Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 57

What is Tourism?

WTO: The activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes. In other words: A tourist is a person who goes to another place for private interest or who is sent there (for example by a company), but is not employed at this place. usiness tourists may go to this place for a conference, a wor!shop or further education. "rivate tourists may go there for adventure, recreation, education, pilgrimage or other purposes. Importance of tourism in the economy #e can define $tourism industry% in a narrow sense, e.g. accommodation establishments, restaurants, cafes, bars and canteens as well as travel agencies and tour operators. #e can also define $tourism economy% in a broader sense and include related sectors such as transport and branches that are dependent on the tourism industry. &epending on the narrower or wider definition, tourism contributes '())* to the gross domestic product (+&") of the ,uropean -nion and '().* to ,uropean employment. Therefore it is an important economic sector. Growth of tourism ,urope is the world%s most important tourist destination and the most important tourist generating region. The number of international arrivals in ,urope rose from ./.0 million in )1/2 to ')' million in .220 and may rise beyond 322 million in .2.2. 4t is estimated that about .2* of tourism comes under the category of business travels. Although tourism always experiences temporary drawbac!s for example because of wars (.22) terrorist attac! in 5ew 6or!, 4ra7 war), diseases (8A98 in Asia) or crisis in the energy supply (oil crisis in the )132s), an exponential growth worldwide is again expected for the period .2)2 : .2.2. In Summary Tourism is one of the world%s largest industries and is of particular importance to the economies of many developing countries and emerging mar!ets. As a significant source of foreign exchange and employment the sector can have a great potential for development. 5evertheless, there are great concerns about the social and environmental problems that uncontrolled tourism can cause.

Tourism can lead to environmental degradation and the destruction of fragile ecosystems. 4t can also cause and exacerbate social and cultural conflict. 4n addition as tourism(generated foreign exchange often ends up benefiting foreign( owned tour operators, hotels and airlines rather than local communities, it can also a have a negative effect on poverty.

4ndian tourism sector is one of the most crucial sectors of the economy in the country. 4t is not only a significant contributor to +&" and foreign exchange reserve of the country, but also it provides widespread employment. Tourism sector can also be considered the bac!bone for allied sectors, li!e hospitality, civil aviation, and transport. 8ensing the importance of the sector, 4ndian +overnment has invested abundantly in the past for infrastructure development. 4t has been partially successful with increase in foreign tourist arrivals over the last decade, courtesy 4ncredible 4ndia ;ampaign. 4nfrastructure in the hospitality sector is still a matter of concern amongst other factors li!e season(based tourism in some states. &omestic tourism is very huge in the country, promoted by various intents. "ilgrim and leisure tourism are two very important sectors. A lot of scope is available for new businesses to enter and tap the segment. #ith the rising economic status of the middle class and affluent population, outbound travel is on the rise. Though Thailand, <alaysia, and 8ingapore circuit the most favored destinations among the tourists, interest for off(trac! destinations are also increasing. =oreign tourist arrivals in the country have increased substantially during the past decade motivated by both, business and leisure needs and are further expected to grow at a ;A+9 of around >* during .2)2(.2)', as per our new research report 4ndian Tourism 4ndustry Analysis. ?ur thorough analysis of the tourism sector in 4ndia has revealed that it is set for a fast growth stage mar!ed by a huge potential in various segments in the industry. +overnment initiatives, both at center and state level have facilitated rapid development in the sector and are expected to continue in future as well. The mar!et is fragmented and unorgani@ed but is highly competitive. Also, various trends have emerged during the last few years, which are discussed in details in the report. ?ur report, 4ndian Tourism 4ndustry Analysis provides detailed analysis of the tourism sector in 4ndia. The report facilitates current industry trends and forecast for foreign tourist arrivals, outbound tourists, domestic tourist visits, and several other factors crucial to future developments at regional level. 4n addition, a detailed analysis of hotel industry has also been provided. &escription of !ey players is also included to efficiently gauge the competition in the mar!et and to provide a balanced research outloo! of the tourism industry. 95;?8% A4ndian Tourism 4ndustry =orecast (.223(.2))) report provides an obBective analysis of the present scenario and future prospects of the 4ndian tourism industry. This report focuses on

different parameters of tourism industry includingC inbound tourism, outbound tourism, expenditure by inbound tourists, and medical tourism in 4ndia. 4t also helps clients to analy@e the opportunities and factors critical to the success of tourism industry in 4ndia.

Key Findings
( 4n 4ndia, inbound tourist expenditure per head is third highest in the world and even more than global average tourist spending. ( 4ndia has been promoting its healthcare tourism by providing the visitors with private healthcare facilities. 4t is expected that the number of tourists visiting 4ndia for the purpose of medical treatment will reach one <illion by .2)., representing a ;A+9 of .>.21* from .223. ( &isposable income in past (during .22)(.22D) grew at a ;A+9 of )2.))*, thereby driving domestic as well as outbound tourism. ( 9oom rent accounts for more than /2* of revenue earned by 4ndian hotel industry. ( 4ndian outbound tourist flow is expected to increase at a ;A+9 of )..31* over the five(year period spanning .223(.2)). ( Tourist influx to 4ndia is expected to increase at a ;A+9 of ...D/* between .223 and .2)). ( 4ndia%s share in global tourism is expected to reach )./* by .2)2.

Foreign Tourist Arriva s (=TAs) in 4ndia between Eanuary and Eune, .222 :.2))

6ear .222 .22) .22. .220 .22' .22/ .22D .223 .22> .221 .2)2 .2))

=TAs (in millions) ..D/ ../' ..0> ..30 0.'D 0.1. '.'/ /.2> /..> /.)3 /./> ..1.

* change over the previous year D.3 ('.. (D.2 )'.0 .D.> )0.0 )0./ )'.0 '.2 (... >.) )2.1

Foreign !"change !arnings (=,,) (in 9s. crores) from Tourism in 4ndia between Eanuary and

Eune, .222 :.2)) 6ear .222 .22) .22. .220 .22' .22/ .22D .223 .22> .221 .2)2 .2)) =,, from Tourism in 4ndia (in 459 ;rores) )/D.D )/2>0 )/2D' .23.1 .31'' 00).0 012./ ''0D2 /).1' /'1D2 D'>>1 0/)D0 * change over the previous year .2.3 (0./ (2.) 03.D 0'.> )>./ )3.> )0.3 )/.D 3.) )>.) )..)

5umber of domestic tourist visits, for all states F -Ts in 4ndia, between Eanuary and Eune,

.222 :.2)2 6ear 5o. of &omestic Tourist Gisits (in million) to 8tates F -Ts ..2.)) .0D.'3 .D1.D2 021.2' 0DD..3 01).1/ 'D..0) /.D.'0 /D0.20 DD>.>2 3'2..) * change over the previous year )/.' 3.' )'.2 )'.D )>./ 3.2 )>.2 )0.1 3.2 )>.> )2.3

.222 .22) .22. .220 .22' .22/ .22D .223 .22> .221 .2)2(p)

About /.1.* of the country%s +&" comes from tourism and it provides employment to over 1..'* of the country%s wor!force. =or every 459 ) million of investment, the number of Bobs created is as followsC 4ndustry : )> Agriculture : '/ Travel H Tourism : 3>

The +overnment of 4ndia has from time to time introduced tax deductions and incentives for investments in this sector. 4n its -nion udget .2)2:)), it introduced an investment(lin!ed deduction benefit, for new hotels, in the $.(star% category and above, anywhere in 4ndia, was

introduced. 4t is to figure under 8ection 02F0/ of the 4T Act, )1D). Tax deductions would be on the $"rofits lin!ed to investments%. This would induce investment in new proBects in the hospitality segment, create more hotel rooms, and boost employment ratesI a positive development indeed. 4n the -nion udget .2)):)., 8ervice tax on air travel was hi!ed ( by 459 /2 for domestic travel and 459 ./2 for international travel, in the economy class. =or higher classes, it would be a flat )2*. The 8ervice tax net was widened to include in its purview hotel accommodation above 459 ),222 per dayI air(conditioned restaurants serving li7uor and some categories of hospitals and diagnostic tests.9H& brea!throughs have been evident in terms better infrastructure being made available to the discerning traveller. #orld class airports, passenger handling systems, better air, road, and rail connectivity, more user(friendly hotel rooms and convention facilities (aiding development of potential <4;, venues), well(appointed !nowledge papers and articles in niche areas of tourism in 4ndia and online portals boosting travellers% interests in diverse spheres, have enthused tourists. There is also scope for further action in terms of policy changes.

Tourism in India
The 4ndian Tourism sector is one of the largest service industries in the country in terms of its contribution to the +ross &omestic "roduct (+&") and =oreign ,xchange ,arnings (=,,), as well as for providing employment to millions. The sector in fact is expected to generate around -8J '..> billion (459 ),>13.3 billion) by .2)3, according to an industry research note by auditing and consulting firm &eloitte Touche. 8ignificantly, the Tourism and the Kospitality sector generated a total of -8J .,'D>.01 billion (459 ),21', '>.' billion) in =oreign &irect 4nvestment (=&4) during April .222(April .2)), according to the &epartment of 4ndustrial "olicy and "romotion (&4""). =urther, =oreign Tourist Arrivals (=TAs) are expected to grow to )2 million by .2)2(). and the domestic tourism is expected to increase by )/ per cent to .2 per cent over the next five years as per the <inistry of Tourism. Tourism in 4ndia is witnessing widespread growth on the bac! of increasing inbound tourism by the burgeoning 4ndian middle class, rising inflow of foreign tourists and successful government campaigns for promoting $4ncredible 4ndia%. 4nfrastructure development holds the !ey to 4ndia%s sustained growth in the Tourism sector. Therefore, <inistry of Tourism has made consistent efforts to develop 7uality tourism infrastructure at tourist destinations and circuits. =urther the government has also allowed )22 per cent foreign investment under the automatic route in the Kotel and Tourism related industry. Also, according to <r 8ubodh Lant 8ahay, <inister of Tourism, A+overnment is embar!ing upon the policy of developing integrated perspective investment plans for !ey circuits and destinations in each state and -nion Territory.A Ke said these investment plans would identify components re7uiring investments through the ;entre, the state governments, public private partnership and private sector.

8ignificantly, the country has the potential to become a maBor global tourist destination, with the Tourism sector expected to contribute around 459 0,')'.> billion (-8J 33.2 billionM) by .2.), according to a report by the #orld Travel and Tourism ;ouncil (#TT;). 4ndia is currently ran!ed ).th in the Asia "acific region and D>th overall in the list of the worldNs attractive destinations, according to the Travel and Tourism ;ompetitiveness 9eport .2)) by the #orld ,conomic =orum (#,=). According to the Tourism 8atellite Accounting (T8A) research, released by #orld Travel and Tourism ;ouncil (#TT;) and its strategic partner ?xford ,conomics in .2))C The direct contribution of Travel HTourism to +&" is expected to be 459 ),/32./ billion (-8J 0/.' billion) ().1 per cent of total +&") in .2)), rising by >.) per cent per annum (pa) to 459 0,')'.> billion (-8J 33.2 billionM) (..2 per cent) in .2.) The total contribution of Travel HTourism to +&", including its wider economic impacts, is forecast to rise by >.> per cent pa from 459 0,D>2.' billion (-8J >0.2 billion) ('./ per cent of +&") in .2)) to 459 >,/.0.) billion (-8J )1).. billionM) ('.1 per cent) by .2.).

8ourceC #orld Travel H Tourism ;ouncil The T8A research also states that the sector is expected to support directly .',10),222 Bobs (/.2 per cent of total employment) in .2)), rising by ..2 per cent pa to 02,'01,222 Bobs (/.. per cent) by .2.).

Investment Opportunities

The Tourism sector is expected to perform very well in future and the industry offers an interesting investment opportunity for long(term investors. According to the T8A research, the sector is expected to attract capital investment of 459 ),.00.2 billion (-8J .3.> billion), rising by >.3 per cent pa to 459 .,>.3./ billion (-8J D0.3 billion). This means that the sector%s share of total national investment will increase from '.3 per cent in .2)) to '.> per cent in .2.).

8ourceC #orld Travel H Tourism ;ouncil The Tourism industry in 4ndia provides opportunities in diverse fields such as tours and travel circuit, hospitality and hotel sector and development of specialised tourisms such as medical tourism, rural tourism, golf tourism, cruise tourism, adventure tourism, eco tourism and wellness tourism. The Tourism sector is witnessing fast growth due to the ever(growing number of participants in allied businesses such as hotels, tour operators, airlines, shipping lines, among others. Therefore, the sector is expected to witness high growth in the near future and offer varied opportunities to the investors in all these areas of businesses. 4n fact, the hotel industry is one of the maBor areas wherein investors can loo! for long(term opportunities. Gisitor exports are a !ey component of the direct contribution of the sector. According to the T8A research, 4ndia is expected to attract D,)31,222 international tourist (overnight visitor) arrivals in .2)), generating 459 D3>.D billion (-8J )/.0 billion) in visitor exports (foreign visitor spending, including spending on transportation). y .2.), international tourist arrivals are forecast to total )),)'1,222, an increase of D.) per cent pa generating expenditure of 459 ),0''.3 billion (-8J 02.0 billionM).

&rivers behind increase in Tourist Traffic The main reason for increase in tourist traffic to 4ndia has been the following factorsC #omestic Tourist Traffic 9apidly increasing purchasing power of the middle class etter road connectivity ,volving lifestyle

Internationa Tourist Traffic Galue for moneyF,conomical destination usiness cum pleasure destination &evelopment of Lerala and 9aBasthan as the most acclaimed tourist destinations in 4ndia with their distinctive brand image ?pening of the sectors of the economy to private sectorFforeign investment 9eform in the aviation sector such as ?pen 8!ies "olicy has led to better connectivity with many countries with 4ndia

8uccess of 4ncredible 4ndia campaign and other tourism promotion measures

Government Initiatives
According to the ;onsolidated =&4 "olicy, released by &4"", <inistry of ;ommerce and 4ndustry, +overnment of 4ndia, the government has allowed )22 per cent foreign investment under the automatic route in the Kotel and Tourism related industry. The terms hotel includes restaurants, beach resorts and other tourism complexes providing accommodation and For catering and food facilities to tourists. The term tourism related industry includesC Travel agencies, tour operating agencies and tourist transport operating agencies -nits providing facilities for cultural, adventure and wildlife experience to tourists 8urface, air and water transport facilities for tourists ;onventionFseminar units and organisations

As a facilitative measure to ma!e Tourism sector in 4ndia more attractive the following initiatives are ta!en by +overnmentC The +overnment has launched a 8cheme of $Gisa on Arrival% (GoA) from Eanuary .2)2 for citi@ens of five countries, vi@. =inland, Eapan, Ouxembourg, 5ew Pealand and 8ingapore, visiting 4ndia for tourism purposes. The +overnment has now extended this 8cheme for the citi@ens of six more countries, namely ;ambodia, 4ndonesia, Gietnam, "hilippines, Oaos and <yanmar from Eanuary .2)). &uring the period Eanuary(Eune .2)), a cumulative figure of /33' GoAs were issued, with a total of >D/ H 332 GoAs issued in the months of <ay H Eune respectively. The <inistry of Tourism has launched a scheme for development of nationally and internationally important destinations and circuits through <ega "roBects. As on '....2)), 0> mega proBects have been identified, out of which .D proBects have already been sanctioned. To overcome the bottlenec!s of multiple inter : state road transport barriers, <inistry of Tourism has been advocating implementation of seamless travel for commercial tourist vehicles. This would facilitate smooth movement of tourist traffic and avoid delays and inconvenience to tourists.

Key $ ayers Ana y%ed

This section covers the !ey facts about the maBor players (tour operator H hotels) currently operating in the 4ndian tourism industry. The !ey players analy@ed in this section includeC Thomas &oo' India $vt( )td(* Kuoni India )td(* &o" + Kings India )td(* ,a- Trave s + Tours )td(* prominent .ote s + ,esorts such as Ta- .ote s* the O/eroi Group* .yatt &orporation and IT& We comgroup(

,esearch 0ethodo ogy 1sed Information Sources

4nformation has been sourced from boo!s, newspapers, trade Bournals, white papers, industry portals, government agencies, trade associations, by monitoring industry news and developments, and through access to access to more than 0222 paid databases.

Ana ysis 0ethods

The analysis methods include the followingC 9atio Analysis, Kistorical Trend Analysis, and Oinear 9egression Analysis using software tools, Eudgmental =orecasting and ;ause and ,ffect Analysis. This research report gives an in(depth analysis of the present and future prospects of the 4ndian tourism industry. 4t loo!s into the 4ndian tourism industry in detail with the focus on different tourism mar!ets within 4ndia and upcoming mar!et segments. ;ommencing with a slow growth at the start of the millennium, the 4ndian tourism industry has performed 7uite well in the last couple of years. The 4ndian tourism industry has outperformed the global tourism industry in terms of growth in the volume of international tourists as well as in terms of revenue. The #orld Travel and Tourism ;ouncil (#TT;) have named 4ndia along with ;hina as one of the fastest growing tourism industries for the next )2 to )/ years. The !ey driver for this growth in the 4ndian tourism industry has been a fast growing economy for the last 0(' years. &espite lagging in the basic infrastructure that supports the tourism industry. 4ndian tourism industry has been showing an impressive double(digit growth. 4n order to sustain this growth and meet the expectations, it is essential for the +overnment of 4ndia to invest in infrastructure such as transport and accommodations. The expected growth of the industry in future has provided its players with an opportunity to invest in new technologies such as ;9< tools and latest security systems, and to venture into new mar!et segments such as ;ruise tourism where 4ndia has negligible share in comparison to world cruise tourism mar!et. ?n the flip side, the growth in the 4ndian tourism sector is accompanied by the imminent destruction of local ecology and an increase in pollution, which, in the long run, is going to negatively impact the tourism industry of 4ndia.

,!$O,T .IG.)IG.TS

( +lobal tourism industry scenario with regional performances ( Asia("acific tourism 4ndustry ( "osition of 4ndian tourism industry with respect to the world ( Analysis of different mar!et segments and their performance with charts and graphs, forecast and opportunity and challenges faced by the 4ndian tourism industry ( 9ecent trends and developments in tourism industry in 4ndia. ( Ley driving forces in the 4ndian tourism industry ( ;ompany analysis of the maBor players in the 4ndian tourism industry.

Medical Tourism in India Key Findings

( #ith global revenues of approximately -8J .2 illion (.22/), the medical tourism industry is one of the worldNs largest industries. 4ndiaNs cost effective treatment ma!es it an important player in this industry. ( +rowing <edical tourism in 4ndia will be one of the maBor sources for foreign exchange. ( #ith increasing number of non(insured population in western countries and increasing healthcare expenditure to +&" resulting in people opting for treatment choices outside their country.

Key $ ayers Ana y%ed

This section provides the overview, !ey facts, financial information, future plans, and business strategies of prominent players in the 4ndian Kealthcare mar!et li!e #oc!hardt Kospitals Otd, Apollo Kospitals ,nterprise Otd, =ortis Kealthcare Otd, <ax 4ndia Otd, and 89O 9anbaxy. 4ndian Tourism industry is one of the most important export industries of the country. Although the international tourist inflow is relatively low, 4ndia has found tourism emerging as an important sector of its economy. Tourism yields substantial foreign exchange for 4ndia. 4t is turning into a volume game where a large number of participants are contributing to the revenue of the industry. 8egments such as hotels, tour operators, airlines, shipping etc., are significant contributors to this revenue. #ith lot of imagination and ideas the 4ndian tourism sector is gathering momentum and is set to have not only large numbers of foreign tourists but also ma!e a big share in the country%s +ross

&omestic "roduct ( +&" ). 9ecent statistics have revealed that during the first 7uarter of .22D, the performance of the tourism industry has been very encouraging which has registered an ))* increase in foreign tourist arrivals. 95;?8% recent mar!et research report, 4ndian Tourism 4ndustry ?utloo! (.22D) draws a colorful picture about the future of 4ndian tourism as its share of employment is expected to account )2*, including self(employment. According to the mar!et researchers, in .22D, the total in(bound tourists were )..><n while the same was ).)'<n in .22/. The resulting foreign exchange earnings were as high as ).* of an amount of J),3>2<n. esides giving statistical details the report, 4ndian Tourism 4ndustry ?utloo! (.22D) discusses about the significant role that the government has for the growth of the 4ndian Tourism industry. 4t also tells what !ey factors play in pushing this industry. The mar!et research report has a separate section on opportunities, maBor challenges and emerging trends and changes that face the tourism industry. The report also gives an in(depth analysis of the present situation and future prospects of the 4ndian tourism industry.

Wor d In/ound Tourism

4nternational tourist arrivals were >>2 million in .221. The ,uropean region continues to attract the largest number of tourists, accounting for around /.* of total traffic in .221. The Asia "acific and Americas follow with shares of .)* and )D* respectively. =rance, -8A and 8pain were the top three tourist destinations in .221I ;hina and 4taly ran! fourth and fifth respectively in terms of tourist arrivals.

4nternational tourist receipts were down /.3* in .221. ,urope continues to draw the highest amount of total receipts, accounting for '1*I the Asia "acific and Americas formed around .'* and )1* respectively. -8A, 8pain and =rance were the top three earners during .221 in that orderI 4taly and ;hina ran!ed fourth and fifth respectively.

Indian trave and tourism industry

4ndian tourism offers most diverse products globally. The country%s rich history, cultural heritage, beauty, diversity of religion and medicine fascinate budget and luxury travelers. Tourism in 4ndia has registered significant growth over the years. This has been led by growth in both leisure and business tourism. 9ising incomes, increasing affordability, growing aspirations, increasing globali@ation, and a growing airline industry along with improvement in travel(related infrastructure have supported industry growth. Tourism holds immense potential for the 4ndian economy. 4t can provide impetus to other industries through bac!ward and forward lin!ages and can contribute significantly to +&".

4ndia%s travel and tourism industry is expected to generate revenue of 9s. ),132 bn (-8J '. bn) in .2)2, according to the #orld Travel H Tourism ;ouncil (#TT;). This would be around 0.)* of total +&". Kowever, since travel and tourism touches all sectors of the economy, its real impact is greater and the travel and tourism economy directly and indirectly accounts for Q /,/00 bn (-8J ))> bn), e7uivalent to >.D* of total +&".

"ersonal travel and tourism is the most significant contributor, accounting for //* of the total mar!et, while business travel forms only 1*. ;apital investment is also significant with a share of .'*. Kotels, air transport, surface transport, basic infrastructure, and facilitation systems environment are some of the related sectors. The share of the 4ndian travel and tourism industry globally is very less. Kowever the industry holds immense potential. 4n fact, 4ndia has been ran!ed among the leaders by the #TT; for

long(term ()2(year) growth prospects. =urther, a globally renowned travel maga@ine, ;onde 5ast Traveler, ran!ed 4ndia among the top )2 tourist destinations of the world. E 4; has also ran!ed 4ndia as the fifth most attractive investment destination. 4ndia is probably the only country that offers various categories of tourism with its geographical diversity and rich cultural heritage.

Structure of the tourism industry

Tourism comprises activities of people travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and social, recreational, and !nowledge see!ing purposes. The tourism industry is primarily service and people orientedI it is made up of businesses and organi@ations belonging to various other industries and sectors. 4t is interplay among these businesses and organi@ationsFpersons which offer travel experience to tourists. The tourism industry comprises hospitality (related to accommodation and dining), travel (transportation services through different modes), and various other businesses which offer services and products to tourists. The components of the tourism industry are shown in ,xhibit ).). <ost of the players in the tourism industry are 8<,s. The unorgani@ed sector dominates the industry in 4ndia. Kotels, airline companies, and tour operators form the organi@ed sector. 8pecialist travel service providers assist tourists with travel arrangements. These providers include travel agencies who are involved in retailing of travel products directly to the tourists (individuals or groups). They provide information on different travel destinations and advise customers on travel plans. They also sell associated products such as insurance, car hire, and currency exchange.

usiness travel agencies speciali@e in ma!ing travel and accommodation arrangements for business travelers and promoting conference trades. The tour operators provide pac!ages for individuals while the principals provide basic travel and tourism related services. Tour operators offer holiday pac!ages which comprise travel (road, rail, sea, air as well as to and from the destination airport, car hire, excursions, etc) and accommodation (hotels, guesthouses, apartments, etc) services. Transport service providers could be airlines, cruise lines, car rentals, and rail companies. A tourist%s choice of transport would depend on the travel budget, destination, time, purpose of the tour, and convenience to the point of destination. Accommodation could be hotels and motels, apartments, camps, guest houses, lodge, bed and brea!fast establishments, house boats, resorts, cabins, and hostels. 4n addition, tourists also re7uire catering facilities, which a variety of outlets for food and refreshments offer. These include hotels, local restaurants, roadside Boints, cafeterias, and retail outlets serving food and beverages. Another maBor component of the travel and tourism industry is $attractions% such as theme par!s and natural attractions including scenic locations, cultural and educational attractions, monuments, events, and medical, social or professional causes. The tourist information and guidance providers include a number of service providers such as those offering insurance, recreational, communication, and ban!ing servicesI government agenciesI tour guidesI industry associationsI pac!aging agentsI tic!eting agentsI and holiday sellers.

Types of tourists
Tourists can also be classified based on their purpose of visitC

Business tourists
This segment typically comprises those travelling for meetings, incentives, conventions and exhibitions (<4;,)I however, this definition is not conclusive and includes any tourist on a visit to 4ndia for business purposes. usiness tourism is viewed as an important mar!et in the country and one of the high(yielding sectors of the tourism industry.

Leisure tourists
Oeisure tourism comprises trips for pleasure. 4t includes holidays within the country or abroad. Gisiting friends and relatives and travel for a variety of reasons such as health and fitness, sports, education, and culture also come under the purview of leisure trips. 4n the past few years, opportunities in 4ndia for leisure tourism have emerged strongly owing to the following factorsC

changing consumption pattern of 4ndian customers, burgeoning 4ndian middle class population, and geographical diversity. Tourists can also be classified into domestic and foreign tourists based on their nationality. =urthermore, depending on the duration, tourism can be classified into picnic, excursion, holidays, wee!end getaways, etc.

Different forms of tourism

There are different types of tourism. The recent trend is moving toward niche segments of tourismC R <edicalFhealthcare tourism R Adventure tourism R Keritage tourism R ,cotourism R 9ural tourism R "ilgrimage tourism

Medical tourism
<edical tourism also !nown as health tourism has emerged as one of the important segments of the tourism industry. The term has been coined by travel agencies and the mass media to describe the rapidly(growing practice of travelling across international borders to for healthcare. Travelers typically see! services such as elective procedures as well as complex specialised surgeries such as Boint replacement (!neeFhip), cardiac, dental, and cosmetic surgeries. "sychiatry, alternative treatments, and convalescent care are also available. 8everal factors have contributed to growth in medical tourism worldwide. These includeC

Low travel costs

8ignificant reduction in travel costs worldwide has made travel to other countries for medical treatments more affordable. This has also boosted industry growth. Kigh growth of world(class medical treatments in developing countries Kealthcare facilities in many developing countries have improved significantly in recent years and their standards of healthcare are now on par with that in the -8 or #estern ,urope.

<edical tourism has done exceptionally well in 4ndia and the number of medical tourists coming into the country is increasing. 9ising healthcare costs in the developed economies, especially the -8 and the -L, is forcing patients from the region to loo! for cost(effective and alternative forms of treatment. 4ndia, with its pool of highly trained and specialised doctors, good healthcare infrastructure facilities, relatively lower cost of treatment and availability of alternative forms of treatment such as Ayurveda, 6oga, 8iddha, and 5aturopathy is seeing strong growth in medical tourism. <edical tourism is promoted through suitable pac!aging of identified best hospitals and price banding as per treatment re7uirements. The medical costs in 4ndia are much lower at around ./* of the costs in the ,uropean and -8 mar!ets. <edical tourism has grown swiftly despite the economic slowdown. The industry is still at a nascent stage and holds immense potential. The !ey benefits of medical treatment and medical tourism in 4ndia areC #orld(class treatment at fraction of the cost in western countries "atients from more than // countries availing treatment in 4ndia <edical technology, e7uipment, facilities and healthcare infrastructure in 4ndia at par with international standards The 4ndian doctors recogni@ed among the best globally. Garious medical treatments that can be availed in 4ndia include !nee replacement, hip replacement, cosmetic surgery, dental treatment, and cardiac care. The government is also ta!ing several measures to promote medical tourism in the country. This includes issuance of <edical Gisa for patients and their attendants coming to 4ndia for treatment. 4t has also re7uested the state governments to promote healthcare pac!ages. -nder the <ar!et &evelopment Assistance 8cheme, financial assistance would be provided to medical tourism service providers (<T8"), i.e. accredited hospitals and medical tourism facilitators (travel agents and tour operators approved by the <inistry of Tourism and engaged in medical tourism).

Wellness tourism
#ellness tourism is regarded as a sub(segment of medical tourism. Kere, the primary purpose is achieving, promoting or maintaining good health and a sense of well(being. 4ndia with widespread presence of Ayurveda, 6oga, 8iddha, and 5aturopathy, complemented by its spiritual philosophy, is a well(!nown wellness destination. #ellness tourism includes ayurvedic therapies, spa visits, and yoga meditation. The government is promoting this form of tourism with publicity and promotional activities.

Adventure tourism
Travel for the aim of exploration or travel to remote, exotic and possibly hostile areas is !nown as adventure tourism. #ith tourists loo!ing for different options, adventure tourism is recording healthy growth. Adventure tourism refers to performance of acts, which re7uire significant efforts and some degree of ris! or physical danger. The activities include mountaineering, tre!!ing, bungee Bumping, mountain bi!ing, river rafting, and roc! climbing. 4ndia with its diverse topography and climate offers tremendous scope for adventure tourism. The mountain regions offer lot of scope for mountaineering, roc! climbing, tre!!ing, s!iing, s!ating, mount bi!ing and safarisI rushing rivers provide opportunities for river rafting, canoeing and !aya!ingI and oceans provide tremendous opportunity for diving and snor!eling. The government is underta!ing measures such as financial assistance to governments of states and union territory for development of adventure tourism destinations. 4t has also provided financial assistance for organi@ing mountain bi!ing expedition. The <inistry of &efense has given permission for opening of )2' additional pea!s in Oeh area of Eammu H Lashmir for adventure tourism, while customs duty on inflatable rafts, snow(s!is, sail boards and other water sports e7uipment has been exempted.

Heritage tourism
Keritage tourism is defined as travel underta!en to explore and experience places, activities, and artifacts that authentically represent the stories and people of the past and present. 4t is oriented toward cultural heritage of the tourist location. 4t involves visiting historical or industrial sites, religious travel or pilgrimages. 4ndia is well !nown for its rich heritage and ancient culture. The country%s rich heritage is amply reflected in the various temples, maBestic forts, pleasure gardens, religious monuments, museums, art galleries and urban and rural sites which are citadels of civili@ation. All these structures form the products of heritage tourism.

,cotourism, also !nown as ecological tourism, is travel to natural areas to appreciate the cultural and natural history of the environment, while not disturbing the integrity of the ecosystem and creating economic opportunities that ma!e conservation and protection of natural resources advantageous to local people. 4t involves travel to destinations where flora, fauna and cultural heritage are primary attractions. ,cotourism also minimi@es wastage and the environmental impact through sensiti@ed tourists. 4t can be one of the medium to preserve local culture, flora and fauna and other natural resources. 4ndia, with its great geographical diversity, offers several eco(tourism destinations. 4t is home to a wealth of ecosystems which are well protected and preserved. These includeC

iosphere reserves <angroves ;oral reefs &eserts <ountains and forests =lora and fauna 8eas, la!es and rivers ;aves The basic princip <inimi@e the impact uild environmental and cultural awareness and respect "rovide positive experiences for both visitors and hosts "rovide direct financial benefits for conservation "rovide financial benefits and empowerment for local people 9aise sensitivity to political, environmental, and social climate of the host country 8upport international human rights and labor agreements. A few places for ecotourism include the Kimalayan region, Lerala, 5orth ,ast 4ndia, Andaman H 5icobar and Oa!shadweep 4slands. Thenmala in Lerala is the first planned ecotourism destination in 4ndia. 8ome most popular ecotourism locations in the country are 9ishi!esh, Lerala and "uducherry. ,cotourism consists ofC ,co par!s ,co places ,co fauna ,co flora ,co destinations

es to be followed in ecotourism areC

,co trivia ,co tre!s ,co adventures

Rural tourism
9ural tourism showcases rural life, art, culture and heritage of rural locations, benefitting the local community economically and socially as well as enabling interaction between the tourists and locals for a more enriching tourism experience. 9ural tourism is multi(faceted and may entail farmFagricultural tourism, cultural tourism, nature tourism, adventure tourism, and ecotourism. 9ural tourism has certain characteristicsC it is experience orientedI locations are sparsely populatedI it is predominantly in a natural environmentI it meshes with seasonality and local eventsI and it is based on preservation of culture, heritage and traditions. 4ndia%s rural geographical and cultural diversity enables it to offer a wide range of tourism products and experiences. 4ncreasing levels of awareness, growing interest in heritage and culture, improved accessibility to rural areas, and environmental consciousness are playing an important role in promoting rural tourism. This form holds immense potential in 4ndia, where more than 32* of the population resides in villages. The <inistry of Tourism along with -5&" undertoo! the ,xplore 9ural 4ndia ;ampaign, to give tourists a chance to experience life in rural 4ndia. 4t is one of the most successful tourism campaigns so far. &uring the Gisit 4ndia 6ear .221 campaign, )/ rural tourism sites were selected as rural eco(holiday sites.

Wildlife tourism
#ildlife tourism, one of the fastest segments of tourism, involves travel to different locations to experience wild life in natural settings. &ue to its varied topography and distinctive climatic conditions, 4ndia is endowed with various forms of flora and fauna and it has numerous species of birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians and plants and animals. To tap the potential of wildlife tourism, the government has launched some wildlife pac!ages for travelers. #ildlife Tourism in 4ndia includes wildlife photography, bird watching, Bungle safari, elephant safari, Beep safari, Bungle camping, ecotourism etc. The country offers immense opportunities for wildlife tourism. The strong heritage of wildlife in 4ndia comprises more than 32 national par!s and about '22 wildlife sanctuaries including bird sanctuaries. Kowever, concrete steps by both the government and the private sector need to be ta!en to promote wildlife tourism. TaB Kotels H 9esorts has a Boint venture with ;onservation ;orporation Africa to provide wildlife enthusiasts, circuit tourists and high(end domestic travelers with fascinating wildlife experiences within 4ndia through an ecologically(sustainable

model. 4n a bid to preserve the natural habitat, the <inistry of Tourism has launched an initiative, TigersC ?ur 5atural eauties.

MI E tourism
<4;, (<eetings, 4ncentives, ;onferences and ,xhibitions) tourism is also one of the fastest growing in the global tourism industry. 4t largely caters to business travelers, mostly corporates. 4t caters to various forms of business meetings, international conferences and conventions, events and exhibitions. Kong Long, <alaysia and &ubai are the top destinations for <4;, tourism. 4ndia is also present in this segment. This form of tourism combines annual business meetings and conferences with pleasurable events for delegates and attendants. 4ndia can be competitive with other <4;, tourism destinations owing to its natural beauty, rich heritage and geographical diversity. ?ne of the re7uisites for this form of tourism is world(class convention centres. The Asho!, 5ew &elhiI Kyderabad 4nternational ;onvention ;entre, KyderabadI and Oe <eridian, ;ochin are forerunners in the 4ndian <4;, tourism industry, facilitating domestic and 4nternational business meetings and conferences. 8ome other forms of tourism include cruise tourism, beach tourism, pilgrimage tourism, monsoon magic, luxury tourism.

Ma!or tourist circuits of India

4ndia has several tourist destinations spread across the length and breadth of the country. Kowever, given the distance between various destinations, tourist circuits have been created considering the needs, choices of tourists as well as convenience. 8ome maBor tourist circuits are shown in the table ).DC

"erformance of t#e Indian travel and tourism industry

The tourism business in 4ndia can be broadly classified intoC inbound tourism, domestic tourism, and outbound tourism. 4nbound tourism =oreign tourist arrivals in the country increased steadily from ..' million in .22. to /.0 million in .22>. 4t, however, fell to /.) million in .221, recording a decline of 0.0*. The slowdown in 4ndia%s core mar!ets, the -8, ,urope and -L, travel advisories issued by countries against travel to 4ndia following the terror attac!s in <umbai, and postponement of holidays by travelers affected tourist inflow into the country in .221I nevertheless, the impact on the 4ndian industry was much lesser compared with other countries. =oreign tourist arrivals are expected to increase in .2)2. 4nternational events to be held in 4ndia and the government%s sincere efforts to promote the country as a tourist destination are li!ely to drive foreign tourist arrivals. 4nternational events to be held during the year S ;ommonwealth +ames, 4;; #orld ;up ;ric!et and =ormula ) Sare expected to attract a number of sports fans across the world to 4ndia. 4mproving infrastructure, low(cost airlines, and improved road connectivity are expected to aid the increase in tourist inflow.

The top )2 countries accounted for around D'* of total tourist arrivals in the country during .221. The -8 and the -L together accounted for around 02* of tourist arrivals. Around )'* of the total tourist arrivals in .221 were from 4ndia%s neighboring countries, angladesh and 8ri Oan!a.

$oreign e%c#ange earnings from tourism

The travel and tourism industry contributes significantly to the country%s foreign exchange earnings. =oreign exchange earnings (=,,) from tourism increased steadily from -8J 0.) bn in .22. to -8J )).3 bn in .22>. 4n line with lower tourist arrivals, =,, fell 0.2* to -8J )).01 bn in .221. 4n rupee terms, earnings rose >.0* to /'1.D bn. =,, in rupee terms had recorded double(digit
growth in each of the years during .220(2>.

Domestic tourism
&omestic travelers recorded an all(time high of D/2 million during .221, )/./* higher than the previous year. After rising )>* and )'* respectively in .22D and .223, rise in domestic travel slowed down to D.1* during .22>. The increase in .221 reflects recovery in sentiment in the later part of the year and preference for domestic visits over international visits. Although the 4ndian economy was not as severely affected by the economic slowdown as other economies, 4ndian consumers are cautious and are either postponing their travel plans or opting for shorter duration holidays and travelling within the country. 4ndians travel within 4ndia mainly for pilgrimageFreligious reasons, leisure, visiting familiesFfriends and business.

Three states, Andhra "radesh, -ttar "radesh and Tamil 5adu, accounted for almost D0* of domestic tourist visits during .221.

The domestic tourism is set to boom in the coming years along with emerging trends that will allow travelers to indulge more in exploring 4ndia and the varied experiences it offers.

&ut'ound tourism
The trend observed in outbound tourism during .221 was no different from that seen in inbound and domestic tourism. 5umber of outbound visits grew a marginal ).>* to )).) million during .221. After growing )/()3* during .22'(.223, outbound visits slowed down to )).)* in .22>.

A booming economy, higher disposable incomes, higher aspirations, cheaper international travel, and better tourism products boosted outbound tourist flow.

Emerging trends
#ith changing times and global business conditions, significant changes have been observed in the 4ndian travel and tourism industry. &emand for niche and customi@ed tourism products Oifestyle changes and higher disposable incomes have resulted in shifting travel preferences and travelers are loo!ing for $out(of(the(box% experiences. ;onse7uently, travel service providers are offering niche, customi@ed tourism products. This has led to emergence of niche segments such as wine tourism, pop(culture tourism, cruise tourism, wellness tourism, monsoon tourism etc. Tour companies are also willing to customi@e products as per travelers% choicesFpreferences. 9ising online sales ?nline travel sales have increased drastically in recent years. +reater proliferation of the 4nternet, growth in low(cost air carriers, secure payment mechanisms, and coming(up of the 4ndian railways portal have led to rise in online sales in the travel industry. A number of low(cost carriers operate on certain routes, and hence online boo!ing offers choice of air carriers to customers. Airline tic!et boo!ing constitutes more than 32* of online travel sales. Kowever, a shift is being seen from air to non(air segments in the online travel mar!et. This shift is due to the non(air tic!et boo!ing segment growing swiftly with launch of the 4ndian 9ailways online portal (www.irctc.co.in) and many online travel agencies providing bus tic!ets. 4ndian 9ailway

;atering and Tourism ;orporation is the largest travel website in the A"A; in terms of transaction volumes. A number of hotels also use the 4nternet for boo!ing of rooms.

Travel portals and hotel chains used to provide 0D2 degree virtual tours, audio tours and photographs, and text reviews to the travelers. They are now mar!eting through video reviews and video blogs, either put up by themselves or travelers on the travel agency portal or a social media video platform. ?nline travel mar!et sales are expected to grow in the coming years. Spontaneous trave ?nline travel boo!ing has become simpler and easier. Kigh pressure lifestyle coupled with simpler online travel boo!ing has led to travelers ta!ing short, random trips during the year. This has given rise to the concept of $spontaneous travel%. 9eali@ing the potential in this segment, travel companies also offer services for $last(minute boo!ings%. Finite trave Another emerging concept in the travel industry is $finite travel%. A number of people see places andFor species that are endangered or entail some form of time(related environmental ris! or natural phenomenon. 2eed to diversify /usiness mode 8ervice providers are now offering attractive price ranges for services on their websitesI this has led to increase in online transactions. ;onse7uently, the mar!et si@e for travel agents has been narrowing. +iven this change, travel agents and tour operators now need to diversify their

business models and adopt the role of a travel advisor. Travel companies should also start offering valuable services to end(customers for hassle(free travel.

,<,9+45+ &4<,584?58
Tourism will expand greatly in future mainly due to the revolution that is ta!ing place on both the demand and supply side. The changing population structure, improvement in living standard, more disposable income, fewer wor!ing hours and long leisure time, better educated people, ageing population and more curious youth in developing the countries, all will fuel the tourism industry growth. The arrival of a large number of customers, better educated and more sophisticated, will compel the tourist industry to launch new products and brands and re(invents traditional mar!ets. The established traditional destinations founded on sun(sea(sand products will have to re(engineer their products. They must diversify and improve the criteria for destinations and 7ualities of their traditional offers. Alongside beach tourism, the tourism sector will register a steady development of new products based on natural rural business, leisure and art and culture. Thus the study of new mar!ets and emerging mar!ets and necessity of diversified products are the basis of our strategy, which can enhance and sustain, existing and capture new mar!ets. Oet us discuss some of the new tourism products.

.!A)T. TO1,IS0
4ndia is promoting the high(tech healing provided by its private health care sector as a tourist attraction. This budding trade in medical tourism, selling foreigners the idea of travelling to 4ndia for world(class medical treatment at lowest cost, has really got attention in the overseas mar!et. The 4ndian system of medicine, which incorporates ayurveda, yoga, sidha, unani, naturopathy and other traditional healing treatments, is very uni7ue and exotic. This medical expertise coupled with allopathic and other modern methods become our new focus segment to proBect 4ndia as a +lobal Kealing &estination. 4f we believe the report published by <cLen@ie ;onsultants and ;onfederation of 4ndian 4ndustries (;44), the response is 7uite positive and it could be generating revenue approximately 9s.)22b by the year .2).. ?ur medical tourism provides low cost treatment. "erhaps you will wonder that the cost of same treatment in the -8 is ten times more than that in 4ndia. <any state governments li!e Lerala, Andhra "radesh, -ttaranchal, and Larnata!a have been showcasing their medical tourism segment in certain focused mar!et li!e the +ulf and African regions. (+aur Lanchilal) 4ndian private sector hospitals have underta!en massive investment in the area of health. These super(specialty hospitals employ efficient and expert doctors and other paramedical staffs with modern facilities. The experienced doctors, dedicated service minded experts have made available their services for giving alternative system of medicines and treatments. Kealth camps, lecture training classes are also arranged for general awareness. 6ogasana has become popular and widespread and

many public and private and other organi@ations conduct 6oga classes. Ayurveda, naturopathy and nature treatments are popular around the world.

Tota .ea th: A 2ew 0antra Ayurveda

4ndia has a rich heritage in the areas of traditional and natural medicines. The earliest mention of 4ndian medical practices can be found in the Gedas and 8amhitas of ;hara!a, hela and 8husruta. A systematic and scientific approach was adopted by the sages of the time leading to the development of a system that is relevant even today. 4ndia is the land of Ayurveda. 4t believes in removing the cause of illness and not Bust curing the disease itself. 4t is based on herbals and herbal components without having side effects. Ayurveda considers that the base of life lies in the five primary elementsI ether (space), air, fire, water and earth. And the individual is made up of a uni7ue proportion of the five elements in uni7ue combinations to form three doshas (vata, pita and !apha). #hen any of these doshas become accute, a person falls ill. Ayurveda recommends a special life style and nutritional guidelines supplemented with herbal medicines. 4f toxins are abundant, then a cleaning process !nown as "anch!arma is recommended to eliminate those unwanted toxins and revitali@e both mind and body. Ayurveda offers treatments for ailments such as arthritis, paralysis, obesity, sinusitis, migraine, premature aging and general health care. Lerala is a world tourist destination and part of the reasons lies with the well( !nown stress(releasing therapies of famed Ayurvedic research centers. The climate along with the blessing of nature has turned Lerala into the ideal place for ayurvedic, curative and reBuvenating treatments. 3oga 4f Ayurveda is the science of body, yoga is the science of the mind. "racticed together they can go a long way in ma!ing an individual fit. The word yoga means to Boin together. The ultimate aim of yoga is to unite the human soul with the universal spirit. 6oga was developed /222 years ago and the base of yoga is described in the6oga 8utra of "atanBali. This describes eight stages of yoga. These are 6am (universal moral commands), 5iyam (self purification), Asana (posture), "ranayama (breathing control), "rathyahara (withdrawal of mind from external obBects), &harana (concentration), &hyana (meditation), and 8amadhi (state of super consciousness). To get the benefits of yoga, one has to practice Asana, "ranayama and 6oganidra. #ith the regular practice of asanas one can control cholesterol level, reduce weight, normali@e blood pressure and improve cardiac performance. "ranayama helps to release tensions, develop relaxed state of mind and 6oganidra is a form of meditation that relaxes both physiological and psychological systems. Today, yoga has become popular in 4ndia and abroad and in a number of places including urban and rural areas yoga is taught and practiced. Spas

<ost of the other parts of the world have their own therapies and treatment that are no doubt effective in restoring wellness and beauty. 5ew !inds of health tours that are gaining popularity in 4ndia are spa tours. 8pas offer the uni7ue advantages of ta!ing the best from the west and the east combining them with the indigenous system and offering best of the two worlds. 4n hydropathy, 8wedish massages wor! with the Eavanese <andy, lulur, aromatherapy, reflexology and traditional ayurveda procedures to help !eep the tourist healthy and enhance beauty. ;ombining these therapies with meditation, yoga and pranayama ma!e the spa experience in 4ndia a new destination for medical tourism. The spas are very useful for controlling blood pressure, insomnia, cure tension, depression, paralysis and number of other deadly diseases. Ananda 9esort in 9ishi!esh, Angsana 9esort, +olden "alm 8pa and Ayurgram in angalore offer ayurveda, naturopathy, yoga and meditation pac!ages. (+aur Lanchilal) A opathy 4ndia has made rapid strides in advanced health care systems, which provides world(class allopathic treatment. This has become possible because of the emergence of the private sector in a big way in this field. <ore and more foreign tourists are reali@ing that 4ndia is an ideal place for stopover treatment. 4ndian <ulti(specialty hospitals are providing world(class treatment at an ama@ingly economical cost as compared to the west. Tuality services and low price factor primarily go in favour of 4ndia. The cardio care, bone marrow transplantation, dialysis, !idney transplant, neuron:surgery, Boint replacement surgery, urology, osteoporosis and numerous diseases are treated at 4ndian hospitals with full professional expertise. Apollo hospital group, ,scorts in &elhi, Eason Kospital, +lobal Kospital, and <ax Kealth ;are are catering to medical care for international patients in the areas of diagnostic, disease management, preventive health care and incisive surgeries. The tourism department has devised websites in order to provide information. <any Ayurveda health resorts that are owned and run by traditional Ayurveda 4nstitutes have come up. Ayurgram is a novel concept that not only offers heritage accommodation but also offers a whole range of Ayurvedic treatments and reBuvenating pac!ages. 8imilarly hotels have also included these types of pac!ages in their holidays. 8ome of the tour operators have wor!ed out all(inclusive medical treatment pac!age that include treatment, accommodation, food, airport transfers, post operation recuperative holidays, along with a host of other facilities. This in fact shows our product offers true value for money for service. <any world(class state(of(the(art furnishing and e7uipment are being added to our Ayurveda 9esorts to welcome international guests. Along with these hospitals there are many centers which offer not Bust physical but emotional and spiritual healing to patients. #ith all these 4ndia is going to be one of the leading medical health care destinations in the near future.

Additiona Information
The year .2)) has been a year of madness around the world, in political upheavals. The Eapanese earth7ua!e, followed by a pacific(wide tsunami, and nuclear power crisis, by riots in the streets of Oondon, by the fall of the "ortuguese coalition government, by union protests throughout the

world, from <adison, #isconsin to ,urope, from revolutions in much of the Arab world, to renewed bus bombing and roc!et attac!s against 4srael, to a no(fly @one imposed over Oibya. =ood prices are rising at alarming rates. There is no one factor to account for the rapid increase in the rise of food prices. These price rises are the result of a number of factorsC irregular rainfall in much of the world including a maBor Texas draught, the high cost of fuel resulting in higher transportation costs, political disturbances in the <iddle ,ast, the need to ration food in a post earth7ua!eFtsunami Eapan have all contributed to AAfood stic!er shoc!AA and political tension. 4t may well be hypothesi@ed that much of the worldNs political upheavals have less to do with a desire for democracy and as have occurred throughout history, more to do with the cost of food. The impact of tourism caught in the crossfire is already manifesting itself. 9estaurants have had to raise prices or lower their service. Transportation companies have been (and will continue to be) hard hit. The airline industry is especially vulnerable. Airlines depend on both the food industry (at least in first class or executive class) and the fuel industry. Already on the margin, airlines can do nothing more than cut services and raise prices. The result of such a policy may create an economic tsunami as the leisure traveler may well decide that travel is simply too expensive and thus the AAstaycationAA (or stay(at(home(vacation) once again becomes a reality influencing hotels and attractions throughout the world. =urthermore, from a tourism security perspective, the worldNs security situation has deteriorated. =ew nations today are not suffering from either political or economically motivated violence. =rom <exicoNs drug wars to most of Oatin AmericaNs express !idnappings, from street violence from ,ngland to the <iddle ,ast, the tourism world must face the fact that there is an increase both in the potential for crime and for acts of terrorism. 4ndeed the current Oibyan government, with a great deal of blood on its hands, is not above AApunishingAA the #est by further acts of terrorism. The international tourism industry must also face the reality that world currencies are no longer stable. 4t is impossible to predict the value of the -8 dollar or euro over the next twelve months. This inability to !now the value of a currency means that long(range tourism prices are especially hard to predict and the fallout from this monetary instability is already affecting multiple tourism support systems. =or example, tourism experts are now noting that hospitals are turning people away (despite their nationNs laws) who do not have local insurance or a well( bac!ed credit card. The tourism industry must also recogni@e that despite what the politicians may tell us the worldNs economy has multiple challenges. Among these challenges is the fact that retirement accounts, throughout the #estern world, are no longer sustainable. #ell(healed unions may protest, but there is no way that a diminishing wor!ing population can afford to allow people to retire at full or three 7uarter wages for periods of .2 or thirty years or more. #hat this means is that the group of people who often travel the most, the young retirees, may have to ma!e maBor lifestyle changes and these changes may have a great impact on the world of tourism. &espite these

numerous challenges, it would be a mista!e to predict the demise of the travel and tourism industry.

0I&! TO1,IS0
The meetings, incentives, conferences and exhibitions (<4;,) industry is extensively and rapidly growing and is largely associated with travel for business purpose. <4;, related events include meetings, conferences, conventions, exhibitions and incentive travels. ,ach of these different subsections of <4;, has 7uite different characteristics although the industry is often referred to as <4;,. 4ncreasingly convention bureaus serve the needs of meetings, incentives and exhibitions organi@ers and service providers supply each of the sectors.

4usiness with $ easure

#ith the 4ndian economy opening up and government restrictions loosening, <umbai, angalore, Kyderabad, ;hennai, &elhi and Lol!ata are assuming importance as maBor centers of business activity in the country. The days of red( tape always associated with 4ndian business activity is a thing of the past and corporate 4ndia has moved towards more western standards of professionalism. 8ince the liberali@ation of the 4ndian economy, <4;, tourism is becoming a growing segment in 4ndia. <ore and more business people have been coming to 4ndia for business purpose and adding business with pleasure in their 4ndia tour. <ost of the hotels and tour operators offer special facilities for travellersI some even speciali@ed in this field. They offers pic!(up at the airport, corporate floor rooms which will feature phones, fax machines, computers, Bournals. All rooms offer elaborate conferencing facilities at hotels and special conventions centers. Kotels are adept in organi@ing theme ban7uets for a product launch, small coc!tails etc. The important conference centers are 5ew &elhi, <umbai, Eaipur, Lovalam, ;hennai, angalore, Agra, and +oa where popular convention tours offer exciting possibilities.

4ncentive tourism
4ncentive travel has emerged as a popular means of rewarding the employees% achievements and contributions, by several business houses especially multinational companies, 4nsurance ;ompanies, an!s, "harmaceuticals =irms, etc. ,mployees are given free tic!ets or holidays pac!ages to select destinations all paid by company. These are given as added per!s to !eep up the interest of the executives who are the high performers of the company. 4ncentive tours mar!et has become fast growing sector within the tourism industry.

A#5!2T1,! TO1,IS0
6outh tourism has been identified as one of the largest segments of global and domestic tourism. The young travellers are primarily experience see!ers, collecting, en7uiring uni7ue experiences. Adventure and ris! have a special role to play in the behaviour and attitudes of young travellers.

The growing number of young travellers is being fuelled by a number of factors such as increased participation in higher education, falling level of youth unemployment, increased travel budget through parental contribution, search for an even more exciting and uni7ue experience and cheaper long distance travel. 6outh and adventure tourism appears to have considerable growth potential. The rising income in some maBor potential source mar!ets such as the ;entral and ,astern ,urope, Asia and Oatin America, combined with the lower travel cost, growing student populations around the world particularly in developing countries, has fuelled the demand. 4ndiaC a heaven for adventure tourism 4ndia has been an attraction for travellers from all over the world. Though in the field of international tourism, the segment of adventure tourism in 4ndia is getting only a fraction of such traffic. The trend has been showing an increased movement year after year with the development of facilities and greater awareness about adventure tourism options. 4ndian tourism offers both international and domestic adventurers a wide choice of adventures. #ater sports, elephant safari, s!iing, yachting, hail(s!iing, gliding, sailing, tribal tours, orchid tours, scaling the high pea!s of Kimalayas, tre!!ing to the valley of flowers, riding the waves in rapids, and camel safari in the deserts are breath ta!ing opportunities for nature enthusias. Oada!h, the +arwal hills, the Kimachal hills, &arBeeling, +oa, Oa!shadweep, Andaman and 5icobar, Eaisalmer and wildlife sanctuaries and reserves are some of the places that offer adventure tourism. Kimalayas are the centre of 4ndia%s main adventure activities as well as outdoor recreational tourism. ?ur rivers, bac!waters, 4ndian ?cean, Arabian 8ea and deserts are uni7ue attractions for the various branches of adventure. Tre!!ing holds out the greatest potential in terms of numbers. 4t re7uires little infrastructure and carries its benefits to remote hills and mountain regions. <any of them are economically poor and bac!ward. =or our own youth it also helps in inculcating a spirit of adventure, respect for nature. 4ndian <ountaineering =ederation, <inistry of Tourism and 8tate +overnments are trying to improve tre!!ing facilities and ensure safety and protection of travellers. The 4nstitute of <ountaineering also organi@es courses for guides to train them in basic roc! climbing safety procedures, environmental !nowledge, and flora and fauna conservation. The maBor tre! heads in the Kimalayan region include Lashmir valley, Lirshwasser Pans!ar, Oadha!, Oahul and 8piti, ;hampa and <anali, etc, Tre!!ing in the Kimalayas is a 7uite enBoyable. Oet us now discuss some important adventure activitiesC

67 0ountaineering !"pedition
This is the first and foremost activity in the Kimalayas. 4n 4ndia, the expeditions are controlled and regulated by 4ndian <ountaineering =ederation, which is the nodal body. =oreign expedition groups have to re7uest the 4ndian <ountaineering =oundation (4<=) to boo! the re7uired pea! and 4<= confirms the pea!, by charging the royalty depending upon the number of persons and height of pea!. <inistry of &efence, Kome <inistry, <inistry of ,xternal Affairs are also involved in this process.

87 ,iver rafting The Kimalayan river%s offer 9iver rafting that run through the beautiful terrains, sandy white beaches, boulder studded rapids, river confluences, deep gorges, and some revered temples and towns. #hite(water sports are popular in 9ishi!esh, <anali, Pans!ar Teesta, eas, ;entral <inistry of Tourism has great extremely extended support to import inflatable rafts, canoes, !aya!s, and accessories to boost water sports. Oa!shadweep and Andaman have been promoted for scuba diving and windsurfing. 97 Water Sports To boost water sports, water s!iing and sailing both in seas and la!es, and river facilities has been provided. ;hil!a Oa!e in ?rissa, Lollam in Lerala, hopal Oa!e in <adhya "radesh, &al Oa!e in Lashmir are some of the places where facilities have been provided for water sports. 4n Kimachal hills Keli(s!iing is also being promoted in season. The +arwal <andal Gi!as 5igam provides regular s!iing courses during the season. 4t can be said that 4ndia is a new destination for adventure tourism. The <inistry of tourism, The Kimalayan Tas! =orce and Kimalayan Tourism and Adventure Tourism oard (K<TA ) meet every year to discuss conservation, promotion for Kimalayan tourism, and conservation of ecology.

2AT1,! TO1,IS0
4n search of new tourism products, travellers and suppliers are today see!ingto reshape the meaning of nature as a tourism attraction. <odern nature based tourism focuses on experiencing flora and fauna in natural settings. The nature based tourism related to nature, its attractiveness so that the visitors experience it in its natural settings. ,co(tourism ta!es into account unspoiled natural and socio(cultural attraction. Today the term nature tourism is often used synonymously with eco(tourism. Today nature tourism is the fastest growing segment of the tourism sector. 4t comprises around '2(D2* of all international tourism. &iversity of 4ndia is to be seen not only in its people, culture, religions, language and life style, the diversity starts in the land itself. The snow bourd pea!s of the Kimalayas, tropical rain forests, and hot deserts and breathta!ing beautiful coasts. ,ach diverse geographical region generates a different picture and exploring them provides a uni7ue experience. 5ow all these are pac!aged for tourists to provide eco( friendly holidays in 4ndia.

67 Wi d ife
The diversity of wild life in 4ndia is as rich as that of its flora and fauna. The great wealth of 4ndian wild(life can be imagined with the sight of maBestic elephants, the dance of peacoc!s, the camel strides, the roar of tigers, at unparalleled acts of beauty. #atching birds and animals in their natural habitat is an experience in itself. The vastness of wild life and wilderness is 4ndia unparallel in the world. All these account for the immense opportunities for wild life tourism in 4ndia. The immense heritage of wild life in 4ndia comprises >2 national par!s and another

whopping '') wild life sanctuaries including bird sanctuaries. These reserves and forest areas are spread across the breadth and length right form the foot hills of Kimalayan, the Eim ;orbet 5ational par! to six national par!s in Andaman, from 9anthambhor national par! in 9aBasthan to Ka@aribag wild life sanctuary in ihar. 4ndia also boasts of the uni7ue ecosystem at 8underbans which is a -5,8;? world heritage site and home to the largest number of tigers in the world. The Kimalayan region is renowned for being the national habitat for a variety of wild life, elephants, snow leopards, deer, panther, wild buffalos, wild ass, one horned rhinoceros, porcupine, snow leopards, etc. The La@iranga +ame 8anctuary is ideal habitat for the rhino that the nature lovers and environmentalists are fascinated by. The great 4ndian bustard and the blac! buc! of Lerera sanctuary attract a lot of tourists. The <adhav 5ational "ar! (8hivpuri "ar!) is another rich habitat for the wild life. The royal animal, tiger happens to be symbol of strength and speed. Amongst the best(!nown tiger reserves in 4ndia is andhawgarh in <adhya "radesh. 4t is also !nown as the crown in the wild life heritage of 4ndia. The variety of birds in 4ndia is enormous. 8everal hundred species of bird can be spotted across 4ndia. 4ndian wild life has its share of native birds along with migratory birds. The region of Andaman is home to rare species of birds li!e 5arcondum hornbills, 5icobar pigeons and megaspores. The Kimalayan region is well !nown as the natural habitat for the pheasant griffon, vulture and ravens. &udhuwa wild life reserve, Leoladeao, +hana national par!, the haratpur bird sanctuary in 9aBasthan is home to indigenous and migratory water birds. These bird sanctuaries are attracting tourists from far and wide.

87 Fishing and ang ing

Among the ama@ing array of nature tours offered in 4ndia are those that offer angling and fishing. The waters of 4ndian sub(continent are mind blowing grounds for the nature sports. The adventures settings range from the maBestic Kimalayan valleys, snow fed streams and high altitude la!es and wide coastal stretches of the Arabia 8eas and ay of engal. Amidst the beautiful hills of the Kimalayas is tented accommodation along the river beds, excellent option for adventure holidays in 4ndia. The ;auvery fishing lodge near <ysore, the hill stations of <unnar, and streams and la!es of Lerala and Lashmir are a paradise for anglers.

97 .i Stations
At heights that range from D22 m to 0/22m above sea level, most of the hill resorts of 4ndia are tourist destination in 4ndia. The hill stations add to the nature tour of 4ndia with maBestic mountains and ravishing rivers. <ountain ranges of 8himla, Lullu <anali, &alhousie, "alampur in Kimachal "radesh, 5ainital(Almora(Lausani in Lumaon hills of -ttar "radesh, "achmarhi in <adhya"radesh, &arBeeling are important for their snow(dusted pea!s, la!es, par!s and hot springs. The waterfalls, sulphur bath and all provide such an experience, which will linger in one%s mind. +reen heavens are on not only in the forest but the 4slands are also a source of the best eco(tourism destinations. The tourism activities in Oa!shadweep bring you close to nature. Andamans that are covered with rainforest, ringed by coral reefs, marine life, swimming and

sunbathing are good experiences. #e are promoting tourism but while promoting tourism in eco( sensitive areas the emphasis is to control the volume of tourists so that the fragile balance of the area is not disturbed. The whole obBective of nature tourism is to have purposeful travel to natural areas. Ta!ing special note of this very obBective of the eco(tourism while utilising the economic opportunities we should ensure conservation of natural resources. "eople travel to those areas, which enlightens, educates and entertains them. The new changed concept of nature tourism revives the tired source of the eco(tourism. 4t also provides basic economic upliftment to local people and other sta!eholders who are directly dependent on this natural heritage. This strong relationship is targeted throughout eco(tourism.

Government Initiatives
<inistry of Tourism formulated eco(tourism guidelines for regulated and sustainable tourism. Tour operators operating in the fragile @ones have adopted the (American 8ociety of travel Agents) eco(practices for ecotourism practices. These areC ( R Oeave only foot prints, ta!e photographs, but do not ta!e away from natural areas and heritage monuments. R ,ncourage local culture R 9espect local traditions R Kelp in the conservation efforts R &o not buy products made of endangered plants and animals. R Try to respect natural habitats and support those products which promote the cause of environment and protection ,cotourism +uidelines. (+aur Lanchilal)

,1,A) TO1,IS0
9ural tourism has been identified as one of the priority areas for development of 4ndian tourism. 9ural tourism experience should be attractive to the tourists and sustainable for the host community. The 5inth "lan identified basic obBectives of rural tourism asC ( 4mprove the 7uality of life of rural people "rovide good experience to the tourist <aintain the 7uality of environment.

4ndian villages have the potential for tourism development. #ith attractive and uni7ue traditional way of life, rich culture, nature, crafts, fol!(lore and livelihood of 4ndian villages are a promising destination for the tourist. 4t also provides tourism facilities in terms of accessibility, accommodation, sanitation and security. 9ural tourism can be used as a means toC(

4mprove the well being of the rural poor ,mpower the rural people ,mpower the women ,nhance the rural infrastructure "articipate in decision(ma!ing and implementing tourism policies 4nteraction with the outside world 4mprove the social condition of lower sections of the society. "rotection of culture, heritage, and nature.

To tap the immense opportunities, coordinated actives of all agencies involved in the development are re7uired. A carefully planned and properly implemented development will definitely benefit the community economically and improve the 7uality of life in the villages. The success of such development depends upon the people%s participation at grass root level for the development of tourist facilities and for creating a tourist friendly atmosphere. &evelopment of rural tourism is fast and trade in hotels and restaurants is growing rapidly. 4ncrease in the share of earnings through rural tourism will no doubtI provide an attractive means of livelihood to the poor rural community. 4t increases the purchasing power at all levels of community and strengthens the rural economy. &evelopment of infrastructure facilities such as rail, electricity, water, health and sanitation will definitely improve the 7uality of life.

Government Initiatives
;entral +overnment and 8tate +overnments have been encouraging rural handicrafts and fairs and festivals that have direct impact on preservation of heritage and culture of rural 4ndia. 4t also draws tourists from all over the world. 9egional fairs, festivals help the growth of tourism, provide a ready mar!et for the handicrafts, alternative income to the community, and facilitate regional interaction within the country. The state governments have been monitoring closely the ecological relationship, socio cultural impact and conducting feasibility studies before selecting tourist sites. The state governments also ensure thatC Tourism : &oes not cause the tension for the host community 5o adverse impact on the resources "sychological satisfaction for the tourist. The large inflow of tourists would not put a stress on the local system Oocal community should not be deprived of basic facilities for the benefits of tourist The rural tourism does not disrupt the rhythm of community life

Thus the ;entral +overnment and 8tate +overnments have ta!en various steps for the promotion of tourism and attainment of the goal of sustainable tourism development.

Future #eve opments

Tourist destination of the future will be influenced by variety of factors, but technology and the demands of new tourist will be dominant. Technology permeates destination development in

many ways such as, hotel communication system, computer reservation system which allows matching of demand with supply and computer generated imagery and use of virtual reality. Thus the stage is set for a range of new tourist destinations to be developed and for the more effective management of existing destinations. There is no doubt that these new and existing destinations need to be better planned and managed and show more concern for their environment and host community.

The impact of tourism on any destination will be determined by a wide variety of factorsC ( Golume of tourism arrivals 8tructure of the economy Types of tourism activity &ifferences in socio(cultural characteristics between host and the tourists. The fragility of the local environment. As tourism development in a destination ta!es place, the magnitude of impacts whether positive or negative will change the nature. ,very destination is subBect to a carrying capacity( a level of tourism activity that can be sustained into the long term without creating serious or irreversible changes to the destination. The carrying capacity is defined as that level of tourist presence which creates impact on the host community, environment, and economy that are acceptable to both tourists and hosts and sustainable over future period of time. 4f the carrying capacity is exceeded, the destination will find that the negative impacts rapidly increase while the positive impacts diminish. The tourism development process will be hindered and irreversible damage may be experienced and finally the tourist dissatisfaction results in the decline of destinations. The damage may be concerned with social, environment or economic aspects but the end result will be the same. The economic impact of tourism has been discussed in lesson ' and now we will discuss the social and environmental impacts.

!25I,O20!2TA) I0$A&T

Tourism development in many places has led to the deterioration in environmental 7uality since the onset of mass tourism. 4n many destinations, tourism development has ta!en place with little regard for natural environment. The effect of mass tourism and increasing awareness of human impact as environment led to a generali@ation that nature is not an in exhaustive resource. =or some destinations the environmental effects of tourism have led to direct threat to the industry, as the success in attracting tourist lead to negative impact on the attraction of environment. This section discusses the maBor environmental impact of tourism. The environmental effect of tourism in developing countries is among least studied one. Kowever they have attracted considerable attention in developed countries where high intensity usage and demand by tourism has transformed many land farms. Tourism bought economic prosperity which adversely affected environment. 4n search of holidays <illion of tourists are crowding the popular beach resorts, mountain tre!s, Bungles and at ancient monuments. The population of +oa is Bust one million but over one million visitors visit every year in +oa. 4ts beaches are crowded at pea! season. The beautiful &al Oa!e of Lashmir has been reduced to half of its si@e in less than /2 years by human encroachments. 02 years ago, <anali in Kimachal "radesh was a small hill resorts catering to the needs of people who loved nature. 5ow it is an overcrowded city with ugly multi storied buildings. "recious wild life : tigers, lions and panthers have become virtually extinct in 4ndian Bungles due to hunting and poaching. The Oada!h in Lashmir is Bammed with litter left by tourists. Too many hotels on the lovely beaches of +oa have created anti(tourism feelings among the local people. <odern tourism involves thousands of visitors and demand massive infrastructure. &evelopment ta!es many shapes and forms : roads, hotels, restaurants and transport facilities : altering ecological balances of destinations. The opening of new roads leads to the exploitation of remote forest areas, which provided green cover and timely rains for our fields. The rush to build tourist facilities at the most attractive and convenient sites changes the ecosystem and affects the natural beauty of the place. The upsurge of world tourism has changed the situation and caused alarm all over the world. The environmentalists who want to save nature from destructions and motivate people to ta!e care the future of this earth. Kunter and +reen provide an overview of the maBor potential impact of tourism on the natural environment. The following Table illustrates the wide range of potential conse7uence of tourism development in specific habitats.

Tourism development li!e other industries brings negative impacts on economy, society and the environment. The tourism industry generates foreign exchange, employment and contributes to the balance of payment. ut these positive effects are often accompanied by disastrous implication such as inflation, lea!ages and dependency. The social impacts of tourism are demonstration effect, acculturation, prostitution and crime, displacement of community and commerciali@ation of culture. Tourism development in many places has led to the deterioration of environmental 7uality. The loss of habitat, extinction of species, pollution, etc. will ultimately result in decline of the destination and even threatens the very existence of the community. 4n search for new tourism products, the suppliers are see!ing to reshape the nature as a tourism attraction. ,co tourism, a broader concept, is environmental friendly concept involves protection and conservation of environment. This is based on the sustainable tourism development. The sustainable tourism development ensures the use of resources for present and future generations.

$OI2TS OF 5I!W What some of the Tourism Industry &hiefs say and do a/out corporate socia responsi/i ity :( Ive been in this business for a long time and know first hand that tourism is the economic cornerstone of many communities around the world. While a thriving tourism industry can provide a better livelihood for local people, it cannot be at the expense of the environment and local culture. Travel Tourism has come a long way in the past decade in facing up to its social and environmental responsibility, and we are proud to be part of organi!ations such as WTT" that are #raising the bar for the industry.$ ; W 0arriott ;r* &hairman + &!O* 0arriott Internationa <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< We strongly believe that local people who live around our hotels, especially youth, are our future. In the hotel business we have a responsibility and an excellent opportunity to help people develop in ways that will contribute to the prosperity of the entire community and help individuals reali!e their dream of a better life. %t the same time, this approach is good for our business & when you help people, they do their best for you.$ ;ean Ga/rie $=r>s* $resident + &!O* 0ovenpic' .ote s <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< "orporate social responsibility is part of the future for all companies. With the creative use of incentives and awards, the entrepreneurial spirit and market forces can be harnessed for the good of business and society.$ ;ean<0arc !spa iou"* &hairman of the 0anagement 4oard + &!O* A&&O, <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< I am convinced that the Travel Tourism industry has a huge opportunity to contribute to building a sustainable global society. 'y bringing people into contact with different cultures and environments across the globe, we can increase awareness of what the issues are and of what is needed for responsible practices.$ ,od !ddington* &hief !"ecutive* 4ritish Airways <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

%s global companies become citi!ens of everywhere, each must be on guard that they dont become #citi!ens of nowhere. %s a family(owned company, we have a deep sense of commitment to being good corporate citi!ens and promoting the sustainable development of local communities. We do this not only by creating value, but by placing the highest possible value on our employees, our communities and the environment.$ Marilyn Carlson Nelson, Chairman & CEO, Carlson Companies, Inc <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< %t )adisson *%* our commitment to sustainable development and responsible tourism has developed considerably over the past ten years, and today we have made environmental and social responsibility a cornerstone of how we conduct business around the world. I am proud to say that our )esponsible 'usiness programme has resulted in significant achievements, both to improve the +uality of life in the communities where we operate and to reduce our impact on the environment. I have no doubt that these achievements will help shape the future success of our company.$ Kurt ,itter* $resident + &!O* ,adisson SAS .ote s + ,esorts <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Future Out oo'

The Asia "acific region will still maintain its status as the fastest growing region in the world and most forecasts point to the regionNs healthy long term prospects. The #T?Ns ()11Db) forecast reveals the region emerging as the worldNs number two region behind ,urope in .2)2 with ..1 million international arrivals, growing at an annual rate of 3.D*. The rapid growth of tourism will create new mar!eting opportunities in the cruise line industry, timesharing, meetings and incentives, ecotourism, and dive travel. Eapan will continue to be the principal visitor generating mar!et, while ;hina has the potential to be the next maBor visitor generating mar!et. <aBor events that will boost the status of the region include the ;ommonwealth +ames in <alaysia in )11>, the .222 ?lympic +ames in 8ydney and soccerNs #orld ;up in Lorea and Eapan in .22.. =orecasts by the #orld Travel and Tourism ;ouncil ()11/) for the Asia "acific region reveal that by the year .22/, travel and tourism will generate -8J).1 trillion in gross output, and account for )).D* of +&". =urther, the industry will create an additional )2/ million new and indirect Bobs. To support this growth, -8J//0 billion in capital investments will be needed for the infrastructure and superstructure.

8trong economic growth will continue to increase disposable incomes and stimulate the desire to travel. This will increase the demand for air travel which is expected to grow at an annual rate of >.D* till .222 and 3.)* from .222 to .2)2. y .2)2, the Asia "acific region will control half of the worldNs total passenger traffic. Eapan will dominate the traffic with over 12 million passengers, followed by Kong Long, ;hina, and 8ingapore. The fastest growing travel mar!ets by .222 will be Gietnam, ;hina, Taiwan, 4ndonesia, and Thailand (Air Transport Action +roup )11/). To accommodate the demand for air travel, airlines in the region will ta!e delivery of more than -8J)22 billion worth of aircraft. As of <arch )11D, Asia "acific airlines had firm orders and options for a total of /3/ aircraft (<u7bil )11D). 5ew airports are opening in Kong Long, Lorea, and <alaysia, while expansions in 8ingapore and 4ndonesia will help to alleviate capacity and congestion problems. illions of dollars will be spent in capital investments to meet the increasing demands of a burgeoning tourism and hotel industry. Eoint promotions and alliances between 5T?s and the private sector, will create a stronger collective tourism product that will increase arrivals and enhance tourism growth. =inally, the recent devaluation of the regional currencies will also have maBor implications for the tourism industry in the region. 4nbound travel will increase as visitors will be attracted by the higher purchasing power in countries where currencies have been devalued. <ore specifically, visitor expenditures will increase as a result of a higher length of stay and attractive prices. 4n the short term, devaluation may have some negative impact on outbound travel and operating costs, but the long(term benefits will outweigh the costs.

Trave + Tourism &areers < Future Out oo'

8alaries are slowly going up. "eople are living longer. The cost of travel (both domestic and international) is constantly going down. #hat this means is that the travel H tourism industry is poised for tremendous growth in the coming years. 4tNs not uncommon for families to ta!e trips to ,urope for summer vacation. ,xpect this trend to spread to 8outh America, Asia, and Africa as well.

Trave + tourism careers

This is great news for anyone with a career in recreation and tourism. Kotel staff, chefs, tour guides, travel agents, flight attendants, and even embassy personnel will have plenty of wor! as a result of heightened travel and leisure time. And because tourism is such a vast field, you have many different careers from which to choose. Are you a lawyer at heartU ,very resort needs legal counsel. "erhaps youNre a history fanatic or an outdoor adventure. Oead tour groups. Kandy in the !itchenU 8tudy to become a gourmet chef at a spa. #hatever career you desire, there are options out there.

.owever* schoo ing is necessary

Tourism is about providing 7uality service to deserving customers. After wee!s of saving and scrimping, people want to be treated lavishly during their few precious days of free time. ThatNs why most employers will re7uire that you complete formal study and training in your appropriate field. 6our studies will prepare you to provide the high level of service re7uired for whatever Bob you choose to enter.

&onstant growth( )imit ess possi/i ities

9etiring couples now have the resources and availability to get away for a few months. ;ollege graduates often ta!e extended summer vacations between their studies. Koneymooners can Bet to the other side of the world instead of the usual 5iagara =alls getaway. 4f you want a career that promises many rewards, daily stimulation, and personal fulfilment, why not explore tourism as a possible option. #ouldnNt you rather have an office at a resort than in a downtown cubicleU

$erformance of Tourism Sector #uring ;anuary 8?66

<inistry of Tourism compiles monthly estimates of =oreign Tourist Arrivals (=TAs) and =oreign ,xchange ,arnings (=,,) from tourism on the basis of data received from maBor airports. =ollowing are the important highlights regarding =TAs and =,, from tourism in 4ndia during the month of Eanuary .2)). Foreign Tourist Arriva s @FTAs7: =TAs during the <onth of Eanuary .2)) were /.0> la!h as compared to =TAs of '.1) la!h during the month of Eanuary .2)2 and '... la!h in Eanuary .221. There has been a growth of 1.3 * in Eanuary .2)) over Eanuary .2)2 as compared to a growth of )D.' * registered in Eanuary .2)2 over Eanuary .221. The trend of significant positive growth in =TAs observed during the year .2)2 continued in Eanuary, .2)) also with a growth rate of 1.3 *. Foreign !"change !arnings @F!!7 from Tourism in Indian ,upee terms and 1S A terms: =,, during the month of Eanuary .2)) were 9s./333 crore as compared to 9s. //10 crore in Eanuary .2)2 and 9s. '/1> crore in Eanuary .221. The growth rate in =,, in 9upee terms in Eanuary .2)) over Eanuary .2)2 were 0.0 * as compared to .).D * in Eanuary .2)2 over Eanuary .221. =,, in -8 J terms during the month of Eanuary .2)) were -8 J ).30 million as compared to =,, of -8 J ).)/ million during the month of Eanuary .2)2 and -8J 1') million in Eanuary .221. The growth rate in =,, in -8J terms in Eanuary .2)) over Eanuary .2)2 was '.> * as compared to the growth of .1.) * in Eanuary .2)2 over Eanuary .221. Although a land of rich cultural heritage and breathta!ing natural beauty, 4ndia ran!s ')st among the top global

destinations for international travel. There%s still a long way to go for 4ndia to feature among the top ten destinations. The domestic tourist volume in 4ndia is also booming, reaching 32/ million in .2)2. The scope is immense, and the onus is now on the country%s administration to ta!e the correct policy measures. 4right future The future of tourism in 4ndia is certainly bright but we do have a long road ahead. &evelopment of 7uality infrastructure will be the !ey to 4ndiaNs harnessing her full tourism potential. The <inistry of Tourism has been very supportive to the fraternity efforts, and now visa on arrival is slowly becoming a reality. 4ndiaNs tourism mar!et is showing signs of maturity, with state tourism boards luring the consumers through their creative mar!eting campaigns, even the lesser mar!eted regions li!e ;hhattisgarh, ?rissa and #est engal are gaining ground for their authentic local experiences. 8ome exciting new trends that will have a positive impact in the development of 4ndia tourism, over the next two years, are those of adventure and responsible tourism. 4ndiaNs pledge to sustainable tourism development has led to the industry wa!ing up to the need for doing its bit of giving bac! to society through ;89 and environment protection. The 4nternet has also added a new dimension to the business of travel with websites being used as a primary source of information and boo!ing. The way forward for 4ndia tourism would be to have a streamlined approach so that we can widen the scope of the industry.

Trend in #omestic Tourist Arriva s in India

6ears .22/ .22D .223 .22> .221 .2)2 &omestic Tourists (4n millions) 01).1/ 'D..0) /.D./D /D..1> DD1.2. 3'2.22 "ercentage (*) change 3.2 )>.2 )0.1 D.1 )>.> )2.D)

The domestic tourist data further reveals a pattern of a few states garnering a larger chun! of the growing traffic. =or instance, top five states namely Andhra "radesh ()//.> mil), -ttar "radesh ()''.' mil), Tamil 5adu ())).D mil), <aharashtra ('>./ mil) and Larnata!a (0>.. mil) constitute

around D3* of the total traffic in .2)2. This is indicative of a trend in spatial concentration of tourist activities, which indeed has been consistently observed over many decades owing perhaps much to the religiousFpilgrim tourism and location of important cultural attractions in those states. 5ot that 4ndians are touring only within its national limits. 4t is rather interesting to observe two main features of their overseas travel patterns. =irst and foremost is a consistent increase in the numbers of 4ndians ta!ing international vacation travel over the years, which would suggest growing from 3..* in .22/ to )..0* in .2)2. ,ven when the global 3 tourist movements fallen substantially as a result of global recession, 4ndian outbound traffic has been growing with consistency and stability. 8econd, rather more pertinent from the perspective of travel account balance, is the difference in terms of inbound and outbound tourist numbers where the later can be seen double to inbound numbers. The phenomenal growth in outbound travel could be a by( product of many economic and social factors, most important being material prosperity and urge for travel and life styles. ?ther contributing factors being ease of travel documents li!e passport, visa, relaxation in foreign exchange regulations, better awareness of destinations and benefits of travel etc. As regards travel segments, the <4;, and business travel are arguably growing faster compared to the leisure segments. The 7uantum of 4ndian nationals on overseas vacations increased from D.. million in .22' to )) million in .221.

Indian 2ationa s Going A/road

5o. of ?utbound visits (in millions) 6ear +rowth (*) Total .22/ )/.D 3.)> .22D )D.) >.0' .223 )3.0 1.3> .22> )).) )2.>3 .221 ).> )).23 .2)2 )).' )...>

Indian Tourism Sector and 1nion 4udget 8?66 < $resentation Transcript
4nternational Tourism 4ndustry 4nternational Tourist Arrivals (4TAs), .22)()2 (=igures in <illions) 8ourceC #orld Tourism ?rgani@ation (www.unwto.org) 4nternational Tourist Arrivals was totaled D'. million between Eanuary and August .2)2, expecting to increase in the range of /*(D* over the full year.

4nternational Tourist Arrivals by ;ountry of &estination. .22>, .221 and .2)2 (=igures in <illions) Top )2 &estination : ;ountry wise ?ut of a global total of >>2 million tourists in .221, 4ndia was ran!ed at ') st place, still a long way to be among top )2 destinations in the world. 8ourceC #orld Tourism ?rgani@ation (www.unwto.org), httpCFF www.statistics.gov.u!FcciFnugget.aspUidV0/. =igures for 4taly and +ermany are not updated. .221 .22> .2)2 #orld Travel <ar!et 4n .221, 4nternational tourism with tourist arrivals was down by '* and world travel exports fell by 1* worldwide. Kowever, Asia was least impacted #orld tourism is recovering rapidly. According to #T?, the number of international tourists increased by 0('* in .2)2. 8ourceC #orld Tourism ?rgani@ation (www.unwto.org) and 4ndian ,conomic 8urvey .2)2()) &ecline in 5umber of 4nternational Tourists, .221 (=igures in *) Tourism <ar!et in 4ndia is a land of vast attractions, ranging from diverse natural formations to historical monuments and relics going bac! to more than two millennia, there is vast scope for expansion of tourism in 4ndia. 4n .2)2 the total number of foreign tourists that arrived in 4ndia was /./> million and they brought in a foreign exchange earning of 9s. D'>.>1 billion (J)'.' billion). 4t should be possible for 4ndia to get many times more inbound tourists than it currently does. Tourism is the !ey area which can yield large benefits for society. =TA in 4ndia Bumped to /./> million in .2)2 compared to /.)) million in .221. 8imilarly, =,, increased to J)' billion compared to J)) billion in .221. There is a need to offer uni7ue experience to international tourists. 4nternational tourists are used to boo!ing their stay online. 4n 4ndia, Tourists have to depend on local travel agents to find a place to stay. =oreign Tourist Arrivals =oreign Tourist Arrivals (=TAs), .22D()2 (=igures in <illions) 8ourceC 4ndian Tour ?perator "romotion ;ouncilI <inistry of Tourism and ;ulture 4ndia%s performance in tourism sector has been 7uite impressive over this decade. =oreign ,xchange ,arning (=,,s), .22D()2 (=igures in J <illion) The number of domestic tourist visits increased to 32/ million in .2)2 compared to D/2 million in .221. Kowever, the maBor share of domestic tourism includes religious trips, family reunion and business travel trips from one place to another. &omestic Tourists 8tatics &omestic Travellers, .22D()2 (=igures in <illions) 8ourceC <inistry of Tourism and ;ulture &escribing domestic tourism is the bac!bone of 4ndia Tourism 4ndustry. Tourism ( <aBor ,ngines of ,conomic +rowth Tourism is one of the maBor engines of economic growth in most parts of the world including 4ndia. 8ince tourism does not fall under a single heading in the 5ational Accounts 8tatistics, its contribution has to be estimated. According to the -5 #orld Tourism ?rgani@ation, tourism provides D(3* of the world%s total Bobs directly and millions more indirectly through the multiplier effect in this sector. 4n absolute numbers, the total number of tourism Bobs in the country increased from 0>.D million in .22.(20 to '1.> million in .223(2>. Tourism%s ;ontribution ( +&" and Total Eobs, .223(2> (=igures in *) ,xports of Travel 8ervices #orld exports of Travel 8ervices were valued at J>32 billion in .221. 4n .221, all commercial services sectors were affected by the global crisis but not to the same extent. Travel was the least impacted segment with a negative growth of 1* in .221. 4ndia is

moving towards a services(dominated +&". The share of 8oftware and usiness services are increasing. Kowever, the cause of concern is the decline of exports of Travel 8ervices from .)./* in .222(2) to )..'* in .221()2. 4ndia has not yet tapped the vast tourism potential. 8ourceC 4ndian ,conomic 8urvey .2)2()) +54,V +overnment not included elsewhere <iscellaneous includes 8oftware 8ervices, usiness 8ervices, =inancial 8ervices and ;ommunication 8ervices <iscellaneous Travel Transportation +54, 4nsurance 4ndia%s ,xport of 8ervices, .222(2) and .2)2()) (=igures in *). 5ational Tourism "olicy .22. 5ational Tourism "olicy evolves around six broad areas such as #elcome (8wagat), 4nformation (8uchana), =acilitation (8uvidha), 8afety (8ura!sha), ;ooperation (8ahyog) and 4nfrastructure &evelopment (8amrachana). The !ey aim of the $8afe and Konorable Tourism% is to ensure that 4ndian tourism follows international standards of safe tourism practices, applicable to both tourists and local residents, i.e. local people and communities who may be impacted by tourism in some way. The ;ode has been formed to sensiti@e travellers and the travel industry, close all possibilities of exploitation, specifically of women and children, and ma!e 4ndia a safe tourism destination. To strengthen the 5ational Tourism "olicy .22.%s critical pillar of 8ura!sha (8afety), the +overnment has adopted the ;ode of ;onduct for $8afe and Konorable Tourism% on ) st Euly .2)2. <ega Tourism "roBects <ega Tourism "roBects are a Budicious mix of cultural, heritage, spiritual, and eco tourism in order to give tourists a holistic experience. <oT is coordinating with with other ;entral +overnment ministries such as 9ailways, ;ivil Aviation, 9oad Transport H Kighways, =ood "rocessing and -rban &evelopment as well as the concerned 8tate +overnments to achieve convergence and synergy so that the impact of investment in these destinations is maximi@ed. Till date, the +overnment has identified 0> proBects out of which .0 have been sanctioned. 4n order to meet the huge s!ill gap in the hospitality industry, the +overnment has put in place a multipronged strategy which includes strengthening and expanding the institutional infrastructure for training and education. esides, steps are being ta!en for s!ill training of youth in the hospitality sector and providing s!ill certification. <inistry of Tourism (<oT) is ma!ing concerted efforts for development of nationally and internationally important destinations and circuits through <ega Tourism "roBects. Tourist Gisa on Arrival (TGoA) 4n order to promote tourism, +overnment of 4ndia launched a scheme of Tourist Gisa on Arrival (TGoA) in Eanuary .2)2 on pilot basis. ;iti@ens from )) countries are cover under the TG?A scheme ( =inland, Eapan, Ouxembourg, 5ew Pealand, 8ingapore, ;ambodia, Oaos, Gietnam, "hilippines, <yanmar and 4ndonesia. A total of D,/'1 GoAs were issued in .2)2, of which 8ingapore ()>)'), 5ew Pealand ()1''), Eapan ()'/3) ,=inland ().D0) and Ouxembourg (3)). 4n Eanuary .2)), a total of 312 GoAs were issued, of which 5ew Pealand (.'.), =inland ()/D), Eapan ()//), 8ingapore ()./), "hilippines (1>), Ouxembourg (D), ;ambodia ('), and Gietnam ('). "ersons holding &iplomaticF ?fficial passports are not eligible to avail this facility. 4t is single entry visa a short period with a validity of 02 days strictly for the purpose of tourism and a tourist can come to 4ndia only twice a year on this visa. The fee for the visa on arrival is JD2 (8ixty -nited 8tates &ollars) or e7uivalent amount in 4ndian 9upees per passenger (including children).

4nbound Tourists Gs. ?utbound Tourists 4ndia is one of the fastest(growing outbound travel mar!ets in the world and has witnessed a growth of over .2* over the last few years. 4ndia inbound tourism mar!et is still in nascent stage. 4ndia%s share in international tourist arrivals is a paltry 2.D2* in .2)2. ?utbound 4ndians are more than double the inbound tourists, though foreign exchange outgo due to outbound 4ndians is much less than the foreign exchange inflow from inbound tourists. 4ndia sends out more outbound tourists than it gets inbound ones, which is fairly unusual for an emerging economy 8ourceC <inistry of Tourism, 9esearch and <ar!ets 4nbound Gs. ?utbound Tourists, .22D ( )2 (=igures in million) Tourism ( Kotels and 9estaurants The hotels sector comprises various forms of accommodation, namely star category hotels, heritage category hotels, timeshare resorts, apartment hotels, guest houses, and bed and brea!fast establishments. Availability of good 7uality and affordable hotel rooms plays an important role in boosting the growth of tourism in the country. "resently there are )/10 classified hotels with a capacity of 1/,2>3 rooms. 8everal studies have identified the demand(supply gap in hotel rooms in 4ndiaI some of them have estimated a gap of )/2,222 hotel rooms, of which )22,222 rooms are in the budget segment. The hotels and restaurants sector is an important sub(component of the tourism sector. .22'(2/ .223(2> .22>(21 .221()2 +rowth in Availability of Kotel 9ooms (=igures in *) The ;A+9 in the +&" contributed by the hotels and restaurants sector was >./* in .22':2/ to .221:)2. 8ourceC ,conomic 8urvey .2)2()) ;ommonwealth +ames .2)2 (;#+) 4ndia hosted the )1th ;ommonwealth +ames in which 3) countries and territories participated, were organi@ed successfully by 4ndia. The event has significantly contributed to employment generation, infrastructure development, tourism inflow, and growth in national income. The 8ports <inistry had underta!en a massive and unprecedented training programme for the top sportspersons of 4ndia, to prepare the 4ndian contingent for ;#+ .2)2. A 8cheme for "reparation of 4ndian Athletes for ;#+ .2)2 was put in place for providing comprehensive and intensive training and exposure to 4ndian sportspersons, both domestically and abroad. 4n this effort, )32 4ndian and 02 foreign coaches and 3> supporting technical personnel were involved. This has resulted in the best(ever performance by 4ndia in any maBor, multi(disciplinary sports event with a haul of )2) medals (0> gold, .3 silver, and 0D bron@e), which is more than double the medals 4ndia won at ;#+, <elbourne, .22D. This achievement placed 4ndia second in medals tally after Australia and ahead of maBor sporting countries such as ,ngland, ;anada, and 8outh Africa. udget .2)2()) vs. .2))(). : Tourism 8ector 4n order to boost investment in the tourism sector which has high employment potential, the government extended the benefit of investment lin!ed deduction. enefits of )22* investment lin!ed tax deduction on capital expenditure (excluding land, goodwill and financial instrument) for building and operating a new hotel (commissioned after )st April .2)2) of two(star category and above, extended from select locations to across the country. udget .2)2()) udget .2))(). 8ervice tax on air conditioned restaurants possessing licenses to serve alcoholic beverages. 8ervice tax on hotel accommodation, in excess of declared tariff of 9s. ),222 per day. 9evision in service tax rates on air travel Ki!e in domestic and international travel (economy class) by 9s. /2 and 9s. ./2 respectively. Tax on domestic air travel (other than economy) at standard rate of )2* (in line with international travel).


4n tourism, customers are T?-948T8, the purview of tourists does not only include $foreign% tourists but also tourists from within 4ndia. 4t has become a challenge to please customers. #ith extreme availability of information and variety of options, it has become even more difficult to please customers in tourism industry. The customer satisfaction can be gauged on these parametersC

Infrastructura factors:
Accommodation Accessibility Transport 8hopping facilities 4nformative

Services and 2ecessities: Safety factors:

;atering ,ntertainment Oocal people 8afety =ood #ater Amenities

&ost re ated 2atura or factors: 1niBue factors:

"rices Galue for money 8cenery ;limate ?verall 8atisfaction

I0$A&T OF TO1,IS0 I2 I2#IA

Tourism industry in 4ndia has several positive and negative impacts on the economy and society. These impacts are highlighted below. $OSITI5! I0$A&TS ). +enerating 4ncome and ,mploymentC Tourism in 4ndia has emerged as an instrument of income and employment generation, poverty alleviation and sustainable human development. 4t contributes D..0* to the national +&" and >.3>* of the total employment in 4ndia. Almost .2 million people are now wor!ing in the 4ndia%s tourism industry. .. 8ource of =oreign ,xchange ,arningsC Tourism is an important source of foreign exchange earnings in 4ndia. This has favourable impact on the balance of payment of the country. The tourism industry in 4ndia generated about -8J)22 billion in .22> and that is expected to increase to -8J.3/./ billion by .2)> at a 1.'* annual growth rate.

0. "reservation of 5ational Keritage and ,nvironmentC Tourism helps preserve several places which are of historical importance by declaring them as heritage sites. =or instance, the TaB <ahal, the Tutab <inar, ABanta and ,llora temples, etc, would have been decayed and destroyed had it not been for the efforts ta!en by Tourism &epartment to preserve them. Oi!ewise, tourism also helps in conserving the natural habitats of many endangered species. '. &eveloping 4nfrastructureC Tourism tends to encourage the development of multiple(use infrastructure that benefits the host community, including various means of transports, health care facilities, and sports centers, in addition to the hotels and high(end restaurants that cater to foreign visitors. The development of infrastructure has in turn induced the development of other directly productive activities. /. "romoting "eace and 8tabilityC Koney and +ilpin (.221) suggests that the tourism industry can also help promote peace and stability in developing country li!e 4ndia by providing Bobs, generating income, diversifying the economy, protecting the environment, and promoting cross( cultural awareness. Kowever, !ey challenges li!e adoption of regulatory framewor!s, mechanisms to reduce crime and corruption, etc, must be addressed if peace(enhancing benefits from this industry are to be reali@ed.

2egative Impacts
). -ndesirable 8ocial and ;ultural ;hangeC Tourism sometimes led to the destruction of the social fabric of a community. The more tourists coming into a place, the more the perceived ris! of that place losing its identity. A good example is +oa. =rom the late D2Ns to the early >2Ns when the Kippy culture was at its height, +oa was a haven for such hippies. Kere they came in thousands and changed the whole culture of the state leading to a rise in the use of drugs, prostitution and human traffic!ing. This had a ripple effect on the country. .. 4ncrease Tension and KostilityC Tourism can increase tension, hostility, and suspicion between the tourists and the local communities when there is no respect and understanding for each other%s culture and way of life. This may further lead to violence and other crimes committed against the tourists. The recent crime committed against 9ussian tourist in +oa is a case in point. 0. ;reating a 8ense of AntipathyC Tourism brought little benefit to the local community. 4n most all(inclusive pac!age tours more than >2* of travelers% fees go to the airlines, hotels and other international companies, not to local businessmen and wor!ers. <oreover, large hotel chain restaurants often import food to satisfy foreign visitors and rarely employ local staff for senior management positions, preventing local farmers and wor!ers from reaping the benefit of their presence. This has often created a sense of antipathy towards the tourists and the government. '. Adverse ,ffects on ,nvironment and ,cologyC ?ne of the most important adverse effects of tourism on the environment is increased pressure on the carrying capacity of the ecosystem in each tourist locality. 4ncreased transport and construction activities led to large scale deforestation and destabilisation of natural landforms, while increased tourist flow led to increase in solid waste dumping as well as depletion of water and fuel resources. =low of tourists

to ecologically sensitive areas resulted in destruction of rare and endangered species due to trampling, !illing, disturbance of breeding habitats. 5oise pollution from vehicles and public address systems, water pollution, vehicular emissions, untreated sewage, etc. also have direct effects on bio(diversity, ambient environment and general profile of tourist spots.

Tourism industry in 4ndia is growing and it has vast potential for generating employment and earning large amount of foreign exchange besides giving a fillip to the country%s overall economic and social development. ut much more remains to be done. ,co(tourism needs to be promoted so that tourism in 4ndia helps in preserving and sustaining the diversity of the 4ndiaNs natural and cultural environments. Tourism in 4ndia should be developed in such a way that it accommodates and entertains visitors in a way that is minimally intrusive or destructive to the environment and sustains H supports the native cultures in the locations it is operating in. <oreover, since tourism is a multi(dimensional activity, and basically a service industry, it would be necessary that all wings of the ;entral and 8tate governments, private sector and voluntary organisations become active partners in the endeavour to attain sustainable growth in tourism if 4ndia is to become a world player in the tourism industry.

&onc usion:
Tourism 4ndustry is a very dynamic industry and so are its challenges and strategies, therefore a learning approach towards $best(practices% would yield better results in enhancing competitiveness of this industry. Also, the need for sound perspective in planning and private( public(community participation is imperative for this purpose. This paper was an attempt to illuminate the area through simple yet effective examples and cases collected from around the world, based on their contribution in ma!ing their respective Tourism 4ndustry more competitive. 4t leaves a bac!ground for further research, as assessing theimplications of using the above mentioned $best(practices% in 4ndian Tourism 4ndustry can be another rewarding study. R =oreign exchange earnings went up by .0 * (.220). R 4nternational tourist arrivals increased by )D *. R 45&4A selected among the top )2 preferred destinationsC The ;onde 5ast Traveller. R Among the top / destinationsC The Oonely "lanet Travel +uide. The planning framewor! of 4ndian Tourism 4ndustry can be redesigned,ta!ing #orld Tourism corporation%s recommendations of .22.(23 as a base.Tourism has adopted an $industry oriented outloo!% for ma!ing professionallydesigned specific plans for responding to changing consumer demands and other critical and contemporary issues, li!eC R &estination mar!etingI R "roduct, branding and competitive positioning.

Techno ogica Advancement:

All those web sites and portals launched by government as well as private organi@ations would offer a wide range of tourism products and services li!e airlines, hotels, restaurants, camp(sites, tours, activity centers, concerts, festivities,shopping and many more with choicest of assortments of services."lan the tour online through agents% web sites. 9eservation or shopping of facilities for train, airlines, cruise, hotels, resorts, motels, and rental cars andadventures can be done on line. 8till leaving a part of simple web based portal, which Bust provides static information H beautiful pictures with less updated!nowledge and data transfer, tourism industry is expecting more practical and satisfied chain solutions from 4nformation Technology.

&ustomer ,e ationship 0anagement

;9< based system enables service provider to provide !nowledge, value and efficient service to its clients. ;9< enables service provider to build up a lifetime relationship by providing on time solutions. ,specially tourism industry needs excellent ;9< solutions to assist visitors or clients before flying on tour, during tour and always after tour services. ;9< solutions can be provided to avisitor through web, email, call centre, !ios!s and travelling information offices any time H anywhere. #hat an experienceW #e are standing at ATaB<ahalA and we are able to read history details with all graphics and animated roles on multimedia !ios!s. ,ven we can chec! our further travel registration re7uest process through !ios!s. 8o much beyond our imagination

5a ue chain integration
Tourism industry is a chain of many service providers. 4n long term solutions, cost cutting H effectiveness in data H information transfer, speed in transactions and loo!ing towards heavy multimedia based services : bac! end systems need excellent value chain integration through solutions li!e 8;<, ,9" and ;9<.Kowever till today applications of 8;< and ,9" are not up to the industrial remar!s as tourism industry is !ind of service industry.

Know edge 0anagement System

L< and business intelligence systems have wide scope of implementation inTourism industry. #ell, well, well we can imagine it. ;omparing historytimelines and providing instance !nowledge about place on the spot ma!es eager to !now more about place to a tourist. ,ven information enables analyst to find tourist%s behaviour and trends with data and information. To find out customer%s demand is no more difficult tas!.

Strengths: R 9ich culture heritage and colourful festivals. R 8cenic beauty of the country draws tourists from far off places. R Terrain is ideally suited for various adventure activities. R #ell !nown 4ndian hospitality. Wea'nesses: R 4nade7uate infrastructure to match the expectation. R 9estrictive Airline "olicy of the +overnment of 4ndia. R ?vercrowding of popular tourist centres. R 4nade7uate mar!eting and information channels. R 8ome places are inaccessible, especially in winter. Opportunities: R +?4 is giving special attention to certain regions li!e 5ortheast 4ndia. R Asian &evelopment an! is preparing a 8ub(9egional "lan for development of tourism in 4ndia. R "otential for private sectorNs investment in tourism proBects. R Availability of high 7uality human resource.

Threats: R 8trong ;ompetition within states of 4ndia and abroad. R Terrorism is a maBor setbac! of the region. R &isorgani@ed tourism development. R ,nvironmental factors also impose a threat.

Key Issues and Facts Ana y%ed

( #hat is the current state of tourism industry in 4ndiaU ( #hat are the emerging trends in the tourism sector in 4ndiaU ( #hat is the future outloo! of the tourism industry in 4ndia in terms of inbound as well as outbound tourism, and expenditure by inbound and outbound touristsU ( #hich factors are driving the 4ndia tourism industryU ( #hat are the emerging trends in the <edical Tourism 4ndustry in 4ndiaU ( Ley regulations and policy environment in the industry. ( #hat is the future scenario of the <edical Tourism 4ndustry in 4ndiaU ( #hat opportunities exist for the <edical Tourism 4ndustryU ( #hat ;hallenges are faced by the industryU ( #ho are the Ley players in 4ndian medical tourism industryU ( +overnment initiatives to promote medical tourism in 4ndia.