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P!"#$% r&#'($)*+ (PR) is the practice of managing the communication between an organization and its publics. Public relations gains an organization or individual exposure to their audiences using topics of public interest and news items that do not require direct payment.. Because public relations places exposure in credible third-party outlets it offers a third-party legitimacy that advertising does not have. !ommon activities include spea"ing at conferences wor"ing with the press and employee communication. #t is something that is not tangible and this is what sets it apart from $dvertising.
P% can be used to build rapport with employees customers investors voters or the general public. $lmost any organization that has a sta"e in how it is portrayed in the public arena employs some level of public relations. &here are number of related sister disciplines all falling under the banner of !orporate !ommunications such as $nalyst relations 'edia %elations #nvestor %elations #nternal !ommunications or (abor %elations. &here are many areas of public relations but the most recognized are financial public relations product public relations and crisis public relations.

)inancial public relations deal with providing information mainly to business reporters. Product public relations deal with gaining publicity for a particular product or service through P% tactics rather than using advertising. !risis public relations deal with responding to negative accusations or information.

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$dvertising dollars in media products from corporations li"e *ews !orp. +ow ,ones and !'P are under rapid decline in favor of direct advertising products offered by search engines and other tools. &raditional media publications are laying off -ournalists consolidating beat reporters shrin"ing their print editions and many publications are shutting down entirely. Blogs have lower over-head costs than traditional media and are often said to provide better news coverage and analysis. Blogs are increasingly sprouting to replace traditional media with a more sustainable low-cost business model and are gaining more of a following. &he advent of social media is the most pre-eminent trend in P% today. #t.s important to note while social media is on the rise traditional media is yet to be ta"en over by the trend as of ,anuary /0 /110. 2ocial media releases search engine optimization content publishing and the introduction of podcasts and video are other burgeoning trends.

&he need of public relations personnel is growing at a fast pace. &he different types of clients that public relations people wor" for include but are not limited to3 the government educational institutions and outlets nonprofit organizations specific industries businesses and large companies athletic teams and entertainment companies and international opportunities.

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Public relations and publicity are not synonymous but many P% campaigns include provisions for publicity. Publicity is the spreading of information to gain public awareness for a product person service cause or organization and can be seen as a result of effective P% planning.

Publics targeting
$ fundamental technique used in public relations is to identify the target audience and to tailor every message to appeal to that audience. #t can be a general nationwide or worldwide audience but it is more often a segment of a population. 'ar"eters often refer to economydriven 4demographics 4 such as 4blac" males 56-70 4 but in public relations an audience is more fluid being whoever someone wants to reach. )or example recent political audiences include 4soccer moms4 and 4*$2!$% dads.4 &here is also a psychographic grouping based on fitness level eating preferences 4adrenaline -un"ies 4etc... #n addition to audiences there are usually sta"eholders literally people who have a 4sta"e4 in a given issue. $ll audiences are sta"eholders (or presumptive sta"eholders) but not all sta"eholders are audiences. )or example a charity commissions a P% agency to create an advertising campaign to raise money to find a cure for a disease. &he charity and the people with the disease are sta"eholders but the audience is anyone who is li"ely to donate money. 2ometimes the interests of differing audiences and sta"eholders common to a P% effort necessitate the creation of several distinct but still complementary messages. &his is not always easy to do and sometimes 8 especially in politics 8 a spo"esperson or client says something to one audience that angers another audience or group of sta"eholders.

2pin (public relations) #n public relations 4spin4 is sometimes a pe-orative term signifying a heavily biased portrayal in one.s own favour of an event or situation. 9hile traditional public relations may also rely on creative presentation of the facts 4spin4 often though not always implies disingenuous deceptive and:or highly manipulative tactics. Politicians are often accused of spin by commentators and political opponents when they produce a counter argument or position. &he techniques of spin include selectively presenting facts and quotes that support one.s position (cherry pic"ing) the so-called 4non-denial 4 phrasing in a way that assumes unproven truths euphemisms for drawing attention away from items considered distasteful

and ambiguity in public statements. $nother spin technique involves careful choice of timing in the release of certain news so it can ta"e advantage of prominent events in the news. $ famous reference to this practice occurred when British ;overnment press officer ,o 'oore used the phrase It's now a very good day to get out anything we want to bury (widely paraphrased or misquoted as 4#t.s a good day to bury bad news4) in an email sent on 2eptember 55 /115. &he furor caused when this email was reported in the press eventually caused her to resign.

Communication is a process of transferring information from

one &*($(. to another. !ommunication processes are sign-mediated interactions between at least two agents which share a r&/&r()$r& of signs and +&0$)($% rules. !ommunication is commonly defined as 4the $0/'r($*g or interchange of thoughts opinions or information by speech writing or signs4. $lthough there is such a thing as one-way communication communication can be perceived better as a two-way process in which there is an exchange and progression of thoughts feelings or ideas (energy) towards a mutually accepted goal or direction (information) #n order for a P% campaign to be successful abroad an appreciation of the target language and its cultural nuances is necessary. &he P% and advertising industries are littered with examples of poor translations and a lac" of cross cultural understanding leading to P% failure. )or example when )ord launched the .Pinto. in Brazil they were puzzled as to why sales were dead. )ortunately they found out that Brazilians did not want to be seen driving a car meaning .small male genitals. and promptly changed the name. &ranslation of documents slogans and literature must be chec"ed and double chec"ed for meanings and cross cultural nuances. &his should not only ta"e place between languages but also within languages. <ven in <nglish there are cross cultural differences in meanings. )or example the airline =$( headlined an article about Paul >ogan star of !rocodile +undee with 4Paul >ogan !amps it up4 which unfortunately in the =? and $ustralia is slang for 4flaunting homosexuality4. T,& S/)1&* W)r$reas where the spo"en word is used in P% such as press conferences or interviews should be prepared for within a cross cultural framewor". #n short spea"ing styles and the content used differs across cultures. British and $merican communication styles are described as .explicit. meaning messages are conveyed solely through words. !orrelating bac"ground information is deemed necessary and divulged ambiguity is avoided and spo"en words have literal meaning. #n many other cultures communication is .implicit.. &he message listeners are li"ely to interpret is based on factors such as who is spea"ing the context and non-verbal cues. 2po"en words do not fully convey the whole story as listeners are expected to read between the lines. 9ith relation to content spea"ers must be aware of the cross cultural differences in humour metaphors aphorisms and anecdotes. #n addition references to topics such as politics and:or religion can be a very sensitive issue in other cultures.

9hen the spo"en word is used the cross cultural distinctions of the target culture must be incorporated in order to help the spea"er appeal to and identify with the audience. T,& Wr$((&* W)rPress releases features and copywriting all require a certain amount of cross cultural sensitivity when being applied abroad. ,ournalistic traditions writing styles news worthiness delivery systems and whether a .free press. exists are all areas that will affect how the written word is tailored. #n addition the most important point from a cross cultural perspective is how to write in a way that engages the readers in that society or culture. 2ome cultures may prefer colourful and inspirational writing others factual and ob-ective. 2ome may be motivated by language that incorporates a religious or moral tone others by a money-orientated or materialistic one. 9hen writing the first step should always be to loo" at and integrate the cross cultural particulars of the target audience.

Communication Channels
P% practitioners employ many different communication channels when trying to circulate information relating to their campaign. &he main channels of communication in the =? or $merica are the radio the press &@ internet and public spaces. >owever these channels may not always be applicable abroad. #n many countries the radio &@ or newspapers may not be the primary source of information. (iteracy rates may be poor and:or radios may be expensive. #n $frica only 5.7A of the population have access to the internet. <ven where such channels of communication do exist such as &@ some methods used by P% practitioners namely guerrilla mar"eting would be interpreted differently in foreign countries. )or example interrupting live &@ may be laughed at in the =? but in other countries it would be seen as irresponsible and rebellious. &he usual channels of communication in some countries would simply have no effect in terms of P%. #n such countries local alternatives need to be sought such as religious leaders tribal chiefs school teachers or *;B.s. #nformation coming from such figures will not only reach the audience but be perceived as more credible than if it were from foreigners.

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&he use of publicity materials in P% campaigns such as logos slogans pictures colours and designs must all be cross culturally examined. Pictures of seemingly innocuous things in one culture could mean something different in another. )or example a company advertised eyeglasses in &hailand by featuring a variety of cute animals wearing glasses. &he ad failed as animals are considered to be a low form of life in &hailand and no self respecting &hai would wear anything worn by animals. 2imilarly logos or symbols are culturally sensitive. $ soft drin" was introduced into $rab countries with an attractive label that had a six-pointed star on it. &he $rabs interpreted this as pro-#sraeli and refused to buy it.


&he above cited areas are but a few of those that require decent cross cultural assessment by P% practitioners if they wish their international and cross cultural campaigns to succeed. &he aim of implementing a cross cultural analysis in P% is to build campaigns that target the audience as best as possible meaning appealing to their world view while avoiding offense.