ont ‘gy dtc this problem in many was, above all inthe Thomist and Scout schools, without gaining damental clarity. And when Hegel finally defines being” atte “indeterminate immediate,” and makes this ‘efinon the foundation ofl the further categoria expicalons of is “Logi he emai within the perspective of ancent ontology—extept that Ihe does give up the problem, raed early on by Aristo, ofthe unity of beingin contrast tothe manifold of “ateyories” with material content. If ‘ne sys accordingly tat "Beng" the most universal concept, that car pot mean that tf the learet and tate needs no further dscason. “The concept of being” is rather the most obscute of al "2 The concept of “being” is indefinable. This conclusion was “drawn tom its highest university" And orrelys0-i defini per en rst diffrent seam [it etion achieved rough the pronimate genus andthe specifi difference" Indeed, "belng” cam not be understood at being. Eni no adit aligua nar: “Being” ‘ihe ing [de Scene} henge mer Beingant Tine 3 ‘cannot be defined by atibuting beings to Being cannot be derived fom higher concepts by way of dfiion and cannot be represented by lower ones. But dacs fllow from this that "beg can longer con tute a problem? Not at all. We can conclude only that “being” not Something ikea belng.* Thus the manner of definition of belage which has ls justification within limite—the “definition” of tational loge shih itself rooted in ancentontology-cannot be applied to being ‘The indefinabilty of being doesnot dispense withthe question of ts meaning but forces it upon us '3."Belng” Is the slfevident concept “Being” i used in ll know: {ng and predating in every relation to beings and in every relation to ‘onesel, and the expression ir understandable "without further ado Everybody understands, "The sby i blue” “Tam happy,” and sna statement. Bur thi average comprehensibiliy only demonstrates the incomprehensibilty. 1 shows that an enigma les pri in every rea. ‘on and being toward beings as beings. The fact that we live already in an understanding of being and Gat the meaning of being i athe se time shrouded in darkness proves the fundamental neces of repeat lng the question ofthe meaning of *eing” Tiywhat is "selFevident” and hi alone—"the covert adgmens of ‘common reason” (Kant) to become and remain the explicit heme of ‘our analysis (as "the busines of philoropher, then the appeal el ‘evidence in the realm of basic philosophical eonept, and indeed! with ‘regard tothe concept “being” ia dubious procedure, ‘But comideration ofthe prejudices hat made lear atthe sme time that not ony isthe asver to the question of being lacking but even the question welt is obscure and without direction. Thus to "etrieve the question of being means fat allo workout adequately ‘the formulation of the question, 2. The Formal Src the Question of Beng ‘The question ofthe meaning of being must be formulated Wit is aot even thefundamental question, such questioning needs the stable ‘wanspareney. Ths we must riety dscass what belongs toa queton in general in order to beable to make dear thatthe question of Belg Every questioning isa seeking. Every seeking takes its direction beforehand from what is sought. Questioning is knowing search for ‘being inte thatnest and whatnes, The Knowing sete ca become an “otra no con ht ig] ane mde with ep fh 4 Began Tine Tout “investigation as the revealing determination of what the question alms A As questioning soot questioning has what ass abou. Al asking Sout isin sine way an inquiring of ---- Besides whats asked, what {s nerogated aso belongs to questioning. What is questioned ito be ‘fine ancl conceptaied in the investigating that the spec the retical. question Ar what realy intended, wha ito be eet is in whats questioned here questioning aves ats goal. Asan ated adopted by a being, the questioner, questioning has Is own characte of being, Questioning can come abouts jus asking around?” or as an cexpliciy formulated question. Whats peal tothe ater she fet that {questing fit becomes lucid in adrnce wih regard to ll the above- ‘ame constitutive characteris of the question “The question tobe formulated is about the meaning of beng. Thus ‘we are contonted with the necessity of explain the question of being ‘with regard to the structural moments etd ‘Ar seeking, questioning need prior guldance from what it seeks “The meaning of being aust therefor already be svallable 10 usin & Certain way. We intimated that we are lays already involved in an Understanding of being. From this grows the explicit quesdon of the teaning of ing and the tendency toward is concept. We do not ku twhat “being” means. But already when we ask “What being?” we ‘Nand in an understanding of the “is widhou being able to determine ‘onceptaly what the "s* means. We do not even know the horizon “Spon which we are supposed to graxp and pin down the meaning. This erage ond gue understanding of eg 3 fot "No matter ho much this understanding of being wavers an fades and borders on mere verbal knowledge this ndefintenes ofthe under ‘Standing of being thats abvay already avalable is itself positive phe ‘nomenon which needs elvcldation, However, an investigation of the ‘meaning of being wil not wish to provide tis at the outset. The inter pretation of the average understanding of being attains is necessary fuideline only withthe developed concept of being. Prom the dart of that concept andthe appropriate manner of fs explicit undersanding sve sal erable to discern what the obscte or not et elucidated unde nding of being means, what kinds of obfuscation or hindrance of an ‘exper lucidation ofthe meaning of belng are possible and necessary Furthermore, the average, vague understanding of being can be permeated by traditional theories and opinions about being ln such a ‘ray that these theories, asthe sources of the prevaling understanding Tenmain hidden. What is sought in the question of being isnot com pletely unfamiar,aldhoug sts at fst cully ungraspable ‘Whats sted aout in he quetdon to Be caborsted is being. hat whi determines beings ae being that in terns of which beings have et Pang ond Tine 5 always been understood no mater how they are discussed. The being of ‘eings "sue nota being, The fst pilosophical step im understaning the problem of being conan aiding the myion ina digesta in ot “teling story." that snot determining beings s beings by acing them ‘back nthe origin to another belng-at being had the character ofa possible Being. ASwhat is asked abou, being ts requires is ow kind of Alemonsraton which essential diferent fram the discovery of begs Hence what tobe axertinad the meaning of beng wil equ its own conceptualzaton, which again s essentall distinc from the concepts a ‘whlch belnge receive thei determination of meaning Insofar 2s being constitutes what i asked about, and insofar as belng means the being of blogs, beings themes tum out tobe what is inorogated inthe question of being Beings ae, so to speak, inter {gated with regard to ther lng. Buti they are to exe the charac fester oftheir being without asain they mot fr their part have become acceauile in advance as they are in themeves. The question of being demands thatthe right access to beings be gained and secured in advance with regard to what i interrogates. But we ell many things “enistent™ sro], and in different senses. Everything we tlk box, sean, and are related 0 In being tn one way or another. What and hove we ourscves are also in being. Being i found in thatness and ‘whatness, reality, the objective presence of thing [Vorkandenhi) ub- Tistence valiiy existence [Deseln]* ad in the “lhere i” er gi tehich being isthe meaning of being tobe found: from which being the disclosure of being to get ts tar? ste tating point arbitrary or docs a certain being have priority in the elaboration ofthe question of being? Which is this exemplary! being and in what sense does have pr orig? "de quenion of being to be exp frmuaed and brought to complete clarity concerning itl, then the ciaboration ofthis ques. ton requires, in accord with what bas been euldated upto now, exp Cation of the ways of regarding being and of understanding and con ‘eptualy grasping le meaning. preparation ofthe possibly ofthe ight thoice of the exemplary belng and elaboration ofthe genie mode of access to this being, Regarding, undersanding and grasping, choosing, nd galning access to, are constutiveattudes of inguty and are ds ‘either the al concep or anyother "wo diferen queens are ign here miseding bow alin elation he role of Descie "Mteading, Dosen is exemplary beac sth oper (ls Beipi ha ine een at Dac perdring the th ing play to and with Being ‘brings tito the pny resonance themselves modes of being ofa particular being, of hing we ingui ‘rs ours in eark cave ae. Ths to work oat the question of being Ineans to make a being-one who questons-traparent ins Ding ‘Asking this question, ara mode of bring ofa being iil exentilly “determined by what i asked about sn being * This being which we ‘ourselves in each eae are and which includes nul among de pss bls oft being we fmulate terminological ax Dasin. The expt and lucid formulation ofthe qusuon ofthe meaning of being requires {prior suitable explication of being (Dasein wth regard tos being “But docs not such an enterprie fll nto an obvious cide? To have to determine beings i at leing beforehand and then on tis foundation first pose the question of being-what es shat bu going ‘wound in cele? In working out the question do we not presuppose Something tha only dhe answer ean provide? Formal objections Such {the angument of crcl reasoning," an argument dats alway es iy raised in the area of investigation of principles, ae always sterile then one weighing concrete wae of investigating, They do not oer ‘tnything othe wndestanding of the sue and they hinder penetration into the eld of investigation ‘But in fat there fn circle a all in the formulation of our ques tin, Regs canbe deter in their being wthoat the expic coneept ‘ofthe meaning of being having tobe lead avalabe Its were no so thre could ns have been ar et any ontological knowledge. And prob shiv no one woul deny the factual existence of ich Enowedge Is rue that “being” “presupposed” in all previous ontology, but not as an {ila conpt-not atthe sort of hing we ate seking“Presupposng” thing has the character of taking a preliminary look at beng i such a vay that on the basis of this lok beings that ae already given are tent they articulted in dee blag. This guiding look at being grows out of the average understanding of being in which we are always already Involved a ich timate Blog oth cent contin of Dain ttn. Such presuppoxng” has nothing to do ith posting » principle from which sere of propositions is deduced A "ale tnresoning” Cannot possibly ei the formulation of dhe queston of the meaning of being. Because in answering this queston itis not a mate of rounding by deduction but rather of lying bar and exiang the ground. “Circular reasoning” doer not occur in dhe question ofthe mean- ing of ing. Rather, there iss notable “relatedness barkeard oF for trad of what asked about (beng) to aking 6a mode of being of 4 ‘Dass beng held ou int he nothngoet of being, eld lato, “ihe he meaning of being ae doen om is blag sro he bang at Banged Tine 7 ‘being. The way what is questioned essentially engages our questioning | ‘belongs to the innermost meaning ofthe question of being. But ths ‘only means thatthe beng tht has he character of Daan has relation to the question of being self, pezhaps even a datncive one, But have \wenot thereby demonstrated that a paricar being has priory with respect being and that the exemplary being that isto fanetion at ‘whats primary nropae is regen?” In what we have dics up {o now neither has the prionity of Desein been demonstrated nor has anything been decided about ts possible or even necesary function a¢ the primary being to be interrogated. But certainly something like protty of Dasei has announced ie 3. The Ontolgial Proof he Quastion of Being “The characterization ofthe question of beng, under the iden of the formal sruture ofthe queson a5 such, has made tear that this (question is unique one, such hat ts elaboration and even is soltion| fequie serie of fandamental reflections. However, what i dine tive about the question of being wil fully come vo ght only when that (question i suicent delineated with regard tits fncon, intention, ‘nd motives, Up w now the necessity of a retrieve ofthe quetion was mat ‘ate party by its venerable ofgin but above ally the lack of definite answer, even by the lack of any adequate formulation. But one can ‘demand to know what purpose this question should serve. Doct it ‘remain solely, or it at all, only a matter of treelosing speculation About dhe most general generalitier-or ithe mor Bai a at the ome fine mast concrete question? ‘Being always the being of a being. The totality of beings can, with respett its various domains, become the fleld where partclar tress of hiowledge are expoted and delisted. These ares-for eam ple, history, nature pace, hfe, human being, language, and x0 onan In their tura become thematzed as object of scent investigations Scientific research demacates and first establishes thee ates of know. ‘edge ina rough and read fasion. The daboration of the area in isfy lamenal structures isn a way alteady accomplished by presietifc ‘experience and interpretation ofthe domain of being to which the area of knowledge is itself confined. The resting “fundamental concepts” ‘omprize the guidelines forthe frst concrete disclonure of the aes. * Again ae ave an eet implication ade corey hag, Dain i ‘otan instance ofbeing forthe representational scion of ben aes 10 8 Bang ant Tine mt Whether or not the importance ofthe research vay es in such eta lishment of concepts tte progress comes about not so much in cok lecting result and storing Uhm in "handbooks asin being forced to ask {questions about the asic consittion of each area, these questions [Being chili a reaction to Increasing knowledge in exch re, “The real “movement” ofthe sences kes place in the revision of ‘hese asc eancepts, a reson which s more o less oda hci with regard to ie A sence level of development Is detennned by the ‘extent to which ti capade of criss ints si concept In these imams nen crises ofthe xiences the relation of pov questioning to the mat {erin question becomes unstable, Today tendencies to place research on new foundations have cropped up onal sides inthe various dsipine. “The dsipline which is seemingly the strictest and most securely structured, mathematic, as experienced a “cris in it foundations.” “The controversy between formalism and intitioniam centers on obtain Ing and securing primary acceso what should be the proper object af this science. Rely theory In physics grew out of the tendency to ‘expore matures own coherence asi i "im Hel.” Asa theory af the ‘conditions of access to nature itself it attempts to preserve the immutability ofthe lve of motion by defining all sates tis thus onltonted by the question of the sticture of is pregiven area of knowledge that i, bythe problem of matter. In biology the tendency has avakened to get behind the definitions mechanism and vitals have piven to “organism” and "Ife" and to define anew the kind of being of ving beings ar such. Inthe historical and umanise die plines the deve toward historical actuality itself as been sengthened by the tranemision and portrayal of tion the history of erature {become the history oferta problems. Theology searching for 4 ‘more orginal interpretation of human belnys being toward Go, pre fered bythe meaning of faith ite and semaining win it Theology {slowly beginning to understand again Luther's night hat ie syste ‘of dogma rest on 2 Youndation” hat does not stem rom a questioning {in which faith is primary and whose conceptual apparatus fx not only Inefficient for the range of problems in theclogy but rather covers them up and distorts them, Fundamental concepts are determinations in which the area of| knowledge underiing all the thematie objects of a slence aan an ‘understanding tar precedes and guides all positive investigation. Accord ingly there concep Rist recive tee genuine esidence and “grounding” ‘only ina correspondingly preliminary research into the area of kno ‘edge uel But snc cach ofthese sen res fom the domain of belngs ‘hemscles, ths preliminary esearch that creates Ue fundamental con ‘cepts amounts to nlhing ese han interpreting these lng interme of the baie constitution oftheir being This kindof investigation must pre ‘cede the positive sciences it can doo, The work of Pato and Ari tone te proof of ths, Laying the foundation of the scence inthis ways tlifferent in principle from “loi” limping slong behind, investigating Ihre and there the statue of scence in terms oft "method” Such ay sng of foundation x producivelogl inthe sense that i eaps aed 50 torseak, into partici reaim of being dilones it forthe rs tine fn {scons beng, and makes the aquired suuctures avaible to the positive sciences a uc iretves for inquiry. Thu, for example, what {philosophically primary is nota theory of concept formation in histo ‘ology, nor the theory of hintoreal knowledge, nor even the theory of istry asthe objet of hstoriolog, what i primary i rather the iter pretation of genuinely historia being with regard to dh storia ‘Sima, the pose result of Kant's Gti of Pre Rese conssts in its spproach to working out what belongs to any mature whasoeer, and not Ina "theory" of knowledge, His anscendental loge ian a rior logic of the realm of beng called nature. "But such inglry-ontology taken in its broadest sense without re rence to specific ontological direction and tendencies sl needs 2guldeline Iris ue that ontological inquiry is more orginal than the ‘nti inquiry ofthe postive scienecs. But remains naive and opaque its investigation into dhe being of bigs leave te meaning of being in tundteused. And prcely the ontological tsk ofa genealogy of the diferent pone ways of being (a genealogy which x moto be con- strved deductive) requires a preliminary understanding of “what we ‘really mean bythe expresson being” “The question of being thus sims at an a pri condon of the pos iby not only of the seiences which investigate beings of och and ich ‘ype-and are thereby already invaed in an understanding of being but Italms alo at dhe condition of the possiblity of the ontologies which pre ‘cede the oie scences and ound them. Along mo mat hw ick and ‘igh hit te of ctr ha td, remains urdamercly ‘ind and prt nema intent ft has no previ laf the ms. ing of being aici end ree is caution as fname ash ‘Ontoloial research sl, correct understood, ges the question ‘ot being it entologial priority over and above merely resuming 2 honored tradition and making progress ona problem unt now opaque Bat this scholarly, sienifc preity isnot the only one. 4 The Ont Priority of the Question o Being Sclence in general canbe defined asthe totality of fundamentally coher: cnt true propositions. This dfinion snot complete, aor does get at n 2 the meaning of science. As ways in which human beings behave ‘ences have this beings (te human being’) kind of beng, Weare den {ng this being terminology at Drect, Scent research fs neither the sole nor the most immediate kind of being ofthis being that pos- sible Moreover, Dastin tli distinc diferent from other beings ‘Wert make this dtnc iference visible in a preiminary way Here the dacusion must anicipatesubeequent analyses which oly later wil become tray demonstrative Dasen isa being that doesnot simply occur among other beings Rather tls oneal distinguished by de fat that ns being this being is concerned afou ts very being. Thus iis constitutive ofthe being of Dasein to have ins very being, arelatlon of being to this being. And this in en means that Daan understands self its being in some ‘way and with some explcitness, Is proper to this being that tbe de. ‘lone to tac with and chou its being, Understanding of being 1 dternaton of being of Dosen * The ontic distinction of Dewees in the fet hat ontological "To be ontological doesnot yet mean to develop ontology. Thus ‘we reserve the term ontology forthe explicit, theoretical question of the meaning of beings, te intended ontological character of Dain is to be designated a preonologeal. That does n0t sgl being simpy ‘onal, butather beng in the manner ofan understanding of beng. ‘Weshal ld ery beng to whieh! Dascin an relate one way oF another, and somehow alvays does rete, existence (Exits) And becuse the eel definiden fds beng cant he accomplished by acing 0 ia what” that species is material content, because its essence es rather ‘in thea chat in each stance has tobe ks beng ow, the term Da sein, asa pure expression of bng, hasbeen chosen to designate his being, DDascin slays understands iselin tera of ts existence, ters ‘ofits posblty tobe itself or not tobe islt.Dasein has eter chosen ‘hese posilids isl, stumbled upon them, ori each instance lend {grown upin them. Existence is decided only y each Dain ite nthe ‘manner of seizing upon or neglecting such posites. We come to tenn with the question of existence always ony through existence sel. ‘We shal cll is kindof understanding of self extol understand Ing. The question of exitence san oneal” of Daacin. For this the leoretal transparency ofthe ontological stictre of existence fs nt "but in thin cane Being not ony athe eng of rman bing (Exes), Tt becomes cer fom the follwing Beinn dhe word ice a th fl tan of esence to Being in the uo the eerandng of eg et Bengend Tine 11 necessary. The question of structure aims at dhe nals of what cons: {es existence * We shal ell the coherence ofthese srctares ten tity, ts analysis doesnot have the character ofan estate under standing but rather an ett one. The ask of an existential analy, ‘of Daseinis prescribed with regard to its possiblity and necessity In {he onte constitution of Daseln- ‘But sine existence defines sci, the ontological analsis ofthis being always requlses a previous glee of existential. However, we understand existential a6 the consition of being ofthe being that text, Butte den of being already isin the den of such a constiution fof being. And thus the possibilty of earryng out the analyse of Dasein ‘depends upon the prior caboraton ofthe question ofthe meaning of belng in general, ‘Sciences and disciplines are ways of beng of Dain in which Da sein alo eats to Being that need not ie be, But bing rl belongs essentially to Dasein. Thus the understanding of being that, ‘belongs to Dasein jus ax originally implies dhe understanding of rome thing ike “word” and the understanding ofthe beng of beings acces tbl within the wold, Ontologies which have Beings unlike Da-scin a their theme are accordingly founded and motrated in the on true ture of Dasein el, This structure incudes in elf the determination ‘of preomtologcl understanding of being ‘Thus fordamental oncology, from wich alone all ther ontologies ‘can originate, must be sought the extent anay of Daa. ‘Dascin accordingly takes privity in several ways over all other ‘beings. The Hest pros san outcome his being is dened in ts beg by exstence. The second prong ian ontlpal one on the basis of its