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## FMA331B OCT/NOV 2012

QUESTION 1 A small Pelton Wheel is situated with its 75 mm nozzle 97 metres below the level of the water in a supply dam. The 250 mm penstock (supply pipe) is 176 metres long and the friction factor, f, is 0,01. The nozzle coefficient of velocity is 0,98 and the jet strikes the buckets at 450 mm from the axis of rotation of the wheel. The flow rate is 162 litres per second and the full load speed is 380 rev/min. The jet is deflected through 160 and loses 12% of its relative velocity while it passes over the buckets. The mechanical efficiency of the wheel is 96%. 1.1 1.2 1.3 Determine the hydraulic power transmitted to the wheel Calculate the wheel hydraulic efficiency Calculate the turbine overall efficiency (12) (2) (2) [16]

QUESTION 2 A Francis turbine has a runner of 2,15 m diameter and 300 mm width at inlet; it operates under a head of 33 m. The flow rate is 15,6 m/s and the speed, 200 r/min. The guide vanes are set at 30 to the tangent direction and the water enters the runner without shock and leaves it without whirl. 2.1 2.2 2.3 Determine the runner inlet blade angle Determine the turbine hydraulic efficiency Calculate the turbine specific speed (9) (3) (6)

[18] QUESTION 3 A centrifugal pump has to deliver 0,75m3 of water per second against a manometric head of 18 metres. The relative velocity of the water is inclined at 120 to the impeller tangential velocity vector at exit (i.e. backward curving vanes) and the radial component of velocity is 0,27 times the impeller tangential velocity. The manometric efficiency is 81, 7% and the exit width of the impeller is 0,1 times the outside diameter. Determine the outside diameter of the impeller and required speed of rotation of the pump. [12] QUESTION 4 4.1 A hydraulic press is operated by a pressure intensifier (hydraulic amplifier) supplied with plant air at 700 kPa. The intensifier delivers hydraulic fluid to the 100 mm diameter press cylinder. The pneumatic cylinder is 150 mm diameter, the stroke is 350 mm and the hydraulic side is 40 mm diameter. Do the required calculations to determine the force the press will be able to exert at full plant air pressure, and to determine what the full stroke of the press will be. (10) 4.1.1 Describe fully, with supporting sketch, the bladder type gas accumulator (5) 4.1.2 Give for uses of accumulators (4)

4.2

Calculate the size of a gas filled accumulator needed to supply a hydraulic system with 25 litres of fluid from a pressure of 20 MPa to a pressure of 12 MPa. The accumulator is initially charged to a pressure of 8 MPa. The expansion and compression take place rapidly and the gas is nitrogen with an adiabatic process exponent of 1,4. (11) [TURN OVER]

FMA331B OCT/NOV 2012 4.3 An internal gear pump delivers 45 l/min at a pressure of 20 MPa when driven at 1430 r/min. Calculate the input power to the pump shaft and the displacement volume per revolution if the mechanical efficiency of the pump is 90% and its volumetric efficiency is 85%. (8 [38] QUESTION 5 A centrifugal fan with forward curved vanes having an exit angle of 55 to the tangential velocity vector is driven at 1 460 rev/min. The vane width is 200 mm. The fan delivers air of density 1,1 kg/m against a total fan pressure of 480 Pa. The whirl velocity at impeller exit is double the peripheral velocity. Ignore mechanical losses and taking the manometric efficiency as 55%, calculate:5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 The peripheral velocity of the impeller. The impeller diameter. The volume of air delivered per second. The power required to drive the fan. (7) (2) (5) (2) [16] TOTAL UNISA 2012 [100]

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