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EED3016 Control Systems

Asst. Prof. Dr. Hatice Doğan 20122013 Spring

Resources

Textbooks:

• Ogata, Modern Control Eng., Pearson. Goodwin et.al. Control Syst. Design, Prentice Hall Kuo Automatic Control Systems, Prentice Hall. Dorf and Bishop, Modern Control Systems, Wiley.

Used Slide Presentations:

EE2010E: Systems and Control, Lecture Slides, Ben M. Chen. • MCEN467:Control Systems, Otto Friedrich.

Lectures

Attendance is essential!!!

Ask any question at any time during the lecture.

Engineering

Engineering is concerned with understanding and controllin g the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of humankind.

Control system engineers are concerned with understanding and controlling segments of their environment, often called systems, to provide useful economic products for society.

What is system?

A system is a combination of components that act together and perform a certain objective.

Examples include financial systems such as stock market, social systems such as government, weather, the human body, electrical systems such as electric circuits, mechanical systems, etc…

Block diagram representation of a system

Block diagram representation of a system

Linear Systems

Linear Systems

Linear Systems

So a system is called linear if the principle of superposition applies.

The principle of superposition states that the response produced by the simultaneous application of two different forcing functions is the sum of the two individual responses.

Example for nonlinear system

Example for nonlinear system

Timeinvariant system

Time ‐ invariant system

Example for timeinvariant system

Example for time ‐ invariant system

Example for timevariant system

Example for time ‐ variant system

Systems with memory and without memor y

Systems with memory and without memor y

What is a control system?

A control system is an interconnection of components forming a system configuration that will provide a desired system response.

What is a control system? • A control system is an interconnection of comp onents forming

Control system

Control system

CruiseControl System

Cruise ‐ Control System

Voltoge control system

Voltoge control system

Control of a fighter aircraft

Control of a fighter aircraft

Historical Perspective

250 BC, Hierapolis sawmill: Roman waterpowered stone saw mill combining a crank with a connecting rod

Similar stone saw mill found also in Ephesus

Historical Perspective • 250 BC, Hi erapo li s sawm ill : R oman wat er
Historical Perspective • 250 BC, Hi erapo li s sawm ill : R oman wat er

11361206 El Cezire, Artuks Türkmen Denisty, DiyarbakırCizre Chief Engineer of Pallace

Water

mill

1136 ‐ 1206 El Cezire, Artuks Türkmen Denisty, Diyarbak ı r ‐ Cizre Chief Engineer of
Water clock
Water
clock

Crankshaft Cshaft.gif

1136 ‐ 1206 El Cezire, Artuks Türkmen Denisty, Diyarbak ı r ‐ Cizre Chief Engineer of
1136 ‐ 1206 El Cezire, Artuks Türkmen Denisty, Diyarbak ı r ‐ Cizre Chief Engineer of

Historical Perspective

1600 Drebbel Temperature regulator 1681 Pressure regulator for steam boilers 1765 Polzunov water level float regulator=

(For pumping up water out of mine;

Archimedes screw, Syracuse, 287212 BC)

Historical Perspective • 1600 Drebbel Temperature regulator • 1681 Pressure regulator for steam boilers • 1765
Historical Perspective • 1600 Drebbel Temperature regulator • 1681 Pressure regulator for steam boilers • 1765
Historical Perspective • 1600 Drebbel Temperature regulator • 1681 Pressure regulator for steam boilers • 1765
Historical Perspective • 1600 Drebbel Temperature regulator • 1681 Pressure regulator for steam boilers • 1765
Flyball governor used on a steam engine in a cotton factory near Manchester which was at

Flyball governor used on a steam engine in a cotton factory near Manchester which was at

the centre of the industrial revolution.

The above flyball governor in the same cotton factory was used to regulate the speed of
The above flyball governor in the same
cotton factory was used to regulate the
speed of a water wheel driven by the
flow of the river.
Invented! by J. Watt 1788 to reject the
load disturbances also

Steam Engine J. Watt 17361819

Steam Engine J. Watt 1736 ‐ 1819

●● 1769 1769 James

James Watt’s

Watt’s Steam

Steam Engine and Governor

Engine and Governor

●● 1868 1868 J. J. Clerk Clerk Maxwell Maxwell formulates formulates aa mmathematical athematical model model
●● 1868
1868
J. J. Clerk
Clerk Maxwell
Maxwell formulates
formulates aa mmathematical
athematical model
model for
for
governor
governor control
control of of aa steam
steam engine
engine
●● 1927
1927
Harold
Harold Black
Black discovers
discovers and and
patents
patents the the feedback
feedback amplifier
amplifier
●● 1927
1927
Hendrik
Hendrik Bode
Bode analyzes
analyzes feedback
feedback amplifiers
amplifiers
●● 1932
1932
Nyquist
Nyquist develops
develops methods
methods for
for analyzing
analyzing feedback
feedback amplifier
amplifier
stability
stability

1940s Norbert Wiener leads gun positioning effort; becomes an engineering discipline

1950s Increased use of Laplace transform,

splane, root locus (by Evans for stability analysis)

• 1960s Sputnik, highly accurate control systems for space vehicles, missiles and robotics

1980s Routine use of digital computers as control elements

• 1940s Norbert Wiener leads gun positioning effort; becomes an engineering discipline • 1950s Increased use
• 1940s Norbert Wiener leads gun positioning effort; becomes an engineering discipline • 1950s Increased use

• 1990s Feedback control in automobiles, automation, planetary exploration

Basic Terminology

Controlled Variable and Control Signal or Manipulated Variable The controlled variable is the quantity or condition that is measured and controlled. The control signal or manipulated variable is the quantity or condition that is varied by the controller so as to affect the value of the controlled variable. Normally, the controlled variable is the output of the system.

Control means measuring the value of the controlled variable of the system and applying the manipulated variable to the system to correct or limit deviation of the measured value from a desired value.

Plants: A plant may be a piece of equipment, perhaps just a set of machine parts functioning together, the purpose of which is to perform a particular operation. Plant is a physical object to be controlled (such as a mechanical device, a heating furnace, a chemical reactor, or a spacecraft)

Processes: Any operation to be controlled a process. Examples are chemical, economic, and biological processes.

Disturbances: A disturbance is a signal that tends to adversely affect the value of the output of a system. If a disturbance is generated within the system, it is called internal, while an external disturbance is generated outside the system and is an input.

Feedback Control: Feedback control refers to an operation that, in the presence of disturbances, tends to reduce the difference between the output of a system and some reference input and does so on the basis of this difference.

Here only unpredictable disturbances are so specified, since predictable or known disturbances can always be compensated for within the system.

In speed control system, the plant (controlled system) is the engine.

The controlled variable is the speed of the engine.

The difference between the desired speed and the actual speed is the error signal.

The control signal (the amount of fuel) to be applied to the plant (engine) is the actuating signal.

The external input to disturb the controlled variable is the disturbance. An unexpected change in the load is a disturbance.

IfIf you you ddonon’’tt measure measure ,, you can you can not not control control it.

IfIf you

you ddonon’’tt measure

measure,,

you can

you

can not

not control

control it.

it.

OpenLoop Control Systems

Desired Controller Plant Output Response
Desired
Controller
Plant
Output
Response

Output

Those systems in which the output has no effect on the control action are called openloop control systems. In other words, in an openloop control system the output is neither measured nor fed back for comparison with the input.

One practical example is a washing machine. Soaking, washing, and rinsing in the washer operate on a time basis. The machine does not measure the output signal, that is, the cleanliness of the clothes.

In any openloop control system the output is not compared with the reference input. Thus, to each reference input there corresponds a fixed operating condition; as a result, the accuracy of the system depends on calibration. In the presence of disturbances, an openloop control system will not perform the desired task. Openloop control can be used, in practice, only if the relationship between the input and output is known and if there are neither internal nor external disturbances. Clearly, such systems are not feedback control systems. Note that any control system that operates on a time basis is open loop.

ClosedLoop (Feedback) Control Systems

Closed ‐ Loop (Feedback) Control Systems • A system that maintains a prescribed relationship between the

A system that maintains a prescribed relationship between the output and the reference input by comparing them and using the difference as a means of control is called a feedback control system.

In a closedloop control system the actuating error signal, which is the difference between the input signal and the feedback signal, is fed to the controller so as to reduce the error and bring the output of the system to a desired value. The term closedloop control always implies the use of feedback control action in order to reduce system error.

ClosedLoop versus OpenLoop Control Systems

An advantage of the closedloop control system is the fact

that the use of feedback makes the system response

relatively insensitive to external disturbances and internal

variations in system parameters.

For systems in which the inputs are known ahead of time

and in which there are no disturbances it is advisable to use

openloop control.

Closedloop control systems have advantages when

unpredictable disturbances and/or unpredictable variations

in system components are present.

The major advantages of openloop systems

  • 1. Simple construction and ease of maintenance.

  • 2. Less expensive than a corresponding closedloop system.

  • 3. There is no stability problem.

  • 4. Convenient when output is hard to measure or measuring the output precisely is economically not feasible. (For example, in the washer system, it would be quite expensive to provide a device to measure the quality of the washer's output, cleanliness of the clothes.)

The major disadvantages of openloop systems

  • 1. Disturbances and changes in calibration cause errors, and the output may be different from what is desired.

  • 2. To maintain the required quality in the output, recalibration is necessary from time to time.

Open Loop Educational System:

Learning

Objectivesaims

a Educator‐ Director K
a
Educator‐
Director
K

Disturbances

b y Learner
b
y
Learner

y = Ka + b

Closed Loop Educational System

Objectivesaims

Reference

a

Disturbances b y Learner Assesment/ Evaluation
Disturbances
b
y
Learner
Assesment/
Evaluation
Educator‐ Controller K
Educator‐
Controller
K
Closed Loop Educational System Objectives ‐ aims Referen ce a Disturbances b y Learner Assesment/ Evaluation

_

Closed Loop Educational System Objectives ‐ aims Referen ce a Disturbances b y Learner Assesment/ Evaluation

y

y=K(ay)+b

y= a.K/(K+1)+b.1/(K+1)

For High Control Gains K’s: y = a

Control System Design

The goal of control enginnering design is to obtain the

configuration, specifications and identification of the key

parameters of a proposed system to meet an actual need.

The design process:

  • 1. Establishment of goals and variables to be controlled and definition of specifications (metrics) againist which to measure performance

  • 2. System definition and modelling

  • 3. Control system design and integrated system simulation and analysis

Cruise Controller Design

Objective: Design a cruise controller to regulate the speed

of a car to a desired value (say v 0 )

Design Procedure

Step 1: Identif y the relevant components/systems

Step 2: Specify their interconnection through block

diagrams

(accelerator pedal (throttle) position ,, brake pedal position)

(accelerator pedal (throttle) position brake pedal position)

Disturbances

Disturbances

(air drag, grade, (air drag, grade, Actuator Noise Actuator Noise Control I/P Control I/P friction etc)
(air drag, grade,
(air drag, grade,
Actuator Noise
Actuator Noise
Control I/P
Control
I/P
friction etc)
friction etc)
Physical Process
Physical Process
Actuators
Actuators
Actual output
Actual output
Desired
Desired
(vehicle speed)
(vehicle speed)
Control I/P
Control I/P
Sensed O/P
Sensed O/P
Cruise Cont.
Cruise Cont.
Sensors
Sensors
Reference
Reference Input
Input
Sensor Noise
Sensor Noise
(desired vehicle speed)
(desired vehicle speed)

(wheel speed sensor)

(wheel speed sensor)

Cruise Controller Design

Step 3: Establish a map from control input to the output(s) of interest i.e., establish a mathematical model for the physical process. This map will be used to determine the control algorithm.

Required attributes of the model:

The model should adequately represent reality

For ease of control design, the model should be simple “Usual” procedure to construct controloriented models Invoke relevant physics to describe the process under investigation Make approximations/assumptions to simplify model structure

Control I/P Control I/P
Control I/P
Control I/P
Disturbances Disturbances Physical Process Physical Process Actual Output Actual Output
Disturbances
Disturbances
Physical Process
Physical Process
Actual Output
Actual
Output

Process Model

Control I/P Control I/P
Control I/P
Control I/P
Disturbances Disturbances Physical Process Physical Process AAccttua uall OOuuttpuputt
Disturbances
Disturbances
Physical Process
Physical Process
AAccttua
uall OOuuttpuputt
EE GG 1/R 1/R 1/M 1/M ww
EE
GG
1/R
1/R
1/M
1/M
ww

Process Model:

Process Model:

Process Model Control I/P Control I/P Disturbances Disturbances Physical Process Physical Process AAccttua uall OOuuttpuputt EE

Controller Design

Step 4: Controller Design

The controller is a map from actual output (v) and

desired output (v 0 ) to the desired control input

The controller should account for the dynamics of the

process under control

Example Control Systems

Mechanical and Electromechanical Control Systems Thermal (e.g. Temperature) Control System Pneumatic Control System Fluid (Hydraulic) Control Systems Complex Control Systems

Example Control Systems • Mechanical and Electro ‐ mechanical Control Systems • Thermal ( e. g.

Industrial Controllers

Onoff Controllers Proportional Controllers Integral Controllers ProportionalplusIntegral Controllers ProportionalplusDerivative Controllers

ProportionalplusIntegralplusDerivative Controllers

General Analysis Approach for Control Systems

Define the physical problem properly

Define the system and its components

Formulate the mathematical model

Newton’s laws: translational and rotational forces

Kirchoff’s laws: mesh and node equations

List the necessary assumptions

Write the differential equations for the model

Put the equations in standard form

Solve the equations for the desired variables

Examine the solution for reasonableness

MechanicalChemicalElectrical… Control Systems

How to model the systemplant?

How to Analyze the model?

How to Design a Controller?

How to redesigntune?

Modeling (Art&Science)

• Select a model (model identification)

• Realistic (enough complexity)

Simple (Occam’s razor & generalization)

• Find model parameters (parameter identification)

Describe model errors

• Linearize nonlinear models

The first

•• The

first way way:: either

either by by trial

trial‐‐error

error or

or by by anan algorithm,

algorithm, model

model parameters

parameters until until

ddyynamic namic behavior behavior of of model model and and pplant lant match sufficientlyy well

match sufficientl well

•• An An alternative

alternative approach

approach for

for dealing

dealing with with modeling

modeling problem

problem isis toto use use physical

physical

laws (such as conservation

laws (such as

conservation ooff mass, energy and

mass, energy and momentum)

momentum) toto construct

construct the

the

model.

model.

•• Control

Control relevant

relevant models

models are

are often

often quite

quite simple

simple compared

compared toto the

the true

true process

process

and and usually

usually ccombine

ombine physical

physical reasoning with experimental

reasoning with

experimental data.

data.

Mathematical Model

To understand and control complex systems, one must obtain quantitative mathematical models of these systems. It is necessary therefore to analyze the relationships between the system variables and to obtain a mathematical model.

The systems are dynamic in nature so the descriptive equations are usually differential equations.

Ideal Control System Elements

Element Type

Physical Element

Describing Equation

Energy (E) or power (Þ)

Inductive storage

Electrical Inductance

v

= L di/dt

 

E = (1/2) L i 2

 
 

Translational spring

dx/dt = (1/k) dF/dt

E = (1/2) F 2 / k

 
 

Rotational spring

ω = (1/k) dT/dt

E = (1/2) T 2 / k

 
 

Fluid inertia

 

P = I dQ/dt

 

E = (1/2) I Q 2

 

Capacitive storage

Electrical capacitance

  • i = C dv/dt

 

E = (1/2) C v 2

 
 

Translational mass

F = M d 2 x/dt 2

E = (1/2) M ( dx/dt ) 2

 

R

t

ti

l

o a ona mass

T

J d

=

ω

/dt

E

1/2 J

)

= (

ω

2

 

Fluid capacitance

Q = C f d P/dt

E = (1/2) C f P 2

 
 

Thermal capacitance

q = C dŦ/dt

t

 

E = C Ŧ 2

t

 

Energy dissipators

Electrical resistance

  • v = iR

 

Þ = i 2 R = v 2 / R

 

Translational damper

F = b dx/dt

 

Þ = b ( dx/dt ) 2

 
 

Rotational damper

T = bω

 

Þ = bω 2

 
 

Fluid resistance

Q = ( 1/ R f ) P

Þ = ( 1/ R f ) P 2

 
 

Thermal resistance

q = ( 1/ R t ) Ŧ

Þ = ( 1/ R f ) Ŧ

 
Ideal Control System Elements Element Type Physical Element Describing Equation Energy (E) or power ( Þ)
Ideal Control System Elements Element Type Physical Element Describing Equation Energy (E) or power ( Þ)

Differential Equations of Physical Systems:

Example 1: Mechanical System

2 d y ( t ) dy t ( ) M + b + ky t
2
d
y ( t )
dy t
( )
M
+
b
+
ky t
( )
=
r t
( )
2
dt
dt

Example2: Electrical System

Example2: Electrical System v ( t ) R + C dv t ( ) d t

v ( t )

R

+

C

dv t

( )

d

t

+

1

L

t

( )

v t

dt

0

=

( )

r t

Example: Cruisecontrol System

Example: Cruise ‐ control System

Linear Differential Equations

Linear Differential Equations

I/O REPRESENTATIONS for LINEAR SYSTEMS

x(t) Linear System • A system is linear iff If x 1 (t) y 1 (t)
x(t)
Linear System
• A system is linear iff
If x 1 (t)
y 1 (t)
and
x 2 (t)
y 2 (t)

y(t)

then k 1 x 1 (t) + k 2 x 2 (t)

Example:: Affine

Example

Affine System

System

k 1 y 1 (t) + k 2 y 2 (t) for all constants k 1 , k 2

If x (t)

1

x(t) Linear System • A system is linear iff If x 1 (t) y 1 (t)

y (t) = kx (t) + b and x (t)

1

1

2

x(t) Linear System • A system is linear iff If x 1 (t) y 1 (t)

y (t) = kx (t) + b

2

2

x(t) Linear System • A system is linear iff If x 1 (t) y 1 (t)

Let x 3 (t) =x 1 (t) + x 2 (t) y 1 (t) + y 2 (t)

y 3 (t) = k x 3 (t) + b = k[x 1 (t) + x 2 (t)] + b

System does not satisfy the superposition property, so it is not linear

Linearization

Real models usually exhibit nonideal and nonlinear

characteristics

Analysis of a system represented by nonlinear partial

differential equations, with time varying coefficients is

extremely difficult and requires heavy computations

There is no general analytic method available for solving

nonlinear systems

Dealing with Nonlinear Systems

In general, we can take one of the following three options:

  • a) Replace nonlinear elements with “roughly equivalent linear elements”, which often leads to invalid models;

  • b) Develop and solve a nonlinear model, which results in most accurate results, BUT the analysis is too expensive

since there is no general analytic methods available for

solving.

  • c) Linearize ( = find a linear model that approximates

well, or at least fairly well, a nonlinear one) in order to

make possible more efficient analysis and control design

based on linear models.

Why are linear good?

To summarize: why are linear models useful?

They are easy to compute, understand and visualize.

They give predictable outputs, in time and over iterations

The analysis of linear theory is complete, developed and efficient

Linear differential equations are easy to solve!

What is a Linear Function?

Linear functions are the first type of functions one learns in mathematics, yet there is not one single definition of linearity

Different answers apply to different contexts, discipline or purposes.

Possible Answers…

A linear function is:…

  • 1. … a function of the general form y = bx + c

  • 2. … a function whose derivative is a constant

  • 3. … a function in which the output is proportional to the input

  • 4. … a straight line? (careful, this only works in 2D representations)

Intuitively, linearity means proportionality of the output with

respect to a variable. One variable function are most

familiar but functions can be linear in many variables,

e.g:

y

n

= b x

1

1

+ b x

2

2

+ K + b x

n

n

Linear and Nonlinear Functions in 3D

Linear and Nonlinear Functions in 3D
Linear and Nonlinear Functions in 3D

The Real World

Learning about linear behavior is good, but how useful is it? Is the real word linear at all? The answer is no most of the time.

Unfortunately, nonlinear dynamics are not fully understood and the best we can do is simulate the real world with linear or loworder approximations.

To be more precise, linear behavior is simulated locally, at a point or along a small interval in spacetime, and then the results are extrapolated about the general domain.

That means that some degree of prediction is possible, but yet, we do not know everything about nonlinearity.

Smallsignal Linearization

Approximating the function while considering small disturbances around stable equilibrium points

Applications & Method

Small signal linearization method is the most widely used

It is in general done with the help of Taylor series.

The Taylor expansion of a function f(x) around a point x

is given by:

f ( x )

=

f ( x )

+

) 2 2 df (x − x d f ( x − x ) ( x
)
2
2
df
(x −
x
d
f
(
x
x
)
( x )
+
( x )
2
dx
2 !
dx

+

...

(x x ) n n − d f ( x ) n n! dx
(x x )
n
n
d
f
( x )
n
n!
dx

Linearization around a point

If we define ˆx = x x

the Taylor expansion becomes:

f ( x )

=

f ( x )

+ ˆx

df dx x
df
dx
x

+

2 n x ˆ 2 d f ˆ x + ... 2 2 ! dx n!
2
n
x
ˆ 2
d
f
ˆ x
+ ...
2
2
!
dx
n!
x
n d f n dx x
n
d
f
n
dx
x

Note that the functions and all the derivatives are

evaluated at the linearization point

If ˆx is small (i.e. x is close to x ), then we may drop the

second and higherorder terms as follows:

f ( x ) f ( x ) + ˆx

df dx x
df
dx
x

Functions of several independent variables

For a function f of a single variable, x:

f ( x ) f ( x ) ˆx

df dx x
df
dx
x

For a function f of two independent variables, x and y:

f ( x

,

y )

f ( x

,

y )

ˆx

∂ f ∂ f + ˆy ∂ x ∂ y x , y
∂ f
∂ f
+ ˆy
∂ x
∂ y
x
, y
Functions of several independent variables • For a function f of a single variable, x :
  • x , y

Around what point is it proper to linearize?

Intuitively, one would say around zero

But the general answer is around stable equilibrium points

y=sin x and y=x nearby zero are very close

y=sin x and y=x nearby zero are very close

Laplace Transform

The Laplace transform method substitutes relatively easily

solved algebraic equations for the more difficult

differential equations. The timeresponse solution is

obtained by the following operations:

  • 1. Obtain the linearized differential equations.

  • 2. Obtain the Laplace transformation of the differential equations.

  • 3. Solve the resulting algebraic equation for the transform of the variable of interest.

Laplace Transform

Laplace Transform

Examples

Examples

Laplace transform properties

Laplace transform properties

Initial value theorem

Initial value theorem

Final Value Problem

Final Value Problem

Some commonly used Laplace transform pairs

Some commonly used Laplace transform p airs

Why Laplace Transform?

Why Laplace Transform?

Inverse Laplace transform

Inverse Laplace transform

Summary of partialfraction technique

Summary of partial ‐ fraction technique

Inverse Laplace transform

Nth order real pole

N

X(s) = N(s)/(s+a) N = Σ A i /(s+a) i where A i = [1/(N-i)!][d N-i /ds N-i {(s+a) N X(s)}]

i=1

s = -a

example: X(s) = 1/(s+2)(s+1) 3 = B/(s+2)+A 1 /(s+1)+A 2 /(s+1) 2 +A 3 /(s+1) 3

B = (s+2) X(s)

= -1

s = -2

A 3 = (s+1) 3 X(s)

= 1

s = -1

A 2 = d/ds {(s+1) 3 X(s)} = d/ds {1/(s+2)} = -1/(s+2) 2 = -1 A 1 = [1/2!] d /ds {(s+1) X(s)} = 1

2

2

s = -1

2

s = -1

s = -1

s = -1

X(s) = -1/(s+2)+1 /(s+1) -1/(s+1) 2 +1/(s+1) 3 x(t) = [-e 2t + e t - te t + (t 2 /2) e t ] u(t)

Solution of a differential equation

d

  • 2 y ( t )

    • 2 + 4

dt

dy ( t )

dt

+

3

( )

y t

=

2 ( )

r t

Where the initial conditions y(0)=1, dy(0)/dt=0, r(t)=1 t>=0.The Laplace

s

transform:

2

Y

(

s

)

sy

(

0 )

y

(

0 + 4

)

[

s

Y

(

s

)

y

(

0

)

]

+

  • 3 Y

(

s

)

=

2

R

( ),

s

R

(

s

)

=

1 /

s

Y ( s ) =

Y

(

s )

=

s + 4

2

+

s

2

+

4

3

2
2

s

+ 1

s + 3 − 1 2 + s + 3
s + 3
− 1
2
+
s + 3

(

s s

2

+ 4 s +

3

)

+

1

s

+ 1

+

1 3
1
3

s

+ 3

+

2 3
2
3

s

y

( t ) =

3

2

e

t

  • 1

e

3

t

  • 2

+ −

1

e

t

+

1

3

e

3

t

+

2

3

The steadystate response is

lim ( ) =

y

t

t → ∞

2

3

.

The Transfer Function

The transfer function of a linear, timeinvariant, differential equation system is defined as the ratio of the Laplace transform of the output (response function) to the Laplace transform of the input (driving function) under the assumption that all initial conditions are zero.

TF description does not include any information concerning the internal structure of the system and its behavior.

Springmassdamper system:

M

d

2

y ( t )

dt

2

+

b

dy t

( )

dt

+

ky t

( )

=

( )

r t

2

Ms Y ( s ) + bY ( s ) + kY ( s ) = R ( s )

Transfer function:

Output

Input

= G ( s

)

Initial conditions are zero!!!!

Y ( s ) 1 = = 2 R s ( ) Ms + bs +
Y
(
s
)
1
=
=
2
R s
(
)
Ms
+
bs
+
k

Cruisecontrol System

Cruise ‐ control System

The series RLC Circuit

The series RLC Circuit

Consider the system represented by the following differential equation:

d

n

y

dt

n

+ q

n 1

d

n

1

y

dt

n 1

+

L

+

q

0

y

=

p

n

1

d

n

1

x

dt

n 1

+

p

n 2

d

n

2

x

dt

n 2

+

L

+

p

0

x

h

h

h

f

f

f h

l

W ere y(t) is t e response and r(t) is t e input or orcing unctions. I t e initia

conditions are all zero, then the TF is the coefficient of the R(s).

Y

(

s

)

=

G s R s

(

)

(

)

=

(

p s

)

(

q s

)

R s

(

)

=

p

n

1

s

n

1

+

p

n

2

s

n

2

+

L

+

p

0

s

n +

q

n

1

s

n

1

+

L

+

q

0

R s

( ).

Consider the linear timeinvariant system defined by the following differential equation:

• Consider the linear time ‐ invariant system defined by the following differential equation: where y

where y is the output of the system and x is the input. The transfer function of this system is the ratio of the Laplace transformed output to the Laplace transformed input when all initial conditions are zero, or

• Consider the linear time ‐ invariant system defined by the following differential equation: where y

By using the concept of transfer function, it is possible to represent system

dynamics by algebraic equations in s. If the highest power of s in the denominator of the transfer function is equal to n, the system is called an nthorder system.

System pole and zeros

System pole and zeros

Examples

Examples

Impulse Response

Impulse Response

Convolution Integral

For a linear, timeinvariant system the transfer function H(s) is

Y(s)=H(s)X(s)

where X(s) is the Laplace transform of the input and Y (s) is the Laplace transform of the output, where we assume that all initial conditions involved are zero. Multiplication in the complex domain is equivalent to convolution in the time domain so the inverse Laplace transform of Y(s) is given by the following convolution integral:

t t y(t) = ∫ x(τ) h(t - τ) d τ = ∫ h(τ) x(t -
t
t
y(t) = ∫ x(τ) h(t - τ) d τ = ∫ h(τ) x(t - τ) d τ
0
0
y(t) = x(t)
*
h(t) = h(t)
*
x(t)
• Where both h(t) and g(t) are 0 for t<0.

Impulse Response of LTI System

δ(t)

LTI System
LTI
System

h(t)

h(t) completely characterizes the LTI system in the time domain

x(t) y(t) LTI System
x(t)
y(t)
LTI System
∞ ∞ y(t) = ∫ x(τ) h(t - τ) d τ = ∫ h(τ) x(t -
y(t) = ∫ x(τ) h(t - τ) d τ = ∫ h(τ) x(t - τ) d τ
y(t) = x(t) * h(t) = h(t) * x(t)
-∞
-∞

Let x(t) = u(t) and h(t) = e -at u(t), a>0, Find the response (Step response!) y(t) = h(τ) x(t - τ) d τ = e -a τ u(τ) u(t- τ)d τ

-

t

-

y(t) = e -a τ d τ = -1/a e -a τ

0

t

= -1/a (1 - e -at ) u(t)

0

Example

Example

Example

Example

Step Response

Step Response

Modeling and Laplace Transforms

Modeling and Laplace Transforms