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PHILOSOPHY DEFINED Reported By: ________________________________________________________________________ PHILOSOPHY - The term is derived from two Greek words, philos and sophia which literally mean lover of wisdom. - The science of beings in their ultimate reasons, causes and principles acquired by human reason. (Bittle, 1941) - The science of things by ultimate principles and causes as known by natural reason alone. (Pion, 1973) 1. Philosophy is a science. Science is a systematized body of knowledge based on evidence. 2. Science of things. Philosophy is concerned with everything in the world as far as the human mind can reach. 3. Ultimate principles and causes. Philosophy explores the ultimate or final cause of a thing. 4. Known only by natural reason. The philosopher uses his natural reason, particularly, human reasoning. PHILOSOPHY & THEOLOGY There are points in the world that mans rationality cannot fathom. Christianity recognizes miracles occurrences that science cannot explain. Man has no choice but to acknowledge the existence of God. Man asserts and strengthens his faith in his ascent to find the truth, a truth which rationality cannot explain. Man uses philosophy for rational explanation and uses theology for moral surety. ESSENCE OF PHILOSOPHY Philosophy aims to teach man how to have a happy life. This is the essence of philosophy. BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY 1. Logic the formal and systematic study of the principles of valid inference and correct reasoning. 2. Ethics the branch of philosophy dealing with the concepts and principles of morality. 3. Epistemology the branch of philosophy dealing with the theory of knowledge its sources, limits, kinds and reliability. 4. Cosmology the scientific study of the universe on the largest scales of space and time. 5. Metaphysics a traditional branch of philosophy dealing at the most general level with the nature of existence. The term originated from Aristotles First Philosophy, the most fundamental and abstract of his writings ta meta ta physika which means after the physics. 6. Aesthetics / Esthetics the philosophical investigation of art, including all the visual arts, music, literature, drama, and dance. 7. Theodicy the defense and vindication of God, defined as both omnipotent and good in the light of evil in the world. The term was first used by Gottfried Wilhelm Liebniz in 1710.


CHRISTIAN PHILOSOPHERS ST. THOMAS AQUINAS (1225-1274) Reported By: _____________________________________ An Italian philosopher and Theologian of the medieval period, the philosophy of Aquinas has exerted enormous influence on subsequent Christian theology, especially that of the Roman Catholic Church, but also Western philosophy in general. His most important and enduring works are The "Summa Theologica" (Compendium of Theology) in which he expounds his systematic theology of the Quinquae Viae - The Five Proofs of the Existence of God, and The "Summa Contra Gentiles" (On The Truth Of The Catholic Faith).

He believed that truth becomes known through: Natural Revelation - certain truths are available to all people through their human nature and through correct human reasoning Supernatural Revelation - faith-based knowledge revealed through scripture. He believed that God reveals himself through nature, so that rational thinking and the study of nature is also the study of God. Aquinas proposed five positive statements about the Divine Qualities or The Nature of God: God is simple, without composition of parts such as body and soul, or matter and form. God is perfect, lacking nothing. God is infinite, and not limited in the ways that created beings are physically, intellectually, and emotionally limited. God is immutable, incapable of change in respect of essence and character. God is one, such that God's essence is the same as God's existence. Aquinas believed that the existence of God is neither self-evident nor beyond proof. In the "Summa Theologica" he details five rational proofs for the existence of God, the Quinquae Viae or the Five Ways, some of which are really re-statements of each other: The argument of the unmoved mover (ex motu): everything that is moved is moved by a mover, therefore there is an unmoved mover from whom all motion proceeds, which is God. The argument of the first cause (ex causa): everything that is caused is caused by something else; therefore, there must be an uncaused cause of all caused things, which is God. The argument from contingency (ex contingentia): there are contingent beings in the universe which may either exist or not exist and, so there must be a necessary being whose existence is not contingent on any other being, which is God.

The argument from degree (ex gradu): there are various degrees of perfection which may be found throughout the universe, so there must be a pinnacle of perfection from which lesser degrees of perfection derive, which is God. The teleological argument or argument from design (ex fine): all natural bodies in the world act towards ends, therefore there must be an intelligent being that guides all natural bodies towards their ends, which is God.

Aquinas defined the Four Cardinal Virtues as prudence, temperance, justice and fortitude, which he held are natural and binding on everyone. In addition, there are Three Theological Virtues, described as faith, hope and charity, which are supernatural and are distinct from other virtues in that their object is God. He distinguished Four Kinds of Laws: Eternal Law - the decree of God that governs all creation Natural Law - human "participation" in eternal law, which is discovered by reason Human Law - the natural law applied by governments to societies Divine Law - the specially revealed law in the scriptures For St. Thomas Aquinas, the goal of human existence is union and eternal fellowship with God. For those who have experienced salvation and redemption through Christ while living on earth, a beatific vision will be granted after death in which a person experiences perfect, unending happiness through comprehending the very essence of God. ST. AUGUSTINEOF HIPPO (A.D. 354 - 430) Reported By: _____________________________________ An Algerian-Roman Philosopher and Theologian of the Late Roman / Early Medieval Period. He is one of the most important early figures in the development of Western Christianity, and was a major figure in bringing Christianity to dominance in the previously pagan Roman Empire. He is often considered The Father of Orthodox Theology and the greatest of The Four Great Fathers of the Latin Church, along with St. Ambrose, St. Jerome and St. Gregory. He is best known for the Confessiones (Confessions), a personal account of his early life, "De Civitate Dei" (The City of God), consisting of 22 books dealing with God, martyrdom, Jews and other Christian philosophies, and De Trinitate (On the Trinity), consisting of 15 books, in which he developed the "psychological analogy" of the Trinity.

Augustine struggled to reconcile his beliefs about free will and his belief that humans are morally responsible for their actions, with his belief that ones life is predestined and his belief in original sin. He held that, because human beings begin with original sin and are therefore inherently evil (even if, as he believed, evil is not anything real but merely the absence of good), then the classical attempts to achieve virtue by discipline, training and reason are

all bound to fail, and the redemptive action of God's grace alone offers hope. He opined that "We are too weak to discover the truth by reason alone". GREEK PHILOSOPHERS SOCRATES (c. 469 - 399 B.C.) Reported By: __________________________________________________ Socrates was a hugely important Greek philosopher from the Classical period. Unlike most of the Pre-Socratic Philosophers who came before him, who were much more interested in establishing how the world works, Socrates was more concerned with how people should behave, and so was perhaps the First Major Philosopher of Ethics. He is credited as one of the founders of Western Philosophy. The best known part of Socrates' life is his trial and execution. Despite claiming complete loyalty to his city, Socrates' pursuit of virtue and his strict adherence to truth clashed with the course of Athenian Politics and society. Socrates raised questions about Athenian Religion, but also about Athenian Democracy and, in particular, he praised Athens' arch-rival Sparta, causing some scholars to interpret his trial as an expression of political infighting. Whatever the motivation, he was found guilty of impiety and corrupting the minds of the youth of Athens, and he was sentenced to death by drinking a mixture containing poison hemlock in 399 B.C., at the age of 70. Socrates himself did not write any philosophical texts, and our knowledge of the man and his philosophy is based on writings by his students and contemporaries, particularly Plato's dialogues, but also the writings of Aristotle, Xenophon and Aristophanes. Perhaps Socrates' most important and enduring single contribution to Western thought is his dialectical method of inquiry, which he referred to as "elenchus" (roughly, "crossexamination") but which has become known as the Socratic Method or Socratic Debate. It has been called a negative method of hypothesis elimination, in that better hypotheses are found by steadily identifying and eliminating those which lead to contradictions. Its influence is perhaps most strongly felt today in the use of the Scientific Method, in which the hypothesis is just the first stage towards a proof. In Plato's early dialogue, "Apology of Socrates", Socrates refused to pursue conventional politics, on the grounds that he could not look into the matters of others when he did not yet understand how to live his own.

Socrates often referred to what the Greeks called a "daemonic sign", a kind of inner voice he heard only when he was about to make a mistake. Although we would consider this to be intuition today, Socrates thought of it as a form of "divine madness", the sort of insanity that is a gift from the gods and gives us poetry, mysticism, love and even philosophy itself. PLATO FATHER OF MODERN PHILOSOPHY Reported By: ______________________________________ Plato (c. 427-347 B.C.) came from a family of aristoi, served in the Peloponnesian War, and was perhaps Socrates' most famous student. He was twenty-eight years old when Socrates was put to death. At the age of forty, Plato established a school at Athens for the education of Athenian youth. The Academy, as it was called, remained in existence from 387 B.C. to A.D. 529, when it was closed by Justinian - The Byzantine emperor. Our knowledge of Socrates comes to us from numerous dialogues which Plato wrote after 399. In nearly every dialogue and there are more than thirty that we know about Socrates is the main speaker. The style of the Plato's dialogue is important it is the Socratic style that he employs throughout. A Socratic Dialogue takes the form of question-answer, question-answer, questionanswer. Socrates taught Plato a great many things, but one of the things Plato more or less discovered on his own was that mankind is born with knowledge. That is, knowledge is present in the human mind at birth. It is not so much that we "learn" things in our daily experience, but that we "recollect" them. This may explain why Socrates did not give his students answers, but only questions. His job was not to teach truth but to show his students how they could "pull" truth out of their own minds - it is for this reason that Socrates often considered himself a midwife in the labor of knowledge. And this is the point of the dialogues. For only in conversation, only in dialogue, can truth and wisdom come to the surface. Plato's greatest and most enduring work was his lengthy dialogue, The Republic. This dialogue has often been regarded as Plato's blueprint for a future society of perfection. It discusses a number of topics including the nature of justice, statesmanship, ethics and the nature of politics. It is in The Republic that Plato suggests that democracy was little more than a "charming form of government." The unphilosophical man that is, all of us is at the mercy of sense impressions and unfortunately, our sense impressions oftentimes fail us. Our senses deceive us. But because we trust our senses, we are like prisoners in a cave

we mistake shadows on a wall for reality. This is the central argument of Plato's ALLEGORY OF THE CAVE which appears in Book VII of The Republic. ARISTOTLE - FATHER OF LOGIC AND SCIENCE Reported By: ____________________________________________ Aristotle (c. 384322 B.C.) was one of the most important western philosophers, a student of Plato, teacher of Alexander The Great, and tremendously influential in the Middle Ages. Aristotle wrote on logic, nature, psychology, ethics, politics, and art. He is credited with developing deductive reasoning, the procedure of logic that fictional detective Sherlock Holmes used to solve his cases. Family of Origin: Aristotle was born in the City of Stagira, Macedonia. His father, Nichomacus, was the personal physician to King Amyntas of Macedonia. Aristotle in Athens: In 367, at the age of 17, Aristotle went to Athens to attend the institution of philosophical learning known as the Academy, which was founded by Socrates' pupil Plato, where he stayed until Plato's death in 347. Then, since he was not named successor, Aristotle left Athens, traveling around until 343 when he became tutor for Amyntas' grandson, Alexander -- later known as "The Great." In 336, Alexander's father, Philip of Macedonia, was assassinated. Aristotle returned to Athens in 335. The Lyceum and Peripatetic Philosophy: Upon his return to Athens, Aristotle lectured for twelve years in a place that came to be known as the Lyceum. Aristotle's style of lecturing involved walking around in covered walkways, for which reason Aristotle was called "Peripatetic" (i.e., walking about). Aristotle in Exile: In 323, when Alexander the Great died, the Assembly in Athens declared war against Alexander's successor, Antipon. Aristotle was considered an anti-Athenian, pro-Macedonian, and so he was charged with impiety. Aristotle went into voluntary exile to Chalcis, where he died of a digestive ailment in 322 B.C., at the age of 63. Legacy of Aristotle: Aristotle's philosophy, logic, science, metaphysics, ethics, politics and system of deductive reasoning have been of inestimable importance ever since. Aristotle's syllogism is at the basis of deductive reasoning. A textbook example of a syllogism is: Major Premise: All humans are mortal. Minor Premise: Socrates is a human.

Conclusion: Socrates is mortal. OTHER PHILOSOPHERS CONFUCIUS (551479 BC) Reported By: _____________________________________ Confucius was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history. The philosophy of Confucius emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. His followers competed successfully with many other schools during the Hundred Schools of Thought era only to be suppressed in favor of the Legalists during the Qin Dynasty. Following the victory of Han over Chu after the collapse of Qin, Confucius' thoughts received official sanction and were further developed into a system known as Confucianism. Confucius is traditionally credited with having authored or edited many of the Chinese classic texts including all of the Five Classics, but modern scholars are cautious of attributing specific assertions to Confucius himself. Aphorisms concerning his teachings were compiled in The Analects, but only many years after his death. The Five Classics: 1. The Book of Change 2. The Book of History 3. The Book of Poetry 4. Spring and Autumn 5. A Book of Ceremonies The Four Books: 1. The Analects or Discourses of Confucius 2. The Great Learning 3. The Doctrine of The Mean 4. The Book of Mencius Confucius's principles had a basis in common Chinese tradition and belief. He championed strong family loyalty, ancestor worship, respect of elders by their children (and in traditional interpretations) of husbands by their wives. He also recommended family as a basis for ideal government. He espoused the well-known principle "Do not do to others what you do not want done to yourself", an early version of the Golden Rule.

KARL MARX (May 5, 1818 March 14, 1883) Reported By: _____________________________________ Karl Heinrich Marx was a German philosopher, economist, historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. Marx's work in economics laid the basis for the current understanding of labor and its relation to capital, and has influenced much of subsequent economic thought. He published numerous books during his lifetime, the most notable being The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (18671894). Born into a wealthy middle-class family in Trier, Marx studied at the University of Bonn and the University of Berlin, where he became interested in the philosophical ideas of the Young Hegelians. After his studies, he wrote for a radical newspaper in Cologne, and began to work out his theory of dialectical materialism. He moved to Paris in 1843, where he began writing for other radical newspapers and met Fredrick Engels, who would become his lifelong friend and collaborator. In 1849 he was exiled and moved to London together with his wife and children where he continued writing and formulating his theories about social and economic activity. He also campaigned for socialism and became a significant figure in the International Workingmen's Association. Marx's theories about society, economics and politics collectively known as Marxism hold that human societies progress through class struggle: a conflict between an ownership class that controls production and a dispossessed laboring class that provides the labor for production. He called capitalism the "dictatorship of the bourgeoisie" believing it to be run by the wealthy classes for their own benefit; and he predicted that, like previous socio-economic systems, capitalism produced internal tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system: socialism. He argued that class antagonisms under capitalism between the bourgeoisie and proletariat would eventuate in the working class' conquest of political power in the form of a dictatorship of the proletariat and eventually establish a classless society, socialism or communism, a society would be governed by a free association of producers.





THE STUDY OF LOGIC Reported By: ________________________________________________________________________ LOGIC DEFINED - Logic comes from the Greek word logike, meaning thought. Aristotle (384-322 BC) who started the study of logic, believes that it is organon or instrument for discovering and presenting truths. - Logic is the instrument of all scientific investigations. Logic then is a prerequisite of all the sciences. NATURAL LOGIC - The ability to reason correctly is innate to man. He has the gift of common sense which St. Thomas Aquinas defines as the habit of the first principles. LOGIC AS A SCIENCE. - Logic is defined as the science of correct thinking. It is the systematized study of the reasoning process for the purpose of helping us think clearly, easily and correctly. - Logic is the formal and systematic study of correct thinking or reasoning. 1. Logic is a science because it is a body of knowledge systematically arranged and demonstrated to be true. (Systematic) 2. In logic, thinking means inference. Irving M. Copi defines inference as a process by which one preposition is arrived at and affirmed on the basis of one or more other propositions accepted as the starting point. (Correct Thinking) 3. An argument is any group of propositions of which one is claimed to follow from the others which are regarded as providing support or ground for the truth of that one. The correctness of an argument is the formal object of logic. (Formal) MATERIAL AND FORMAL LOGIC. - Material Logic teaches us how truths are arrived at with certitude. It provides for the principles by which we may acquire true and certain knowledge. - Formal Logic teaches how we may be correct in the presentation of an arrangement. It gives us the principles and rules of logical thinking. - Every argument has matter and form. The matter refers to the thought-content of the propositions. The form refers to the structure of an argument. - A syllogism is an oral or written discourse expressive of an argument. It is the logical form of an argument. LIMITS OF LOGIC / THE SCOPE OF OUR STUDY Reported By: ________________________________________________________________________ Logic provides man with the skill and power of good reasoning. Inferential Thinking is a complex process involving three distinct mental operations: Simple Apprehension is the act of the mind by which we grasp the essence of a thing. (Concept or Idea) Judgment is the act of mind by which we compare two concepts and declare them to be either in agreement or disagreement with each other. (Proposition)

Reasoning is the act of the mind by which we derive new truths from what is previously
assumed to be true. (Inference) IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING LOGIC Reported By: ________________________________________________________________________ THE IMPORTANCE OF LOGIC: 1. The intellect separates man from the beasts. But if reason is superior power, logic is its dynamo. Logic, therefore, is important since it contributes to the quality of human life. 2. Logic, besides, contributes to the growth of the individual. Logic, therefore, builds selfconfidence, provides a feeling of direction, and gives the assurance of being in control of ones situation. 3. The practice of a profession presupposes the art of creative thinking. The ability to see things in their proper perspective spells competence. It is the mark of intelligence. BENEFITS OF STUDYING LOGIC: 1. Ability to think clearly, systematically and critically 2. Self-confidence when arguing with somebody 3. Capacity to correct wrong arguments and to avoid them 4. Being broad-minded, sensible, reasonable, and practical in dealing and establishing relationships with people. PROPONENTS OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC GEORGE BOOLE (November 2, 1815 December 8, 1864) Reported By: ________________________________________________________________________ George Boole was an English mathematician, philosopher and logician. He worked in the fields of differential equations and algebraic logic, and is now best known as the author of The Laws of Thought. As the inventor of the prototype of what is now called Boolean Logic, which became the basis of the modern digital computer, Boole is regarded in hindsight as a founder of the field of computer science. In 1847, Boole published the pamphlet Mathematical Analysis of Logic. He later regarded it as a flawed exposition of his logical system, and wanted An Investigation of the Laws of Thought (1854), on Which are Founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Probabilities to be seen as the mature statement of his views. Boole's initial involvement in logic was prompted by a current debate on quantification, between Sir William Hamilton who supported the theory of "quantification of the predicate", and Boole's supporter, Augustus De Morgan who advanced a version of De Morgan duality, as it is now called. Boole's approach was ultimately much further reaching than either sides in the controversy. It founded what was first known as the "algebra of logic" tradition. Boole did not regard logic as a branch of mathematics, but he provided a general symbolic method of logical inference. Boole proposed that logical propositions should be expressed by

means of algebraic equations. Algebraic manipulation of the symbols in the equations would provide a fail-safe method of logical deduction: i.e. logic is reduced to a type of algebra. GOTTLOB FREGE (November 8, 1848 July 26, 1925) Reported By: _______________________________________d By: CENTURY GOTHIC Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege was a German mathematician, logician and philosopher. He is considered to be One of the Founders of Modern Logic and made major contributions to the foundations of mathematics. He is generally considered to be the Father of Analytic Philosophy, for his writings on the philosophy of language and mathematics. While he was mainly ignored by the intellectual world when he published his writings, Giuseppe Peano (18581932) and Bertrand Russell (18721970) introduced his work to later generations of logicians and philosophers.

KURT GDEL (April 28, 1906 January 14, 1978) Reported By: ________________________________________ Reported By: CENTURY GOTHIC Kurt Friedrich Gdel was an Austrian logician, mathematician, and philosopher. Considered with Aristotle and Frege to be one of the most significant logicians in human history, Gdel made an immense impact upon scientific and philosophical thinking in the 20th century, a time when others such as Bertrand Russell, A.N. Whitehead, and David Hilbert were pioneering the use of logic and set theory to understand the foundations of mathematics. Gdel published his two incompleteness theorems in 1931 when he was 25 years old, one year after finishing his doctorate at the University of Vienna. The first incompleteness theorem states that for any self-consistent recursive axiomatic system powerful enough to describe the arithmetic of the natural numbers, there are true propositions about the naturals that cannot be proved from the axioms. To prove this theorem, Gdel developed a technique now known as Gdel numbering, which codes formal expressions as natural numbers. He also made important contributions to proof theory by clarifying the connections between classical logic, intuitionistic logic, and modal logic.





FORMING IDEAS & THE FACTS Reported By: ________________________________________________________________________ COMMON DENOMINATOR - This single characteristic found or shared in common (Similarities) INDIVIDUATING NOTES - The other characteristics that never affect the common denominator (Differences) SIMPLE APPREHENSION - The mental process by which we grasp the general meaning of a thing without affirming or denying anything about it. - This is a mental act in which the mind perceives or notices something. This something being perceived or noticed is what we call a concept or an idea. Forming an idea involves the following: ATTENTION this is the activity of the mind in which it focuses on something that is being perceived or noticed. COMPARISON this happens when the mind notices the similarities and differences of the characteristics of the things being focused on. ABSTRACTION the activity of the mind by which it singles out a characteristic or several characteristics of the object or thing being focused on. Types of Abstraction: o Formal Abstraction withdraws a form or formal quality from a thing which is either material or immaterial. o Total Abstraction withdraws a universal nature or essence from particulars or individuals. CHARACTERISTICS OF CONCEPTS / IDEA Reported By: ________________________________________________________________________ IDEA - An idea is a representation of a wholeness of a thing; synonymous words are concept, notion, or impression. - The idea answers the question what. The what-ness of a thing is the essence of the thing. - The essence of a thing is what constitutes it to be what it is in itself. The mental expression of an essence or quiddity is what we call the concept. CONCEPTS OF THE FIRST & SECOND INTENTION Intention refers to the act of the mind representing reality. First Intention is a concept presenting the nature or quality of a thing in itself. It presents to us what something is in the realm of physical realities. Man is capable of abstract reasoning. Man is endowed with body and soul.

Second Intention is a concept which presents the mode or manner how the mind understands such nature or quality as a logical reality. Man is a species. Man is a universal.

CONCERTE AND ABSTRACT CONCEPTS Concrete Concept signifies a nature or quality as found residing in an individual or subject. Examples: house friend chair dog flower father Abstract Concept signifies a nature or quality as though it exists on its own right and apart from the individual or subject. Examples: manhood animality friendship freedom royalty PROPERTIES OF AN IDEA Reported By: ________________________________________________________________________ Comprehension / Connotation (Common Nouns) - the sum total of notes by which a thing is known. Notes refer to those essential attributes which constitute the nature of a thing. - includes the thoughts, features, characteristics, or attributes that, when collated, constitute the nature of a thing or idea. Extension / Denotation (Proper Nouns) - the sum total of real things or individuals to which the concept applies. The individuals, falling within the comprehension of a concept, are said to be the inferiors of that concept. - refers to the radius or bounds of the thing or object that an idea may cover. Comprehension and Extension are reciprocal. They are also inversely proportional to each other. Thus, the greater the comprehension, the lesser the extension, and vice versa. Comprehension Extension Substance spirits, minerals, plants, beasts, men Material substance minerals, plants, beasts, men Living material substance plants, beasts, men Sentient living material substance beasts, men Rational sentient living material substance men


TERMS DEFINED Reported By: ________________________________________________________________________ TERM - Balsicas & Molano (1999) define term as a sensible arbitrary sign which expresses an idea and the reality which the idea represents in the mind. - Timberza (2000) explains term as the verbal expression of an idea. It may be understood as an idea or group of ideas expressed in words. - Pion (1973) maintains that terms express concepts as sensible and conventional signs. A term is the sensible conventional sign of a concept. a) A term is sensible, because being material, it is perceptible to the senses b) A term is conventional because it is a sort of name or label coined by men and its usage depends upon convention or tradition. c) A term is a sign because it represents a concept and through the concept, it represents reality. THE CONCEPT AS A SIGN A sign is anything which leads us to be aware of something else. 1. Natural Signs are those that by their nature signify something else. Examples: smoke fire fever infection footprint animal laughter joy 2. Conventional Signs are those by convention or tradition are assigned to signify something. Examples: flags traffic signs and billboards military patches school uniforms 3. Formal / Accidental Signs are those that do not only signify things but explain them to be what they are. Examples: pictures, concepts KINDS OF TERMS Reported By: ________________________________________________________________________ A. CONCEPTS ACCORDING TO EXTENSION (TERMS ACCORDING TO QUANTITY) 1. Singular Proper Nouns - signifies one specific individual Superlatives

Demonstratives This, That, These, Those Collective Nouns signifies a group or collection Examples: family corporation class society army Articles A, An, The

2. Particular term applies to a part or portion of a totality Indefinite Pronouns - signifies but a part or portion of the total extension of such concept. Examples: some both several few most majority Numbers Examples: a number of books ten books 3. Universal term applies to all the individuals comprising a whole; signifies all the individuals within the extension of such concept. Examples: all everybody none each nobody nothing B. CONCEPTS ACCORDING TO COMPREHENSION (TERMS ACCORDING TO DEFINITENESS OF MEANING) 1. Univocal signifies a feature which is shared by different individuals or subjects in exactly the same way a term having one fixed meaning or comprehension include the so-called technical terms Examples: Photosynthesis Anthropology 2. Equivocal a term having two or several unrelated meanings Example: pitcher a baseball player a jar or container for holding a liquid 3. Analogous signifies a feature which applies to several individuals or subjects in a partly the same and partly different manner a term whose meaning is applied to several objects or individuals, called inferiors, in a partly similar and partly different sense Examples: head part of our human anatomy which encloses the brain the chief of a department the leader of a group the mastermind of a plan or project intelligent (intrinsic) Dan, Doc, Noemi, Pilar golden (extrinsic) a statue a talent

an event a person father (proportionality) a man who begets a child a priest To die is to rest. (attribution) the similarity of death to inactivity or rest

C. CONCEPTS ACCORDING TO RELATION (TEMRS ACCORDING TO INCOMPATIBILITY) 1. Identical those having the same comprehension and extension Examples: man rational animal God Supreme Being lawyer attorney 2. Similar those having the same extension but different comprehension Examples: writer journalist teacher professor 3. Compatible those expressing features which may be present simultaneously in one individual or subject Examples: rich and humble intelligent and beautiful tall, dark and handsome 4. Incompatible those expressing features which cannot be present together and simultaneously in one individual or subject Examples: sick and healthy rich and poor beautiful and ugly 5. Relative / Correlative those that express a feature of a thing which cannot be thought of without implying another Examples: slave master husband wife parents children subject ruler 6. Privative those which express the absence or lack of perfection in an individual or subject Examples: blindness death ignorance 7. Contradictory those so related that one is the simple negation of the other Examples: man non-man mortal immortal something nothing honor dishonor holy unholy definite indefinite logical illogical

8. Contrary those that express the extreme opposites in a given category or series of the same class Examples: expensive cheap first last left right empty full


TERMS AS DEFINITIONS Reported By: ________________________________________________________________________ DEFINITION - A definition is a statement that gives the meaning of a term. The word definition is derived from the Latin definire which means to enclose within limits. TYPES OF DEFINITIONS / TWO KINDS OF DEFINITIONS) 1. Nominal merely points out what the term stands for, without explaining what it is in itself. Etymology states the origin or root word of a symbol Example: Philosophy Greek philo-love, sophia-wisdom love of wisdom Synonym presents another word, more popular or easily recognizable, to clarify a given term Examples: proprietor owner magistrate judge lad boy Description provides a description of a thing as to its physical appearance Example: tree a living being having roots, a single trunk, several branches and leaves Example offers a sample, facsimile, or picture of the thing referred to. 2. Formal / Real not only declares what thing is signified but explains what is its nature; also called Essential Definition since it explains the essence of a thing Proximate genus the nearest class to which a thing is classified Specific difference that aspect which differentiates a thing from another belonging to the same class Term Genus Differentia Professor a scholarly teacher being usually an expert in arts or sciences Logic a philosophical study used in valid reasoning RULES OF A GOOD DEFINITION

Reported By: ________________________________________________________________________ A definition must be brief. Thus, a definition must be short unless it is extremely necessary to provide details to sufficiently explain a thing.

A definition must be clear. A definition, therefore, should unravel the nature of a thing and should not obscure it. A definition must be positive. A definition should tell us what a thing is and what it is not. A definition must be adequate. This means that the definition states exactly the nature of the thing defined so that in effect, they are convertible or co-extensive. A definition must not contain the term or feature defined. This is obvious, because we cannot define a term by itself. This results in a tautologous definition which is an error.








THE MENTAL ACT OF JUDGMENT Reported By: ________________________________________________________________________ JUDGMENT - The act of the mind in pronouncing the objective identity, or non-identity of one concept from another (Pion, 1973) - The mental act of affirming or denying the relationship between two concepts or enunciations (McCall) PREREQUISITES IN MAKING JUDGMENT 1. There must be at least two or more concepts that exist. 2. The mind must examine the similarities and differences to verify the truth or falsity of the concept. 3. The mind must lay down its acceptance and rejection of the ideas. THE MATERIAL STRUCTURE OF PROPOSITION Reported By: ________________________________________________________________________ PROPOSITION - The verbal expression of mental judgment, affirming or denying the identity or nonidentity of two concepts; also known as enunciation, or statement, or sentence - It is the combination of matter and form, such as: a) The movie is interesting. b) His father is not a lawyer. ELEMENTS OF A PROPOSITION From the structural point of law, a proposition is composed of the Subject, the Copula, and the Predicate. It follows this pattern: S-c-P. 1. Subject the one which is affirmed or denied 2. Predicate the action that affirms or denies the subject 3. Copula links the subject to the verb A logical proposition is a declarative sentence. Obviously, not every sentence is a logical proposition, expressive of a judgment. Man thinks. Change the verb to present tense progressive. Man is thinking. Incorporate the verb in a phrase.

Man is a thinking animal. Change the verb into a noun. Man is a thinker. Change the verb into a relative clause. Man is an animal that thinks.

KINDS OF PROPOSITIONS 1. Categorical: A categorical proposition unites or separates two concepts by means of the linking verb to be. Examples: a) Every good action is meritorious. b) Some sharks are man-eaters. 2. Hypothetical: A hypothetical proposition unites or separates, not two concepts, but two enunciations by means of a non-verb copula. Often, a conjunction is used instead, such as: if, and either-or. Examples: a) If it is a car, it has a motor. b) A proposition is either true or false.

TYPES OF CATEGORICAL PROPOSITIONS Reported By: ________________________________________________________________________ A. According to the Extension of the Subject **Quantity refers to the number of referents to which the subject term is applied. 1. Singular Proposition. This is a proposition whose subject is a singular concept, that is, it refers to one specific individual. ( Names, Demonstratives, Title Positions ) a) Christopher is the valedictorian of the class. b) This book is very interesting. c) The Head of the Science Department is my teacher. 2. Particular Proposition. This is a proposition whose subject stands for a particular concept, that is, to a portion or part of a given totality. ( Some, Several, A number, Majority ) a) A number of students volunteered for the job. b) Some guests arrived early. c) Several items are missing from the room. 3. Universal Proposition. This is a proposition whose subject stands for a universal concept, that is, to all the inferiors or individuals of the extension of such concept. ( All, Every, Each, Nobody, None ) a) All men are mortals. b) Every father is proud of his children. c) Each scholar was given a citation.

4. Indefinite Proposition. This is a proposition whose subject stands for an indefinite number of individuals. It is so designated precisely because it does not have any quantifying particle to signify its extension. ( Collective Nouns, Articles ) a) Filipinos are deeply religious. b) The children are playing in the yard. B. According to the Quality of the Copula **Quality refers to the state of being, or it answers the question of what kind. 1. Affirmative. This is a categorical proposition which affirms the existing relationship between the subject and the predicate. a) Some drivers are reckless. 2. Negative. This is a categorical proposition which denies the relationship between subject and predicate. a) The teacher is not strict. C. According to the Matter Affirmed or Denied 1. Simple. This is a categorical proposition which unites or separates only two concepts or terms. a) Drug Addiction is a menace to society. b) AIDS is incurable. c) Eva is a good mother. 2. Compound. This is a categorical proposition which expresses a single enunciation two or more propositions. a) He is an intelligent, dashing fellow. b) Mr. Umali is a loyal friend and a good teacher. c) Some students are diligent, but others are not. D. According to its Thought-Content 1. True. A categorical proposition whose thought-content agrees with objective reality is said to be factual or true. a) Man is a rational animal. b) A triangle has three sides. 2. False. A categorical proposition whose thought-content does not agree with objective reality is false. a) A building is a living thing. b) Amorsolo is an American painter. SYMBOLS OF PROPOSITIONS Reported By: ________________________________________________________________________ SYMBOLS OF THE FOUR CATEGORICALS 1. The A Proposition is an affirmative proposition with a universal or potentially universal subject. Its logical form is ALL S is P. a) All professors are professionals. b) Every right is limited. 2. The E Proposition is a negative proposition with a universal or potentially universal subject. Its logical form is NO S is P.

a) All saints are not sinners. b) No man is an angel. 3. The I Proposition is an affirmative proposition with a particular or indefinite subject. Its logical form is SOME S is P. a) Some politicians are criminals. b) Few students are in the Deans List. 4. The "O Proposition is a negative proposition with a particular or indefinite subject. Its logical form is SOME S is not P. a) Some criminals are not bad. b) Not all women are mothers.

FOUR TYPES OF PROPOSITIONS IN ARISTOTELIAN LOGIC Reported By: ________________________________________________________________________ Code Letter A E I O Quantity Universal Universal Particular Particular Quality Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative Example All men are mortal. No men are immortal. Some men are weak. Some men are not moral.

The letters A and I are derived from the vowels of the latin word affirmo which means I affirm. Both letters stand for affirmative propositions. A stands for universal affirmative. I stands for particular affirmative propositions. The letters E and O are derived from the vowels of the latin word nego which means I deny. Both letters stand for negative propositions. E stands for universal affirmative. O stands for particular negative propositions. These are the only accepted types of proposition in Aristotelian logic. They also have the following Latin verse being used to remember the code letters: Asserit A, negat E, verum generaliter ambo; Asserit I, negat O, sed particulariter ambo. Code Letter Asp Esp Isp Osp Quantity Universal Universal Particular Particular Quality Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative Proposition All S are P No S are P Some S are P Some S are not P Modern Notation x(S(x)P(x)) x(S(x)P(x)) x(S(x)P(x)) x(S(x)P(x)

THE LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF PROPOSITIONS Reported By: ________________________________________________________________________ Leonhard Euler, a Swiss Mathematician, introduced the use of logical diagram to illustrate the relationship of the Subject and the Predicate on the basis of their respective extension.


OPPOSITION - The relation of being against or repugnant to something that is already given - Happens if the pair of propositions given is said to be in contrast - The relative position of each one of the four types of opposites is illustrated in the square of opposition FOUR KINDS OF LOGICAL OPPOSITION Reported By: ________________________________________________________________________

A. Contradictory. The propositions differ in both quantity and quality. Rules of Contradictories: 1. If one is true, the other is false. 2. If one is false, the other is true. Examples: A-O If Every Filipino is Asian is true, Then Some Filipinos are not Asians is false. E-I If Some cows are writers is false, Then No cow is a writer is true. B. Contrary. Both differ in quality but not in quantity. They are both universal. Rules of Contraries: 1. If one is true, the other is false. 2. If one is false, the other is doubtful. 3. Both can be false at the same time, but never true at the same time. Examples: A-E If Every fish is aquatic is true, Then No fish is aquatic is false. E-A If No cat is black is false, Then All cats are black is doubtful, that is either true or false. C. Subcontrary. Propositions differ in quality but not in quantity. They are both particular. Rules of Subcontraries: 1. If one is false, the other is true. 2. If one is true, the other is doubtful. Examples: I-O If Some catholics are protestants is false, Then Some catholics are not protestants is true. O-I If Some prisoners are guilty is true, Then Some prisoners are not guilty is doubtful, in form. D. Subaltern. The propositions differ in quantity but not in quality. Rules of Subalterns: 1. If the universal is true, the particular is true; but if the universal is false, the particular is doubtful. 2. If the particular is true, the universal is doubtful; but if the particular is false, the universal is true. Examples: A-I Since All voters are citizens is true, Then Some voters are citizens is true. E-O Since No accountant is a lawyer is false, Then Some accountants are not lawyers is doubtful, in form only.


EQUIPOLLENCE / EQUIVALENCE - A method of rendering in another way the truth or falsity expressed in a given proposition EDUCTION - The formulation of a new proposition by the interchange of the subject and predicate of an original proposition and/or by the use or removal of negatives. (Bachhuber) FOUR KINDS OF LOGICAL EQUIVALENCE Reported By: ________________________________________________________________________ A. Conversion. The re-phrasing of the truth of a given proposition by interchanging the subject and the predicate, without over-extending the quantity of either terms. Original Proposition: Convertend New Formulation: Converse Rules of Conversion: 1. Interchange S and P without over-extending their quantity. 2. Retain the quality of the copula of the convertend. Types of Conversion: 1. Simple Conversion takes place when the quantity of the converse is the same as that of the convertend. This happens only with E and I propositions. Examples: E No dog is a cat, becomes No cat is a dog. I Some men are teachers, becomes Some teachers are men. 2. Partial or Accidental Conversion takes place when the quantity of the converse is different from that of the convertend. This is possible with the A proposition. Example: A All actors are artists, becomes Some artists are actors.

B. Obversion. The method of rephrasing the truth of a given proposition by changing the quality of the copula. All the four categorical propositions may be obverted. Original Proposition: Obvertend New Formulation: Obverse Rules of Obversion: 1. Change the quality of the copula of the obvertend. 2. Change the quality of the predicate from positive to negative, and vice versa. 3. Retain the quantity of the obvertend. Examples: A-E Every man is rational, becomes No man is irrational. E-A No goat is carnivorous, becomes All goats are non-carnivorous. I-O Some men are monks, becomes Some men are not non-monks. O-I Some leaders are not honest, becomes Some leaders are dishonest. C. Contraposition. The method of rephrasing the truth of a given proposition by combining the processes of obversion and conversion. Original Proposition: Contraponend New Formulation: Contraposit Types of Contraposition: 1. Simple Contraposition is possible when the contraponend is either the A, the E, or the O propositions. The I proposition has no contraposit. Procedures: Obvert the original proposition. Convert the obverse. Examples: A-E Contraponend: Obversion: Conversion: Contraponend: Obversion: Conversion: Contraponend: Obversion: Conversion: All men are rational. No man is irrational. No irrational (being) is man. No stones are bread. All stones are non-bread. Some non-bread are stones. Some toys are not mechanical. Some toys are non-mechanical. Some non-mechanical (things) are toys.



2. Complete Contraposition makes possible the changing of the A to A, of the E to O, and of the O to O. Procedures: Obvert. Convert the obverse. Obvert the converse. Examples: A-A Contraponend: Obversion: Conversion: Obversion: Every man is mortal. No man is immortal. No immortal is man. Every immortal is non-man.


Contraponend: Obversion: Conversion: Obversion:

No dog is a cat. Every dog is non-cat. Some non-cats are dogs. Some non-cats are not non-dogs.

D. Inversion. The value of this method consists in helping us to be alert to the quantity and quality of the subject, and to the quality of the copula. I and O propositions have no inverse. Original Proposition: Invertend New Formulation: Inverse Types of Inversion: 1. Simple Inversion applies only to A and E propositions. Procedures: Change the subject of the invertend to its contradiction. Change the quantity of the invertend. Change the quality of the copula. Retain the original predicate. Examples: A-O Every man is rational, becomes Some non-man is not rational. E-I No man is a cow, becomes Some non-men are cows. 2. Complete Inversion likewise applies to A and E propositions. Procedures: Change the subject to its contradiction. Change the quantity of the proposition. Retain the quality of the copula. Change the predicate to its contradiction. Examples: A-I Every man is rational, becomes Some non-man are non-rational. E-O No man is a cow, becomes Some non-men are non-cows. The following chart gives the converse, obverse and contrapositive of each of the four categorical propositions and indicates which of those transformations are NOT VALID. A Proposition Converse Obverse Contrapositive All S are P All P are S NOT VALID No S are non-P All non-P are non-S E No S are P No P are S All S are non-P No non-P are non-S NOT VALID I Some S are P Some P are S Some S are not non-P Some non-P are non-S NOT VALID O Some S are not P Some P are not S NOT VALID Some S are non-P Some non-P are not non-S







Reported By: ________________________________________________________________________ REASONING - A mental process that compares two similar propositions and out of these propositions, a conclusion is drawn or formed.
Kinds of Reasoning: Deductive Reasoning forms a conclusion out of a generally accepted fact from general/universal to particular. Inductive Reasoning forms a conclusion from a particular to a universal or general instance or fact, from particular to general.

INFERENCE - A process by which one proposition is arrived at and affirmed or denied on the basis of one or more propositions accepted as the starting point of the process.
** The result of the act of reasoning. Every A is B, But every X is A. Therefore, every X is B.

THE SYLLOGISM: ITS FORM AND MATTER SYLLOGISM - An oral or written discourse showing the agreement or disagreement between two terms on the basis of their respective relation to a common third term. ** The verbal symbol of an inference. CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISM

An argument consisting of exactly three categorical propositions (two premises and a conclusion) in which there appear a total of exactly three categorical terms, each of which is used exactly twice. One of those terms must be used as the subject term of the conclusion of the syllogism, and we call it the minor term of the syllogism as a whole. The major term of the syllogism is whatever is employed as the predicate term of its conclusion. The third term in the syllogism does not occur in the conclusion at all, but must be employed in somewhere in each of its premises; hence, we call it the middle term. Since one of the premises of the syllogism must be a categorical proposition that affirms some relation between its middle and major terms, we call that the major premise of the syllogism. The other premise, which links the middle and minor terms, we call the minor premise.
Every man is rational,

Major Premise/Antecedent Minor Premise/Antecedent Conclusion/Consequent

(P) (M)

But every Filipino is a man. Therefore, every Filipino is rational.


VALID SYLLOGISM - A syllogism is correct when it is in conformity with the rules of logic. It is true when the propositions employed are expressive of truths.
FORMALLY CORRECT correct as to form but false as to content MATERIALLY TRUE true as to its content but wrong as to its form

INVALID SYLLOGISM - A syllogism which is correct in form but false in its content or matter.


Reported By: ________________________________________________________________________ THE RULES AND FALLACIES OF CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISM Rule 1: The middle term must be distributed at least once. Fallacy: Undistributed middle Example:
All sharks are fish All salmon are fish All salmon are sharks

Justification: The middle term is what connects the major and the minor term. If the middle term is never distributed, then the major and minor terms might be related to different parts of the M class, thus giving no common ground to relate S and P. Rule 2: If a term is distributed in the conclusion, then it must be distributed in a premise. Fallacy: Illicit Major; Illicit Minor Examples:
All horses are animals Some dogs are not horses Some dogs are not animals All tigers are mammals

All mammals are animals

All animals are tigers Justification: When a term is distributed in the conclusion, lets say that P is distributed, then that term is saying something about every member of the P class. If that same term is NOT distributed in the major premise, then the major premise is saying something about only some members of the P class. Remember that the minor premise says nothing about the P class. Therefore, the conclusion contains information that is not contained in the premises, making the argument invalid. Rule 3: Two negative premises are not allowed. Fallacy: Exclusive Premises Example:
No fish are mammals Some dogs are not fish Some dogs are not mammals

Justification: If the premises are both negative, then the relationship between S and P is denied. The conclusion cannot, therefore, say anything in a positive fashion. That information goes beyond what is contained in the premises. Rule 4: A negative premise requires a negative conclusion, and a negative conclusion requires a negative premise.
**Alternate rendering: Any syllogism having exactly one negative statement is invalid.

Fallacy: Example:

Drawing an affirmative conclusion from a negative premise, or drawing a negative conclusion from an affirmative premise.

All crows are birds Some wolves are not crows Some wolves are birds

Justification: Two directions, here. Take a positive conclusion from one negative premise. The conclusion states that the S class is either wholly or partially contained in the P class. The only way that this can happen is if the S class is either partially or fully contained in the M class (remember, the middle term relates the two) and the M class fully contained in the P class. Negative statements cannot establish this relationship, so a valid conclusion cannot follow. Take a negative conclusion. It asserts that the S class is separated in whole or in part from the P class. If both premises are affirmative, no separation can be established, only connections. Thus, a negative conclusion cannot follow from positive premises.
Note: These first four rules working together indicate that any syllogism with two particular premises is invalid .

Rule 5: If both premises are universal, the conclusion cannot be particular. Fallacy: Existential Fallacy Example:
All mammals are animals All tigers are mammals Some tigers are animals

Justification: On the Boolean model, Universal statements make no claims about existence while particular ones do. Thus, if the syllogism has universal premises, they necessarily say nothing about existence. Yet if the conclusion is particular, then it does say something about

existence. In which case, the conclusion contains more information than the premises do, thereby making it invalid. THE ARISTOTELIAN STANDPOINT Any syllogism that violates any of the first four rules is invalid from either standpoint. If a syllogism, though, violates only rule 5, it is then valid from the Aristotelian standpoint, provided that the conditional existence is fulfilled. Thus, in the example above, since tigers exist, this syllogism is valid from the Aristotelian point of view. On the other hand, consider this substitution instance:
All mammals are animals All unicorns are mammals Some unicorns are animals

Since "unicorns" do not exist, the condition is not fulfilled, and this syllogism is invalid from either perspective. All Md are P All Sd are M Some S are P No Md are Pd All Md are S Some S are not Pd All Pd are M All Md are S Some S are P


Reported By: ________________________________________________________________________ The arrangement of the four propositions--A, E, I or O--determines the mood, or ordering of the three propositions which make up the syllogism. A syllogism with all A propositions, such as those above, is one in mood AAA. One with E propositions as the major premise and conclusion and an I proposition as the minor premise would be in mood EIE. Thus the order of propositions determines the mood of a categorical syllogism. Since there are four kinds of categorical propositions and three propositions in each syllogism, there are 64 possible syllogistic moods. Moreover, there are 16 possible arrangements of the four kinds of propositions with each A, E, I or O proposition serving as the major premise: AAA AAE AAI AAO AEA AEE AEI AEO EAA EAE EAI EAO EEA EEE EEI EEO IAA IAE IAI IAO IEA IEE IEI IEO OAA OAE OAI OAO OEA OEE OEI OEO





These 64 moods can be arranged in four figures, with the figure being determined by the position of the middle term. Since the middle term cannot occur in the conclusion, there are only four possible arrangements of the terms: the middle term can be the subject or predicate of the major premise or the subject or predicate of the minor premise. The usual arrangement of these four figures is this: MP SM --SP PM SM --SP MP MS --SP PM MS --SP





Since there are 64 moods and four figures, there are 256 possible categorical syllogisms. Each of these 256 syllogisms are distinguished from one another by a distinct mood and figure. Examples (1) and (2) above are AAA-1 categorical syllogisms. Their mood is AAA and their figure is the first one.


Reported By: ________________________________________________________________________ Hypothetical Syllogism is a syllogism that has a hypothetical proposition as one of its premise. KINDS OF HYPOTHETICAL SYLLOGISM 1. Conditional Syllogism (If-Then) A Conditional Syllogism is one whose major premise is a conditional proposition. Conditional Propositions are compound propositions of which one member (the then clause) asserts something as true on the condition that the other member (the if clause) is true. If it is raining, the roof is wet. The if clause or its equivalent is called the antecedent. The then clause or its equivalent is called the consequent. 2. Disjunctive Syllogism (Either-Or) A Disjunctive Syllogism is one whose major premise is a disjunctive proposition, whose minor premise sublates (or posits) one or more members of the major premise, and whose conclusion posits (or sublates) the other member or members. A Disjunctive Syllogism is one that presents various alternatives and asserts that an indeterminate one of them is true. It consists of two or more members joined by the conjunctions either-or. It is sometimes called an alternative proposition.

Rules for Disjunctive Syllogism: a. If the minor premise posits one or more members of the major premise, the conclusion must sublate each of the other members. It is either raining or not raining; but it is raining; therefore it is not not raining. b. If the minor premise sublates one or more of the members of the major premise, the conclusion posits the remaining members, one of which must be true. If more than one member remains, the conclusion must be a disjunctive in the strict sense. It is either raining or not raining; but it is not raining; therefore it is not raining. 3. Conjunctive Syllogism (Not Both-And) A Conjunctive Syllogism is one whose major premise is a conjunctive proposition, whose minor premise posits one or more members of the major premise, and whose conclusion sublates the other member of the major premise. A Conjunctive Syllogism is one that denies the simultaneous possibility of two alternatives. A thing cannot both be and not be in the same respect. Rules for Conjunctive Syllogism: a. Posit one member in the major premise and sublate the other in the conclusion. He cannot be in Manila and Cebu at the same time; but he is now in Manila; Therefore he cannot now be in Cebu.




Reported By: ________________________________________________________________________ FALLACIES - Errors in argumentation; the word comes from the Latin fallo which means I deceive. - An argument that seems to be correct but proves to be false. If it is committed to deceive others, it is called sophism. If committed without malice, it is called paralogism. TYPES OF FALLACY Aristotle classifies the fallacies under two general headings: the FALLACY OF LANGUAGE, and the FALLACY OF CONFUSION. FALLACY OF LANGUAGE Verbal Fallacy is a mistake in the use of words but not in the structure of idea in the mind of the speaker. 1. EQUIVOCATION the fallacy of attributing two different meanings to a given term in syllogism. Example: What is natural is good.

But for man to err is natural. Therefore, for man to err is good. 2. AMPHIBOLY consists of using a phrase, or manner of speech, which is ambivalent as to its meaning. Example: He is an English Teacher. Is he an Englishman teaching or a teacher who is teaching English?

3. ACCENT consists in giving the same meaning to words having the same or similar pronunciation or spelling. Example: A mole is an animal. But Dina has a beautiful mole on her chin. Therefore, Dina has a beautiful animal on her chin.

4. FIGURE OF SPEECH consists of inferring a meaning from the similarity of word structure, or interpreting literally a figure of speech. Example: Anybody restless is not restful. Anybody careless is not careful. Therefore, anybody helpless is not helpful.

5. COMPOSITION consists of taking a group of words or phrase as a unit instead of taking them separately as it should be. Example: TIP is an engineering school. But you are a student of this school. Therefore, you are an engineering student. Every man is a person. But a woman is not a man. Therefore, a woman is not a person.

6. DIVISION consists of taking separately what should be taken as a unit. Example:


Reported By: ___________________________________________________________________________ FALLACY OF CONFUSION Another word for non-verbal fallacy is material fallacy or fallacy of matter. 1. ACCIDENT confuses the essential attribute with what is merely an accidental attribute to the nature of a thing. Example: Filipinos are Christians. But some citizens are not Christians. Therefore, some citizens are not Filipinos.

Religious affiliation is accidental to the citizenship of an individual. A citizen is constituted as such either by birth or by law.

2. ABSOLUTE uses a restricted principle (one which is true only under certain situations) as if it were an absolute principle (one which is true under all situations). Example: Water can solidify. But water is liquid. Therefore, all liquids can solidify.

3. IGNORATIO ELENCHI Elenchos means refutation. Ignoratio Elenchi means ignorance of refutation. It consists in proving something other than that which is supposed to be proved. Thus, this fallacy is also called ignoring the issue, missing the point, or evading the question. Example: The supply of food is insufficient to a growing population. But birth control regulates population growth. Therefore, birth control assures sufficiency of food supply.

Ad Hominem arguments are variations of ignoratio elenchi. They are irrelevant arguments and therefore, do not prove a truth. They are however, very popular because they appeal to men psychologically or emotionally.


Argument Against The Person / Argumentum ad hominem it refers to an argument which, instead of resolving the issue at hand, attacks the character of an opponent. The allusion to then presidential candidate Cory Aquino as walang alam and as babae para sa kwarto lamang proved disastrous to then President Ferdinand Marcos.


Argument To People / Argumentum ad populum instead of proving an issue by reason, appeals to popular sentiments, opinions, biases, idiosyncrasies, or emotions of people. Labor Leaders seek support for a strike by hammering on the sad plight and travails of workers in general. A newspaper, by sensationalizing a crime, describing all its gory details, provokes public indignation either against the criminals or against indifferent public officials.


Argument To Sympathy / Argumentum ad misericordiam this is an argument that appeals to pity. Shedding tears is one good example of this argument. Tears have a way of melting even the most hardened heart. It is not unusual for criminals to cry and sob out a sad story in order to win a reprieve.


Argument To Authority or Dignity / Argumentum ad verecundiam Verecundiam means shame. The argument however, is better known as appeal to authority. One may argue that a certain conclusion is true because it concurs, or is, the opinion of an expert authority. In mass media, many commercials cite the authority of certain persons, usually movie stars and popular athletes, to urge people to patronize a certain product.


Argument To Force / Argumentum ad baculum this means appeal to the stick. This is an argument that appeals to the use of force or threat. Oral or written threats are arguments ad baculum. They are the favorite of street bullies, blackmailers, robbers, rapists, and terrorists. These are arguments that do not need eloquence nor linguistic sophistication.

4. FALSE CAUSE consists in attributing an effect or result to an insufficient cause. Example: That which comes ahead produces that which follows it. But night comes ahead of day. Therefore, night causes day.

5. CONSEQUENT consists of inferring the truth of an antecedent from the truth of the consequent, or the falsity of the consequent from the falsity of the antecedent. This fallacy pertains to the use of hypothetical syllogism. Example: If it rained, the ground is wet. But the ground is wet. Therefore, it rained.

6. MULTI-QUESTIONS this fallacy consists in phrasing several questions as one for the purpose of misleading a respondent to admit something he does not intend to. Example: The question Is the president a nationalist with a sense of justice? is composed of two questions. The questions, therefore, is not simply answerable by yes or no without making proper distinction.

OTHER FORMS OF FAULTY ARGUMENTS 1. BEGGING THE QUESTIONS this is also called petition principii. It consists of proving a conclusion by using a premise which is merely the equivalent of the conclusion. Example: The suspect is the murderer. But Pedro is the suspect. Therefore, Pedro is guilty.

2. NON-SEQUITUR an argument whose conclusion does not necessarily follow from the premises. Strictly speaking, a non-sequitur argument is a series of unrelated propositions, arranged in a manner that resembles that of syllogism. Example: Every student is desirous of learning. But all desirous of learning are diligent. Therefore, every student is diligent.

3. APPEAL TO IGNORANCE this argument suggests that since there is no proof to the contrary, then something must be true. Example: Since nobody saw him commit the crime, then he did not do it. 4. SUPPRESSION OF FACTS this argument consists in withholding a vital information, or in selecting only those facts that favor ones view point. Example: The farmer confessed to stealing a piece of rope. He did not tell the judge that at the end of the rope was the carabao of his neighbor.

5. UNFOUNDED GENERALIZATIONS this argument consists of accepting a particular truth as a universal and absolute truth. The data of experiences are often expressed as general statement of facts. Examples: Boys are unruly. Filipinos lack discipline. Politicians are corrupt.